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("INTRODUCTION, THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION, & SOCIOLOGICAL METHODS", "SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY", "CULTURE & SOCIETY", "SOCILIZATION & SOCIAL INTERACTION")

Why is the act of drinking coffee symptomatic of globalization?

a. The act shows how we are caught up in a complicated set of social and economic relationships stretching across the world.

b. The act unites us with the millions of others who start their day with a cup of coffee.

John recently finished a research project studying the inner workings of a Chicago street gang. In his analysis and write-up of the data, he discussed how his race, class, and gender affected his work. Specifically, he explained how the status differences between him and his research participants at times distorted the dialogue between them. Which sociological method did he most likely use?

c. The act increases an individual’s sense of connectedness with people of

a.

ethnography

other races, ethnicities, and national backgrounds from all over the

b.

survey research

planet.

c.

an experiment

d. Drinking coffee is simply drinking coffee and does not involve globalization.

d.

historical analysis

Sociology can be considered a science because it does which of the following?

The production and distribution of coffee require global transactions; the consumption of coffee, like many aspects of our lives, is now affected by worldwide social influences and communications.

a.

It uses systematic methods of empirical investigation to study a phenomenon.

b.

It uses haphazard methods of theoretical thinking.

Today, feminist sociology is characterized by a focus on the intersection of

c.

It involves the making of recommendations to policy makers.

a.

women and men.

d.

It is conducted by people with advanced professional degrees wearing white lab coats.

b.

functionalism and Marxism.

c.

microsociology and macrosociology.

What is the definition of functionalism?

d.

gender, race, and class.

What is microsociology?

a.

the study of the function of a social activity to determine the contribution that the activity makes to society as a whole

b.

the study of the way people function in groups

a.

the study of the internal dynamics of individual consciousness

c.

the study of the probability that any given individual has for upward

b.

the study of face-to-face interaction in everyday life

social mobility

c.

the study of children in social life

d.

the conservative response to the Social Reform movement

d.

another name for the sociology of computing

What role do theoretical questions play in sociological research?

Who was W. E. B. Du Bois and what is his significance to sociology?

 

a.

He was the first black president of the Social Reform movement.

a.

They show the facts of a situation.

b.

He was the first African American to earn a doctorate at Harvard

b.

They interpret what the facts mean.

and the first researcher to focus sociologists’ attention on the social

c.

They make moral judgments about the collected facts.

and economic underpinnings of African Americans’ problems.

d.

There is no role for theoretical claims in sociological research.

c.

He was the first sociologist to be appointed to the cabinet; he was secretary for urban affairs in the first Roosevelt administration.

What term did Max Weber use to speak collectively of the development of science, modern technology, and bureaucracy?

d.

He was a sociologist and chair of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) when Martin Luther King, Jr., led the civil rights movement.

a.

rationalization

b.

organic solidarity

c.

functionalism

d.

social facts

What is the sociological imagination?

Which of the following research methods tests a hypothesis in a highly controlled environment?

a.

It is the ability to “think ourselves away” from the familiar routines of our daily lives in order to look at them anew.

a.

experiment

b.

It is the study of the way private troubles aggregate into public issues.

b.

survey

c.

It is the worldview of Karl Marx.

c.

life history

d.

It is the application of Liberal and Socialist political values to social scientific inquiry.

d.

participant observation

Which of the following best captures the way your text defines sociology?

Which of the following is a sociological theory aimed at explaining the rapid increase in the incidence of autism?

a.

Sociology is the study of individuals.

b.

Sociology is the study of personality, cognition, emotion, and motivation.

a.

The autism epidemic is related to changes in what parents consider acceptable child behavior.

c.

Sociology is the study of human social life, groups, and societies, focusing on the industrialized world.

b.

The autism epidemic is fueled by increasing levels of toxic chemicals in the environment.

d.

Sociology is a branch of the Social Reform movement. It is dedicated to providing a scientific underpinning for the Liberal and Social Democratic

c.

The autism epidemic is being brought on by the increasing number of adolescents that are having children.

political agendas.

d.

The autism epidemic is related to changes in the media’s depiction of illness and disease.

A researcher would know she had formulated her research problem precisely enough if her hypothesis

Sociologists ask factual, comparative, developmental, and theoretical questions as

a.

were subsequently approved by her department chair

they study the social world. Which type of question is the following: “What

b.

made a causal claim

accounts for the decline in the proportion of the population voting in presidential

c.

referred to data contained in a random sample

elections in recent years?”

d.

could be either supported or disproved with evidence

a.

factual

comparative

developmental

theoretical

Mr. Brimble wants to make sure he gets the most value for his investment when

b.

ordering the shoes he stocks in his shoe store. He plans to order shoes of all

c.

different sizes, but he knows that keeping statistics on customer demand for

d.

different shoe sizes will help him economize by buying more of the sizes that will

Why is Émile Durkheim’s study of suicide important to sociology?

sell the best. He does not know whether to stock his store primarily with shoes that are customers’ mean shoe size, customers’ median shoe size, or customers’ modal shoe size. He has told you that most women buy a size 7 and most men buy a size

a.

It showed sociology to be superior to psychology in explaining human behavior.

11. Which of the following pieces of advice should you give him?

b.

It showed that suicide, seemingly the most individual of acts, is socially influenced; suicide rates vary according to the social

a.

order more of the mean shoe size because this will take into account the range of possible shoe sizes

cohesion of groups.

b.

order mostly the median shoe size because in a distribution with extreme

c.

It showed that the meaning of suicide varies across social groups; it is not the same for Catholics as it is for Protestants.

values (e.g., shoe sizes 4 through 14), the median size will be a safe, middle-sized value

d.

It started the field known as the sociology of death.

c.

order mostly the modal shoe sizes because that will take into account the sizes that will be most popular and fit the most customers

 

d.

find something more fulfilling to do than selling shoes

Which of the following best reflects the definition of ethnography?

Which of the following best captures the definition of the term globalization, as used by in the authors of your text?

a.

the study of ethnicity, race, and urban social relations in multicultural contexts

a.

the obliteration of local languages and cultural patterns resulting from the

b.

questions that relate to the knowledge produced when sociologists link a

ascendancy of a single, de facto world language and ethnicity

current phenomenon to historical forces

b.

the decreasing monetary and social costs of international travel,

c.

the study of something with a historical basis (e.g., the Russian

communication, and trade

Revolution) and involving the analysis of documentary sources such as government statistics, newspapers, and so on, to explain a type of human

c.

the widening gap between the wealthy, resource-rich nations of the “North” and the underdeveloped, resource-poor nations of the “South”

behavior during a certain time in history.

d.

the increasing interconnection of the local and global, including the

d.

a way of studying people firsthand using participant observation or interviewing

development of social and economic relations that stretch around the world

The social contexts of our lives consist of more than just random assortments of actions or events; there are regularities in the ways we behave and in the

How does the text suggest sociologists can conduct good sociological research?

relationships we have with one another. This patterned nature of social contexts is what sociologists refer to as which one of the following?

a.

By working in teams, sociologists are less likely to let personal bias influence their research.

a.

structuration

b.

By asking numerous questions, including trick questions, sociologists can make sure a subject is telling the truth.

b.

functionalism

c.

There is no standard for conducting sociological research.

c.

macrosociology

d.

The best results can be obtained by making the questions posed as

d.

social structure

precise as possible and by gathering factual evidence before making

What is usually the key strength of surveys?

a conclusion.

All research begins with

a.

Surveys can help researchers understand behavior—the natural behavior people exhibit when they are unaware they are being studied.

a.

a hypothesis

b.

Surveys can help researchers who are unable to obtain an adequate

b.

conclusions

sample size learn meaningful things about their population of interest.

c.

the research design

c.

Surveys can help researchers become aware of nuances of respondents’

Surveys can help researchers gather and quickly process data from a

d.

a

research problem

d.

lives and how those nuances are shaped by the contexts in which respondents are embedded.

large sample of a population of interest so that the researchers can

After reading Chapter 1, which of the following would you say best characterizes sociology’s main goal?

posit generalizations.

a.

Sociology primarily attempts to understand and explain the impact of social forces.

The process in which researchers often combine two or more methods in their work, each being used to check or supplement the material obtained from the

b.

Sociology primarily attempts to catalog facts about society without analyzing them.

others, is called

c.

Sociology primarily attempts to make moral pronouncements about ethics in society.

a.

sampling

d.

Sociology primarily attempts to understand thoughts, memory,

b.

correlation

perception, and personality.

c.

triangulation

d.

control

Which of the following best represents a sociological understanding of “love”?

According to the text’s authors, which of the following is an example of how

a.

Romantic love, and its association with marriage, can be understood as a universal feature of human life.

Newly Industrialized Economies (NIEs) directly affect the United States’ economic health?

b.

Falling in love is not an experience most people across the world have—and where it does happen, it is rarely connected to marriage.

a.

South Korea’s production of steel has doubled in the last decade and the U.S. share of global steel production has dropped significantly

c.

In many non-Western countries today, romantic love is seen as the

over the past 30 years.

natural, godly expression of human emotions.

b.

New Zealand’s production of textiles has tripled since 1980, squeezing

Brazilian coffee bean production has increased five-fold, meaning that for

d.

Love and sexuality have been closely connected since the Middle Ages.

the United States out of its former rank as the number two exporter of

The idea of romantic love did not become widespread until fairly recently in our society, and in many other cultures it has never even existed. Only in modern times have love and sexuality become closely connected; the idea of romantic love is

c.

finished clothing.

the first time since 1983, the United States has become a net importer, rather than exporter, of coffee beans.

shaped by historical and social forces.

d.

all of the above

Semiotics is the analysis of

Which of the following best captures the main argument of E. O. Wilson in his 1975 book, Sociobiology: The New Synthesis?

a.

verbal and nonverbal cultural meaning.

b.

premodern cultures.

a.

Genes influence, not only physical traits, but behavior as well.

c.

material cultures.

b.

Males dominate females in human societies because of male genetic

d.

postindustrial cultures.

superiority.

 

c.

The female propensity toward nurturing others is a learned behavior.

In his Introduction to Sociology lecture, Dr. Kavanaugh discusses a societal form that has a rapid pace of technological innovation, over 90 percent of its population living in cities and towns, a high proportion of day-to-day encounters consisting of stranger-to-stranger contact, and a substantial degree of impact in citizens’ lives by the government and large-scale organizations. Based on this information, it is clear that Dr. Kavanaugh is describing a(n):

d.

Elaborate courtship rituals increase population doubling time among humans and thus threaten the persistence of humans as a species.

In preparation for their Introduction to Sociology exam, Jackie asks her classmate Georgia what all of the following have in common: language, marriage, prohibition of incest, bodily adornment, gift giving, and rules of hygiene. If Georgia has been paying attention in class and reading the textbook, she will quickly be able to tell

a.

agrarian society

Jackie that these are all examples of:

b.

pastoral society

c.

traditional civilization

a.

norms.

d.

industrialized society

b.

globalization.

 

c.

cultural relativism.

For all but a tiny part of our existence on the planet, humans have lived as hunter-

d.

cultural universals.

gatherers. Which of the following best identifies, according to the text’s authors, the level of inequality that characterizes this form of society?

What is a signifier?

a.

no inequality

a.

A signifier is the name given to the meaning of a spoken or written word.

b.

little inequality

b.

A signifier is any vehicle of meaning, such as speech, writing, dress,

c.

high inequality

or buildings.

d.

extreme inequality

c.

A signifier is the meaning of a symbol.

 

d.

A signifier is an electronic sign.

According to the text’s authors, why can sociology no longer leave the study of developing nations to other disciplines?

Which of the following best captures what the text’s authors mean when they refer to globalization’s “reordering of time and distance”?

a.

The global market for scholarly works favors works written about Third World nations, and if sociology is to maintain its share of publishing profits, it must study and write about topics global consumers now

a.

Definitions of time and distance from different cultures are converging in a multicultural amalgam set of new, globalized definitions of what these terms mean.

demand.

b.

Since the discovery of quantum mechanical principles such as time

The continued spread of the acceptance of the metric system has meant

b.

Anthropology fails to adequately conceptualize the nature of social

dilation, people’s perceptions of time and distance have changed

change in the developing nations because it uses static, atheoretical models.

c.

accordingly.

c.

Because industrialized and developing societies have developed in interconnection with one another and are today closely interrelated,

time and distance are measured differently now, compared to even three decades ago.

sociology (whose goal is to understand society, including the emerging global society) must study all the elements in the picture if it is to understand its subject matter.

d.

Our lives are increasingly and quickly influenced by events happening far removed from our everyday activities.

d.

none of the above

What is the claim made by Sapir and Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis?

What happened to destroy the forms of society (hunter-gatherer, pastoral, agrarian

a.

Language determines human behavior.

and traditional/civilization) that dominated the whole of history up to two centuries

b.

Some cultures can prosper without language.

ago?

c.

The language we use influences our perception of the world.

d.

Our perception of the world influences the language we use.

a.

cultural relativism

b.

the cultural turn

What was colonialism?

c.

globalization

d.

industrialization

a.

the creation by the European powers of a network of colonies in ports of call along their trade routes

Computer hackers could be said to be an example of which of the following?

b.

the military conquest of African peoples by Europeans

a.

a culture

c.

the process whereby Western nations established their rule in parts of the world away from their home territories

b.

a subculture

d.

the impact of trade with the Empire on the economies of the European

c.

a society

powers

d.

a cultural composite

Which of the following is an example of a cultural universal?

Kamal and his friends are discussing major global changes that have occurred over the past 200 years; in particular, the seemingly irresistible spread of Western ways

a.

the prohibition against incest

of life across the world. They cite many different reasons for this phenomenon.

b.

the right to political protest

Which of the following is one of them?

c.

a concept of individual rights and freedoms

d.

the idea of a teenager

a.

political cohesion

b.

decreasing economic strength

c.

military inferiority

d.

increasing national pride

The earliest civilizations (societies of a large size having cities, trade, manufacturing and a distinct apparatus of government) developed where?

As an indication of how cultural norms change over time, the percentage of adult

Americans who smoke cigarettes today is

Surgeon General’s report, “Smoking and Health,” was issued.

the rate of 1964, when the first

a.

East Asia

b.

South America

a.

one-fourth

c.

Western Europe

b.

one-third

d.

Middle East

c.

one-half

 

d.

two-thirds

Which of the following accounts for the population size of pastoral and agrarian societies exceeding that of hunter-gatherer societies?

The goods we consume, from the clothes we wear, to the cars we drive, to the houses we live in, are all part of:

a.

Pastoralists and horticulturalists developed religious ideologies extolling large family sizes.

a.

symbolic culture.

b.

Raising animals and gardening motivated pastoralists and horticulturalists

b.

material culture.

to aggressively expand their territory and incorporate members of other

c.

modern culture.

groups in their path of expansion.

d.

popular culture.

c.

Pastoralism and horticulture provided for a more reliable supply of food.

What is the position of sociologists on the nature/nurture debate?

d.

all of the above

 

a.

Sociologists believe that “biology is destiny.”

According to the text’s authors, what is culture?

b.

Sociologists ask how nature and nurture interact to produce human behavior.

a.

Culture consists of the values, norms, and material goods of a people.

c.

No sociologists today acknowledge a role for nature.

Culture can be described as a “design for living.”

d.

Sociologists do not have a position.

b.

Culture is the sum total of a society’s artistic expression—all the novels, poems, dance, theater, museums, and so on.

Which of the following pairs is a pair of opposites?

c.

Culture is the material apparatus of everyday life—the chairs, tables, cooking utensils, clothes, shoes, and coats that we use in our daily lives.

a.

agrarian societies

pastoral

societies

d.

Culture consists of the values and norms of a society, its founding

b.

globalization industrialization

“myths” and ideals, and its beliefs about the kinds of conduct appropriate

c.

cultural turn

cultural

composite

in everyday life.

d.

ethnocentrism

cultural

relativism

The task of social science is to do which of the following with the cultural diversity of the modern world?

Which of the following best captures the definition of nationalism, as used by your text’s authors?

a.

appreciate it and celebrate it

a.

a practice of global-level governing bodies (e.g., the United Nations)

b.

describe it

wherein the interests of multiple nations are balanced in policymaking

c.

place it in historical context

b.

a sense of identification with one’s nation that is expressed through a

d.

understand it

common set of strongly held beliefs

 

c.

a form of governance in which subunits of a nation (e.g., provinces, states, and territories) answer to, and have less power than, national-level government

d.

the judging of other cultures by our own standards

According to your text, most traditional (premodern) civilizations were:

The learning of male or female roles takes place through a process called

a.

found in the fertile river areas of the Middle East.

a.

genderization.

b.

empires formed through conquest and the incorporation of other

b.

gender socialization.

people.

c.

sexualization.

c.

characterized by equality and small town life.

d.

sex role learning.

d.

formed prior to the invention of the written word, so the cultures were based only on the spoken word.

Annabelle calls her mother after a particularly engaging lecture in her sociology

Why in the paintings of medieval Europe are children portrayed as little adults, with mature faces and the same style of dress as adults?

class on trends among the aging population in the United States. Annabelle tells her mother that sociologists suggest that social isolation will become a more serious problem in the future. What explanation does Annabelle give her mother for why sociologists think this will occur?

a.

The adult-like features of children’s faces in medieval paintings were

discovered to be a red herring. Once the paintings were cleaned properly,

a.

Laws regulating access to Medicare benefits will change.

the children’s faces were recognizable as child-like by any modern standards.

b.

Beliefs about aging and independence will change as the Baby Boom generation ages.

b.

Much like children today, who mimic the styles of teenagers and adults, fashion-conscious children in medieval Europe dressed as much like

c.

Patterns of gender relations are changing as a result of higher rates of divorce and lower rates of remarriage.

adults as they could.

d.

More people will be living in poverty in their later years because of

c.

Artists living in medieval Europe did not have the technical skills to portray the facial features characteristic of children.

government cutbacks in pension funding.

d.

People living in medieval Europe did not have a conception of a phase of development called “childhood,” but rather only distinguished between infants and adults.

Changing patterns of family structure may mean that an increasing proportion of older people will live alone and a majority of such people will likely be women, given that women on average outlive men.

In medieval times, the young moved directly from a lengthy infancy into working roles within the community. Children took part in the same work and play activities as adults, rather than in the childhood games we now take for granted.

Children learn the ways of their elders, thereby perpetuating the values, norms, and social practices of their culture. This learning process is known as

 

a.

evolution.

What role does socialization play in individual freedom?

b.

social interaction.

c.

socialization.

a.

Learning the value of freedom is a critical aspect of being socialized in American culture.

d.

natural selection.

b.

Socialization teaches children the proper limits of freedom—when to play and when to obey.

What is the generalized other?

c.

Socialization is essential to our sense of self-identity and our capacity for independent thought and action.

a.

The feeling you get, when sitting alone in a room with the lights out, that you are not alone.

d.

Socialization teaches children that life in a consumer society is an endless menu of choices and that, although choosing is difficult, it must always

b.

What people are talking about when they refer to “they”—for example, “They’re going to put another supermarket in the mall.”

be done quickly.

c.

The sense of the general values and moral rules of one’s culture.

The cultural settings in which we are born and mature to adulthood influence our behavior, but that does not mean that humans are robbed of individuality or free will. In the course of socialization, each of us develops a sense of identity and the capacity for independent thought and action.

d.

The “generalized other” is related to the concept of “the other” in literary criticism.

George Herbert Mead’s ideas have formed the basis of which general theoretical approach in sociology?

Clementine and her older brother, Ted, are playing with clay. Ted knows he can make Clementine think he’s being nice and giving her a greater portion by rolling

a.

symbolic interactionism

his clay into a ball and rolling Clementine’s into a hotdog shape (even though really both portions are identical in volume). What is the highest stage of cognitive

b.

Marxism

development Clementine can possibly have reached?

c.

functionalism

d.

postmodernism

a.

the postoperational stage

 

b.

the formal operational stage

According to your text, which of the following is one of the main sources of

c.

d.

the concrete operational stage

identity?

the preoperational stage

a.

your astrological sign

In this stage of development, children have no general understanding of categories

b.

social class

of thought, such as speed, weight, or number. In the concrete operational stage,

c.

vacation destinations your family frequents

children master abstract, logical notions, and by the formal operational stage,

d.

year of birth

children are able to grasp highly abstract and hypothetical ideas.

Which of the following is an agent of socialization?

Which of the following best captures the text authors’ definition of self-identity?

a.

the FOX television network

a.

the learning that occurs when the individual is able to begin making

b.

illness and dying

judgments based on abstract ideas, and not necessarily on concrete

c.

the Pacific Ocean

objects

d.

the Super Bowl

b.

the socialization that occurs later in childhood and into maturity, the main agents of which are peer groups, the media, and the workplace

FOX television network is a part of the mass media, which is one of the main

c.

the mathematical principle that any constant is equal to itself.

agents of socialization in today’s society. The Super Bowl is a single, yearly event, rather than a social context or ongoing social influence.

d.

the understandings people hold about who they are and their relationship to the world around them

Groups or social contexts in which significant processes of socialization occur are called

Which of the following statements about gender socialization is correct?

a.

context operations.

a.

Images of females outnumber those of males in the majority of children’s literature.

b.

concrete operations.

b.

While some storybooks today portray females as main characters,

c.

sensorimotors.

few depict boys in non-traditional roles.

d.

agents of socialization.

c.

According to recent research, boys and girls today are equally likely to show no gender preferences when selecting toys with which to play.

In George Herbert Mead’s theory of socialization, individuals see themselves as others see them.

is accomplished when

d.

Parents are aware that they treat male infants differently than female infants.

a.

self-consciousness

Weitzman’s study found that images of males outnumber images of females by a

b.

other-consciousness

ratio of 11:1 (and including animals with gender identities, the ratio is 95:1).

c.

selfishness

Children’s toy preferences depend on the cultural expectations of the society in

d.

the sensorimotor stage

which they grow up. Parents tend to believe their reactions to male and female infants are the same, even though they are markedly different.

According to George Herbert Mead’s theory of child development, what is the importance of playing organized games at the age of eight or nine?

Jean Piaget’s theory of child development is based on

 

a.

the stages of cognitive development.

a.

Children can have fun at an early age and then focus on succeeding at

b.

the emergence of a sense of self, of self-awareness.

school and work later in life.

c.

the importance of sociobiology.

b.

Children begin to understand the overall values and morality according to which social life is conducted.

d.

the importance of psychopathology.

c.

Children learn to be competitive and see others as rivals.

By studying

,

sociologists can learn more about how humans act creatively to

d.

Children learn how to use a computer keyboard, an important skill throughout one’s life.

shape their reality and illuminate the larger social systems and institutions of society.

To learn organized games, children must understand the rules of play and notions

a.

only their closest friends

of fairness and equal participation. They must grasp the general values and moral

b.

global information flows

rules of their culture.

c.

other cultures

d.

social interactions

Which conclusion is most likely to be drawn from the research on video game use among children?

A 2006 study conducted on 170,000 school-aged children found that 50 percent of high school students and 25 percent of those in grades 5 through 8 communicate

a.

Video games harm children’s achievement at school.

with

on the Internet.

b.

It is unlikely that video games cause a decline in school performance.

c.

Video games have no socializing effect on children.

a.

only their closest friends

d.

Video games only have a socializing effect on children in the United

b.

their parents

States; children in other countries are virtually free from the influence of

c.

strangers

video games.

d.

their overseas relatives

What are the main agents of socialization in contemporary society?

Which of the following is most conceptually central to the spirit of Elijah Anderson’s claims in the study, Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban

a.

family, schools, the political system, the economic system, and the urban system

Community?

b.

family, schools, peer groups, the mass media, and work

a.

compulsion of proximity

c.

movies, videos, computers, and the internet

b.

response cries

d.

newspapers, magazines, radio, and television

c.

front regions versus back regions

 

d.

social roles and statuses

According to Mead, what is the difference between the “I” and the “Me”?

a.

The “I” is the unsocialized infant; the “Me” is the social self.

Anderson argued that when many blacks and whites interacted on city streets, members of both groups obtained information about each other and brought into

b.

The “I” is the id; the “Me” is the ego.

play information already possessed; this helped them to define the situation and

c.

The “I” is the private, inner self; the “Me” is the social self that others see.

allowed others to know in advance what was expected of them and what they could expect in return.

d.

The “I” is the inner self who wants endlessly; the “Me” is the inner self who works out what the “I” actually needs.

Carol Brooks Gardner’s study, Passing By: Gender and Public Harassment, examined unwanted interactions women experience in public places and linked the harassment to which of the following?

If a waiter says, “Enjoy your meal!” and you reply, “Enjoy in what sense, exactly?” then you have used one of

 

a.

Ekman’s experiments in facial muscle analysis.

a.

bad manners

b.

Garfinkel’s experiments in ethnomethodology.

b.

sex-role socialization of blue-collar and manual laborers

c.

Goffman’s experiments in conversational analysis.

c.

male exploitation of the earth and its natural resources

d.

Goffman’s experiments in social interactions.

d.

the larger system of gender inequality

In a society such as our own, many of the people with whom we come in contact over the course of a given day are strangers. What is the technique we use to communicate to a stranger that we are not suspicious of or hostile to him or her and that we do not wish to avoid them?

Garfinkel argued that in order to understand the way people use context to make sense of the world, sociologists need to study the “background expectancies,” or the unstated, taken-for-granted cultural assumptions, with which we organize ordinary conversation.

a.

a hard stare

a quick glance and then a look away

Duneier and Molotch conducted a conversation analysis in New York City. What did their analysis reveal about how white pedestrian women responded to black

b.

men’s complimentary remarks?

c.

a complete avoidance of the other person’s eyes

d.

a big smile and a quick “how-do-you-do”

a.

They tended to quicken their step and stare fixedly ahead.

 

b.

They smiled.

Which of the following is most representative of an experiment Harold Garfinkel

c.

They cried.

would have conducted?

d.

They showed no reaction.

a.

a controlled study of nonverbal communication in a laboratory setting

a study of role-playing

According to Boden and Molotch, why do people have a compulsion of proximity

b.

and a desire for copresence?

c.

a study of the taken-for-granted character of everyday interaction by

disrupting conventional expectations of conduct appropriate to a

a.

Businesspeople like the free food that is served at meetings.

given situation

b.

Societies that are located close together can make clear distinctions

d.

a study of something that appears on the surface to be quite sensible, but

between themselves and their neighbors.

actually, upon reflection, makes no sense in that space at all and can,

c.

People naturally like to socialize with others.

upon repetition, become really annoying

d.

Garfinkel’s experiments in the 1960s asked student volunteers to engage a friend or relative in conversation and to insist that casual remarks or general comments be actively pursued to make their meaning precise (e.g., If someone said, “Have a nice day,” the student was to respond “Nice in what sense, exactly?,” “Which part of the day do you mean?,” and so forth).

Only through face-to-face interaction do people feel that they can learn what is really going on and become confident that they can impress their own views on others.

Marcie and Pat were out to dinner on a blind date. After dessert, Marcie made eye contact with and waved over the server, raising her hand out to the side of the table in order to indicate that she would be taking care of the bill. Marcie’s cues to the server are all examples of

In a study by Ekman and Friesen, when members of an isolated New Guinea community were shown pictures of facial expressions conveying six emotions, they

a.

ethnomethodology.

were able to identify

b.

regionalization.

c.

nonverbal communication.

a.

none of the six emotions.

d.

response cries.

b.

all of the six emotions.

c.

only half of the six emotions.

d.

one emotion: happiness.

What is ethnomethodology?

Response cries refer to

a.

It is the study of the way people make sense out of everyday

a.

the nonintrusive recognition of others.

conversation.

b.

exclamations that demonstrate our controlled management of the

b.

It is the study of the variations in common forms of social interaction

details of social life.

across different cultures.

c.

the analysis of the ways in which we actively make sense of what others

c.

It is the study of the way different ethnic groups relate to science.

mean by what they say they mean.

d.

It is the study of the way people use back regions and front regions to negotiate encounters.

d.

a form of social interaction that includes facial expression, gestures, and body movements.

Michael is a 42-year-old attorney in a large, successful law firm. In order to keep their esteemed reputation and their employees focused, his firm has a very strict

What is focused interaction?

policy against sending personal emails from company email addresses. Because

a.

Individuals directly attend to what others say and do.

Michael does not want to jeopardize his chances of making partner in the firm, he

b.

the examination of all facets of a conversation for meaning

maintains different email addresses for home and work. The formal role that

c.

Individuals act out formal roles in the social occasions or encounters.

Michael acts out at work, including keeping a strictly work-related email address, occurs in which region?

d.

a form of mental interaction that includes facial expression, gestures, and body movements

a.

the back region

the middle region

Social interactions are always situated in a particular time and space. Which term

b.

refers to how social life is organized in time and space?

c.

the front region

d.

the stage region

a.

regionalization

 

b.

focused interaction

“Front region” is a setting of social activity in which people seek to put on a

c.

interactional vandalism

definite “performance” for others.

d.

globalization

According to Erving Goffman, if individuals at a large party exhibit mutual awareness of one another’s presence, it is called

Human beings have a “compulsion to proximity,” or the need to

 

a.

use whatever electronic means are available to communicate.

a.

mutual attraction.

b.

meet up with one another in situations of co-presence.

b.

focused interaction.

c.

experience sexual intimacy.

c.

unfocused interaction.

d.

perceive themselves as discrete social units.

d.

an encounter.

Examining all facets of a conversation for meaning—from the smallest filler words (such as umm and ah) to the precise timing of interchanges (including pauses, interruptions, and overlaps) is called

Some sociologists argue that there is no substitute for face-to-face interaction and that humans have a true need to interact with others in their presence.

Ethnomethodology studies which of the following?

a.

interactional vandalism.

a.

conversations in a café

b.

focused interaction.

b.

voting patterns in presidential elections

c.

compulsion of proximity.

c.

rates of drug use among college students

d.

conversation analysis.

d.

cross-national infant mortality rates

Men may feel more freedom than women in making eye contact with strangers in societies where

Which of the following best represents how Elijah Anderson shows the link between microsociology and macrosociology in Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community?

a.

women dominate men in both public and private life.

b.

men dominate women in both public and private life.

a.

Anderson showed how studying the way people use context when

c.

women have the same status as men in both public and private life.

speaking with strangers on the street illuminates the larger social

d.

there are more men than women.

structures that influence our everyday conversations.

b.

It is important to understand micro-level occurrences, such as eye contact with strangers, in light of macro-level factors, such as the larger background of gender

c.

Anderson showed that when blacks and whites at a large party exhibit mutual awareness of one another’s presence they are also demonstrating the racial equality of the society in which they live.

hierarchy and systemic gender inequality.

Anderson showed that the ways many blacks and whites interact on

Clock time

the streets of a northern city had a great deal to do with the structure of racial stereotypes, which is itself linked to the economic structure of society.

a.

affects all societies, past and present.

d.

Anderson showed how when individuals from urban communities across

b.

is most important in modern societies.

the globe were shown pictures of individuals conveying six emotions,

c.

varies by culture.

they were able to identify which countries the individuals in the pictures

d.

was invented by Auguste Comte.

were from.

The measuring of time by clocks is today standardized across the globe, making possible the complex international transport systems and communications we now depend on.

Roles are

Anderson connected individual, micro-level interactions on city streets to assumptions about individuals that are rooted in the larger, macro-level economic (and, arguably, also racialized) structure of society.

is a period of personal and sexual development that seems to be growing in importance.

a.

socially defined.

b.

studied in terms of time and geography.

a.

Childhood

c.

where people act in front regions.

b.

Young adulthood

d.

nonverbal communication.

c.

Mature adulthood

 

d.

Old age

Roles are socially defined expectations that a person in a given status or social position follows. The idea of social role originally comes from the theater, referring to the parts that actors play in a stage production.

Which of the following best captures the definition of an age-grade?

Which of the following best captures the definition of the life course?

a.

a system for determining difficulty of, and grading schemes for, educational curricula based on students’ ages

a.

the end of life, old age, and death—or when life has run its course

b.

a contradiction between a child’s social sophistication and his or her year in school

b.

the physiological changes associated with aging

c.

a system for keying children’s cognitive development with the grade they

c.

the daily routines necessary for maintaining physiological and social

are enrolled in school

subsistence

d.

a formalized peer group often only for males and usually only in

d.

the various transitions individuals experience during their lives

small, traditional societies

Why are the oldest old much less likely to have enjoyed the same advantages as the

How do people approach aging, according to disengagement theory?

young old, such as stable employment and wealth in the form of a home, savings, or investments?

a.

The elderly withdraw from their former roles, and their

a.

Government legislation during the George W. Bush presidency

preoccupation with their inner life and the prospect of dying are seen as normal and healthy and should be encouraged.

prohibited these types of advancements for individuals over the age of seventy-five.

b.

As people disengage from all forms of paid employment earlier, they find it easier to adjust to retirement.

b.

Their education and careers began at an earlier time, when economic conditions were not so favorable.

c.

As the elderly withdraw from their former roles, their preoccupation with their inner life and the prospect of dying are seen as abnormal and

c.

Social Security payments were lowered for the oldest old in order to free

unhealthy and should be discouraged.

up money for the vast number of young old Baby Boomers now collecting these benefits.

d.

People who disengage from all forms of paid employment earlier find it more difficult to adjust to retirement.

d.

They have a higher likelihood of staying married and having three or more children.

This theory argues that it is functional for society to remove people from their traditional roles when they become older, thereby freeing up those roles for

These differences reflect cohort differences; the young old came of age during the post–World War II period of strong economic growth and benefited as a result.

younger people, who presumably will carry them out with fresh energy and new skills.

What age category does the term young-old refer to?

What is the central argument of activity theory?

a.

ages 55 to 65

a.

Older people who are active and engaged in social life are less likely to

b.

ages 65 to 74

remain healthy, alert, and useful as they age.

c.

ages 75 to 84

b.

Older people who are active and engaged in social life are more likely

d.

ages 85 and older

to remain healthy, alert, and useful as they age.

Aging can be sociologically defined as the combination of

processes

c.

There is no direct relationship between activity level and physical or mental health.

that affect people as they grow older.

d.

Older people who are active have a harder time maintaining strong friendship networks.

a.

biological, psychological, and social

b.

cultural, structural, and social

Today, the term third age is used to describe

c.

biological, cultural, and social

d.

psychological, cultural, and social

a.

young adulthood, the third stage in the life course.

 

b.

a process of renewal in old age involving a new phase of education.

Both the American obsession with youthfulness and stereotypes that depict the elderly as lonely, infirm, and inflexible are examples of

c.

the third transition people make over their lifetime, from work to retirement.

a.

disengagement theory.

d.

the period in middle age when many people switch careers and undergo many life changes.

b.

social foundations of ageism.

c.

activity theory.

elder abuse.

In a study of elder abuse in Boston, who was responsible for more than half of the

d.

cases of abuse?

Ageism is fueled by a focus on youth, as well as negative stereotypes, both of which

a.

an adult child

are reflected in the media. New information technology reinforces these prejudices

b.

a spouse

and leads many younger people to be dismissive toward their elders.

c.

a caretaker

d.

a physician

Which of the following is the fastest-growing group of the aged population in the United States?

a.

the juvenile old (ages 55 to 64)

b.

the young old (ages 65 to 74)

c.

the old old (ages 75 to 84)

d.

the oldest old (ages 85 and older)

What is the demographic change that will likely alter our society’s definition of the life course in the next fifty years?

a.

The population will become younger as the proportion of children increases.

b.

The population will become more middle-aged as the proportion of adults increases.

c.

The population will become older as the proportion of the elderly increases.

d.

The population will become more predominantly female as the proportion of men continues to decline.

There has been a great increase in the proportion of the population over age sixty- five, and this proportion is projected to steadily rise over the next forty years.

The second generation of aging theories emphasizes

a.

how well the elderly were integrated into the larger society.

b.

how an elderly person can play an active role in determining his or her own physical and mental well-being.

c.

how lifestyle and exercise improve one’s health.

d.

the sources of social conflict between the elderly and society.