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2003

681.3.06
32.973.26-018.2
43

43

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Mathcad . - .: -, 2003. - 560 : .
ISBN 5-94157-348.0
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681.3.06
32.973.26-018.2

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02429 24.07,00. 07.07.03.


70x100Vie. . . . . 44,50.
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13.03.2002 . .

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199034, -, 9 , 12.
ISBN 5-94157-348.0

. .. 2
, "-", 2003

I. :

1.
1.1. Mathcad
1.2. Mathcad
1.3.
1.3.1.
1.3.2.
1.3.3.
1.3.4.
1.3.5.
1.4.

5
5
7
14
14
16
19
22
28
29

2.

35

2.1.
2.1.1.
2.1.2.
2.1.3.
2.1.4.
2.1.5.
2.2.
2.2.1.
2.2.2.
2.2.3.
2.2.4.
2.2.5. ,
2.2.6.
2.3.
2.3.1.
2.3.2.
2.3.3.
2.3.4.
2.3.5.
2.4.

35
35
36
39
40
41
41
41
42
43
44
48
48
50
51
51
52
53
54
54

IV

2.5.
2.6.
3.
3.1.
3.1.1.
3.1.2.
3.1.3.
3.1.4.
3.1.5.
3.1.6.
3.1.7.
3.2.
3.2.1.
3.2.2.
3.2.3.
3.2.4.
3.2.5.
3.2.6.
3.3.
3.3.1.
3.3.2.
3.3.3.
3.3.4.
3.3.5.
3.3.6. Worksheet Options
3.4.
4.
4.1.
4.1.1.
4.1.2.
4.1.3.
4.1.4.
4.2.
4.2.1.
4.2.2.
4.2.3.
4.2.4.
4.3.
4.3.1.
4.3.2.
4.3.3.
4.3.4.
4.4.
4.4.1.
4.4.2.
4.4.3.
4.5. (controls)

60
61
63
63
63
63
66
66
67
69
71
73
73
75
79
80
80
82
S4
85
86
87
88
88
89
91
93
93
94
95
96
98
99
99
100
102
102
103
103
105
.,..108
112
114
114
117
118
119


II.

5.
5.1.
5.2.
5.2.1. (Simplify)
5.2.2. (Expand)
5.2.3. (Factor)
5.2.4. (Collect)
5.2.5. (Polynomial Coefficients)
5.2.6.
5.2.7. (Convert to Partial Fractions)
5.2.8. (Substitute)
5.2.9.
5.3.
5.3.1. (Differentiate)
5.3.2. (Integrate)
5.3.3. (Expand to Series)
5.3.4. (Solve)
5.4.
5.4.1. (Fourier)
5.4.2. (Laplace)
5.4.3. Z- (Z)
5.5.
5.5.1.
5.5.2.
5.5.3.
6.
6.1.
6.2. Mathcad
6.2.1. ?
6.2.2. (Add Line)
6.2.3.
6.2.4. (<)
6.2.5. (if, otherwise)
6.2.6. (for, while, break, continue)
6.2.7. (return)
6.2.8. (on error)
6.3.
.

7.
7.1.
7.1.1.
7.1.2.
7.1.3.
7.1.4.

V
123

125
125
129
129
131
131
132
133
135
136
136
138
138
139
139
140
142
143
144
145
145
146
146
147
148
151
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
160
161
163
165

167
167
167
169
172
173

VI

7.2.
7.2.1.
7.2.2.
7.2.3.

8.
8.1.
8.2.
8.3.
8.4.
8.5.
8.6.
8.6.1.
8.6.2.
8.6.3.
8.6.4.
8.7.
8.8.
9.
9.1.
9.1.1.
9.1.2.
9.1.3.
9.1.4.
9.1.5.
9.1.6.
9.1.7.
9.1.8.
9.1.9.
9.1.10.
9.1.11.
9.1.12.
9.2.
9.2.1.
9.2.2.
9.2.3.
9.2.4.
9.2.5.
9.2.6.
9.2.7.
9.3.
9.4.
9.5-
9.5.1.
9.5.2. QR-
9.5.3. LU-
9.5.4.

174
175
178
179
185
186
190
192
196
200
202
203
204
205
206
208
210
215
215
216
216
217
218
219
219
220
221
221
222
223
224
225
225
229
231
232
233
234
235
236
238
240
241
241
242
243


10.
10.1. (Bessel)
10.1.1.
10.1.2.
10.1.3.
10.1.4. -
10.1.5.
10.2. (Complex Numbers)
10.3. (Log and Exponential)
10.4. (Trigonometric)
10.5. (Hyperbolic)
10.6. (Special)
10.7. (String)
10.8. (Truncation and Round-Off)
10.9. - (Piecewise Continuous)
10.10. (Vector and Matrix)
10.11. (Finance)

VII
245
245
246
247
248
249
249
249
251
251
252
254
256
258
259
260
261

267

11.1.
11.1.1. Given/Odesolve
11.1.2. rkfixed, Rkadapt, Butstoer
11.2.
11.3.
11.3.1.
11.3.2.
11.3.3.
11.4.
11.5.
11.5.1. ?
11.5.2.

268
268
270
271
273
274
277
282
287
290
291
295

12.
12.1.
12.1.1.
12.1.2.
12.1.3.
12.1.4.

12.2.
12.3.
12.3.1.
12.3.2.
13.
13.1.
13.1.1.
13.1.2. :
13.2.

299
299
300
301
303
305
309
311
311
314
317
318
318
318
324

VIII
13.2.1.
13.2.2.
13.2.3.
13.3.
13.3.1.
13.3.2.
14.
14.1.
14.1.1. ()
14.1.2.
14.1.3.
14.1.4.
14.2.
14.2.1.
14.2.2.
14.2.3.
14.2.4.
14.2.5.
14.2.6.
14.2.7.
14.3.
14.4.
14.4.1.
14.4.2.
15.
15.1.
15.1.1.
15.1.2. -
15.1.3. -
15.1.4.
15.1.5.
15.2.
15.2.1.
15.2.2.
15.2.3.
15.2.4.
15.3.
15.3.1.
15.3.2.
15.3.3.
15.3.4.
15.4.
15.4.1.
15.4.2.
-
-

324
331
335
337
337
341
349
349
350
354
355
356
359
359
363
365
366
367
367
368
369
372
372
373
377
378
378
380
383
384
386
388
389
391
395
397
398
399
401
402
403
405
405
409
410
411


4ACTI.IV.

16. -
16.1. -
16.2.
16.3.
16.3.1. XY-
16.3.2. XY-
16.3.3. XY-
16.3.4.
16.3.5.
16.3.6.
16.3.7.
16.3.8.
16.3.9.
16.3.10.
16.4.
16.4.1.
16.4.2.
16.5.
16.6. -
16.6.1.
16.6.2.
16.6.3.

IX
413

415
415
416
418
418
420
420
421
422
424
429
434
434
434
436
437
440
450
452
452
454
455

17.

457

17.1.
17.1.1.
17.1.2.
17.1.3.
17.1.4.
17.2.
17.2.1.
17.2.2.
17.3.
17.3.1.
17.3.2.
17.3.3.
17.4.
17.4.1.
17.4.2.
17.4.3.
17.5.
1. Math cad 2001 20011

457
458
459
462
464
468
469
472
475
475
477
478
479
479
479
481
481
485

2.

487

3.

499

4.

517

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Help

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li Horziontal
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. 1.16.

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, , , (. . 1.17).

I.

28
,-Mdlhcad Unfilled 1

file dit View insert Ffirmet

I?" lUntitled:1
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Arrange windows as non-overtappng tiles

[AUTO!

. 1.17.


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1.3.5.
Mathcad, ,
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(. 1.18), ( ):

- ;

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(Calc F9);

1.

NUM;

, .
Press F1 for help.

.' v " "" '

: (A'&Tjq ]1~5" '

. 1.18.

, View /
Status ( / ).

1.4.
Mathcad , Help ().
D Mathcad:
Mathcad Help () ;
What's This ( ?) -
;
Developer's Reference ( )
Mathcad;
Author's Reference ( )
, Mathcad.

Mathcad , Mathcad
:

Tutorials () Mathcad , ;

QuickSheels ( )
Mathcad, ;

Reference Tables ( ) , , , . .;
E-Books ( ) , , , Mathcad.

I.

Mathcad .
,
Mathcad .

, Help () :
* M a t h c a d - 9.1.mcd]

Iocfe Symbolics Window | !

|o>| File Ed* yiew Insert

5 .
3

^uthoi's Refereaice
( l

6 J

Tutorials
QuickSheets
Beference Tables
E-feooks
i Usoaims
Mathcadccan Mathcad Update

. 1.19. Help

- Mathcad ,
Help/ Mathcad Help, <F1>,
Help .
Mathcad -, . . , . ,
. 1.19 ( )
.
Mathcad Help ( Mathcad), (. 1.20).
Mathcad Windows
.
( Contents), . Hide
. Show (), Hide .

1.

31

& Mathcad Help

|) }

Equations
Text
Computational Features
Layout Tools
Worksheet Management
Vectors and Matrices
Strings
Functions
Operators
Solving and Optimization
Data Management
Data Analysis Statistics
Giaphs
Symboc
il Calculation
Units and Dm
i enso
i ns
Programmn
ig
Animation

Transpose Operator
Keystroke: Ctrl+1
MT
This returns the array formed by interchanging
rows and columns of an m x n array.
Operands:
M is an m x n array.
Although you can use the matrix transpose operator to
find matrix transposes numerically, you can also find
matrix transposes symbolically.

zl

. 1.20. Mathcad

,
.
. Back (), Forward () ().
QuickSheet Example (
), Mathcad, .
Mathcad Resource ,
.
Contents () ,
.
. ,
. .
, , - .
,

I.

32

Related Topics ( ).
Topics Found ( )
(. 1.21). - , Display () .
Topics Found
Sovln
i g equato
i ns symboc
il ayl
Symboc
il ag
l ebra
Symboc
il calculation
Symboc
il evau
l ato
i n usn
i g menu commands
Symboc
il evaluato
i n usms ihe symboc
il equasl sg
in
JjJ

. 1 . 2 1 .


, (. 1.22). , .
Modifying a template
modify an existing worksheet template,
Choose Open from the File mem

Template

In the "Files of type" drop-down li

A file on which a Mathcad worksheet is


based, template contains customi:ed
information for laying out and formatting
the worksheet. Mathcad uses MCT as the
default file extension foe templates.

Type the nemo of the template in


elsewhere to locate it,

ctory or

Click 'Open.* The template open'


Edit the template as you would m
Choose Save from the File menu."ir jou'waiic w a n e 1 a ireW"lianliel'iu'tfie'1iiiuuinl4lU"i;ePnplate,
choose Save As from the File menu instead and enter a new name for the template in the dialog bos
Note that when you modify a template, your changes affect only new fries created from the modified
template. The changes will not affect any worksheets created ntth the template before the template
was modified,

. 1.22.

Mathcad Help ( Mathcad) :


Contents () ;

1.

33

Index ()
(. 1.23);
Search () (. 1.24).

It? MathcadHelp

*>

Working with a Picture

Using the Picture toolbar

I modifying a picture
modifying template
modifying the default template
mouse
movie making
moving a window
moving math expressions
moving parts of the desktop
moving regions
moving text

Mueller method for finding roots


multigrid function (differential equation solve
multiple 3D plots
multiplication
___j
multiplying by zero
multivalued functions
multivariate polynomial regression
multivariale polynomial iegression (localized]
names of variables and functions
navigating
negation
negative
negative binomial distribution
nested arrays
,!

There are many ways to work with a


picture. You can modify the orientation,
view (zoom and pan factors), brightness,
contrast, and grayscale mapping of a
picture in your worksheet using the
Picture toolbar, To do so:
1. Click on the picture so you see
hash marks around the picture's
border, as shown.

. 1.23.

Index ,
^ in the keyword to find
( ). .
, Topics Found
( ), .
, Index,
,
(. 1.24):
D Mathcad Help Search;

( ,
), ( )
"matrix square";

34

I.

List Topics ( );

Display
();

,
.
? Mathcad Help

| |

C o n d i t i o n N u m b e r of


| matrix square

c o n d l ( M ) Returns the condition number


of the ^ based on the Li norm.

c o n d Z ( M ) Returns the condition number


of the based on the 1-2 norm.

Determinant Opefatof
Error Messages in Numerical Calculations
Finding a Single Eigenvector
Finding Eigenvalues
Finding Eigenvectors
Generalized Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors
LLJ Decomposition
Magnitude Operator
Matrix exponentiation operator
Matrix Inverse Operator
MuUigiidPDE Solver
Norm of 4 Matrix
Numerical Melhod for Computing a Matrix IrOR Decomposition
Relaxation PDE Solver
Solving Linear Systems
Symbolic Matrix Determinant

Returns the condition number


M based on the Euclidean

Returns the condition number


M based on the infinity

Arguments:
M must be a

i ' ' t>l4 H v 1 ' ! Ihl

. 1.24

, , Mathcad
.
( , ,
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Mathcad.
(. . 2.1). (. . 2.2), (. . 2.3)
Mathcad (. . 2.4). (. . 2.5), (. . 2.6) .

2.1.
Mathcad , ""
(worksheets), ,
. Mathcad.
"worksheet", Windows-.

. Mathcad-, ,
, Web.

2.1.1.
Mathcad Windows (
), Start /Programs /MathSoft Apps /Mathcad 11
(/ / MathSoft/Mathcad 11), Mathcad
, Untitled: 1.

I.

36

, Mathcad,
:
<Ctrl>+<N>;
New () ;
File / New ( / ).
Mathcad 11 New
(. 2.1).
fllnlitled:2j

Calculation Fotrfi J
E-book
Electronic Book
Microsoft Word
Nom
i al
Report
Specification Form
T able of Content*
Web Page
. 2 . 1 . New

Worksheet Templates
Ba
W
et
C
an
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E-book
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Normal
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Cancel
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. 2.2. New

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. 2.1.3.)

2.1.2.
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Web-, , , HTML .

2.

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37

. 11 Verdana

i=

Main Heading
Type some text here.
H2 Section Heading
Type some text here.
Subsection Heeding

Blank Worksheet
Calculation Form
E-book
Electronic Book
Microsoft Word
Nwmal
Report
Specification Foim
Tableot Contents

Cancel

1. This is a numbered list style,


2. Just press [Enter] to get the r
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. 2.. Web-

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Mathcad. .met (Math Cad Template). (Open).
.
, :
1. , , , , .
2. File / Save As ( / ).
3. \template ( : \Program Files \ Mathcad 11 \ template) (. 2.4).
4. (File type) Mathcad Template
(*.mct) ( Mathcad).
5. ( . 2.4
"userl").
6. (Save).

I.

38

. 2.4.

,
File/ New (/ ),
New (. 2.5).
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Mathcad, ,
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, Mathcad MCD.

2.

39

2.1.3.
Mathcad, File /
Save ( / ), <Ctrl>+<S>
Save . ,
(Save), (. 2.6).
11*1

: j 3 l
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JMathcadWorksheet (".mcd)
HTML/MathML File (".htm) U>
Rich Tent Format File [".(W) ^
Mathcad Template (".met)
Mathcad 2001 i Worksheet [" mcd)
Mathcad 2001 Woiksheet C.mcd]
Mathcad 2000 Woiksheet C.mcd]
Mathcad 8 Worksheet (".mcd)
Mathcad 7 Worksheet (*.mcd)
Mathcad SWorksheet I".mcd]

. 2.6.

, File / Save As ( / ).

,
.

. 2.6 :
Mathcad 11 Worksheet (*.mcd)
, ;

HTML/MathML File (*.htm) Web-. Mathcad 11, Mathcad


HTML- ( XML-). ,
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Mathcad (*.mcd) .

I.

40

*.htm .
.

Mat he ad Template (*.mct) (. .)',


Rich Text Format (*.rtf)

. , RTF-,
Microsoft Word ,
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Mathcad.
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.

2.1.4.
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File / Open ( / ) <CtrI>+<0>
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insert Fflimat Iods Symbolics Book \

. 2.7. URL Mathcad

Mathcad, , Mathcad:
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2.

41

2. Mathcad Resources (. 2.7).


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<Ctrl>+<W>;

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2.2.
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42

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46

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2.

47

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48

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50

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52


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53

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54

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60

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, , ,
( 3.5).
, .
3.5, 3.6 3.7.
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f ( , ) : =
f (2, 5.99)
f ( 1 . 3 , 7)

c o s (x + )

=-0.542
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68

I.

3.7. ( 3.6)
:=1.3
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f ( , )

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. ,
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:=5
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=0.96

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. , ,
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3.

69

Mathcad,
(numerical evaluation).
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3.1.6.
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,
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(. 3.4) Symbolic
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3.

71

, , . , , ,
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3.1.7.

, , , , . :

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72

I.

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3.

73

3.2.
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. , , 2.

: (. . 3.1.2), (. . 3.1.5) (.
. 3.1.6). Mathcad
.

3.2.1.
, ,
Calculator (), . 3.6:
: + ( 3.14);
: / + ( 3.15);
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: || ( 3.16);

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/.

74

: ( 3.17);

: ( 3.18);

: ( ).

3 551In
sin cos tan

"
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log nj
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4 -.5
0

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7
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3.15.
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2
5 + 2=2.5
2 - 2.75
4
1 2 3 4 5 = 1 2 0

3.16.
5! = 120
13.01 - 10

3.17.

/125 = 5
1(3)

1 0 - 2 = 1.585

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( 1 + 2) -3 =
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3.

75

,
, , ,
, ,
. ,
, , Calculator.
, Mathcad (. . " "
. 2). :
1. ,
.
2. View Multiplication As ( ),
3. , : (Dot), (Narrow Dot), (Large Dot),
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3.2.2.

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, .
. ,
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76

I.

,
: .

mation Ctrl+Shift+4

. 3.7.

-
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( 3.21);

( 3.21).

;
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( 3.24);
;
;
.

3.

77

3.20.
d
sin()
dx

> c o s ( )

d2
sin [ x) - s i n ( x)

J
2
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3.21.
1

1
dx-

;
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3.22.
10

10

i = 1

i = 1

30

i = 2.653 1 0 3 2

i = 1

3.23.

i := 1 - 5

I> 2
IF

i! = 3.447 x 10

= 3.269 x 1 0 6

^)


(. . " "
. 4).

I.

78

3.24.
1 + 3

lim

lim
^ 0

lim

> 0 ~

->

(. . 5).

+ .
,
, ( )
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, , ,
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1000

6
= 9.864
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i - 1 1

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3.

79

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3.2.3.
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2. ( ).
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L

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. 3 . 9 .

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(Less Than) < ;

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(Equal) x= y ;

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(And) ;

(Or) xvy;

(Exclusive or) xy;

(Not) -ix.

I.

80

.
1,
1. 0, 1. , -(-.) =.

3.25 3.26.
| 3.2S.
2=3=0

5 >1= 1

3 >3=0

7=7=1

3< = 1

3>3 =1

0#0=0
j 3.26.

1 v 0 = 1

10 = 0

1 0 = 1

-,1 = 0

0 v 0 = 0

00 = 0

00 = 0

- = 1

l v l = l

11 = 1

1 1 = 0

Mathcad
.

3.2.4.

. , III (. . 9).

3.2.5.
(. . 3.1).
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( . 3.10).
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3.

81

- .
(. 3.11). ( ) ,
( 3.27).
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= 5
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. 3 . 1 1 .

3.27, , , := = 5. , Mathcad :
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:=10
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10

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82

I.

, ,
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,
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3.2.6.
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(.
", " ). ,

, .
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. ,
.
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3.

83

, :
1. , , bin.
2. <(>, , <>, <,>, <>, <)>.
3. < :>.
4. , , 2
( ).


, ,
, . ,
%,
100 ( 3.30):
1. . <>, <Ctrl>+
+<Shift>+<K>,<%>, <Ctrl>+<Shift>+<K>,
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2. % "(", "", ")".
3. , <:>.
4. .
; 3.3.
% ( ) :=sx-100


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. 3.12, .
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84

I.

). ,
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3.

85

. Mathcad , .
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I.

86
> Mathcad [2.1 mcd]
(ft) File dit View Insert Fgrmat \ Xools Symbolics Window Help
Animation

>

I Anal

Normal

Protect Worksheet
Calculate

X := 2 . 3
X

4+x

Optimise

S Calculate Now
F9
Calculate Worksheet CW+F9
Automatic Calculation

= 438.133
Worksheet Options
Preferences.

. 3.14.

3.3.2.
Mathcad , : .
(
), (. 3.15),
. ,
, ,
.
,
<Esc>. , . 3.16, (). ,
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<F9> Tools/ Calculate/ Calculate Now (/ / ).

-^~y(t)
dt2
y'

+ 0.1-y(t)
dt

+l-y(t)

(0) - 0

(0) = 0 . 1
: = O d e s o l v e ( t , 50)'

. 3.15.

3.

y ( t

87

+ 0 . 1 - (t)

+ l - y ( t )

=0

' (0) = 0
y(0) = 0.1

nterrupt processing

: = O d e s o l v e ( t , 50):
OK

. 3 . 1 6 .

3.3.3.
Tools/ Calculate/ Automatic Calculation
( / / ) ,
.
,
Tools/ Calculate/ Calculate Worksheet (/ / ).

Tools / Calculate / Calculate Now ( / / ) <F9>, (Calculate) .
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l

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5 + K

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4 . 984

88

I.

3.3.4.

Mathcad - .
. :
1. .
2. Disable Evaluations ( ), . 3.18.
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(). Properties Calculation () Disable Evaluations ( ).
3.31. ,
0 . , " " 3.
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:=3
=3

. 3.18.

3.3.5.
Mathcad
. Mathcad -

3.

89

, . .
, .
, .
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Worksheet

Ereferences,.

JJ

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+ +z

1
3
^
3
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3
3
3

100

100

- 100

-100

-100

+ z

dx dy dz = 8 x 10

10

. 3 . 1 9 .

3.3.6. Worksheet Options


,
Calculations

I.

90

() Worksheet Options ( ), Tools / Worksheet Options ( /


). (. 3.20).
Recalculate automatically ( ) .
Use strict singularity checking for matrices (
) , Mathcad 2001, . , ,
, , .

Optimize expressions before calculating (


) .
Use exact equality for Boolean comparisons ( ) ,
(, , 10~
7
). , ( 10~12).
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..- .,'\-?1?

But-lnVariables Calculation! Ds
i pa
l y jUnkSystem

Dimensions j

j^eMteulatejiutQmaticajjiij "
P Use strict singularity checking for matrices
~ Qptmije expressions before calculating
Use e.xad equably for boolean comparison?
Performance Preferences
(* Higher speed calculation

-,

j Backward compatibility

OK

. 3 . 2 0 .
W o r k s h e e t Options

, ,
(higher speed

3.

91

calculation). Higher speed calculation


( ), . 3.20.
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(Mathcad 2000 ).
,
, Mathcad .

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).

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f (2|) -
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, ,
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4.1.
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94

I.

, ;
( , ) .
, .

4.1.1.
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:
;
(decimal notation) ;
(exponential notation)
(scientific notation),
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4.1.
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, 1000,
( 4.1)
. , 1000 1,000 1.000 .
4.1.
:=10000
: = 2 . 57285
d:=4.17-10~23

:=312.1
:= 3 4 5 . 1 10 3

4.1 ,
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4.

95

: (binary), (octal) (hexadecimal) :


1. ,
(
1; 0 7,
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2. ( ),
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:= 100010b
:=37
:=0af0h

== 34
b = 31
= 2.8

( ).
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4.1.2.
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i 2 =-i.
, 3i:
1. ().
2. "\" "j" .
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i (. 4.1).

/.

96

. 4 . 1 .


, .
4.3.
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:= 2 i + 4
:= 1 9 . 7 8 5 J + 0 . 1
_,
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z := 23
= 4 + 2i
= 0 . 1 + 19.7851
z = 22.885 + 2.296i


(. . " " . 10),
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4.4.
> - is "85. - :
Im(y) =19.785

Re (} = 0 . 1

:=23.-

|z] = 2 3

a r g (z)

=0.1

i, j.
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Format / Result / Display Options ( / / ).

4.1.3.
Mathcad ,
(built-in constants). -

4.

97

: ,
,
, , Mathcad.

(math constants)
( <Ctrl>+<Shift>+<z>);
G ( <>);

"" ( <Ctrl>+<Shift>+<p>);

i, j ( <1>, <i> <1>, <j>);


% , <%>, o.oi.
-
. ( 4.5),
, , .
4.5.

= 2 .718
71= 3

.142

i = i
j = i
1 0 0 2 5 *; = 25

% = 0 .01


(. 4.1,
). , , .

(system variables)
D TOL (. III);

CTOL

,
(. III);

ORIGIN

PRNPRECISION

PRNCOLWIDTH

(. . 4.3.1);
;

CWD .

I.

98

4.6. , . ,
Tools / Worksheet Options / Built-in Variables ( / /
) Worksheet Options ( ), . 4.2. , Restore Defaults ( ).
\ 4.6.

TOL = 1 10 -
CTOL = IX -
ORIGIN =
PRNPRECISION = 4
PRNCOLWIDTH = 8
CWD= ":\Dima\MCAD\MathCad 2001\4 Data\"
Worksheet Options

Built-in Variables J Calculation] Ds


i play Unit System Dm
i enso
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Convergence Toleiarrce HOL)
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F"3 w
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OK

. 4.2. Built-in Variables Worksheet Options

4.1.4.
,
, ,
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4.
| 4.7.

99
: ;

s := "Hello, "
concat ( s , " world! " ) = "Hello, world! "

^
.

4.2.
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. Mathcad
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4.2.1.
, , ,
10 :
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2. "*".
3. , Insert / Unit
( / ) , <Ctrl>+<U>
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4. Unit ( ) Insert Unit (
) Ampere (A).
5. .
,
, ( ), Dimension ()
Insert Unit ( ) (. 4.4).
Unit ( )
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(. 4.5).
Insert Unit, Insert ().
,
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I.

100
Mathcad Professional - 4.8]

E'ft "Set w ^
!
* V ? Graph
z Matrix

In-

: = 1 0 (

Ctr+K

. 4..

Insert Unit

Insert Unit

system
-ant el
Amps (amp)
Am
t ospheres [am
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BTUs' 15C(BTU15)
. 4 . 4 . Insert Unit

MilHamps []

. 4 . 5 .

4.2.2.
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4.

101

:=10-
U:=12-v

R= 1.2 ohm
R- 1.2 kg m 2 s~ 3 A"

[ Kg units intris expression do ndrcia'ch. |

. 4.6.

. 4.7.


.
4.8.
4.8.
I :== 10
:== 12

R:=
I
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k g m

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, 4.8 .
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. Result Format ( )
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Insert Unit (
) . 4.8.

: 1.01 .

I.

102

10-+ = 1.01 10

X
Qimensioti
Angulai
Area
Capactiance
Chag
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Conductance

System

^1 F

OK |

Kilcamp;[kA]
Microampj [mci roamp]
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. 4 . 8 . ,

4.2.3.
,
SI.
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, Tools /
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4.2.4.
() ,
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"" 4.9.
4.9.
- 9
:= 10

3 = 3 X 1 0


Insert Unit ( ), -

4.

103

( 4.9).

4.3.
(arrays)
. , . . ( 4.10 , ).
.
4.10. ()
14

1.4
4.7
1 = 1.4

Mathcad :

( , 4.10), (, 4.11) ();

(range variables) , .
4.11. ()
0.1

2.8

3.7

,0 = 0 . 1
,0 = 3.7

4.3.1.
.
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. Mathcad , ,
( . 9), , , . .

104

I,


. . ,
4.10:
1. ().
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3. ().
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1 0 4.11):
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2. , [.
3. (l), ","
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, 4.11.
, , .
ORIGIN, . , 1 ( 4.12). ,
, .
, ( -,
).
Matrix () (. . 9).
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ORIGIN : = 1

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a :=

1. 4
4. 7

4.

1 =

105

1 4

= 4.7

4.3.2.
Mathcad
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0,1,2,3,4,5:

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2. (s) ":".
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I.

106

:= 0.. 5
S

1
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. 4.11.
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( 4.13 4.14);
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4.15).

4.13 4.14. , Mathcad, , .
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4.13.
i := 0 , 2 ..
s (i) : = i ;
i 0.841
-0.959
-0.961
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0.827


, . , 4.14 i, 4.10, .

4.

107

4.14.
i := 0 .. 5

0.841 >
0.909

(1
2
5
10
17

sin (s) =

-0.959
-0.544
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26

0.763

4.15.

j :=o.

c-1.
/0 1 2
1 2

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6 7

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108

I.

4.3.3.
:

Insert Matrix;

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.
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:
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, . , 3x1 . 4.12 .
3. Insert ()

(. 4.13).
4. .

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:
1. , () .
2. , .
(. 4.14).
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4,

109

a :=

. 4.12.

. 4.13.

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^v

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. 4.14.

. 4.15.


( ), , , ,
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:=3
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I.

110
0.141
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-1.269

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0.635

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196

III.

8.8.
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8.

197

4. xi, (. . 8.4).
5. (XU<TOL, , xi . xi ,
: f () xi, 2 . .

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, . .
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df,(xO,
yO)
1
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III.

198

v = Fir:'!-'-

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:- Conjugate Gradient
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8.

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200

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:= .

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)
1# . . . ,, .

M i n e r r , F i n d ,
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M i n e r r .

Minerr 8.9. ,
Minerr, ( TOL)
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(=,=)
:= 1
:=10
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:= 1

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8.

201

v := M i n e r r ( , )

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, , "No solution was found" ( ). f (x,y)=k-x2+y2 , , (. . 8.1, 8.2).
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8.9
. Minerr

( 8.10). , Minerr, .

202

III,

, M i n e r r , (. . 15.2).
8.10.

:= 1

:= 1
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2

x + =
x > 0.1
< -0.2
M i n e r r ( , ) =

- 0 . 042
- 0 . 085

, ,
. ,
, Minerr ,
, (,)
.
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. 8.3). , .
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8.6.

( ) ( ) . ,
, ,
() .
.
Mathcad
Minerr, Minimize Maximize.

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8.

203

.
(. . 8.4).

8.6.1.

. .
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).
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I

SO

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0

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f ( x ) = x 4 + 5'X 3 -10-x

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G Minimize{f,
} ,
f ;
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f ;

f ( 1( .. . ,, . . . ) ;
1 , . . . , ,
().

204

III.

f
, , , .
(. 8.8) 8.118.12. ,
- .
8.11.
f () := 4 + 5- 3 - 10 -
:=-1
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:= 1
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8.12.
f ()

:=

+ 5 - 3 - 1 0 -

:= 1
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(f ,x)

=-0.944

:= - 1 0

, , .
,
=- ,
f (), . . -.

8.6.2.

, . . Given. Given
(, ),
. 8.13
, . .

8.

205

8.13.
4

f () ~- + 5 'X - 10 -
:= 1
Given
-5 < < -2
Minimize (f,x) =-3.552
:= 1
Given
x>
Minimize (f , x) = 0,746
x :- -1
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-3 < x < 0
Maximize (f . x) = -0.944

He
. , << -5<<,
= - Maximizetf,) =-.944, , f(x}
=-5. =-4
, Maximize(f ,x) =-5.

8.6.3.
. ( 8.14) ,
. 8.9. ,
, , (X.Y).
8.14.
f ( x , y>

:-2-(x-5.07)2+ (-10.03)2-0.2-(-5.07)

:= 3
Given
0 < < 15
0 < < 20

;= 3

III.

206
Minimize ( f , , ) =

5.07
10.03

. 8.9. f ( , ) + = 1 0

. , Given += :
Minimize ( f , , ) -

3.589
6.411

, , f(x,y)
, . 8.9.

M i n e r r .
8.14 M i n i m i z e M i n e r r , Given , f ( , )
, , f ( , ) =0.

8.6.4.

, , . .
. .
. . ,

( 8.15).

8.

207

8.15.

145
210
160

:=

237

278
b = 515

- 515
s-=

N :- rows (b)

M := rows ( a)

M=3

N=2
11.5 7 12
6.2 10 9.0
N-l M-l

:=

i= 0j= 0
CTOL := 0 . 5
XN-1

, -1 -=

Given

, + xi, =

*0 , 1 1 , 1 1

^0.2 + *1, 2 = 2

0 , 0 + 0 , 1+ 0 , 2 =

1 , 0 + 1 , 1 + 1 , 2 = bi

l. 0 > 0

l , 1 > 0

2 ^ 0

l. 2 > 0

o, s
o, 1 ^
o,

sol :- Minimize ( f , )
sol =

210

27

145

133

f (sol) = 3.89 x 1 0

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208

III.

, , ,
, Given. , sol,
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, ,
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.
8.16.

Given

+ 2 'X - 4 =

Find ) ->( Vs-i -i-Vi )


8.17.
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4 +

-3 =

+ 2 - =

8.

-1
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/
,
12
1 /
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r
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v
A

1
2
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1
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.
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J
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6

209

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4

/
,
2
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)
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1
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.
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1
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4
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,
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(-2 - 2 V ^ I )

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, (. . 8.3),
. , . .
, , (-2 - 2 -Jl93)2

= 5.46 i .

-:
1. , Booleans ( )
<Ctrl>+<.> ,
2+2 -4=.
2. , .
3. Symbolics () Variable / Solve ( / ).

.

,

, , , . 8.18
.
, .
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Given

=0

F i n d ( ) > (

-a

ia

-i-

210

III.

,
Mathcad .

8.8.
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:
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f (a,x>=o, ,
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. ,
, , , , . ,
:
sin(a-x)=o.

(1)

=-,
N = O , I , 2 , . . ., .. ( )
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N=O, . . =, , .
( 8.19), Mathcad =.
8.19. sin(-)
root (sin (-)

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8.

211

(1) .

i, a i s .
. 0.025 0.0005 ( ,
).

root (1) aL. ,
root , , . , 8.20, ,
= aL.

. 8 . 1 0 . s i n ( a x ) =0 {. 8.21)
8.20.
s i n ( ) =0
i := 0 .. 30
a i := 0.01 + i 0.0005
:= 300
Yi+l :- r o o t ( s i n ( a i xl , xt

yL . 8.10 ,
0=. ,
, , =/, ( =.17) ""

212

III.

=2-/.
, . ()
, > . .
?
,
. -
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aL =
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.
u + ij- , .
1- , aL. , ,
8.21. root f(xo,a), . f{xo,a) ,
. ,
8.21 , , ( )
= . ,
, , yL.
8.21. sin(a-x)=o

f ( , ) :=
r o o t ( s i n ( ) , )
i := 0 ..

30

a i := 0 . 0 1 + i - 0 . 0 0 0 5
0 := 300
Yi + l := f ( y i , a i )

8.

213

, . 8.11,
. ,
.
, . 8.10 ( )
f (xO,a) ,
8.21 : f (, ).

600

. 8 . 1 1 . s i n ( a - x ) -0
= ( 8.21)

, 0, 0=. 8.21 . 8.12. 0 ( yD=900),


Mathcad, . .

, .
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ill.

214

{),
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1

800

600

.
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200

01

0.015

0.02

0 . 02 S

. 8 . 1 2 . s i n (-) -0
0 = 6 0 0


. ,
(. . 9.1) , ,
, , . . (.
. 9.2). ,
, ,
(. . 9.3),
(. . 9.4),
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9.1.
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, , ( NXN). -
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8 . 984

216

III.

9.1.1.
, MXN NXM, , . 9.1. (transpose)
Matrix () <Ctrl>+<l>. He , .

Matrix
: fii-i v - *\

. 9 . 1 . Matrix

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3)

= ( 1

1 2

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<+> <>, .
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:=

1 2

+ =

5
2

:=

6
2

1
-1

0
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-4

9.
- =

10

217

, Mathcad ( 9.3).

.
9.3.
3

1 2

:=

:= 1
' 2 3 4

+ =

5
0

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- =

7
1 2

. ,
, ( 9.4).
i 9.4.
:=

( 1

3 "\

( 4

6 J

- =

.. ."
( -1

-2

-3

^ -4

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9.1.3.
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NXP (P ). .
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(. . " " . 2).
?

...;,

"

-"

'

"

; 9.5.
:=

f 1

3 ^

:=

f 1

>

',

""

;
0

- 1 - 3 - 4

III.

218
;=
1

~
{
-

-1

-19

-43

, - ,
, , 9.6. ,
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(

11

!
-
(. . 9.1.6).

( 9.7).
, .
.
| 9.7.
'2 =

10

6
12

0.5

1.5

2.5

9.1.4.
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Determinant ()
Matrix () (. 9.2) <|> {

9.

219

<Shift>+<\>). , . ( . 9.2), :
1. , (, , ,
).
2. .
3. , .

t-t f>c1, Xu

Determinant

. 9.2

9.8.
\ 9.8.

-5
0

1 3

9.1.5.
(vector magnitude) , . ,
( 9.9).
9.9.

f1
2
3

= 3.742

9.1.6.
(vector inner product)
, .

220

III.

,
. v uv= || |v|-cose, .
, .
( 9.10).

.

,

(. . 9.1.7).
9.10.

= 32

!
( ) . -
. . 9.11.
9.11. ,
1
256
288
f

( -7

224

122

256

244

288

V 3 ,

366

9.1.7.
(cross product) v 8
|uj-|v|-sin9, v. , Cross Product (
) Matrix ()
<Ctrl>+<8>. 9.12.

9.

221

9.12.
\ / * \ _3

9.1.8.
.
( 9.13, ), Vector Sum ( ) Matrix ()
<Ctrl>+<4>. , .
9.13 () .
(trace) .
:

tr(A) .

( 9.13.

( 1

3
t r (A)

:=

= 5

9.1.9.
, ( 9.14).
. Inverse ( )
Matrix ().
; 9.14.
(1

0 2 0
0 0 3

0
0
0 0.5
0
0 0 0.333

III.

222
f 1

0.333

0.999

0.5

0.333

(1

0.5

0.999

9.1.10.
. .
. 9.1.
, :
Raise to Power ( ) Calculator () < >.
.
9.1.

-1

" 1 ,

2,3,...

-, (-) -, . . .

-2, -3, ...

^-" 1 , ( ^ " 1 ) ^ " 1 , . . .

9.15.
j 9.15.

0.5

0.333

f 1

0.25

3.003

.1 1 1

9.
1 0

1 0

223

9.1.11.
Mathcad , (vectorize operator).
, , .
(. .
), . ,

. Mathcad ,
( 9.16). :
1. ,
( ,
).
2. ,
, (. 9.3).
3. , Vectorize ()
Matrix () (. 9.3), <Ctri>+<->.
4. <=>, .

. 9.3.

9.16.

= 14

III.

224

I
.
Mathcad
.
, . ,
Mathcad ,
.
9.17.
9.17.
Mathcad
sin (vj =

0.841

( 0.841

0.909

0.909

0.141

0.141

9.1.12.
, , .
, . 9.18.

9.1 .
a-o + b - r

a ' p + b-s

a q + b - t

+ d r

c-p+d-s

q+ d t

f-o + g - r

f-p + g-s

f - q + g - t

-b

a -d - b - c i
a

a-d--

c]

a-

( b - c - 1 )

9.

225

+ +

. , -
(,
9.18).

9.2.
, . ,
,
. .

9.2.1.
Matrix () (. .
"" . 4). , ,
.

matrix{M,N, f) , i , j
f ( i , j ) ( 9.19);

N ;

f ( i , j) .

9.19. , ; 4

' = ;

f ( i , j ) : = i + 0.5 j
A := m a t r i x (2 , 3 , f)

fo

{ 1

0.5

1.5

, , , -
( -

III.

226

). , (), . .
CreateSpace(F(IUIH f I , f 2 , f 3 ) , tO , t l , t g r i d , fmap) , -, - z-
, F;

F(t) , t;

fi ( t ) , f2 ( t ) , f3 {t) ;

to t ( -5);

t l t ( 5);

tgrid t ( 20);

fmap , .

. " ". 4,
(cos(t)
F(t) - sin(t)

CreateSpace(F)

CreateSpace(F,-15 , 15,300)

. .4. C r e a t e S p a c e

createspace . 9.4. ,
-

9.

227

, !

, , , . . 9.5.
g ( s , t) ; = 2 + t 2

CreateMesh (g)

C c e a t e H e s h ( g , 10 , 50)

. 9.5. CreateMesh
CreateMesh (F ( , fl,f2,f3> , sO , s i , tO , t l , sgrid, t g r i d , finap)
, -, - z- , F;

F{s,t) , s t;

g ( s , t ) ;

fI (s, t ) , 12 (s, t ) , f3 (s, t) ;

so, to s, t ( -5);

s i , t i s, t ( 5);

sgrid, t g r i d s t ( 2 0);

228

ill.

fmap , .

, C r e a t e M e s h

createspace, 9.20.
, , -, - z-
, .
9.20. CreaCeM*eh Craat8pac
, (. 9.4-9.5)

CreateMesh ( g , 2 , 3} =

CreateSpace ( F , 3 ) =


Mathcad
.
9.21.

identity{Nj WXN;

D diag(v) , v;
geninv(A) , () ;

9.

229

rref (A) ;
;
V ;
.

NXM geninv , .
0.21.
i d e n t i t y (2) =

((1 W

1 0

diag

:=

geninv () =

-1.333

-0.333

0.667

1.083

0.333

-0.417

/
r r e f (A) =

geninv (A) =


rref

1 2
4

1 0 - 1

1 2

9.2.2.
, , . , ""
.


:
( . "
" . 4). Subscript (

III.

230

) Matrix (), <[> ( 9.22, );



Matrix Column Matrix, <CtrI>+<6> ( 9.22). , ,
;

,
( 9.22, );

submatrix(A, i r , j r . i c , j c ) , ,
i r , jr i c , jc ( 9.23).


submatrix.

: 9.22. ,
1 2
4

3
5

. 1 = 2

= ( 1 2 3

9.23.
submatrix

submatrix

,0,1,0,1

1 0
-1

0
-3

-4

, 0 , 0, 0 , 1 = ( 1

- -.
, NXI IXN, ( 9.24).

9.

231

9.24.

()

(1

submatrix

(1

,0,1,0,0


Mathcad ( 9.25):

augment ( , , , . . . ) , ;

stack(A,E,c,...) ,
;

,,, . . . .

9.25.
:=

:=

stack ( , ) =

0
0

augment (, ) =

0
3

1 2

5
\

augment

/1

. ,

9.2.3.
( 9.26):
rows (A) ;

232

III.

cols (A) ;

length (v) ;

last(v) ;
;
v .

,
1, . . O R I G I N 1 (. . 4).
9.26.
w := (1 2 3 )
fl 2"
:= 3
5

4
6

v := 2
3

,
,
rows {) =3

.
rows ( v) =3

rows (w) =]

cols {A) = 2
length {v) = 3

cols ( v) = 1

cols {w} = 3

last (v) = 2

9.2.4.
, . , :
sort(v) ('9.27);

csort(A.i) 1-
( 9.28);

rsort(A,i}
i- ( 9.29);

reverse (v)
( 9.27);
v ;
;
i .

9.

233

,
, .

9.27.
' '

(2\
4

sort(v) =

reverse v =

..
'l

9 "

:= 3

8
1

csort(, 1) = 2

csort (A, 0) = 2

9.29. ( 9.28)

r s o r t (A, 1) =

r s o r t (A, 2) =

9.2.5.
(norm), . .
. Mathcad :
normi (A) L1;
2 () L2;
(euclidean norm);
normi (A) max-, .- (infinity norm);
.

234

III.


9.30.
,
.

, . , , .

Mathcad ( Mathcad Resources).
9.30.

1
0
0
2
0
0
2
)

0
0
4
0
0
4)=6 norm3
n
o
r
m
l
(
A
l
(
B
)
=
6
0
0
n
o
r
m
2
(
A
)

5
.
4
6
5
n
o
r
r
a
2
(
B
)
5
4
6
.
4
9
9
n
o
r
m
i
(
A
)
7
n
o
r
m
i
(
B
)
=
7
0
0
norme
.
4
7
7

5
(
A
)
n
o
r
m
e
(
B
)
5
4
7
.
7
2
3
22 2
V1
--+2
'- +3+4=5.477
9.2.6.

(condition number).
=,
, .
,
.
- ;
condi(A) L1;
cond2 (A) L2;

conde(A) ;

condi(A)
.

9.

235

9.31. , , (
, ).

. .

, 9.30
, . . = , , ,
.
! 9.31.

:)

6.01 J

/ == 15

norme

(A) n o r m e \ A

conde

(A) = 1 5

conde

(B)

= 5 . 012 X 1 0 3

condi

(A) = 2 1

condi

(B)

= 7 . 217 X

cond2

(A)

cond2

( B ) = 5 . 012 X 1 0 :

condi

(A) = 2 1

condi

(B)

=14.933

io3

= 7 . 217 X 1 0 3

9.2.7.
(rank) ,
k- , .
Mathcad rank.

rank () ;
.

I 9.32.
rank

(1

2)

= I

I3 6 J

rank

[ 4

|=2

236

III.

rank

=1

rank

=2

9.3.

(), . .
i2

2 + . . . + a i N xN=bi.

(1)

:
-=,

(2)

NXN, X , .

, , . . " " . 12.

, , , -, , . . .
, ,
.
, . Mathcad
(1),
(2).
Given/Find (. . 8), lsolve.

lsolve (, ) ;
;
.

lsolve 9.33.
(. . "" . 4), , . lsolve
( 9.34).


9.35.

9.

237

9.33.
1

:=

0.7

-.

5
12

:= 2 . 9

3.1

l s o l v e (, ) =

-0.129
0.915

9.34.
( 9.33)
-.18648 648 648648 648649
lsolve ( , ) > -.12 8 64864864864864865
.9148 648648648648648 6
, ,
, (. . 8).

9.35. , (
9.35). , . . .

Find Mathcad
, ,
Find .
[ 9.3S.
:=0

:=0

z ;=0

Given
l x + 5y + 2z = 1
0 . 7 + 12 + 5z = 2 . 9
+ + 4z = 3 . 1
'-0.186
f i n d ( , , z) =

-0.12 9
0.915

III.

238

9.4.


, . . =.
1 2 , . . .
xi,x2, . ..
Mathcad ,
:
eigenvais(A) , ;

eigenvecs (A) , ,
;

-
- , eigenvals;
eigenvec(A,X) X;
.
9.36. 9.37. = X,
.
9.36.
(
;=

12

4
0.938

eigenvals () =

3.024
13.037
0.6893' -0.27605

eigenvecs ( ] =

0.26171
-0.6755

-0.45121
.84865

0.3989
0.90738
.13242

9.

239

-0.68936
e i g e n v e c (A, 0 . 9 3 8 ) =

-0.26171
0.6755
-.27605

e i g e n v e c ( , 3.024 ) =

-0.45121
0.84865

9.37.
( 9.36)
1

0.68936

0.647

0.26171

0.246

0.7

12

0.938

-0.6755
0.68936
0.647
0.26171
-0.6755

0.245
-0.634

v
f

eigenvecs (A)

-0.634

0.647
0.246
-0.634

eigenvals ( A)Qeigenvecs { A)

()

0.647
0.246
-0.634

, ,
: --. . , ( 9.38 9.39):

genvals(A,B) v ,
;

genvecs(A,B} , ,
v, genvais. i- ,
;
, .

III.

240

9.38.

1
:=

0.7

12 3
4 5 6

2
12

g e n v a l s (A, IB) =

g e n v e c s {, ) =

:=

0.5
-0.674
-0.3067

-0.70544

0.15571

-0.23715

-0.93898

0.66792

9.39.
( 9.38)
( -1 . 4 0 6 ^
genvecs ( A , )

-3 .041
-4 .676
f

-1.406 "\

genvals (, )0 genvecs (, )

-3.041
-4.67 6

-0.555
genvecs (, )

0
0.555
-0.555

genvals {, ) i genvecs (, )

0
0.555

9.5.

. , ,
.
, , , , .
. ,
. Mathcad

9.

241

, .

9,5.1.

A=L LT, L (. . ,
). cholesky.
choiesky(A) ;
, - .
9.40. , (
), .

.
9.40.
'13
:=

4 \

9-3

4-3

L := cholesky (A)

/ 3.606
L=

1.941

2.287

1.109

-2.253

1.64

'13

7
4

4
9-3

~3

9.5.2. QR-
QR- A=Q R, Q
, a R .

qr(A) QR-;
.

qr(A) L,
Q R, . QR, submatrix ( 9.41).

III.

242
9.41. QR-
.3
A:=

9 - 3

L : = q r (A)

L =

0.85

0.122

0.513

15.297

9.283

4.38

0.458

-0.654

-0.603

-7.268

9.171

0.261

0.747

-0.612

-1.646

Q :- submatrix L , 0 , rows ( L) - 1 , 0 ,
'0.85

0.122

0.513

0.458

-0.654

-0.603

0.261

0.747

-0.612

Q=

R := submatrix L , 0 , rows ( L) - 1
I
15.297
9.283
4.38
R =

13
Q-R =

-7.268

9.171

-1.646

-3

-3

cols (L) -

cols (L) + 1

, cols (L) - 1

9.5.3. -
LU- , , A=L - , L
, . P , A , L , U .

iu(A) LU- ;

,
.
LU-, QR-,
( 9.42). P , L , U submatrix.

9.

243

9.42. LU-
13

:=

4
9 - 3

4 - 3

: = l u ()
1 0
0

1 0

13

0.538

5.231

-5.154

2.691

0.308

-0.985

:= s u b m a t r i x , 0 , rows () - 1 , 0 ,

c o l s () - 1

1 0

L := s u b m a t r i x , 0, rows () - 1 ,

L =

0 '

0 .538

0 .308

- 0 .985

c o l s () + 1

c o l s () - 1

(
cols { ) + 1
U := submatrix , 0 , rows () - 1 ,
2 , cols

U =

13

5.231

-5.154

A-LU =

- 1

2.691
0 0"
0

9.5.4.
(singular value decomposition)
NXM ( N>M) A=USv T , v NXN , , a s
.

svds(A) , ;

svd(A) ;
.

III.

244

9.43 9.44, . 9.45.


(
, , ).
9.44 9.45, , , svd.
9.43.

13

:= 7

4 -3

9
18.522

18.522

eigenvals (A) - 11.629

svds(A) = 11.629

0.85

0.85

9.44.
11.832
svds(A) =

:=

svd (A) =

'-0.316

-0.949

-0.949

0.316

-0.267

0.964

-0.535

-0.148

0.832

-0.802

-0.222

-0.555

9.45.
( 0.44)
-0.316
-0.949
0

-0.949
0.316
0

11.832

0^ ^-0.267

0.964

-0.535

-0.148

0.832

-0.802

-0.222

-0.555

1 2

10


,
Mathcad.
(, . .), (, ,
), ,
( ). ,
, ,
, - . .
, ,
,
, ,
.
() .

,
Insert Function ( ),
f(x)
(. . " Mathcad" . 1).
, . -
, . , Insert Function, .

10.1. (Bessel)
, ,
().

III.

246

10.1.1.

.



Mathcad.

J0(X)

Jn(0.xJ

-f+ +

Jn(l.x)
o o o

. 1 0 . 1 .

Y0(x)

Yn ( 0 , X ]
Yn ( 1 , X)

o o o
Yn ( 2 , x ) - 0 . 5

. 10.2.

JO (z) ;

(z) ;

Jn(m,z) m- ;

10.

247

YO(Z) , >;

Yi U) , >;

Yn{m, z) m- , >;
z ;
m , <<.

. 10.1 10.2, .

10.1.2.
:

(z)
;

i i ( 2 ) ;

in(m,2) m- ;

)
, >;

Ki(z) , >;
1 Kn(m,z) m- , >;
z ;
m , <<.

--

In ( 2,)

.'

. 1 0 . 3 .
9 984

III.

248

. 10.3 10.4.

. 1 0 . 4 .

10.1.3.
y t ( = z y .
. 10.5. :

Ai(z) ;

Bi (z) ;

<103.892.

. 1 0 . 5 .

10.

249

10.1.4. -
- ber(,) +
+ibei(n,x) , . bei =1 2 . 10.6.
bei (n, ) - ;

(,) - ;
( );

.
100

SO

bei[l .x
bei(2,x
0

-50

^ 1

'

t
2

>*

J0

. 10.6. -

10.1.5.

. 10.7.
j s (n, z) , >0;
ys (n, z) , >;
( ), >2;

z , >.

10.2.
(Complex Numbers)
Mathcad , .
Re(z) z;

im{z) z;

250

III.

. 1 0 . 7 .

arg(z) z, --rc<arg{z)<n;

csgn{z) ( ,
z-0; 1, Re(z)>o, Re(z)=o im(z)>o; -1
);

signum(z) 1, z=o, z/

z , .
, , .

10.1 10.3.
10.1.
R e ( 3 . 9 + 2 .41) = 3 . 9
=1.7

argU-7

= 0.1

10.2. csgn
csgn ( 0 ) = 0
csgn ( i ) = 1
csgn(0.1) = 1
csgn(-0.1) =-1

c s g n ( 0 - i ) = -X
csgn ( 0 + i ) - 1
c s g n ( 0. 1 + 2 i ) = 1
csgn ( - 0 . 1 - 3 1 ) = - 1

10.3. signum
signum ( 0 ) - 1
signum ( i ) - i

signum ( 0 - i ) = i
signum { 0 + i ) = i

10.
signum i 0 .1) =1
signum i-O.l) = -1

251
signum (0 .1 + 2i) -0.05 + 0.999i
signum (-0. 1 - 3i) =-0.033 -0.999i

10.3.
(Log and Exponential)
(. 10.8) :
expiz) ( ) z;

in(z) ;

log(z) ;

iogiz,b) z .

lnGamma(z) - (. . 10.6);

0 0 0
log(x)

log(x ,e)

0 -

. 10.8.

10.4.
(Trigonometric)

acosfz) ;

acoc{z) ;

acsc(z) ( 10.4);

angie(x,y) (,) ;

asec(z} ;

asin(z) ( 10.4);

atan(z) ;

252

III.

atan2(x,y) , (,) ( 10.5);


cos(z) ;

cot(z) ;

csc(z) ( 10.4);

sec(z) ;

sin(z) ( 10.4);

tan(z) ;
z .

.
, ( 10.6).
.
; 10.4.

1
=0.479
sin(0.5) =0.479

esc ( 0 . 5 )

( 1
acsc
= 0.5
[ 0.479 I

asin (0.479) =0.5

10.5.
atan2 (1,1) =0.785

atan2 (-1,-1) =-2.356

a n g l e d , 1) -0.785

angle {-1,-1) =3.927

10.6.
z :=47
71 Z
cos|

180

[ - 0.682

acos { 0.682)

180

= 47

10.5. (Hyperbolic)
, , z
1
e " ( 10.7).
.
. 10.9.

10.

. 10.9.

a c o s h ( z ) ;

a c o t h ( z ) ;

a s i n h ( z ) ;

a c s c h ( z ) ;

a t a n h ( z ) ;

a s e c h ( z ) ;

c o s h ( z } ;

c o t h { z ) ;

s i n h ( z ) ;

c s c h ( z ) ;

CJ

t a n h (z) ;

s e c h ( z ) ;

z .

\ 10.7.
z :=1.27
=1.921
cosh U ) = 1.921
acosh(1.921) =1.27

253

III.

254

10.6. (Special)
,
Mathcad .
10.8, . 10.1110.13.

erf (z) (. . " () " . 14);

erfc(z)=l-erf(z);

z .

fhyper (a,b,c,x) ;

mhyper(,,) ;

, , ;

, -1<<1.

Gamma(z) - ;
z - , I z |<i.

Gamma(a,x) - ;

- Mathcad ( 10.8).

(,) (. 10.10);
( );

5 ~
H e r ( I ,x)
[2,)

0 -

( 3 ,1

. 1O.1O.

10.

255

ibeta(a,x,y) - ;
, <<1;

, , >, >.

jac i,n,a,b,x) ;
Lag (, ) (. 10.11);

. 10.11.

Leg(n,x) (. 10.12);
( );

- ;

, , >-1, >-1.
Tcheb(n,x)
(. 10.13);
ucheb{n,x)
(. 10.13);
( );
.
10.8.
fhyper ( 1 , 2 , 3 ,
{0.7i)

=-0.29

(1.3 , 7.7)

0.34)

=1.306

-0.961i

= 8.655 ~

Jac(1 , 2 , 1,-0.13)

- 0.175

III,

256

. 10.12.

5 Tcheb(2.x)
Ucheb(2,x)

0 -

Tcheb(S.x)

. 10.13.

10.7. (String)
, , :

concat (si, S2, . . . ) ,


si, S 2 , . . . ( 10.9);

error (s) s (. 10.14);

CD l s s t r i n g ( x ) 1, ,
( 10.10);

10.

257

num2str(z) ,
z ( 10.10);

num2str (z),
, .

s e a r c h (S, S u b s , m) Subs S

, , -1
( 10.9);

str2num(s) s ( ) ( 10.10);

str2vec(s) ASCII- s ( 10.10);

s t r i e n ( s ) s ( 10.9, 10.10);

substr (s,m,n) , s , m s ( 10.9);

vec2str(v) v ASCII;
s ;
v ASCII- ( , o<v<255).

10.9.
concat ! "Hello, " , " " , "World" ,"!")= "Hello, World!"
substr ( "Hello, World!" ,4,8) = "o, World"
substr i "Hello, World!" ,0,5)= "Hello"
search ' "Hello, World! " , "Wo" , 1) = 7
search { "Hello, World!" , "wo" ,1) =-1
strlen{"hello" ) - 5
| 10.1 . \ T p 6 $ ) ^ [ ^ S
IsString ( 1) = 0
IsString ("!") =1
strlen ("Hello, World!" ) = 13
num2str (57 9 + 3i) - "579 + 3i"
num2str(12.345) ="12.345"
str2num ( "123.4567" ) =123.457

: :

III.

258
49
s t r 2 v e c f " 17

55

) :=

[-xj

if x >

e r r o r [ "x must be p o s i t i v e " )

otlierraise

(3) - - 3

x must be positive

. 10.14.

10.8.
(Truncation and Round-Off)

c e i i ( z ) , z ( 10.11);

floor(z) , z ( 10.11);

round(z,n) > z
, < z
, =
z ( 10.12);

t r u n c u ) ( 10.11);
z .

MathcadH, ( 10.11
10.12).
\ 10.11.
ceil (3.7) =4
floor (3.7) = 3
trunc (3.7) - 3
ceil (-3.7) =-3 floor (-3.7) =-4 trunc (-3.7) --3
ceil ( 3 .7 -2.1-i) =4 -2i
floor (3.7 - 2.1-i) =3 -3i
trunc (3.7 -2.1-i) = 3 -2i

10.

259

10.12.
round (1.23456789, 0) = 1

round ( 12 . 3456789 , 0 ] - 12

round (12.3456789, 1) -12.3

round { 12 . 3456789 , -1) - 10

round (12. 3456789, 2) =12.35

round (12. 34567 89, -2 ) = 0

round(12.3456789, 5) =12.34568
round(1.2345 + 6.7891, 1) =1.2 + 6.8i

Mathcad.
, Result Format ( ) (. . 4).

10.9. -
(Piecewise Continuous)
D

heaviside step(x) , 1, >,


(. 10.15);

if (cond,x,y) , cond (
), ( 10.13);

Kronecker d e l t a (, ) - : 1,
=, (, 10.15);

sign(x) , =,
( 10.13);

1, >, -1

5,
.

.13,
s i g n (-4) = - 1
sign (1.3) = 1
i f {1 > 3 , 1 , 3) = 3
i f ( 1 > 3 , "Yes" , "No" ) = "No"
i f (2 + 5 > 0 , "Yes" , "No" ) = "Yes"

III.

260

. 10.15.

10.10.
(Vector and Matrix)
Mathcad 2001 , , , :
D xy2poi{x,y) ;
poi2xy(r,0) ;
angle{,) (,) (. . 10.4);
atan2(x,y) ,
(. . 10.4);

<,)

xyz2cyl (x,y, z) ;

cyi2xyz (r,6, z)
;

xyz2sph{x,y, ) ;

sph2xyz {,6,) ;

, ;

,, z ;
r,G ;

r,e,z ;

,, .

10,

261


10.14 10.15.
, .
10.14.
7.071

xy2pol

I
12

7.071
1.429

xy2pol{1,7) =

1.429
0.999
7

7.071
1.429

1 2 ( 7 . 0 7 1 , 1.429) =

0.999

I 10.15.
1.414
xyz2cyl(1,1,1) = 0.785

-1

cyl2xyz(l , , 3 .93) =

3.93

1.732 ^
xyz2sph(1,1,1) = 0.7S5
0.955

'1 "
(

sph2xyz V 2 , ,
'
4
2

1
0

10.11. (Finance)
2000, Mathcad , . ,
,
Mathcad.

cnper(rate,pv,fv) ,
;
r a t e ; , rate>-i;
pv , pv>o;

fv , fv>o.

crate (nper,pv, fv)


,
;

; ,
>1;

262

III.

pv , pv>o;

fv , fv>o.

c u m i n t ( r a t e , n p e r , p v , s t a r t , e n d , [ t y p e ] ) -

,
;

cumprn ( r a t e , nper,pv, s t a r t , end, [type] >


, ;
r a t e ; , rate>o;
nper ; ;
pv , pv>o;

s t a r t ;
;

end ;
; s t a r t < end;

type=0 , , i ,
.

eff (rate,nper)
;

r a t e ; ;

nper , nper >o.

fv(rate,nper,pmt, [ [pv] , [type] ])


, , ;
r a t e ;
, rate>o;
nper , nper >o;
pv ;

type=o , , i ,
.

10.

263

fvadj (prin, v)
, ,
;
prin ;

v ,
.

fv^trate.v) , , ;
r a t e ;
;
v .

ipnit (rate,per,nper,pv, [[fv], type] ])


, , , ;
r a t e , rate>o;
per , ; ;
, per< nper;

pv - ;

fv ;

type=o , , 1 , .

i r r t v , [guess])
, ;

v , ; ;
guess , , , guess=o . 1 (10%).
mirr (v, f in_rate, rein_rate)
,
,
, ;

264

III,

v , ;
;

fin_rate ;

rein_rate .

nom (rate, nper) ,


;
r a t e ; , rate>-i;
nper , >.

npv{rate,v) ,
;
r a t e , ; ;
v .

nper ( r a t e , pmt,pv, [ [fv], [type] ]) , , , ;

pmt (rate, nper, pv, [ [fv], [type] ])


, ,
, ;
G

ppmt ( r a t e , p e r , n p e r , pv, [ [ f v ] , [ t y p e ] ] }

, , ,
;

pv(rate,nper,pmt, [ [fv], [type] ])


, ,
,
;

rate(nper, pmt, pv, [ [fv] , [type] , [guess] ])


, ;
r a t e ;
per ;

10.

265

; ;
pmt , ;
pv ;

fv ;

type=o , , 1 ,
;
guess , ; , guess=o.oi(io%).

11

, (. . ), . ( ) .
, ( ). (. . 13).
, ( ) .
,
(. . .111.2) (. . 11.3)
,
. . ,
Mathcad 11:

, . . ;

( . 12).
,
.
-

268

III.

(. . 11.4).
, , , , -.
Mathcad (. . 11.5).

11.1.
, y{t), y ' ( t ) .
( ):
1 (t)=f( y ( t ) ,t) ,

(1)

Mathcad.

, ,
y(t 0 )
t 0 . y(t) t 0 t1.

(initial value problem), .
Mathcad 11
( Mathcad 2000 Pro)
Given/odesoive, ,
Mathcad.
, . .

11.1.1. Given/Odesolve
,
-, :
Given ;

, , y(to)=b;

odesoive(t, t i )
t ( t o , t i ) .

Odesolve (t, t 1 , step) , step


, , -

11.

269

, .
step, ,
. ,
( ) .
2

' = - 11.1.
| 11.1.
Given
(t)
dt
(0)

= ft)

- (t)

=0.1

:= O d e s o l v e { t , 10 )

, Boolean ( ). , <Ctrl>+<=>.
Calculus (), 11.1, ,
<Ctrl>+<F7> ( 11.3.)

.
Mathcad ,
: to<ti ( 11.1 to=o,ti=io), . ,
Given/odesolve {t),
< t o , t i ) . Mathcad,
-
, : (3) =0.691.

-.
odesolve
: Fixed ( )
Adaptive (). , . .
- . . 11.3.

270

III.

11.1.2. rkfixed, Rkadapt,


Bulstoer
Mathcad.
rkfixed,
Rkadapt Bulstoer.
, .
Given/odesoive. , , :
, ( )
;
G , ;
Mathcad, , . .

(. . 11.3),
11.1 (. 11.2)

rkfixed. = , , , , 2.
: t ( to t i ), ( t ) .
11.2.

:= 0 . 1
D ( t , ) : = - ^
:= 100
:= r k f i x e d ( y , 0 , 1 0 , M , D )

11.2 Mathcad-. =0.1,


( ). , , , .
-, .

11,

271

. 11.1. ,
( 11.2), , <>.

, 11.111.2,
.
, , .

. 11.1. ' =- 2 ( 11.2)

11.2.
y ( t ) ,
()
(t),
N- . , y(t) (-- .
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272

, (. . 11.1), 11.3. , ( 11.3 ),


( ). . y(t) . 11.2.
11.3.
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11.3 ,
, , . y ( t )
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.
11.3, . , -

11.

273

y o ( t ) = y ( t ) , a y i ( t ) s y ' ( t ) = y 0 ' ( t ) ,
0 ( t ) ( t ) :
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. 11.3. , N- , , N .

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1

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( y

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( t ) , y i ( t ) , . . . ,y

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t NXI, {N+1} (N , , t).
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274

III.

11.3.1.

Mathcad 11 ,
(23) .

rkf ixedtyO, t o , ti,M,D) - ;

Rkadapt (yo, t o , ti,M,D) - ;

B u i s t o e r ( - , t o , t i , M , D ) -;

to NXI;

to ;

t i ;

, ;

D NXI t
.
t NXI.
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(M+i)x(N+i). t,
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. ( ) , +1.

rkfixed, 11.4
(. . 11.2).
11.4.
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:= 1 0 0
: - r k f i x e d ( , , 5 0 , , D)

11.

275

, , , . (. 11.2,1),
, Mathcad, . -, D,
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III.

276

, , . .
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-.1

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11.

277

. 11.5, , . , , , .
, .
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. . , . Mathcad , .
. rkfixed. , rkfixed , ,
. .
Rkadapt , , , . -
,
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,
rkfixed. - Bulstoer .

11.3.2.


( t o , t i ) ,
. , . ,
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278

III.

().
.
,
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.

rkadapt fyo, to, t i , a c e , D , k , s) - ;

bulstoer (yo, to, t i , , D , k , s) -;


to;

t o , t i ;

( , ; o.ooi);
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;

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b u l s t o e r (11.21)
11.5. , , ;
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11.

279

(. . 11.3.1).
.
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, ,
.
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).
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1

D(t , ) :=

- - . 1 J
0.1

:=

J
u := buistoer ( , 0 , 50 , 10 -5
. D , 300 , 0 . 0001

:= length (u '*' ) - 1
50

= 21
\

7.638 "
2.648 - 3

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, 11.5 buistoer rkadapt.


!
b u i s t o e r rkadapt (, )
,
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( 11.5) rkadapt (
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,
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=10-16.

.
, . 984

III,

280

11.6. .
(), buistoer.
0.1

-0.1

-0.05

0.1

. 11.6. , b u i s t o e r ()
r k a d a p t () ( 11.5)

11.6.

D ( t , ) :=
():=

Y1

:=

-0 - 0 . 1

0.1

u- buistoer (yO,0,50,E,D,30,O.OOOl)
<- l e n g t h (u '*'

J- 1

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() . 11.7 rkadapt. ,
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(): (
-). (
: ) buistoer
.
, , , , -

11.

281

( t o , t i ) , &. ,
() . 11.7
, .
, , :
( ) : = l e n g t h ( r k a d a p t (yO , 0 , 50 , , D , 1 0 0 , O . O O O l )

U)

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282

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11.

283

( D).
D, G, P .
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:= 0 . 1
F ( t , y ) :=

D := 1
(

r := 0.1

- -- 0 -]_

- D - y ! + - -1
:= 500
tO := 0

t l := 100
10

D := rkf ixed | [
G ;- rkf ixed

|, tO , tl , , F
8
10
4

P :- rkf ixed

10
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, tO , tl , M , F

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(. 11.9), ,
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III.

284

, , , , ,

( 11.8).
y{t> ,

, .
11.8. (-l)
u ;= 1
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: f t !

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dt

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dt

+ (t)

= 0

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( 11.8)

11.

285

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286

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:= 10

:= 27

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:=

10
V

1 0

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y 2 + J- - y o - y i

to := 0
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N = 1000
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. 1 1 . 1 2 . ( 11.9)


(. 11.12) ( )
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287

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11.4.


, .

III.

288

(, , ), ,
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, , , 11.10 . , ,
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0.2

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:= 100

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()
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Z - rkfixed (, tO, tl,M,D)


Z1
(1)

Z1
Z1

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s t a c k ( Zl , Z2

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11.

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290

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291

11.5.1. ?
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dt
(0)

= 1

:- O d e s o l v e ( t , 1)

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_ ( t ) = - 3 0 - ( y ( t ) - c o s ( t ) -

. 1 1 . 1 6 . -
( 11.11)

. 11.17 -50. ,
, , Mathcad. "" . ,

III.

292

, -. step
odesolve(t,i<step).
step, .
, step>20 ""
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0.2

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11.

293

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11.12.
11.12.

-0.1.+ -1.2
F ( t , y ) :=

D := rkf i x e d (yO , 0 , 50 , 20000 , F)

.
. () F ( t , y ) , . . , F ( t , y ) (. . "
" . 7). ,
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0 , yi 2 ( 11.13, ). 11.13
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I 11.13.

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10 2

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10

100 -2

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294

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y l , , , , y i , 1000.
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. 11.18.
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11.

295

11.5.2.

, .
Radau(yo, to,ti,M,F) RADAUS ;

s t i f fb(yo, to, ti,M,F, j ) - ;

s t i f fr (yo, to, ti,M,F, j )


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to;

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(N ).

,
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.

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, 11.14 11.13.
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:=

- 0 . 1 - 0 + 10
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'1-2

0.1-- 2-1- " 10J

103-1

296

III.
f

t , ) :=

-0

0. 1

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io

io2-y2
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stiffb(yo, to, t i , a c c , F , j , k , s ) -

s t i f fr (yo, to, t i , a c c , F , j , k , s )

,
,

11.

297

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12


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N ,
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(. . 11).

III.

300

12.1.1.0
, ,
. ,

() ,
(. 12.1). , R-
(. . R), (), . (). () , ,
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(1)

- r(x) y o (x)

, ,
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x=i:
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= R-

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12.

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(. . 11).
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302

!.

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1 0

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, , , ,
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12.

303

12.1.3.
Mathcad

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sbvai(z,xO,xi,D, load, score) L N ;

z LXI, ( ) ;

xi ;
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z, s c o r e s b v a l L. ,
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, sbval , . . yi(x), , . . yi(xO).


yi(x) , .
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( ) := 1

R := 1

10 := 100

'

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304

III.

D ( , ) :=

( - () ' + ()

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:=
l o a d ( , z) :=

( 100
zo

s c o r e ( x l , ) :- R ' "~ 1
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ioad{x,z) . , , . .
z. z0 load. load
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load ,
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sbval ,
score (,) . , sbval ( , -

12.

305

. z, , z. , z, 0 .
() (
). , sbval
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. 12.3.
R=l ( 12.2)

. 12.4.
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. 12.4 ,
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. . ,
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( ) ( ) . , ( ) ,
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(. . 12.3).

12.1.4.

,

306

III.

.
. bvaifit, .

bvaifit(zl,z2,xO,xl,xf,D,loadl,Ioad2,score)


N ;
zi ,
;
z2 , ;
;
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xf ;

(,) , N ,
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NXI;

loadi(xO,z) NXI ,
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ioad2(xi,z) NXI ,
;

score(xf,y) NXI, xf.

b v a i f i t ,
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xf . scorefxf, ) :=.
bvaifit (. . 12.1), ,
xf=o.5 xi=i.O ,
() =.
12.3, .

12.

307

12.3.

10 := 100

:=

() := .1
1

R := 1

if < 0.5

3 otherwise
D(x, ) :=

- () - + () -1
()

- () -

zl 0 := 20
100

loadl (xO , zl) :=


z2 0 := 30
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z2 0
R-z2,

score ( xf , ) :=
II :=bvalfit ( zl , z2 , 0 , 1, 0. 5 , D, loadl , Ioad2 , score)
5.618
II =

13.801

, sbvai. ,
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xf.
,
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(xo,xf) (xf,xi). 12.4, 12.3.
12.4 . ,
(
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308

HI.

i 12.4. ( 12;3)

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:= 10
10

SO := rkfixed

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SI := rkfixed

S0 M ) 2

, 0 , 0.5 , M , D

, 0.5 , 1 , M, D

S1M.2 = 13-801

. 12.5. ,
. xf=o.5, , .


Mathcad.

. 12.5. x f = 0 . 5
( 12.312.4)

,
sbval, 12.2 () 12.3. 12.2
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12.

309

,
s b v a l .

12.2.

,
X.
, (eigenvalues) . , X*,
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() . -

III.

310

, ,
(0)=i, .
, .
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a :=

()

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(;

l o a d (a , ) :-

s c o r e ( , ) :=
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12.

311

n=i, , ( 12.5).
, 0^50 2 2 2 ,
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.


Mathcad Resources.

. 12.6.
( )

12.3.
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Mathcad 11 . , , - , . ,
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12.3.1.

(. . 12.1),
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312

III.

( , ).
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^ f v . l \/

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i= 0
0

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2

i+1

N-1
1

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( ) 2(-1) 2-N Yi yL.


, 2-N.
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A-z=B,

(3)

z , Y .
(3), .

12.

313

, , , ,
, , -, , -, N ^ <
.

. , , 12.6.

I 12.6.
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(}:=0.01

Ni := 1 ..

i : = N + 1 .,

Ao
AN

i N-2

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Ai , i + i := 1

Ai , i + N := - - r ( i - )

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i := - a ( i - - ) - - 1
=

R := 1

N-1

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:= 1 0 0

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1
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a<intvisi<b;

.
intvls bin , h i s t
. 14.8
. 14.9.

360

III.

14.8.
N:=1000
bin:=3 0
:= rnorm (N , 0 , 1)
lower := floor (min {x) )
upper := ceil (max (x) )
upper - lower
._
h
bin
j := 0 .. bin
intj := lower + h j
f := 1 hist (int, x)
N- h
N=IOOO ,
( ).
(upper,lower),
,
(bin) ,
i n t ( ).
!
i n t ,
.

i n t :- i n t +
2

0.4
f
dnorm(int,G,1)

i
-4

-2

linn*.
0
int

. 14.9. ( 14.8)

14.

36/

, ,
, . int . 14.9,
.


,
h i s t .
h i s t (bin, x) ;
bin ;
.
h i s t , 14.8 :
f :=

1
N- h

-hist ( i n t , )

h i s t , - . Mathcad 2001 histogram.


histogram(bin,x) binx2,
;
bin ;
.
histogram 14.9
. 14.10. ( , 14.9,
, ).
14.9.
N:=1000
bin :=10
:= rnorm { , 0 , 1)
f := histogram (bin , x)

III.

362

. 14.10. ( 14.9}


:
1. ,
( 14.9 lower upper).
2. Formatting Currently Selected Graph () (, )
Traces ().
(

300
200

Currently Selected...
Legend Latiol -!!
trace 2
none
trace 3
none
trace 4
none
irace 4
no"n"e
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trace 1 |

100

-4
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"11 '"..I--'
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d o t
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. 14.11.

14.

363

3. ()
bar () solidbar () (. 14.11).
4. .
. 14.9 14.10 bar ().
Mathcad 2001
(solidbar).
. 14.11.

14.2.2.
Mathcad 11 .
d mean(x) ;
median (x) (median) , ;
var{x) (variance);
stdev(x) ( "") (standard
deviation);
CJ max(x), min(x) ;
mode(x) ;
var{x) ,stdev(x> ;
( ) .
14.10.
i 14.10.
:= r w e i b u l l

{1000 , 1 . 5 )

N := l e n g t h ( x )
m e a n (x)

N = 1 10

= 0.917

median (x)

= 0.781

v a r (x) = 0.402
s t d e v (x) = 0 . 6 3 4
hi := mean () + s t d e v (x)

v a r

< ) = 0-634
l o := m e a n ( x ) - s t d e v ( x )

. 14.12 , . , , -

III.

364

.
14.8, .
, , , ,
, , .

. 14.12. ( 14.10)


14.11
( ).
,
. ,
.
!
,
( 14.11).
14.11.
:= ( 5 2

14

N := length (x)

3 2 )
N= 5

N-1
-
N

xi = 5.2

i=0
median () =3

m := mean {

mode (x) =2

m = 5.2

max (x) =14

min (x) = 2

14.

365

-1

- > (Xi- = 20.56


i= 0
var (x) =20.56
var () =4.534

Var (x) = 25.7

stdev(x) -4.534

var ( )
= 25.7
N-1
Stdev (x) = 5 .07

stdev (x) /
- 5.07
V N-1

14.2.3.

. - .
, xl 2
,
R ( 14.12),
) 14.12.

:= 3
N := 1000
R := 0.4
xl := rnorm (N , 0 , )
2 := R xl + ~Jl - R rnorm (N , 0 , )
corr (xl , 2 ) = 0 . 415
R=O.4 . 14.13 ().
, ( R = O . 9 ) . 14.3 (. . 14.1.1) , . . R=O.

366

III.

+++,

1
-
-10

++
i

-10

10

10

. 14.13.
R=0 .4 ( 14.12) R=0 .9

14.2.4.
, ,
(, -,
). ,
( 14.13).

() ;

cvar(x) ;

xi, 2 ( )
.

j 14.13.
1 ( 14.12)
ml .= mean ( x l )

m2 :- mean ( x2 )

CT1 := s t d e v ( x l )

2 := s t d e v ( x2

N-l

( x l i - m l ) - ( x 2 i - m 2 ) = 3.823
c v a r ( x l , x2) = 3.823
c v a r ( xl , x2 )

al

'

= 0.415

-O2

c o r r ( x l , x2 ) = 0 . 415

14.

_ _

367

14.2.5.
, . .
, , ,
, , .
. , .
, ,
, , .
Mathcad
.

kurt(x) (kurtosis) ;

skew{x) (skewness) .
(. . 14.10) 14.14.
14.14.

:= rweibull (1000 ,1.5)
skew (x) = 1.216
kurt (x) = 1.89

14.2.6.
, . ,
, ,
.

gmean(x) ;

hmean(x) .

Mathcad 14.15.

368

III.

14.15.
N:= 10

x := r u n i f (N , 0 , 1)
-1

. V

Xi^O.338

mean (x) =0.338

i = 0

N-l

i = X
i
0

N
\

- 0.012

hmean(x) = 0.012

N iN-l

gmean ( x> = 0 . 1 7 1

i = 0

14.2.7.


, .

, . , . , MXN, .
14.16.
4x2. mean (
) ( ).
( 14.17).
14.16.

/
:-

1.0

1.5

0.9

1.2

, 1.2

12 j

:- rows ()

= 4

N := cols (x)

N= 2

14.
M-l

M-N
I-N

369

N-l

Xj

= 3.6

i = 0 j = 0

mean f x )

=3.6

| 14.17.
!
:' J
median (x) = 1.35
mode ( ) =1.2
var (x) = 14.033
Var (x) = 16.037
stdev (x) = 3.746
Stdev (x) = 4.005

(, )
. , , , .

, , .
. 14.18.
| 14.18. *
-1

x:= ( 1

4)

-1

7
4 J
. . z ) = 4 .444
s t d e v ( x, 5 77) = 29.976
m e d i a n (2) = 2
z

' ~ l 11

m e a n (x

mode ( , z) = 3

14.3.

Ai. -

III.

370

A(t) ( ),
.
, 14.19.
) 14.19.
N:=20
:=0.5
:= ( N - 1)
j := 0 N - 1
Tj := j
:= rnorm ( N , 0 , 1)
KS1 :-cspline (T , )
( t) :- interp (KS1 , , , t)

14.19 N , , .
Td, A(tj).


. 14.19
- (. . 15).

. 1 4 . 1 4 . { 14.19)

14.

371

A ( t ) , ,
. A(t)
. 14.14. .
, , , ,
.
14.20, , .
14.20.
( 14.19)
:=0.02

n := floor
j := 0 .-

= 475

Yj :=(- j)
m := mean ( Y)
D:= v a r ( Y)

D = 0 .785

( n - 2 -)
i =
R(0)

=1.025

(0,) A(t) ( ).
, Y b A(t) .
Y, , , A ( t ) . 2-+i R(j) . 14.15.

:
R (0)
1, ?

III.

372
j:=-H..

-\

-
0.9

,! ';i \.
1 1 ;;\ 7'
it
!i
'\
\
-i M

J-

0.8

0.7

i -

- 4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

. 1 4 . 1 5 . ( 14.1914.20)

14.4.
, Mathcad.

14.4.1.
( L , U ) , 1-=75% ,
N .
^- ( 14.21).
14.21.
N;=50
:- rnorm ( N , 0 , 1)
a := 0 . 2 5

1 - a = 0.75

fa

:=qchisq
,N-1
2

:= qchisq 1
\

,N-1

( N - 1) S t d e v (x)
L :=

L = 0.662

= 60.53

U;=
U=

( N - 1) S t d e v (x)

1.057

14.

373

(i-a)% . stdev
( ) .
, ,
Mathcad.

14.4.2.
,
. .
N
. ,
= .2.
, .
, , ,
; , , 1,
, , , , .
, =.2,
*.2. , , -1 ( ).
( 14.22) (/2)
,
.
t , ( ). .
14.22.

:=50
:= rnorm (, 0 , 1)
:= 0 . 1

1 -= 0.9

:= 0 . 2
mean (x) -
S t d e v (x)

t =-1.883

III.

374
a

= 1.677

:= q t 1

, N- 1
2

| tj < =
, .
( 1, 0), .
. 14.16 -1
, . t ( ) ,
; ( ) . , ,
, .
14.23
, , .

dt(-T,H-l)

dt(T,H-l)

-4

-3

- 1

q.-.
. 1 4 . 1 6 . ( 14.22)

14.23.
( 14.22)
pt ( t , N- 1} - 0 . 0 3 3
<p t (t, N- 1
2

=0
2

14.

375

.
Mathcad
.

Statistics () Mathcad 11.

484

15


, ,
, , (^^. yfxj f(x). f(x),
, :

f(x) (^^, .. f (x i )=y i , i = i . . ..


(. . 15.1)
f ()
, ^

f () ( ) y(Xi),
(Xi,yi). (. . 15.2), ;

f () (, , (x^yi) ,
. f (),
, , (Xi,yi).
(. . 15.3). .

f () . 15.1. , , , .

Mathcad . , Mathcad
,
, -
.

III.

378

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

Q.3

0.3S

0.4

0.45

. 1 5 . 1 .

, , .
(}
( ) F(W). (. . 15.4.1)
(. . 15.4.2). ,
, ,
(. . 5). .

15.1.
- Mathcad , ""
(Xi-Yi) .
(), {)
( x j . -
. Xi , . . A(xi)=y(xi).
(

( ) A ( t ) ,
t.

15.1.1.
, {} .
() , (. 15.2).

15.

379

. 15.2. ( 15.1)

l i n t e r p ( 15.1).

i i n t e r p ( x , y , t) ,
- ;

~~ ;

t ,
.
!
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15.1.
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{t)

2
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4
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5
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, ,
:
1. ( ).
2. l i n t e r p (,, t ) .

ill.

380

3. , l i n terp(x,y,2.4) =3.52 linterp(,,6) =5.9, ,


. 15.2.

, A ( t ) t, .
, A ( t ) (. . ), ( 0 , 6 ) , Mathcad.
, . . ()
(. 15.3) Mathcad, no ,
(. .
).

. 15.3.
( 15.1)

15.1.2. -
, .
, . .
(. 15.4).

i n t e r p ( s , x , y , t) ,
;
,
cspline, pspline lspline;
,
;

15.

381

;
t ,
.

. 15.4. - {. 15.2)

- Mathcad . interp
s. (,).
D ispiine(x,y) ;
pspiine(x,y) ;
cspline(x,y) ;
, .
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15.2.
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2.4

4.3

3.6

s := c s p l i n e ( , )
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5.2

5.9

382

III.

- , (t) =
= t 3 + b ' t 2 +c t+d. a,b,c,d
, yt . ,
A(t) t (. 15.4).

6
/

5
A(t)

43-

/
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\1
1
0

1
1

1
6

. 15.5. -
l s p l i n e

. 15.6. -
(. 15.2)

,
cspiine, pspiine, ispiine, -

15.

383

15.2 cspiine
ispline (. 15.5). , A(t)
(0,6)
.


(- . 15.3). , 15.2, () A(t), (. 15.6).
, .

15.1.3. -
-. - (. . 15.1.2),
-
.
1, 2 (, ). - , -, .
i n t e r p ( s , x , y , t ) ,
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,
;

t ,
;

,
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(i, 2 ).

1, 2 3 .
,
.

III.

384

- 15.3 . 15.7.
; 15,3. -
:= ( 0

:= ( 4 . 1
:= < - 0 . 5

2.4

2.2

4.3
3.3

3.6
4.1

5.2

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7 )

5.5

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3
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\
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z,x

. 15.7. -- ( 15.3)

15.1.4.
(. . 15.1.115,1.3)
, . Mathcad
,
. predict , , .
predict(y,m,n) ,
;

, ;

15.

385

m , ;
.

yi 15.4. , , . 15.8. predict . ,
, . , predict
" " .
I 15.4.
k:=100

Y j

: = e loo

m:=50

j :=0 ..

10

n:=150

:= p r e d i c t ( , m , n)

. 15.8.
( 15.4)

III.

386

. 15.9, .
. , pred i c t ( . 15.8), .
, . 15.5 ( , ).
. 15.9 , .

"

'

\ 15.5.
:= ( 4 . 1

2.4

4.3

3.6

5.2

5.9

k := rows () - 1
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:=10

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i :- 0..

n+

0.

X
0 1 0
predict(, 3 ,a)i

predict(, i

XXX

Y
0

10

is

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. 15.9.
{ 15.5)

15.1.5.
-
z(x,y), , -

15.

387

(,). , (,)
.
, (. . 15.1.2),
, . , NXN .

interp (s, , z, v) ,
;

s ,
cspline, pspline lspline;

NX2, (
);
z NXN;
v ,
, .

, i n t e r p :
l s p l i n e (X, Y), p s p l i n e < X , Y ) ,
cspline(X,Y).

. 15.10
, 15.6, . 15.11.
15.6.

:=

0 ^

10

20

30

40

:=

1.1

1.2

2.1

1.5

1.3

3.3

1.7

1.3

3.7

2.1

2.9

2.5

2.8

1.5

S:= c s p l i n e ( X , Y )

V:=

f 3.7

\ 2.2
k:=30

i n t e r p (S , X, Y, V) = 1 . 6 3 6

III.

388
j := 0 ..
f i
4

i := 0 ..

^ j := interp S. X. Y

40

. 15.10. ( 15.6)

. 15.11. ( 15.6)

15.2.
(Xi.y-i) f ( x ) , -

15.

389

| f (xi) -y |.
,
f (x). .
, , (,
, ) (xi.yi).

15.2.1.
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{XUYL)

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, . . ( X i , y i ) ( ) .
15.9.

. 15.12. ( 15.7 15.8)

Mathcad
. 15.7
15.8. (. 15.12).
line (,) (,)
+-;

390

III.

intercept {x,) ;

slope (x,) ;

15.7.
:= ( 0

:= ( 4.1

2.4

line (x , ) =

6)

4.3

3.6

4
3

5.2

5.9)

f2.829
( 0.414

f (t) := line (x, ) + line (x, ) i t

15.8.
:= ( 0

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2.4

i n t e r c e p t (x, )
s l o p e ( , )
f (t)

4
3

5
4.3

6 )

3.6

5.2

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= 2.829

= 0 . 414

:= i n t e r c e p t ( , )

+ s l o p e ( x , ) t

Mathcad , , -
( 15.9).
medfit(x,y) (,) - +-;

, .

15.9.
( 15.7)
medfit (x, ) =

2.517
0.55

g (t) := medf it (x , ) + medf it (x , ) i t

-
. 15.13.

15.

391

. 1 5 . 1 3 .
( 15.7 15.9)

15.2.2.
Mathcad ,
, .


( 1 ( ^ k- A(x)=a+b-x+c-x2+d-x3+. . .+h-xk (. 15.14). =1 , =2 , =
. . , <5.

-
( k + i ) .

Mathcad regress (. . 15.1.2).

regress(,,) ;
D interp(s,x,y, t) ;

s=regress(x,y,);

,
;
;

III.

392

( );
t .
!
r e g r e s s i n t e r p .

. 15.14.
( 15.10 )


15.10.
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( , ,
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15.

393

loess (x,, span)


;

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2.4

4.3

5.2

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,
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1

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A(t)

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t,x

. 15.15. ( 15.11)

394

III.


(. . 15.1.5) Mathcad z^jfx^Yj) , .

, .

regress (x,z, k) ;

loess (, z, span)
;

i n t e r p ( s , x , z , v ) ,
;

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loess regress;

NX2, ( );
z N;
span , ;
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v ,
, .
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15.12
. 15.16.
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(. 15.6) (. . 15.10)
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15.12.

10 20 30 40 0

10 20 30 40 0

10 20 30 40 0

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3

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10 20 30 40

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1.11.21

395

2 . 1 1 . 5 1 . 3 3 . 3 5

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1.33

3 . 7 2 . 1 2 . 9 1 . 5 2

2.52.84!

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i := ..

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s,x,z,

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( z ,
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15.2.3.
, Mathcad . , , ,
,,. , ,
.
,
-

396

III.

.
,,.

expf i t (x,y,g) f {) =a'ebx+c;

i g s f i t ( x , y , g ) f <)=/(1+1>~);

sinf i t (x,y,g) f () =a-sin (x+b) +c;

pwfit(x,y,g) f(x)=ax b +c;

logfit (x,y,g)

f (x) --ln (+) +;


infit(x,y} f (x}=a-ln(x)+b;

;
g , , , .
(

, Mathcad,
( ) , .

() 15.13 . 15.17.

,,,
f ().
15.13.
:=(0

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2
2.4

4
3

6)

4.3

3.6

g :=
:= expf it ( , , )
,^0 .111
=

0.544
3.099

f (t) :=CQ exp(ci t) + C2

5.2

5.9)

15.

397

() , ,
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1

>

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. 15.17. ( 15.13)

15.2.4.
Mathcad
Cif1<x)+c2f2(x) + . . . , fi(x) , a Ci . , ,
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( 15.14 15.15), , Mathcad Resources.
U n f i t (x,y,F)
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genfit{x,y,g,G} ,
;

,
;

;
F(X) ;
g N;

III.

398

Gfx,o N+I,
N
.
15.14.
: = (0

:= ( 4 . 1

2 . 4

4 . 3

3 . 6

5 . 2

5 . 9

F{x) :=

:- l i n f i t ( , , F)
3.957

0 . 8 5 4

5 . 6 0 5 10*
f ( ) :=

+ 2

15.15.
:=(0 1 2 3 4 5 6 )
:= ( 4 . 1

2.4

4.3

3.6

5.2

5.9
/


0.1 "

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Crx

:= genf it (, , g , G)
3.163
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0.057
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f () := 0 -

15.3.
,
y ( x i ) .

15.

399

y(xi),
. () , , .
(smoothing)
(. . 15.2).
,
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, .
.
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15.3.1.
Mathcad , .
medsmooth(y,b) " ";
ksmooth(x,y,b) ;
I supsmooth(x,y) , ;
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Mathcad Smoothing (),
Statistics ()..

. 15.16

III.

400

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2
2.4

3
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4
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16. -

447

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. 16.52. () ()

Transparency ()
(. 16.53);

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. 16.53. 40% () 80% ()

IV.

448

Lighting
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( . 16.54 ),
.
3

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30-

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. 16.55.


. ,
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16. -

449

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, (. . 16.3.7).
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. 16.57.

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IV.

16.5.
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4.
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(. 16.59).
6. .
7. , , Save As ( ) Animate
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16. -

451

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. 1 6 . 5 8 .

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Mathcad. , Windows
, Windows, . ,
, , .

. 1 6 . 5 9 .

452

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IV.


() . Options () Animate ().

16.6. -
- - .
Mathcad , Mathcad , .
Mathcad .

.

16.6.1.
:
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WRITEPRN{ "f i i e " ) ;
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;
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(

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Mathcad.

16.516.7. 16.5 16.7 , ,


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1 0
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99

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16. -

453

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454

IV.

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Mathcad.

16.816.10. , identity, .
, 16.8, . 16.62.
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I 16.9.
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G := i d e n t i t y ( 1 0 0 )

16. -

455

:= i d e n t i t y (100)
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. 16.62. ,
16.8

16.6.3.
Mathcad 2001 , .wav:
G READWAV(" f i i e " ) ;

WRITEWAV( " f i l e " ,s,b) ;

GETWAviNFopfiie") ;
f i l e ;
s , ;
.

17



Mathcad. , Mathcad , , .
, Mathcad
, .
Mathcad (. . 2). , , ,
Mathcad (. . 17.1),
(. . 17.2),
(. . 17.3). ,
,
Mathcad (. . 17.4), , (. . 17.5).

17.1.
Mathcad -:
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Web- , ,
;
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Mathcad;
Mathcad, ,
Mathcad;

IV.

458

,
( Microsoft Word Microsoft PowerPoint).

17.1.1.
, Mathcad , , , (. 17.1, ):

(text region);

, (math region);

(graphics region);
(component);
(object).
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IUfiitled:11
j

Frjimat loots Symboc


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() :=/^

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. 1 7 . 1 . Mathcad

17.

459

.
,

(locked and highlighted area);


(header, footer);

(page break), (styles)


(margins);

(references);

(hyperlinks);

(pictures).

17.1.2.

Mathcad.



, . (, . 17.1 ,
). Insert (), , , ,
.

(, . 2, . 15
. .).
, Insert /
Component ( / ), ,
, Mathcad, <Ctrl>+<V>.


Mathcad:
1. . ,
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IV.

460

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17.

461


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Mathcad, .


Mathcad,
, ,
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1. (. 17.3).
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,
.

- , , Bring to Front ( )
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<Del> <BackSpace>,
, ,
.

IV.

462
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. 17.3.

Mathcad, , , , , . , , (. . 2).

17.1,3.
Mathcad .


,
Properties (), Format (). Properties () Highlight Region ( ) (. 17.4). ,
(, . 17.4, ).
Highlight Region ( )
Choose Color ( ),
. . 17.4.

17.

463

Piopeilies

Display I Calculation j Protect |


Background

Show IJofder

lag

* Display at Qriginaf Size

OK

. 1 7 . 4 .

Mathcad Resources .
- , Properties ().

, Format / Color / Background ( / / ) .


[

tm

I
1

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. 1 7 . 5 . () ()


, (. 17.5).
Show Border ( -

IV,

464

) Properties (). ( . 17.5).

, Calculations ()
Properties () (. . 3). (. 17.6).

. 17.6.

17.1.4.
Mathcad (area).
,
, (region).
, . ,
.
:

, , .

17.

465

Mathcad
, .


,
Insert / Area ( /
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. 17.7.

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. 17.8.

0.2 0.4 0.6

, ( )

IV.

466

.
<Del>.
, (. 17.8).


, , .
Format / Area / Collapse ( / /
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: ,
(. 17.9),
Format / Area / Expand ( / / ).

.
Mathcad Professional

Symbolics \

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. 17.9.


, , . . . Format / Area / Lock ( / / ). -

17.

467

(. 17.10) .

, (Password)
, , , .

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a n - c o s \ * x)

Reentei password:

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x:=O,0.001-

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P Show lock limesfemp

. 17.10.

,
Format / Area / Unlock ( / / ). , (. 17.11).
, .
. 17.11 , Lock Area ( )
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Lock Area Collapse when locked (
), .
5rip"06 1500".05 2001

10
()

xf

:= 5

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. 17.11.

Cancel

1
1

IV.

468

17.2.
Formatting (). .
, (. . 17.2.1).

Formatting () ( . 17.12).
, , . ,
.
[17 meet]
sw insert "firmat look SvmboBcs Wn
i dow Help
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/ !

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. 1 7 . 1 2 .

(, , ) Mathcad
,
. , , Mathcad.

469

17.

17.2.1.

:
;

Formatting
() (. 17.13), Text
Format ( ) (. 17.14). ,
Text () Format ()
Font () .
, :

Font () Text Format ( );

Size () Text Format ( ) ( (. 17.13) );


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3.
4.
5.

, : X U
, : ,
, :

4 8

. 17.13.

IV.

470

Font Style ( ),

Text Format ( ),
:

Bold ();
Italic ();
Underlined ().

Strikeout () Text Format;

Color () Text Format;

Position () Text Format:


Superscript ( );
Subscript ( ).
. 17.13.

Text Format

1.

2.

,
, 4!>>,.,1_.|
.

# ,

. 17.14. Text Format

( )
( ), ( );


Formatting ();

17.

471

\\ \
(. 17.15):

Paragraph Format ( ), Paragraph () Format ()


(. 17.16).


.
Mathcad.
*Mathcad-tUntitled:1]
|a] File Edit View Insert Format Tools Symbolics Window Help
D

|jArial

(Normal

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. [



1.
2.

. 17.15.

|6 3 984

IV.

472

. 1 7 . 1 6 . Paragraph Format

17.2.2.
. , ;. . ,
, .
,
( , . .
).
| Eile Edit View Insert FQimat Tools Symbolics Window

[Variables

_^j[Coii[ier New

f (X

f
. 1 7 . 1 7 . ,


Formatting (). , , .

17.

473

(,
) (. 17.17, 17.18). ,
, . , . 17.17
, Variables (),
. 17.18 Constants ().

, Formatting ().
' Edit View Insert format loois Symboiics Window t

i
Constants

f (x)

New

2
x

sir

. 1 7 . 1 8 . ,


.
, , (. . 17.12).



, Format Style
() Equation ().
(. 17.19). Text Style ( )
Modify () Define Style
( ) ,
.
Define Style ( ) Description ().

474

IV.

Mathcad

Dewriphen
Foni Arial.Sue 10 Left Indent 0 CO". Right Indent 0.00" .Left
. 17.19.


, . . (. 17.20):
1. .
2. Format / Equation ( / ).
3. Equation Format ( )
Style Name (
. 17.20).
4. - ,
, , Modify ().

5. .

.
!
, , ! ,
, .
. 17.21, Mathcad.

17.

475

, , .
CMathcad-[UntiHed:1|
i] 0e ^iew Inset! Fsrmat loots Symboc
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Normal

x|:= 10

E|U-er1
OK
Cancel
. 1 7 . 2 0 .

:= 10

!
Ths
i variable or function
s
i not deined ebove

- 10
. 1 7 . 2 1 . Mathcad

17.3.
Mathcad ,

.

17.3.1.
Page Setup ( ) (. 17.22), -

IV.

476

File (). :
Size ( )
Source ( )
Orientation ()
Portrait ()
Landscape ()
Margins ()
Left ()

( )

Right ()

Bottom ( )

:-Orientation

, - {) -

J <* Portrait,
' f* landscape I j Jop

J25 4MM

gotttm: j 25,4

" Print single page j ^ d ^


Cancel

grinw.

. 1 7 . 2 2 .

- , . ,
Page Setup ( ) , Mathcad.

17.

477

17.3.2.
, . :
1. Headers/Footers () View ().
2. Headers/Footers
(), . 17.23, : Header
( ) Footer ( ).

Header
Left

Center

If}

" Use ful width fra each section


Opto
i ns', tart et page nunAe
i i 11 -H

fiiffeient head? and footer


on litsi page
- -

i F
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OK

me

Header
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j Cancel

. 17.23.

3. , ,
: , .
4. , ,
(, ,
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,
.
5. . 34 .

.
, , ,
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. 17.24.

IV.

478

f #*Mathcad Professional [16.23] ." :-'

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: 20 53

f (x) : - x s i n (!

f ( I ) - 0.841
f (2) = 3.637

. 17.24.

, . ,
.
File Name {f) { );
File Path {p} ( );
Page Number {n} ( );
Number of Pages {nn} ( );
Date Last Saved {fd} ( );
Time Last Saved {ft} ( );
Date {d} ( );
Time {t} ( ).

Start at
page number ( ) Headers/Footers ().

17.3.3.

(settings). Mathcad
(. . " ". 2).

17.

479

:
;
;

;
;
;
;
;
;
.

17.4.
Mathcad, - , Mathcad , . ,
, Mathcad.
, .

17.4.1.
, , Mathcad (tag). :
1. , ,
.
2. Properties ().
3. Properties () Display ().
4. Tag () , (. 17.25).
5. .

17.4.2.
.
, , ( ) ,
. ;
1. ,
.

IV.

480

*
Display [Text | Protect)
Background
-"--"

Result! 1

f (1)

= 1

- 1.

I
j

; * Highlight Region

_ __
f (2)

' i

__ j

Tag

f Showgoider

-.-I-. . . .

OK

. 1 7 . 2 5 .

2. Insert () Hyperlink ().


3. Edit Hyperlink ( ), Link to file or URL ( URL (Universal Resource Locator, )) ,
, ()
(tagename) (filename) f i l e name #tagname (. J7.26).
4. , , .
5. .

, , .

,
, , . . I7.25.mcd. , , , Insert/ Hyperlink
(/ ). Edit Hyperlink ( ), (. . 17.26).
Remove Link ( ).
Mathcad, ( HTML-),
, . URL Edit Hyperlink
( ).

17.

481

. 1 7 . 2 6 .

17.4.3.
, , (reference). ,
,
. ,
.

,
.

.

Insert / Reference
( / ) Insert Reference (
) -. ,
. 17.27, f(x),
, .
-, f (1) .

17.5.
Mathcad 11 , , . Mathcad 11
.

482

IV.

Insert Reference
ngiti iffipnce t? Wg

(1)

. 1 7 . 2 7 .

:
1. ,
Mathcad.
2. Matrix () , .
3.
(. 17.28).

Picture

()

TI

Matrix

()

rocketl r r

. 1 7 . 2 8 .

4. .
, . 17.28,
rocket I .gif.
.

17.

483

- , .
, .

, , Picture ()
(. 17.29). , , , ,
. . Picture () .
.

:[?~.|95~";"~

"rocketl"
. 17.29. Picture


Mathcad 2001 2001 i

,
, . . (higher speed calculation). , o-in(O) (. . 3.3.6).

Web-, Techexplorer Hypermedia Browser IBM (. . 2.1.3).

,
, (. . /7.4).

:
, ,
(. . 10.10).
, ,
(. . 15.2.315.2.4).
lookup- .
(. . 16.6.3).

(.
. 14.2.1).

. 4.3.1).

(.

, (. . 17.1).
,
Picture () (. . 17.5).

486

, (. . 1.4 17.6).
Mathcad 200li
Windows XP.

Mathcad 200li Radau,


(. . 11.5.2).



2.1.

File
()

New

<Ctrl>+<N>

Open

<Ctrl>+<0>

Close

<Ctrl>+<W>

Save

<Ctrl>+<S>

Save As

Save As Web
Page


Web-



HTML

Page Setup

Print Preview

17 98-1

488

2.1. ()

Edit
()

Print

<Ctrl>+<P>

Send

Exit


Mathcad

Undo

<Ctrl>+<Z>

Redo

<Ctrl>+<Y>

Cut

<Ctrl>+<X>

Copy

<Ctrl>+<C>

Paste

<Ctrl>+<V>

Paste Special

Delete

<Ctrl>+<D>

Select All

<Ctrl>+<A>

Find

<Ctrl>+<F>

Replace

<Ctrl>+<H>

Go to Page

Links


OLE

489
2.1. ()

View
()

Insert
()

Object


OLE

Toolbars

Ruler

Status Bar

Headers/
Footers

Regions

Refresh

Zoom

Graph

( )

Matrix

<Ctrl>+<M>

Function

<Ctrl>+<E>

Unit

<Ctrl>+<U>

Picture

<Ctrl>+<T>

Area

Page Break

<Ctrl>+<R>

490

2.1. ()

Format
()

Math Region

<Ctrl>+
+<Shift>+<A>

Text Region

<">

Component

Data

Control

Object

Reference

Hyperlink

Equation

Result

Text

Paragraph

Tabs

Style

<Ctrl>+<K>

491

2.1. ()

Tools
()

Properties

Graph

Color

Area

Separate Regions

Align Regions

Repaginate
Now

Spelling

Animation

Protect
Worksheet

Calculate

Optimize

Disable
Evabion

. / .

Trace Error

Worksheet
Options

Preferences

<F9>

492

2
2.1. ()

Symbolics
()

Evaluate

Simplify

Expand

Factor

Collect

Polynomial
Coefficients

Variable

Matrix

Transform

Evaluation
Style

Cascade

Tile
Horizontal

Tile Vertical

(
)

Window
()

493
2.1. ()

Help
()

Mathcad Help

What's This?

Developer's
Reference

Author's
Reference

Tutorials

QuickSheets

Reference
Tables

E-Books

User's Forum

Mathcad

Mathcad.com

Mathcad .com

Mathcad

Mathcad
Update

Mathcad

MathSoft

Mathcad 11

About
Mathcad


Mathcad

494

2.2. Math ()

Calculator Toolbar

Graph Toolbar

Matrix Toolbar

Evaluation

Calculus

Boolean

Programming

Greek Symbols Toolbar

Symbolic Keyword Toolbar

2.3. Calculator ()

Sin

Cos

Tan

Ln

Log

n!

<!>

<1>, <i >

Ixl

<Shift>+<\>

<\>

V"

<Ctrl>+<\>

ex

n-

1/x

495
2.3. ()

<Ctrl>+<Shift>+<P>

<Ctrl>+<Shift>+<+>


0 , 1 , 2 , . . . ,

0...9
("")
(""

2.4. Graph ()

XY Plot

XY ()

<Shift>+<2>

Zoom

Trace

Polar Plot

<Ctrl>+<7>

Surface Plot

<Ctrl>+<2>

Contour Plot

<Ctrl>+<5>

3D Bar Plot

Vector Field Plot

3D Scatter Plot

496

2
2.5. Matrix ()

Matrix or Vector

<Ctrl>+<M>

Subscript

<[>

Inverse

Determinant

Vectorize

Matrix Column

Matrix Transpose

Range Variable

Cross Product

<Ctrl>+<8>

Dot Product

<*>

Vector Sum

<Ctrl>+<4>

Picture

<Ctrl>+<T>

<|><Shift>+<\>

<Ctrl>+<6>

2.6. Evaluation ()

Evaluate Numerically =

("")

<=>

Definition :=

<:>

Global Definition =

<~>

Evaluate Symbolically -

Symbolic Keyword
Evaluation >

Prefix Operator fx

""

Postfix Operator xf

""

Infix Operator xfy

""

Tree Operator xfy

""

<Ctrl>+<Shift>+<.>

497
2.7. Calculus ()

Derivative

Nth Derivative

n-

Infinity

<Ctrl>+<Shift>+<Z>

Definite Integral

<&>

Summation

<Ctrl>+<Shift

Iterated product

<Ctrl>+<Shift

Indefinite Integral

Summation with range


variables

<Ctrl>+<4>

Iterated product with


range variables

<Ctrl>+<3>

Two-sided limit

<Ctrl>+<L>

Left-sided limit

<Ctrl>+<A>

Right-sided limit

<Ctrl>+<B>

2.8, Boolean ( )

= equal

<Ctrl>+<=>

< less than

> greater than

< less than or equal

<Ctrl>+<9>

> greater than or equal

<Ctrl>+<0>

not equal to

<Ctrl>+<3>

-,Not

<Ctrl>+<Shift>+<1>

And

<Ctrl>+<Shift>+<7>

vOr

<Ctrl>+<Shift>+<6>

Exclusive or

<Ctrl>+<Shift>+<5>

498

2
2.9. Controls ( )

Check Box

Radio Button

Push Button

Slider

Text Box

List Box


3.1.

:-



<Ctr!>+<=>

( )
<*>

<Ctrl>+<8>

/ *

</>

500

3.1. ()

<\>

<Ctrl>+<\>

n-

()

( )

<[>

'

<1>+<1>

1-1

<Shift>+<\>

<Ctrl>+<4>

"1

<~>+n

<ctn> + <->

<Ctrl>+<6>

, ,
, .
3.2.

<Shift>+<7>

7.1

7.1,3

da

501

3.2. ()

7.2

n-

7,2

<Ctrl>+<Shift >+<4>

3.2.2

<Ctrl>+<4>

<Ctrl>+<Shift >+<3>

<Ctr!>+<3>

<Ctrl>+<L>

3.2.2

<Ctrl>+<A>

3.2.2

<Ctrl>+<B>

3.2.2

da

3.2.2

3.2.2

11

lim

'

lim
->

..

10.45

Ai(x)

15.1.3

angle fx,y)

10.4

502

3
.. ()

APPENDPRN(file)

f i l e

16.6.1

arg(z>

10.2

atan2{x,y)

,
(,)

10.4

Augment
(,,,.

,,,...

9.2.2

bei(n,x)
ber{,}

15.1.4

Bi(x)

15.1.3

b s p l i n e (, , u, n)

15.1.3

n
Bulstoer
(,tO,tl,M,D)

. rkfixed

11.3

bulstoer
(,tO,tl,
acc,D,k,s)

.rkadapt




-
(
)

11.3

Bvalfit
(zl,z2,xO,xl,
xf,D,loadl,
Ioad2,score)

zl,z2

12.1.4


x l
xf
D(x,y)

503
.. ()

l o a d ! (xO, z), Ioad2 ( x l , z ) ,



s c o r e { x f , )
, xf

ceil(x)

10.8

cfft(y)

(
)

15.4.1

cholesky(A)

9.5.1

cols(A)

9.2.3

concat(Sl,S2,

s i , S2,...

10.7

condl(A)


( , L 2 , ,)

9.2.6

cos(z)

10.4

cosh(z)

cot(z)

coth(z)

csort(A,i)

CFFT{y)

cond2(A)
conde(A}
condi(A)

10,5

i
CreaceMesh
{F,sO,sl,
to,tl,sgr,
tgr,fmap)

F ( s , t )
t O . t l !
sO.sl s
t g r , s g r
t s

f m a p

10.4

10.5


,
- , -
z-

, F

9.2.4

9.2.1

504

.. ()

ateSpace(F[,tO,t
1,

F ( t )

9.2.1

tgr,fmapj)

t g r
t

,
-,

z-
, F

t O , t l t

fmap
CSC [Z)

10.4

csch(z)

10.5

csgn(z)

10.2

cspline(x,)

x,y

15.1.2

c y l 2 x y z ( r , 0 , z)

r,6,z

10.10

D*

14.1.4

(x,par)

par
*

diag(v)

9.2.1

eigenvals(A)

9.4

eigenvec

9.4

9.4

,
eigenvecs(A)

erf()

14.1.1

erfc(x)

14.1.1

error(S)

10.7

505
.. ()

(z)

10.3

expfit(x,y,g)

x,y

a-ebx+c

15.2.3

( )

15.4.1

,,

10.6

xl,x2,...


()
(),
Given

8.38.4

floor(x)

10.8

Gamma()

10.6

x,y

15.2.4

9.2.1

g
,,
fft(y)
FFT(y)

fhyper(a,b,c,x)

Find

(xl,x2,...

, -1<<1

Gamma (a, }
genf i t (, , g , G)

G (, )

,

geninv(A)

genvals(,)

9.4

genvecs(,)

9.4

,
. .

8.3

Given

506

3
.. ()

heaviside
step(x)

10.9

Her(n,x)

10.6

n
10 (x)
Ilfx)
In(m,x)

10.1.2

ibeta(a,x,y)

10.6


identity(N)

icfft(v)
ICFFT(v)

v
-

(
)

15.4.1

i f fcond,x,y)

cond

, , ,
()

10.9

ifft(v)

v
-

15.4.1

IFFT(v)
lsString(x)

1,
, 0

10.7

iwave(v)

V
-

15.4.2

Im(z)

10.2

interp(s,x,y,t}

s
,

15.1.2

b +-

15.2.1

9.2.1

t
intercept(x,y}

507
.. ()

J0(x)

,
-

10.1.1

10.6

10.1.5

, -

10.1.2

10.9

15.3.1

10.6

()
Jn(,)
Jac(n,a,b,x)

a,b
n
js{n,x)

n
x

0()
1{)
Kn(m, x)
Kronecker
delta(x,y)
ksmooth{x,y,b)


Lag(n,x)


last(v}

9.2.3

Leg(n,x)

10.6


length(v)

9.2.3

line(x,y)

15.2.1

U n f i t (x,y,F)

15.2.4

15.1.1


/ ( 1 + - )

15.2.3

F ( x )
linterp(x,y,t)

,
t

lgsfit(x,y,g)

,
g
,,

508

.. ()

ln(z)

10.3

lnfit(x,y)

x,y

a-ln (x) +b

15.2.3

loess(x,,span)

x,y



(
i n t e r p )

15.2.2

span

log(z)

10.3

l o g ( z , b)

z ~

z b

10.3

logfit(x,,g)

15.2.3

,,

Isolve{A,b)

-ln (+) +

()

9.3

Ispline(x,y)

15.1.2

lu(A)

LU-

9.5.3

matrix(M,N,f)


f(i,j)

9.2.1

f (i,j )
Maximize
(f,xl

mhyper(a,b,x)

f(xl,...)
xl,...

f
(


Given)

8.6

10.6

509
.. ()

Minerr
(xl,x2,.

x l , x 2 , , . .


, Given

8.5

f ( x l , . . .)

,
f (
Given)

8.6

xl,...


" "

15.3.1

12.4.1

14.1.4

( , L2,
, )

9.2.5

num2str(z \

10.7

Odesolve
(t,tl[.step]



,
Given

11.1.1,
11.2

Minimize
(f,xl

medsmooth(y,b)

Multigrid
(F,ncycle)

F
n c y c l e (2)

n* (M,par)

p a r *

norml(A)
norm2(A)
norme(A)
normi(A)

tl


step

510

.. ()

* (,)

p a r *

14.1.4

pdesolve{u, x,
xrange, t,
trange, [xpts]
[tpts]))


(x,t),

( )

13.3.1

xrange

t r a n g e
xpts

t p t s

pol2xy(r,0)

, 0

10.10

polyroots (v)

v ,

8.2

predict(y,m,n)

15.1.4

m ,


pspline(x,y)

15.1.2

pw f i t f x,,g)

,
g
,,

a-xb+c

15.2.3

q* (p,par)

(,
) *

14.1.4

p a r *

511
.. ()

qr(A)

QR-

9.5.2

Radau
(,tO,tl,M,D)

. rkf ixed




RADAUS

11.5.2

Radau
(yO,tO,tl,M,D)

. rkf ixed




RADAUS
(

11.5.2

rank(A)

9.2.7

Re(z)

10.2

READ*(file)

f i l e

15.6

regress(x,y,k)

(
i n t e r p )

15.2.2

12.4.1,
12.4.3

Relax
(a,b,c,d,e,P,
v, r j a c )

a,b,c,d,e

rjac

(0...1)
reverse(v)

9.2.4

Rkadapt
(yO,tO,tl,

11.3

acc,D,k,s)

( t O . t l )



- (


>{ t , y )

512

.. ()

.rkfixed

11.3

yO

11.1.2,
11.3

8.1

k

s

Rkadapt
(yO,tO,tl,M,D)

rkfixed
{yO,tO,tl,M,D)

(tO.tl)

D(t,y)
,

root
(f(x, . . . ) , x [ a , b l }

n)

f ( , . . .}

{,)

round(x,

10.8




rows(A)

9.2.3

rref(A)

9.2.1

rsort(A,i)


i -

9.2.4

12.1,3

i
sbval
(z,xO,xl,D,
load,score)

z


x l

513
.. ()

D ( X , )

10.7

10.4

l o a d ( x O , z )
score(xl,y)
,

search(S,Subs,m)

S
Sub
m

sec t z j

s e c h (z)

sign(x)

10.9

signumfz}

10.2

s i n (z)

sinh(z)

sinfit(x,y,g)

x , y

10.5

z/ z

g
a.b.c

10.4

10.5


f (x) =a-sin (x+b) +

15.2.3

sine(z)

Sinc-

10.11

slope(x,y)

15.2.1

sort(v)

9.2.4

sph2xyz (r, G, !

,8,

10.10

stack(A,B,G,.

,,,...

9.2.2

514

3
.. ()

Stiffb

CM. rkf ixed

11.5.2




(
)

11.5.2

. Stiffb

11.5.2

. stiffb




(

)

11.5.2

str2num(S)

10.7

str2vec{S)


ASCII-

10.7

strlen(S)

10.7

(yO,tO,tl
M,D, J )

J ( t , y )

D(t,y)
stiffb

Stiffr

(yO,tO,tl
acc,D,J,k,s\

(yO,tO,tl
M,D,J)

stiffr
(yO,tO,tl,acc,
D,J,k,s)

.rkadapt
J ( t , y )

D(t,y)

ir,jr-cTpoKaMH

9.2.2

i c , j c

substr{S,m,n)

,
S
,
m S

10.7

supsmooth(x,y)

15.3.1

submatrix(A,ir,jr,
ic,jc)


i r , j r

515
.. ()

svd(A)

9.5.4

svds(A)

9.5.4

tan(z)

10.4

tanh(z)

10.5

Tcheb(n,x}

10.6

tr(A)

9.1.8

trunc(x)

10.8

Ucheb(n,x)

10.6


vec2str(v)

v ASCII-

10.7

wave(y)

15.4.2

WRITE*(file)

f i l e

16.6

xy2pol(x,y)

10.10

xyz2cyl(x,y,z)

x,y,z

10.10

xyz2sph(x,y,z)

x,y,z

10.10

YO(x)

, > 0

, m-

10.1.1

10.1.5

Yl(x)
Yn(m, x)
ys(n,x)

516
(

, ,
*. ,
, ,
. ,
.


4.1.


A "Find" or
"Minerr" must
be preceded by
a
matching
"Given"

F i n d M i n err

G i v e n

F i n d
M i n e r r

Given

,

F i n d M i n e r r , Given

All evaluations
resulted
in
either an error
or a complex
result

Mathcad

Arguments in
function definitions must be
names

At least one
limit
must
be infinity

<Ctrl>+<Shift>+<Z>.

, ,

518

4
4.1. ()

only
an

-th order derivative when


n=0,1..5.

n- ,

=0,1..5


: 0, 1,
2,...5.

Can't evaluate
this
function
when its argument less than
or equal to
zero

XY-
,

,
, ,

Can't converge
to a solution

( )

,

(
).

Can
evaluate


(
).

TOL, . . .

, (

)
Can't
define
the same variable more than
once in the
same expression

:
:=
,

Can't
determine
what
units the result
of this operation
should
have

,
,
,

519

4.1. ()

Can't divide by
zero

Could not find


a solution

{ )

. "Can't converge to a solution"

Can't find the


data file you're
trying to use

Can't
have
anything with
units or dimensions here

-,

:
- ;
- ;
- .
,
UnitsOf ()

Can't
have
more than one
array in a contour plot


, . .

Can't perform
this operation
on the entire
array at once.
Try using "vectorize" to perform it element
by element


. ,

Can't plot this


many points


, 150 000

18 3 9S4

520

4
4.1. ()

Can't put a ":="


inside a solve
block

:="

Can't raise an
expression
having units to
a
complex
power

UnitsOf ()

Can't solve a
system having
this
many
equations

Mathcad

" " (. 8)

Can't
understand
something in this
data file

,

READ
READ*,

ASCII-


, READ*

, ,

Can't
understand the name
of this function

,
, 6()

,
Mathcad

Can't
understand the way
this range van1able is defined

, :

Rvar := n l .. 2
Rvar := n l , n 2 ..

521
4.1. ()

Can't understand this number

, ,

: . 4 5 2 .

Can't use a
range variable
in a solve block

Cannot evaluate this accurately at one or


more of the
values
you
specified

Cross product
is defined only
for
vectors
having exactly
three elements

. (. 9)

Can't evaluate
this expression. It may
have resulted
in an overflow
or an infinite
loop

Degree of the
polynomial
must be between 1 and
99.


1 99

,
,

2
99

Dimensions
must be >4

>4



4 4

522

4
4.1. ()

End of file

,
10 ,
i : =1...100
xi : =READ* ( f i l e ) ,

End
points
cannot be the
same

,
,

Equation
large

too

point

Found a singularity
while
evaluating this
expression.
You may be
dividing
by
zero

. ,

Found a number with


a
magnitude
greater
than
1307

(417

Illegal context.
Press <F1> for
help

<F1>,

Illegal
dimensions

, ,

"=",

Integer
too
large/ Integer
too small

,

<F1>

Floating
error

,
; ,

523
4.1. ()

Invalid format

Live symbolics
not available

Must

be <=
10000

<=10000

Must

be >~
10-16

,

<F1>
. . 5

Must be string

. . 10

Must be between two lock


regions

. . 16.

Must be function

Must be
creasing

in-


=,

Must be less
than the number of data
points

Must be positive


XY-

.

Must be real


,
,

524

4
4.1. ()

Must be real
scalar

Must be real
vector

.

- ,

Must be square

No
solution
found

,
, , e i g e n v a l s e i g e n v e c


,
<F1>, .
.
. "Can't
solution"

converge

to

Not
enough
memory
for
this operation


(Mathead
8
),
-
, ,

Singular matrix

,
.
,

(. . 9)

The expression
to the left of
the equal sign
cannot
be
defined

-,


:
- ;
-
;
- ;
- :
f(x,y)

525
4.1. ()

The number of
rows
and/or
columns
in
these arrays do
not match

,
.
,

(. . 9.1)

The units in
this expression
do not match

,

,

There is an
extra comma in
this expression


, :






. ,

4,000
,
4000

This
expression is incomplete. You must
fill
in
the
placeholders

This
expression is incomplete. You must
provide
an
operator

526

4
4.1. ()

This function
has too many
arguments

This function is
undefined
at
one or more of
the points you
specified

, - 3 ! - ,
in{0), . .

This function
needs
more
arguments

, ,


<F1>,

;

This operation
can only be
performed on a
function


<F1>

This operation
can only be
performed on
an array. It
can't be performed on a
number

This operation
can only be
performed on a
number or an
array

, ,
.

,


, ,

527
4.1. ()

This operation
can only be
performed on a
string

This subscript
is too large

This
value
must
be
a matrix

This
value
must be a
vector. It can
be neither a
matrix nor a
scalar


, (
).

This
value
must be an
integer greater
than 1

>1


<F1>

This variable or
function is not
defined above

,
. ,
.

,
.
, ,

528

4
4.1. ()

Underflow

( )

- ,


, ,

,
.
,
. ,
,

,

Value of subscript or superscript is too big


(or too small)
for this array

This is not a
scalar. Press
<F1> for help

<F1>,

-
,

You have one


solve
block
inside another.
Every "Given"
must have a
matching
"Find" or "Minerr".

.
Given

Find
M i n e r r

G i v e n
F i n d
M i n e r r .

You interrupted
calculation. To
resume, click
here
and
choose "Calculate" from the
"Math" menu


Calculate
Math


<Esc>.
,

Math / Calculate ( /

529
4.1, ()


Argument too
large (Integer
too large in
context,
Object
too
large)

,
10x10

Discarding
large result

Expecting
array or list

Expression
contains nonsymbolic operators

Floats
handled

not

Factor

Illegal function
syntax

, (f)(x)

Invalid
arguments

, ,
,

Symbolics /
Simplify ( / )

530

4
4.1. ()

Invalid range

No
answer
found; stack
limit reached

No
answer
found

No closed form
found for

Syntax error


3D Bar Plot 416
3D Scatter Plot 416

area 464
.:i-r.v 103

boundary value problem 300


break 159
built-in constants 96
button 119,498
- 383

Check Box 119, 498


component 458
condition number 234
context menu 14
continue 160
Contour Plot 416
control 119
crosshair 42
CTOL 97, 195
cumulative probability 351
CWD97

decimal format 115


decimal notation 94, 114
determinant 218

editing lines 42
eigenvalue 309
engineering format 114, 116
error 161
exponential notation 94, 114
exponential threshold 114
extra math symbols 82

for 158
fraction format 116

general format 115


graph area 458

H
handle 461
help 29
higher speed calculation 91, 485

I
if 156, 157
imaginary unit 95
insertion line 42

Level of accuracy 116


List Box 119,498
live symbolic evaluation 125
Local Definition 157

532

math area 458


math region 42
menu bar 14
Microsoft Word 6

N
nested array 111
norm 233
notation 94, 114
numerical evaluation 69

object 458
OLE 53
on error 161
ORIGIN 97, 104, 232
otherwise 156, 157

placeholder 42
Polar Plot 416
pop-up menu 14
PRNPRECISION 97
Push Button 119,498

Q
QR- 241

R
Radio Button 119,498
range variable 103
rank 235
reference 481
region 464
Resource Center 29
return 160
RNCOLWIDTH 97
ruler 23

scientific format 115


scientific notation 94
settings 478
SI 102
singular value decomposition 243
Slider 119
smoothing 399
status line 14
Surface Plot 416
symbolic evaluation 69

tag 479
template 36
text area 458
Text Box 119,498
text insertion point 42
text region 51
TOL 188
toolbars 14
trace 221, 418
trailing zero 114
transpose 216

underline 42

V
Vector Field Plot 416

w
while 158
worksheet 8, 14, 35
WYSIWYG 5

X
XY Plot 416

zoom 26

533

470
285, 290
85, 90
333
373
378
250

286
285, 290
289
276
283

79, 97
245
287, 289
466
406

- 409
103
223
220
350
230
113
222
160
339
95, 118
459
11, 13
96
350
462
:
112
471
192, 268
67, 69

- 254
318
252
254
54, 479
373
359, 432
80
181
318

227
226
48

95, 118
94, 114
115
282
363

317
139, 174
179
373
35
41
40
40
61
60
35
39
478
36
116

99
99
102

534

434

267, 273
267
206
59
466
250
464
Z- 145

71
103
116
114
352
139
169
173
167
172
168,
172,174
173
173, 174
372
377
378
380

48
119
366
477
75
95, 249
459
260
460

186
365, 366
252, 504
252, 503, 504
366
325
299
303
- 309
314
259
22
42

145
429
23
206

24, 42, 43, 219, 459


42, 51
154, 155
22
251
79
156
LU- 242

202
461
428
103
104
104
108, 110
25
42
103
104
104
228, 506
112

108
241
215
363
409
:
14
16
10,42
:
197
- 349
389
196
212
311
344
171
268, 274
187
324
401
301
312
202
95, 97
95
:
288
300
284
285
207
274
309
()
293
() 282
219

94, 115
186
318
323

535
194
331
233
114

239
463
221, 228
53
267
271
291, 295
309
303
271, 273
268
277
273
() 268, 273
276, 287
26, 399, 401
27
258
44, 73
44, 47, 73
80
319
79
45
82
63, 64, 65, 66
69
49
69
218
203
88, 90
50
59
424
115
112
48
161
, 433

536

17
16
17
21
318
106
119
63
95
98
94
459
161
60
132
136
58
119
119
133, 254
190
24
476
260
421
114

355
144
159
59
333
163
139
97
260

8, 22, 35
315
461
140
241, 503
65, 99

312
315
330
312
235
169
103, 105
464
377
394
389
397
96, 101, 114
114
461
135
418,430,431
140

377, 399
252
324
426
324
69
243
236

192
273
102
118
95
219
186, 203
48
466
221
349
350
351

349
350



355
350
354
351
370
370
238, 309
309

309
238
232

411
409
405
226
119,470

381, 508
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29
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363
363
481
472
475
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216
428
403
242
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461
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186
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() 267
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341
329
318
320
320
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328
322
321
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478
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