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" .

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P2P
(peertopeer, P2P) 
, ,
. () 
, , *.
, , .

,

aminu@mail.ru
..,
,
....,
ygaidamaka@mail.ru

( 100700487).


IP
,
.


. P2P

. P2P
:
,
.
,

. P2P
,
[1].
P2P

, BitTorrent, Gnutella, KazaA ,
P2P
. ,
PPLive, SoftCast, CoolStreaming ,


,
.

,
P2PTV [2 4].

P2PTV,
,
,

- 4 -4

,

.
P2PTV
P2PTV,
, = N ,

.
, = M , m m
M

, m = 1 .
m =1

, m
, .

.
[2 4]



P2P ,

(
).
xnm n m :

xnm = 1 n m ,
xnm = 0 .
,
X = ( xnm )
n , m

X =

{ :x
X

nm

{0,1} , xnm = 1, n .
m

, X
xm = xnm m
n

, m ,

I ( Am ) Am , ..
I ( Am ) = 1 , Am , I ( Am ) = 0

X. ,
m k ,

X m ( k ) = {X X : xm = k } , k = 0, N , m .

.
[4] ,
(1) (3)
:

pm ( k )
, m ,
:
pm ( k ) = P {X X m ( k )} = P ( X ) ,

( )

P X mh = e

X X m ( k )

(1)
[2 6]
:
u h
u l , u l < u h .


l ,
h
h
l
h
l
h
h
l
= , = = N , = N l .

() m
0 X mh N h , 0 X ml N l .
l
X mh X m

mh ml , mh ( ml )
()
m . m
mh ml mh = lim N h m ( N h ) ,

( )

= lim N m ( N ) , m N
l

N l

N h

m ( N l )

( x ) = 1
2

X ml

X ml !

(4)

dm

y2

(5)

dy

ml .

(6)

.
[7].
X mh X ml ,
(4),
:
X h h
X l l
(7)
Z mh = m m ; Z ml = m m .
mh
ml

) }

Z mh Z ml
, .. Z mh N (0,1) Z ml N (0,1) .
(2) m m Am
:

P2PTV [4]
Nl

l
m

(2)
0 X N , 0 X N ,
m m
Nh

d m = mh m ml

m = I ( Am ) P ( X mh ) P ( X ml ) ,

Am = sm + X mh u h + X ml u l X mh + X ml Rm ,
l
m

( )

,
+2
m m

ml

, m
( Am ), ,
, m
Rm .

ml

m := P {( Am )}

m
. m

Rm .

h
m

; P(X l ) = e
m

X mh !

m . , ,
m , ,
, ,
m . Rm ,

X mh

m P2PTV

N 0, m + m2 , ..

m , N h
.
sm

Am :

h
m


P2PTV
h
K = N

Nl

l
; = Rm u
m
u h Rm




; m = sm

u h Rm


.
1. m

,
,
,
() X mh X ml

( )

(3) (4)
,

m .

k = 0, N , m .

l
m

mh

(3)

) }

Am = sm + X mh u h + X ml u l X mh + X ml Rm =

X mh = 0 X ml = 0

= X m X m ,
5-

h
m

l
m

" . "

N = 4000 .
50%
.
Rm = R = 300 / ,

(7) Am

P { Am } = P X mh m X ml m =
=P

h
m

Z mh + mh m

) }


, .. sm = R , m = 1, M ,

ml Z ml + ml m =

= P K + m Z mh + ( K m ) ml + d m m Z ml m
l
m
ml

.(8)
h
l
h
d

m
m
(6)
= m
= ml K ,
l
l
l
m
m m m

u h = 700 /

u l = 100 / .
, = 0,5 .
. 2
m K :
= 30%

(8) ,

= 5% .

h
P{Am } = P K + ml K Z mh + (K m ) ml + d m m Z ml m

ml
m

.(9)

h
(6) lim m = K , (9) K = m
l
m

0,8

l
m

:
l
m

} {

P{Am } = P m Z mh + d m m Z ml = P m Z ml + m Z mh d m

0,6

.(10)
Z N (0,1) Z N (0,1) ,

. ,
l
m

h
m

0,2

Z = m Z ml + m Z mh

N 0, m + m2

0,1

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

(11)
0,8

, , (11),
[5],
1.
,

m m P2PTV
:
mh m ml

ml
.
m
2
m + m

0,3

(10)

0,2

, ,

dm
P { Am } = P Z d m =
+2
m m

= 0,5

0,4

0,6

= 0,5
0,4

0,2

0
0,1

0,2

0,3

0,4

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

(12)

. 2.

. 2 ,
( ) (12)

, ( ).

8%,
(12) .



m K

. m
(3)
(12). ,
= M

.
..
.

m , m = 1, M , m = 1 . , P2PTV
m =1

-6

gress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Sys


tems (IEEE ICUMT 2010), Oct. 18 20, 2010. Moscow, Rus
sia. 2010. Pp. 1115 1120.
5. Kumar R., Yong Liu Y., Ross K. Stochastic Fluid Theory
for P2P Streaming Systems // In Proc. of the 26th Annual IEEE
Conf. on Computer and Communications (IEEE INFOCOM
2007), 6 12 May 2007. Anchorage, Alaska, USA.
Pp. 919 927.
6. Wu D., Liu Y., Ross K.W. Queuing Network Models
for Multi Channel Live Streaming Systems // IEEE Infocom, Rio
de Janeiro, April 2009. Pp. 73 81.
7. . ., . .
. I.
// . 2 ,
. .: . 2011.
486 .

1. Setton E., Girod B. Peer to Peer Video Streaming //


Springer. 2007. 150 p.
2. ., .., ..

// 4

5 7 2010 ., , T Comm
. 2010.
7. .14 18.
3. ., .., ..

2
// .
. . . .: .
2010.
3(1). . 47 53.
4. Adamu A., Gaidamaka Yu., Samuylov A. Analytical
Modeling of P2PTV Network // Proc. of the 2 d International Con

APPROXIMATION OF PROBABILISTIC CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE P2P STREAMING NETWORK MODEL


Adamu Aminu,
PhD student, Telecommunication Systems Department, Peoples Friendship University of Russia,
aminu@mail.ru
Gaidamaka Yuliya V.,
An associate professor, Telecommunication Systems Department, Peoples Friendship University of Russia,
ygaidamaka@mail.ru
Abstract
Probability of universal streaming for the model of P2P streaming network was studied, which is the probability that all users in network are
receiving video stream with the rate not below the defined video playback rate with a specified quality. An approximation formula for the cal
culation of universal streaming probability was obtained using normal (Gaussian) distribution; a comparison with the other formulas proposed
by the authors of this work in their previous papers was conducted.
Keywords. P2P network, universal streaming, approximation formula.

7-

" . "



(peer to peer, P2P )
, .
*.
: P2P, , , , , .

,
,
aminu@mail.ru
..,
,
....,
ygaidamaka@mail.ru
..,
,
asam1988@gmail.com
*

( 100700487).

,
.

P2P
()

.


P2P .

P2P
,

.

,
, ,
, .
.
[1 5]
(QoS, Quality of Service)
,

(
).
(QoE, Quality of Experience)
, ..

.

. ,
, 1 ,
,
(STB, set top box) ,
.


,
.




P2P .
N ,
,
.
,
. ,
,
M+1 .
: 0
,

, M
,
.
,
.


0 . ,
,
.

-8

" . "

( ),

(.. )

.
,
,
. ,

.
Rarest First
(RF),
,
,
Greedy (Gr), ,
..
[6].
,

, ,
1 M
( ).

: , M
, ,

, 0


. P2P N=4
. 1.

P2P N

( n , n = 1, N )
x(n ) = ( x0 (n ), x1 (n ),L, xM (n )) , xm ( n )

m n :
m
,

xm ( n ) = 1

xm ( n ) = 0 , m = 0, M .
( m =1) ( m =M)

, 0 ( m =0)
. ,
,
, M ,
, m ,
M m .
, M

( xM (n ) = 1 ),

n
.
. 2.
, (
)
X = (x(n ))n =1, N , n
n dim X = N(M + 1) .

x0 x1

xM

x0 x1

xM

xM

x0 x1

xM

x0 x1

. 1. P2PTV N=4

x0 ( n ) x1 ( n )

xM ( n )

. 2.

, M

X ,
0 ,

. ,
X = {0,1}N ( M +1) , X = 2 N ( M +1) .
M 0 (x(n )) M 1 (x(n ))

n , ..
M 0 (x(n )) = m : xm (n ) = 0, m = 1, M ,

{
M (x(n )) = {m : x

(n ) = 1, m = 1, M},
M (x(n )) U M (x(n )) = {1,2,..., M}.
M 0 (x(n )) I M 1 (x(h ))
1

n ,
h , n h .
M 0 (x(n )) I M 1 (x(h )) , m ( x ( n ) , x ( h ) )

, ..
m (x(n ), x(h )) =

{
{

}
}

min m : m M 0 (x(n )) I M 1 (x(h )) , Rarest First;


=
0
1
max m : m M (x(n )) I M (x(h )) , Greedy.

Sx ( n ) x ( n )

x(n ) = (x0 (n ), x1 (n ),L , xM 1 (n ), xM (n )) ,

Sx ( n ) = (0, x0 (n ),L , xM 1 (n )) .

,
tl 0 x ( n ) ,
tl + 0 Sx ( n ) .

-9

tl .

.. l ( X ) = P Xl = X ; l ,l +1 ( X, Y )



[tl , tl +1 ) , l ,

l .
, l ,l +1 ( X, Y )


(. 3).
1. tl


, l ( X )

:
,
M , ;

;
0 .
2. tl + 0

:
l +1 (Y ) = l (X ) l ,l +1 (X, Y ) , Y X , l 0 .

m ( x ( n ) , x ( h ) ) , ..

X X



PV ( n ) , n
M
.
hni ( X ) ,

N
0 .
n , x0 ( n ) = 1

,
i n
,
X :
hni ( X ) = m (x (n ), x (h )), i , X X ,

tl +1 0 .
3. ,
, :
, ..
M 0 (x(n )) , n

h =1, N : h n

= 1, j = i .
j ,i
0, j i
Qnl ( i ) , l

h , h n ,
M 1 (x(h ))
h .

M 0 (x(n )) I M 1 (x(h )) , n

m x ( n ) , x ( h ) ,

n
i
.
1.

Qnl ( 0 ) = 0 , Qnl (i ) =

h
.
M 0 (x(n )) I M 1 (x(h )) = n
( M 0 (x(n )) = ),
.
Xl xl ( n ) n

i = 1, M .

(2)

l
i

(Y) =: p1l (n, i )

Y X : y ( n ) = x ( n ), xi ( n ) =1

( Y) =: p0l (n, i )

Y X : y ( n ) = x ( n ), x i ( n ) = 0

(3),
n (l+1) l
,
. 4.
P xil++11 (n ) = 1 = P xil (n ) = 1 + P xil (n ) = 0 Qnl (i ) ,

} {

} {

i = 1, M .

Xl +1

(3)

xl +1 ( n )
t l +1

tl

Qnl ( i )

xil ( n ) = 0

xil++11 ( n ) = 1

xil ( n ) = 1

{ } l

. 3. Xl

: l ( X )
l 0

P x ( n) = 0 =

N ( M +1)

{Xl }

P xil (n) = 1 =

X = {0,1}
, ,
[7],
~ ~
X , X X .
xl ( n ) Sxl ( n )

X X

hni (X )
,
N 1

i n ()
l .
:

Xl

l (X)

p0l ( n, i ) ( p1l ( n, i ) ) ,

tl 0 ,
. 3,
.

Xl := Xl , l 0

{ } {

tl

l X ,

. 4.
l

- 10

t l +1

i n

" . "

. 5
p1 ( n, i ) , i n

2.
1
p (n,0) = ,
N
l
1

, . 6 Qn ( i )
(4)
n
i
i = 0, 40 .

p1l +1 ( n, i + 1) = p1l ( n, i ) + p0l ( n, i ) Qnl ( i ) , i = 0, M 1 .


,
{Xl }. p1 (n, i ) = lim p1l (n, i )
l

, i n
p0 (n, i ) = lim p0l (n, i )
l

, i n
.
1.
1
p1 (n,0) = , p1 ( n, i + 1) = p1 ( n, i ) + p0 ( n, i ) Qn ( i ) ,
N
i = 0, M 1 .
, (5)
p1 (n, M ) , M
n .
PV (n ) n
.
2.
PV ( n ) = p1 (n, M ) .

(5)

. 5. p1 ( n, i )

,
,

P2P .

(6)



. p1 (n, M )
(5) Qnl ( i )
(2), ..
{Xl } (1).
,
l ( X )

X = 2 N ( M +1) .


N=103, M=102,

. ,

N =1000 M=40.
,

. ,

, ..
O(NM ) .
, [6]
Qnl ( i ) , ,

. 6. Qn ( i )
i

. 5 , RF,

,
,
.
Qn ( i )
. 6. , QnRF (40) = 0,001

QnGr (40) = 0,056 ,


i=10 RF i=34
Gr. , ,
RF

,
,
,
. 6 .

11-


5 7 2010 ., ,
T Comm . 2010. N7.
.14 18.
2. Adamu A., Gaidamaka Yu., Samuylov A. Analytical
Modeling of P2PTV Network // Proc. of the 2d International
Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Sys
tems (IEEE ICUMT 2010), Oct. 18 20, 2010. Moscow, Russia.
Pp. 1115 1120.
3. Hei X, Liang C, Liang J, Liu Y, Ross K. A measurement
study of a large scale P2P IPTV System. IEEE Trans. Multimedia,
vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 16721687, Dec. 2007.
4. Wu D., Liu Y., Ross K.W. Queuing Network Models for
Multi Channel Live Streaming Systems // Proc. of the 28th Con
ference on Computer Communications (IEEE Infocom 2009), April
19 25, 2009. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Pp. 7381.
5. Setton E., Girod B. Peer to Peer Video Streaming //
Springer. 2007. 150 p.
6. Yipeng Zhou, Dah M. Chiu, Lui J.C.S. A Simple Model
for Analyzing P2P Streaming Protocols // Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf.
IN Network Protocols (ICNP 2007), Oct. 19, 2007, pp. 226
235.
7. .., ..
. 2:
// .: .
2010. 560 .

, Gr.
PV RF > PV Gr ,
. 5 PV RF = 0,973

PV Gr = 0,869 .


.
,

.

. 2 . 3
[6].
,
.

.
.. ,

.

1. ., .., ..

// 4

MARKOV CHAIN MODEL FOR ANALYZING P2P STREAMING NETWORK


Adamu Aminu,
PhD student, Telecommunication Systems Department, Peoples Friendship University of Russia,
aminu@mail.ru
Gaidamaka YuliyaV.,
An associate professor, Telecommunication Systems Department, Peoples Friendship University of Russia,
ygaidamaka@mail.ru
Samuylov Andrey K.,
Student, Telecommunication Systems Department, Peoples Friendship University of Russia,
asam1988@gmail.com
Abstract
In this paper, we develop a model for the process of filling a buffer in users environment in P2P live streaming network 
buffer occupancy model. The model is derived in terms of discreet Markov chain. We study a probability measure of the model
buffer occupancy distribution and the probability of playback continuity.
Keywords P2P network, live streaming, buffer occupancy, playback continuity, Markov chain model.

-12

" . "




NGN

, (ETSI).
.
..,

andreevd@zniis.ru
..,

shalaginov@zniis.ru

.

(Annex A TR 102 717),
,
STQ ;



NP ( xDSL, WiMAX,
GSM, UMTS) , (
TR 102 717 ).
STQ
.
TR 102 775 [3],
,
:




QoS;


end to end QoS,
;



,
, ;


,
Fax over IP (FoIP) Modem
over IP (MoIP), QoS

;


, SBC
(Session Border Controller),




,

[1]. ,
NGN IMS,
RACS (Resources
Admission Control System),
NP, QoE
QoS
NGN.

.


ETSI,

Speech and multimedia Transmission Quality
(STQ). STQ
RACS
,
.
STQ 2009
: STF 360 STF
363
QoS NGN,
ETSI
QoS NP NGN.
TR 102 717 (v.1.1.1,
10.2009) Quality of Service Implications of NGN Archi
tectures [2],
QoS NP
NGN :



13-

" . "


[GSMA document IR.3445] ( 1),
TR 102 775
( 2).
NGN

, (Wimax, xDSL, DECT
).
R ,

.


Ethernet ( .
G.826x),
QoS.
, ETSI,

.
,
,
.
, ETSI

1

,
.

28

23

40

36

170

180

190

60

100

113

165

121

23

20

18

38

175

180

200

65

108

125

168

135

40

18

20

51

180

185

220

83

108

141

175

131

36

37

51

36

173

178

190

73

110

124

168

109

170

175

180

173

75

83

138

170

143

177

230

192

180

180

185

178

83

63

128

180

155

245

240

126

190

200

210

190

138

128

45

180

155

185

235

144

60

65

83

73

170

180

180

20

45

46

140

163

100

108

108

110

143

155

155

45

20

63

150

209

113

125

141

124

178

245

185

46

123

20

67

147

165

168

175

168

230

240

235

240

150

67

60

140

121

135

131

109

192

125

144

163

209

147

90

90

.
.
.
.

2


,
1 400
5 000
10 000
19 000
27 500

. .
.
.
. .

,
Fax over IP (FoIP) Modem over IP (MoIP).
2010 . (STF
392)

QoS QoE
.
NP

,
ETSI
( ).

.1.

,
(
)
11
30
55
100
145

ETSI

,

- 14

" . "

Ixia 400T,
(DSL Ethernet).

10.101.0.254/24

10.20.70.254/24

VLAN trunk

Switch

DSLAM

DSLAM

DSL

DSL

CPE

CPE

10.101.0.50/24

()

Ethernet

Ethernet
10.101.0.40/24

()

10.20.38.50/24

.3. :
();
()

10.20.38.40/24

IXIA (IxLoad)


RACS,

.

QoS


SLA. ,
, ETSI,

SLA.

.1.

NP, ,
FoIP :


E.458;


, P.862.

3,

,
.
ETSI

.

,

1. .., ..


// , 2009. N10. . 49 53.
2. TR 102 717 (v.1.1.1, 10.2009) Quality of Service Impli
cations of NGN Architectures.
3. TR 102 775 Guidance on objectives for Quality related
Parameters at VoIP Segment Connection Points; A support to
NGN transmission planners.

15-

" . "


NGN

.
,
.
NGN NetLines.
..,
2222 , ...,
barkova@zniis.ru
..,
2222 , ...
tsergeeva@zniis.ru

TDM NGN/IMS

, .

,


.


, ..

,

.

,

.


.

,


.


,
.
,

(
).
: ,
, ,
,
, .



.

.

.

,
. ,
, ,
Ethernet ,
WiMax, IP TV
,

,
,

, .

NGN



,
,
, , .
,
,
,
. ,
, ,

- 16

" . "

ONT

IP-TV

ONT
ONT
ONT
ONT

TMG 2

4
(PON)

ISP

ONT

R2

ONT
ONT

R1

R3

MSAN 4

R4
3

MSAN 2
TMG 4
MSAN 1

MSAN 3

DSLAM 2

DSLAM 1
1

P. 1.


.

, , /. ,
,
/

(, G.711, G.729 .).

,
,
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.
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,

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.
(,
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(, VPN,
, IP TV, .).
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,

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,
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IMS Softswitch.


, Softswitch IMS
,
NGN IMS
NGN Softswitch.
.


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.


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" . "

, ,
IPTV.
()
, :

(
);

IP ( ,
VPN ( ),
ADSL /
);

IP TV (
multicast,
).

. 1.

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, : ,
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IP TV, IP (
, VPN, ),
.
,
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/).
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(),
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, ,
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MS Excel)
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,
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NetLines ,

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NetLines,
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nes ,
HTML.

. 6. . 7
() (
).

- 18

" . "

1
MS Excel

()

R2

IP TV

IPTV

TMG2

..

R1

ISP

R4

R3

K1

10

DSLAM2

11

MSAN4

IP
(


)

IP

MSAN3

500

K1

K1

5000

250
0
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12

ADSL

1000
2000

200

70

K2

500

K2

500

K2

K2

5600

2
, /
MSAN4
MSAN4

MSAN3
7

MSAN1

MSAN2

10

10

10

10

14

MSAN3

11

11

11

11

14

MSAN1

MSAN2

3
, /
DSLAM2
DSLAM2

MSAN4
19

MSAN3

MSAN1

DSLAM1

MSAN2

19

46

114

23

23

273

23

23

273

18

46

MSAN4

23

MSAN3

23

114

MSAN1

DSLAM1

19

19

MSAN2

19

19

83

413

413

12

33

83

19

46
83

" . "

4
VPN, /
DSLAM2
DSLAM2

MSAN4

MSAN3

MSAN1

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MSAN2

75

75

15

15

548

16

44

110

110

16

44

110

110

MSAN4

110

MSAN3

110

548

10

10

MSAN1

29

29

DSLAM1

15

75

75

MSAN2

15

75

75

15
15

5
, /

, /

RT1

MSAN4

MSAN3

RT2

MSAN4

11

RT3

MSAN4

11

RT4

MSAN4

MSAN1

RT5

MSAN4

MSAN2

RT6

MSAN4

RT7

MSAN4

RT8

MSAN3

11

RT9

MSAN3

11

BE1

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MSAN4

42

BE2

DSLAM2

MSAN3

42

BE3

DSLAM2

BE4

DSLAM2

MSAN1

BE5

DSLAM2

DSLAM1

BE6

DSLAM2

MSAN2

BE7

DSLAM2

128

BE8

MSAN4

MSAN3

229

BE9

MSAN4

BC1

DSLAM2

MSAN4

42

BC2

DSLAM2

MSAN3

42

BC3

DSLAM2

BC4

DSLAM2

MSAN1

BC5

DSLAM2

DSLAM1

BC6

DSLAM2

MSAN2

BC7

DSLAM2

128

BC8

MSAN4

MSAN3

229

-20

, /

BC9

MSAN4

TV1

IP TV

K1

400

TV2

IP TV

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TV3

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DSLAM2

120

TV4

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DSLAM2

187

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937

6
, /

( 1 2)

, /

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17

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MSAN1 2

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20

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21

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786

22

4_(PON) R3

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21

" . "


( 1 2)

,
/

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MSAN4 K1 MSAN3

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MSAN4 2

11

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11

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MSAN4 K1 R1 R4 R3 2 MSAN1

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MSAN4 K1 R1 R4 R3 2 MSAN2

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DSLAM2 MSAN3

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BE3

DSLAM2 3

DSLAM2 K1 R1 R4 R3 2 3

BE4

DSLAM2 MSAN1

DSLAM2 K1 R1 R4 R3 2 MSAN1

BE5

DSLAM2 DSLAM1

DSLAM2 K1 R1 R4 R3 2 DSLAM1

BE6

DSLAM2 MSAN2

DSLAM2 K1 R1 R4 R3 2 MSAN2

BE7

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128

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BE8

MSAN4 MSAN3

229

MSAN4 K1 MSAN3

BE9

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MSAN4 K1 R1 R4 R3 2 3

BC1

DSLAM2 MSAN4

42

DSLAM2 K1 MSAN4

BC2

DSLAM2 MSAN3

42

DSLAM2 K1 MSAN3

BC3

DSLAM2 3

DSLAM2 K1 R1 R4 R3 2 3

BC4

DSLAM2 MSAN1

DSLAM2 K1 R1 R4 R3 2 MSAN1

BC5

DSLAM2 DSLAM1

DSLAM2 K1 R1 R4 R3 2 DSLAM1

BC6

DSLAM2 MSAN2

DSLAM2 K1 R1 R4 R3 2 MSAN2

BC7

DSLAM2 4_(PON)

128

DSLAM2 K1 R1 R4 R3 4_(PON)

BC8

MSAN4 MSAN3

229

MSAN4 K1 MSAN3

BC9

MSAN4 3

MSAN4 K1 R1 R4 R3 2 3

TV1

IP TV K1

400

IP TV R2 R1 K1

TV2

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400

IP TV R2 R3 2

TV3

K1 DSLAM2

120

K1 DSLAM2

TV4

K1 MSAN4

120

K1 MSAN4

BE29

ISP DSLAM2

187

ISP R1 K1 DSLAM2

BE30

ISP MSAN4

937

ISP R1 K1 MSAN4

-22

NetLines

.
,
,
,

.


,


.
,
.

.

,
.



,
,
, ,

.

1.
.., ..



NetLines, T Comm ,
, III,
2009 .143 146.

-23

" . "

CDMA

() ,
.
,
.
CDMA . *.
*

( 10 07 00487 ).

: , , Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).

..,
..., ,
gbasharin@sci.pfu.edu.ru
..,
,
aterekova@gmail.com
..,
,
svshtatnov@gmail.com

.

,
,
.

: ,
, .
()
()
.
CDMA ,

(
) ( ) ,

.
, , ,
[2, 3].
CDMA
.

.

.

. 1.


CDMA ,
: (Normal area,
NA) (Handoff area, HA) (. 2).

,
.
C ,
()
. 1 ,
, n ,

.

CDMA (.1) 0.
, (),
, .
() ,
, .

,
,

2 ( ) h .

n , h
.

- 24

" . "

.
,
.
2. h ,
, HA NA
C .

.
h , ,

. 2. NA HA ) , )

(
)
1
Tcell = cell
.

. , n ,
h ,
,
0 .

NA HA
1

TNA = NA
1
.
TA = HA

s = ( n1 ; n2 ; m ) , n1 NA, n2

S
, = SHA
= HA .
SNA + SHA Scell
n (1 ) := n

NA,

0 ,

,
h ,

HA, m .
U := U (s) = n1 + n2

.
S
:
S = S1 U S2 ,
(1)
S = {s : U (s) C , m = 0} ,

HA.

NA HA := NA , HA NA
. . 3
, . 3
.

S 2 = {s : U (s) = C , 0 < m r} .
S n S h , n h
, , :
Sn = {s S1 : U (s) < C g} ,

Sh = {s S : m < r} .

(2)

S n S h n
h , ,

S n = {s S : U (s) C g} ,

. 3. () ()

n
, g , 0 g C , n

,
n ,

. h
, h

. ,
h ,
r ,
(. 3).
FCFS.
h
:
1. h
C

S h1 = {s S : U (s) = C , m = r} ,

(3)

S h 2 = {s S : U (s) = C , 0 < m r} .
.
. 5 , 3

h , 2.
S
, S n ( S h )
n ( h ) S n ( S h ) n ( h )
:

25


p (n1 , n2 ,0) [ n I (n1 + n2 < C g ) + h + n1 ( + 0 ) + n2 ( 0 + h + )] =

= p(n1 , n2 1,0)(h + n I (n1 + n2 1 < C g )) + p (n1 , n2 + 1,0)(n2 + 1)( 0 + h ) +

+ p (n1 1, n2 ,0)n I (n1 + n2 1 < C g ) + p(n1 + 1, n2 ,0)(n1 + 1) 0 +

+ p (n1 1, n2 + 1,0)(n2 + 1) + p(n1 + 1, n2 1,0)(n1 + 1) , n1 + n2 C , m = 0

p(n1 , n2 , m) [ h + n1 ( 0 + ) + (n2 + m)( 0 + h + ) ] =

= p(n1 , n2 , m 1)h + p(n1 , n2 , m + 1)(n2 ( 0 + h ) + (m + 1)( 0 + h + )) +

+ p (n1 1, n2 + 1, m)(n2 + 1) + p (n1 + 1, n2 1, m)(n1 + 1) +

+ p (n1 + 1, n2 1, m)(n1 + 1)(n1 + 1) , n1 + n2 = C , m > 0

S = S1 U S2 ,

S1 = {s : n1 + n2 5, m = 0} ,
S2 = {s : n1 + n2 = 5, 0 < m 2} ,
Sn = {s S1 : n1 + n2 < C g} ,
Sh = {s S : m < 2} ,
S n = {s S : n1 + n2 2} ,

(5)


A = ( a ( s, q ) )

s ,qS

S h1 = {s S : n1 + n2 = 5, m = 2} ,
S h 2 = {s S : n1 + n2 = 5, 0 < m 2} .

. 4.

, (5)
LU .
n ,
g
, .. S n .
, n n

n =

p(s) .

(6)

sS n

h ,
C
( S h1 ).
h ,
, HA NA
( Sh 2 ),
. ,
h S h1 S h 2

. 4.

h1 h 2 :



X(t ) = ( X 1 (t ), X 2 (t ), X 3 (t )) T

h1 =

p(s),

(7)

h2 =
p(s).
+ h + 0 sS
, n h
,
(8)
UTIL = UTIL + UTIL = ( n + n ) p (s).
sS h1

S , X 1 (t ) X 2 (t ) n

h t 0

h2

, X 3 (t ) h .
X(t )
p (s) := p{X = s} = P{X 1 = n1 , X 2 = n2 , X 3 = m} . (4)

NA

HA

sS


,
0:


. 5.

HA

(9)
= 16 lg ,
= 2 lg (1 ) ,
cell
cell
= HA 0,5 (1 ) ,
h = HA 0,5 (1 + ) . (10)

,
, . 1.
1


.
n , h1 h 2

. 5. X(t )

) n1 + n2 C , m = 0 , ) n1 + n2 = C , m > 0

( n = , h = 0,3 )
( 0,05; 0,3; 0,5 ).

()
:

. 6 ,
n
. , HA,

-26

" . "

.

n .

. 7. h1 ()
h 2 () h
. 6. n


TA HA, .. h
,
, h 2
2 (. 7).

,
CDMA
.
.

.
,


.

. 8. UTIL

1. X.Wang, S.Xie, X. Hu. Recursive Analysis for Soft Handoff


Schemes in CDMA Cellular Systems, IEEE Transactions on Wire
less Communications, vol.8, no.3, pp.1499 1507, march 2009.
2. .. , .. , .. .
UTRA , ,

10, 2007.
3. ., . . UMTS.
, , . .: , 2007.
464.: .
4. M. Zhang, Chin Tau Lea. Impact of Mobility on CDMA
Call Admission Control, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technol
ogy, vol.55, no.6, pp.1908 1922, november 2006.
5. Szu Lin Su, Jen Yeu Chen, Jane Hwa Huang. Performance
Analisys of Soft Handoff in CDMA Cellular Networks, IEEE J. Sel.
Areas Commun., vol.14, no.9, pp.1762 1769, december 1996.

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF CDMA CELL WITH SOFT HANDOFF


Basharin Gely P., Doctor of Science, Professor, Telecommunication Systems Department, Peoples Friendship University of Russia,
gbasharin@sci.pfu.edu.ru
Aterekova Tatiana V., Postgraduate student, Telecommunication Systems Department, Peoples Friendship University of Russia,
aterekova@gmail.com
Shtatnov Sergey V., Postgraduate student, Telecommunication Systems Department, Peoples Friendship University of Russia,
svshtatnov@gmail.com
Handoff is one of the most important functions, guaranteeing to the user mobility in a wireless cellular network. In 3G systems it is possible to
make the connection to the new cell before leaving the current cell. This concept is known as soft handover. Soft handoff allows to improve the
quality of service (QoS), to increase throughput of system and to reduce service transmission losses. In this paper we propose a mathematical
model for CDMA cell of voice traffic with soft handoff. The analytical formulas for calculation of blocking probabilities and also other perform
ance characteristics are derived.
Keywords: soft handoff, admission control, Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA).

27

" . "



(PON)
, e . PON
.
..


, .
Cisco Virtual Networking Index [1] ( 2010
.), 2013
, 10
DVD . 90%
,
500 , . 1.

. 2.

PON

(ITU)
(IEEE).
PON 1995 .,
(British Telecom,
France Telecom, Deutsche Telecom, NTT, KPN, Telefonia
Telecom Italia) ,

. ITU,
FSAN (Full Service Access Network).
FSAN
PON ,


PON.
ITU APON (Asynchronous
Transfer Mode (ATM) PON).
PON BPON (Broadband PON),
APON (ITU T
G.983), 622 /
155 / .
ITU T G.984 GPON (Gigabit capable
PON), 2008 . GPON
2.488 /
155 / .
ITU FSAN
PON, NG PON.
: XG PON ,
, NG PON.
,
GPON .

,
PON. XG PON1
(ITU T G.987) 2010 .

. 1.



, 2010
Cisco ,
. ,
P2P ,
2011 2012 .
(PON)
.
PON
" ".

,
.

OLT, (
)
/ ONT/ONU, . 2.

-28

" . "

AES. ,
.

[6]:
DoS (denial of ser
vice).


(ONU/ONT) .


ONU, ,
ONU OLT
, ONU.
, ONU,
.



.
:
.

.


, .

.

,


" ". " "
,
.
1000 .
. ,
,
,
.
?

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, GPON
,

,
.
, ,
,
.


.
,
,
.
.
PON

10 / 2,5 /
. Portugal Telecom
Huawei
XG PON1 [2].
Verizon
2010 . [3].

. 3. ITU T PON

IEEE 2004 . IEEE 802.3ah


(Ethernet )
EPON, PON Ethernet
. EPON 1 / ,
. 2009 .
IEEE 802.3av,
10G EPON.
, XG PON
10 /.
2010 .
ZTE [4].
EPON GPON
, [5].
, GPON
,
EPON
IPTV.


. ,
PON
,

, ,

.


. ..

. , PON


EPON GPON
29

3.
Implementing Next Generation Passive Optical
Network Designs with FPGAs // Altera Corporation. URL:
http://www.altera.com/literature/wp/wp 01143 next gen
pon.pdf.
4.
ZTE Announces Successful 10G EPON Testing in U.S.
Market
//
ZTE
Corporation
URL:
http://wwwen.zte.com.cn/en/press_center/news/201005/t2
0100513_184642.html.
5.
.. EPON
GPON // Lightwave Russian Edition. 2005.
N2. . 16 22.
6.

..

PON // .
2006.
2. . 104 108.
7.
TDM PON Security Issues: Upstream Encryption is
Needed / David Gutierrez, Jinwoo Cho, Leonid G. Kazovsky //
Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic
Engineers Conference, , , , 25 29
2007.

,
.
,

.
. ,
,

. ,
PON
.

1.
Cisco Visual Networking Index // Cisco Systems Inc.
URL: http://www.ciscovni.com/vni_forecast/index.htm.
2.
Portugal Telecom Huawei
IPTV Meo 3DTV
10G GPON/ Huawei Technologies
URL: http://www.huawei.com/ru/catalog.do?id=4422.

30

" . "



.
.
VPN MPLS.
..,


,
,
,
,
.
, (VPN)
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-33

" . "

C .

. ,

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1.
.. .
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., 2007.
2.
. . . :
. : , 2006
3.
.
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4.
www.cisco.com.

-34

" . "

,
MIMO
, MIMO
, MIMO.
MIMO , ,
.
, , , .
..,

bukharev@zniis.ru


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( , IP
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,



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ple Input Multiple Output
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MIMO N
M . MIMO
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hnm.
H NxM.

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Z
;
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: X = H S + Z.
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.
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: Kathrein,
Nobicom, Huber Suhner,
Bester, HiTE, Delta Satellite .
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36

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37

" . "

2
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ANT 18

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6 dB

12 dB

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). 0


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,
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type 1,5 dB/.. ,
3 N
type 2 MMCX type. MIMO S3T
,
,
,
. MIMO S3T
, ,

1. .., .., ..
LTE. ,
2010. 281 .)
2. M. Viberg, T. Boman, U. Carlberg, L. Pettersson,
S. Ali, E. Arabi, M. Bilal and O. Moussa MIMO Antenna
Systems.
3. Risto Wichman MIMO Systems
4. www.shop wimax.ru
5. www.yota77.ru

-38

" . "


MESH
*
, ,
, mesh.
mesh ,
mesh.
..,
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100790006).

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41

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42


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).
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1

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p

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-43

" . "

10 Dec. 12 Dec. 2008. Vienna, 2008. pp. 242 255. ISBN


978 3 540 92156 1.
7. Jabbar Abdul, Rohrer Justin P., Oberthaler Andrew,
Cetinkaya Egemen K., Frost Victor S., Sterbenz James P.G.
Performance Comparison of Weather Disruption Tolerant Cross
Layer Routing Algorithms // Proceedings of 28th IEEE Confer
ence on Computer Communications (INFOCOM'2009), 19 Apr.
25 Apr. 2009. Rio de Janeiro, 2009. pp. 1143 1151. ISBN
978 1 4244 3512 8.
8. Part 15: Wireless medium access control (MAC) and
physical layer (PHY) specifications for high rate wireless personal
area networks (WPANs), Amendment 2: Millimeter wave based
alternative physical layer extension // IEEE Std 802.15.3c
2009. IEEE, Sept. 2009.
9. Perahia E. TGad Functional Requirements, doc.: IEEE
802.11 09/0228r5.
2009.
https://mentor.ieee.org/
802.11/documents.
10. Myles Andrew, de Vegt Rolf. Wi Fi Alliance (WFA) VHT
Study Group. Usage Models, doc.: IEEE 802.11 07/2988r3.
March 2008. https://mentor.ieee.org/802.11/dcn/07/11
07 2988 04 0000 liaison from wi fi alliance to 802 11
regarding wfa vht study group consolidation of usage
models.ppt.
11. Grodzinsky M. Amendment to WFA Usage Models,
doc.:
IEEE
802.11 09/0583r0.
March
2009.
https://mentor.ieee.org/802.11/dcn/09/11 09 0583 00
00ad tgad usage model.ppt.
12. Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC)
and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: Amendment: Mesh Net
working // IEEE P802.11s/D7.0. IEEE, August 2010.
13. Part 15.5: Mesh Topology Capability in Wireless Per
sonal Area Networks (WPANs) // IEEE Std 802.15.5 2009.
IEEE, Mar. 2009
14. Zhang Y., Luo L., Hu H. Wireless mesh networking: ar
chitectures, protocols and standards. Auerbach Publications,
2007. 608 . ISBN 9780849373992.
15. Nelson R., Kleinrock L. Spatial TDMA: A collisionfree
multihop channel access protocol // IEEE Transactions on Com
munications. Sep. 1985. . 33. . 934944.




.
.

1. .

Mesh
// 14
. .,
2010. . 146 161.
2. Vishnevsky Vladimir M., Larionov Andrey A. GWM
MAC protocol for High Throughput Backbone Wireless Mesh
Networks Operating within 60 80 GHz // IEEE International
Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Sys
tems 2010 (ICUMT'2010), 18 Oct. 20 Oct. 2010. M., 2010.
3. Vishnevsky Vladimir M., Larionov Andrey A. A Novel
Approach for Scheduling in STDMA for High Throughput Back
bone Wireless Mesh Networks Operating within 60 80 GHz //
Third International Conference on Advances in Mesh Networks
(MESH'2010), 18 Jul. 25 Jul. 2010. Venice, 2010.
4. Singh S., Mudumbai R., Madhow U. Distributed Coordi
nation with Deaf Neighbors: Efficient Medium Access for 60 GHz
Mesh Networks // Proceedings IEEE INFOCOM'2010, 18
Mar. 19 Mar. 2010. San Diego, CA, 2010. ISBN 978 1
4244 5836 3.
5. Mudumbai R., Singh S., Madhow U. Medium Access
Control for 60 GHz Outdoor Mesh Networks with Highly Direc
tional Links // IEEE INFOCOM'2009, 19 Apr. 25 Apr. 2009.
Rio de Janeiro, 2009. pp. 2871 2875. ISBN 978 1 4244
3512 8.
6. Jabbar Abdul, Raman Bharatwajan, Frost Victor S.,
Sterbenz James P.G. Weather Disruption Tolerant Self
Optimising Millimeter Mesh Networks // 3rd International
IFIP/IEEE Workshop on Self Organizing Systems (IWSOS'2008),

- 44

" . "




,
.
, .
,
. ,
. ,
,
*.
: , ,

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ksam@sci.pfu.edu.ru
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46

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.

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m

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[7]

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47

BkII

" . "


3
.

I
. 10. Bm

1.
. multicast
//

. 2010. http://www.telemultimedia.ru/
art.php?id=412&rid=18.
2.
. IPTV "": ,
, //

2010.
http://www.telemultimedia.ru/art.php?id=406&rid=18.
3.
. Ethernet //
. /LAN.

2009.
http://www.osp.ru/lan/2009/10/
10619946/.
4.

,
www.telemultimedia.ru.
5.
.., .., ..,
..
// . 2009.
12. .16 28.
6.
.., .., ..
. . .:
. 2007. 191 .
7.
..

//
. , ,
. 2010 N2 (1). C. 37 41.
8.
K. Boussetta, A. L. Beylot, Multirate Resource Sharing
for Unicast and Multicast Connections // Proc. of 5th FIP Broad
band Communications (BC'99, Hong Kong). November, 1999.
pp. 561 570, Kluwer.
9.
Y. Gaidamaka, K. Samouylov, Analytical model of
multicast network and single link performance analysis // Proc. of
the 6 th Int. Conf. on Telecommunications (ConTEL 2001, Za
greb, Croatia). 2001.
10. Irina Gudkova and Olga Plaksina. Performance
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cast and Multicast Traffics. Lecture Notes in Computer Science,
2010, Volume 6294, Smart Spaces and Next Generation
Wired/Wireless Networking, pp. 256 265.
11. .., ..

//
.
, , , 2010,
3(1), . 54 60.

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5
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1 . . 3

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,

,

SOME WARNINGS ON INADMISSIBILITY OF ERLANG LOSS MODEL TO COMPUTE BLOCKING PROBABILITIES


IN MULTISERVICE NETWORKS WITH MULTICAST CONNECTIONS
Yuliya Gaidamaka, Konstantin Samouylov, Olga Schukina,
Peoples Friendship University of Russia, Moscow
ygaidamaka@mail.ru, ksam@sci.pfu.edu.ru, schukina.olga@gmail.com
Video traffic demand is constantly growing and exhausting the resources of service provider networks. Constantly upgrading the network
capacity is expensive and will not help in the long term. That is the reason why multicast technologies are so significant in modern telecommu
nications due to bandwidth saving nature. This paper is concerning the use of multiservice loss models to compute the probabilistic measures of
multicast traffic streams. It is shown that classical Erlang loss model is inaccurate in this case, and another exact solution is proposed, based on
loss network model with unicast and multicast connections.
Keywords: multicast connection, loss network model, Erlang model, blocking probabilities.

48

" . "




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algre@mail.ru

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[10],

1.

, .
IP/. . . .. . .:
, 2003. 368 .
2.
..
. .: , 2008.
326 .
3.
.., , .. ,
.. .
II/ . .. . .:
, 2001. 334 .
4.
, . CMDB
?// .2007.
N7. . 4859.
5.
.., ..
.
. 2010.
N3 10, . 212223. URL:http://www.jip.ru/2010/212
223 2010.pdf ( 13.11.2010).
6.
., .
Cisco. 2 ./. .
.. . .: ,
2001. 298 .
7.
., .
/ . . .. ..
. .: , 1990. 208 .
8.
Bard, J., Kovarik, Vincent J. Jr. Software defined ra
dio : the software communications architecture. England:
Jonn Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2007. 383 p.
9.
Cognitive Networks: towards Self Aware Net
works/edited by Qusay H. Mahmoud. England: Jonn
Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2007. 383 p.
10.
Cognitive Wireless Communications Networks/edited
by Ekram Hossain and Vijay Bhargava. Springer. 2008.
440 p.

51

" . "



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, , ,
(Reduced
Load Approximation, RLA) *.
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k ( l ) =

53

k k
Cl

i =1, m:

lkm+1 =l

i
(12)

1 Bk ( lk ) , k K l , l L.

.
, ,
,

, (3), (4),

. (4)

.
(3)
(4)
.
[5],
(5)(7)
(8)(11). ,
(12)
. , (6)(12)
, ,
(6), (7),
(5) , , (3)
(4). (6)(12)
.
,
. ,
L = {1, 2, 3} C1 = 2 , C2 = 3




.

,

,
.
.
,
.

. . ., ,
..
.

1. .., .., ..,


..
// . .:
. 2009. N12. .1628.
2. ..
//
. , , . .:
. 2009. N3. . 2533.
3. .., .., ..
: . .: .
2007. 191 .
4. Pla. V., Virtamo J., Martinez Bauset J. Optimal robust
policies for bandwidth allocation and admission control in wire
less networks // Computer Networks. 2008. Vol.52.
P.32583272.
5. Samouylov K.E. and Gudkova I.A. Recursive computa
tion for a multi rate model with elastic traffic and minimum rate
guarantees // Proc. of the International Congress on Ultra Mod
ern Telecommunications and Control Systems ICUMT 2010
(1820 October 2010). P.10651072.

C3 = 3 .
K = {1, 2, 3} L1 = {1, 2, 3} ,
L2 = {1, 2} , L3 = {3, 2}

b1 = 1 , b2 = 2 , b3 = 3 .
n = ( n1 (1) , n2 (1) , n1 ( 2) , n2 ( 2) , n3 ( 2) , n1 ( 3) , n3 ( 3) ) ,

X , X = 280 . . 1

k = k k , k = 1, 3 ,

, .

. 1.

REDUCED LOAD APPROXIMATION FOR A MULTI SERVICE NETWORK WITH ELASTIC TRAFFIC
Gudkova Irina A., Senior teacher, Telecommunication Systems Department,
Peoples Friendship University of Russia, igudkova@sci.pfu.edu.ru
In the paper, we consider a multi service network with elastic traffic. To ensure elastic traffic minimum transmission rate mini
mum rate guarantees are introduced. We propose the Reduced Load Approximation (RLA) to compute blocking probabilities
and the so called mean transfer time end to end traffic delay.
Keywords: elastic traffic, minimum rate guarantee, blocking probability, mean transfer time, end to end delay, Reduced Load Approximation.

54

" . "



.
:
.
,
*.
: , , , , .

..,
,
igudkova@sci.pfu.edu.ru
..,
,
mkatyushka@mail.ru
* ( 10 07 00487 ).

1.

C
. ,

. 1. ,

.

(Processor Sharing, PS).
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: Bs
, Be

T :
U ( 0)

Bs = p ( N ( u ) , u ),

(2)

u =0

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55-

N ( 0)

p ( n,U ( n ) ),
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(3)

" . "
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T=

up ( n, u )
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,
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(8)

n = 0, N ( u ), u = 0, U ( 0 ),

u 1

P {U ( t ) = u} = P {U ( t ) = 0}

u e ( i )
i =0

C dm ( i )

( u ) =
e

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n =0

(9)

i =1

N ( u +1)

, u = 1,U ( 0 ),

U ( t ) = u}

,
,

u
,

ms ( u ) =

N (u )

n P { N ( t ) = n

U ( t ) = u}

n =0

,
u ,
u


P{U ( t ) = u N ( t ) = n} =

C dn

U ( n) i
, (10)

i=0 C dn

u = 0,U ( n), n = 0, N ( 0),

P{ N ( t ) = n} = P{ N ( t ) = 0}

( n ) =
s

3.


. 2.
.

i = 100% (Ti T ) T , Ti

( n, u ) X . (5)

(5)
,
( N ( t ) , U ( t ) )

u
( C d ( n 1) [C dn ]) .


p ( n, u )
p ( n, u ) P { N ( t ) = n U ( t ) = u} P {U ( t ) = u} =
= p2 ( n, u ) ,

p ( n, u ) P {U ( t ) = u

( n, u ) X

N ( t ) = n} P { N ( t ) = n} =
= p3 ( n, u ) ,

( n, u ) X .

N ( t ) = n}

2.

.

,
u

u =0

p3 ( n, u ) (7), (10), (11)


p ( n, u ) ( N ( t ) , U ( t ) ) .

,
.
,
.

an

= p1 ( n, u ) ,
n ! C dn

P {U ( t ) = u

,
, n .
, :
p1 ( n, u ) (5), p2 ( n, u ) (6), (8), (9)


( C dn ) u n

p ( n, u ) p ( 0, 0 )

U ( n +1)

an n1
s ( i ), n = 1, N ( 0), (11)
n ! i =0

, pi ( n, u ) , i = 1,3
min = min i
i =1,3: i 0

T ,
.

,
,
Bs , Be < 105

(6)

.
(7)

-56

. 2.
2: min



105
(
3, . 3). (6), (8), (9)

, , (5) p3 ( n, u ) (7), (10),

,
pi ( n, u ) , , Ti

a ,
p ( n, u ) , , 1
, . a ,

a , 1 , 1 ,

(11)
.

, 1 3 .

(
1), i = 1,3 .
( 1 , )
(7), (10), (11),

,
min (. 1).
Bs
(. 1).

. 3.
3:

1 3

,
.

, 105 ,
,
20%: p( n,u) P{U ( t ) = u N ( t ) = n} P{ N( t ) = n} .
,
,

. ,
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(11)
.
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Play,
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.

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2, . 2).
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( a, ) , ,
2 1
5%, 3 < 15% < 1 .
, ( a, ) ,
Be < Bs < 105 ,
(7), (10), (11).

57

" . "

Joint International Conference on Measurement and Modeling of


Computer Systems, New York, USA, 1216 June 2004.
Vol.32, No.1. P. 235245.
4. Boxma O.J., Gabor A.F., Nunez Queija R., Tan H.P.
Performance analysis of admission control for integrated services
with minimum rate guarantees // Proc. of the 2nd Conference on
Next Generation Internet Design and Engineering, Valencia,
Spain, 35 April 2006. P. 4147.
5. Karray M.A. Analytical evaluation of QoS in the downlink
of OFDMA wireless cellular networks serving streaming and elas
tic traffic // IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications.
Vol.9, No.5. 2010. P.17991807.

1. .., .., ..,


..
// . .:
. 2009.
12. . 1628.
2. .., .., ..
Triple Play
// Distributed Computer and Communication networks. Theory
and Applications DCCN 2010. Moscow, R&D Company In
formation and Networking Technologies. 2010. . 610.
3. Bonald T., Proutiere A. On performance bounds for the
integration of elastic and adaptive streaming flows // Proc. of the

ON APPROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF PROBABILITY MEASURES


FOR A MODEL WITH STREAMING AND ELASTIC TRAFFIC
Gudkova Irina A., Senior teacher, Telecommunication Systems Department,
Peoples Friendship University of Russia, igudkova@sci.pfu.edu.ru
Markova Ekaterina V., Magister of science, Telecommunication Systems Department,
Peoples Friendship University of Russia, mkatyushka@mail.ru
In the paper, we consider a single link network model with stream and elastic traffic. To compute and analyze its perform
ance measures, namely blocking probabilities and mean transfer time, two approximate methods are developed. Computational
examples conclude the paper and illustrate methods accuracy.
Keywords: stream traffic, elastic traffic, blocking probability, mean transfer time, approximate method.

58

" . "

NGN
.., ..



, ,
IMS (IP
Multimedia Subsystem)
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61

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63

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C.Wang, K.Sohraby, R.Jana, L.Ji, M.Daneshmand.
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tions Magazine, January 2008.
2.
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. 65
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66

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1. . // .:
, 1979. 432 .
2 ..
// .: , 2009. 342 c.
3 .., .., ..
// .: , 1996. 270 c.
4 Rouskas G.N., Perros H.G. A tutorial on optical net
works // Networking 2002 Tutorials. 2002. Pp. 155 193.
5 .., ..

// . 2005, N5.
C.48 52.
6 .., ..
// .:
. 2007,
N8. C.8 11.

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:
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67

" . "


WiMAX
:
(),
() , .
.
..,

, ,
tvefimushkina@gmail.com
..,

, ,
moltchan@cs.tut.fi
..,

, ,
yk@cs.tut.fi

,
.


WiMAX.


.

WiMAX


.

()
. IEEE 802.16

.
,
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Multiplexing Access),
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68

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.


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0

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69

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s
k ,
.

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k , k ,
k = pk .


70

" . "

r M
N = r x u ( xi ),
x X

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.
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[/].
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.6. k

1
Doirieux S., Baynat B., Begin T. On finding the right
balance between fairness and efficiency in WiMAX scheduling
through analytical modeling // Proceedings of the 17th
IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis and
Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems, MAS
COTS 2009 September London, England.
2.
.., .., ..
WiMAX. 4G // .: , 2009.
472 .
3
..
// .: , 2009. 342 c.
4
. //
.: , 1979. 432 .
5
Baynat B., Nogueira G., Maqbool M., Coupechoux M.
An efficient Analytical Model for the Dimensioning of WiMAX
Networks // In IFIP Networking 2009.
6
.., .., ..

WiMAX
// Comm, 2010.
N7.

.4 6 ,
.
, , ,
.
, ,
1
. 1
, .4,
, 2 3
. .5
.
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, .
,
.

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,
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() .

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-72

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trar, SIP
, SIP
SIP .

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c


700000

- ,

600000

500000

400000

300000

200000

100000

0
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

t 1 , .

- ,
- ,

.1.

SIP

900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
100

,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
40 41 t
,

1 ( )


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,



[2, 3, 4].

,
.
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( )
.
.
.
, ,
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t1 t2


,
Registrar (
IMS/Softswitch, ).
Registrar

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c
, 0 < c << N .

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: .
SIP (
) Registrar
,

() N . c
Registrar.
N
SIP ,
,
( 1)
( 2) .
, ,
.
[5],
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2 . h
,
h .
1 := t1 / h , 2 := t2 / h . , 1 < 2 < 1 .

1 2

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SIP
,
.

() h,

nh , n=1,2, ,
n [(n 1)h, nh )
,
n, nh 0; nh
, ,
n,
, . nh +0
.
n+1 nh +0,
(n+1) (.3) [6].

,
. ,

,
, . ,
, ,
, .

73


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. . .
0

)[

nh
n-

)[

(n+1)h
(n+1)-

)[

. . .
t

.3.
Geom | Geom | 1

,

. c


Geom | Geom | c +1

pij = P { X n = j X n 1 = i} i, j n
,
,
1.
,
X n , n 0,
.
pq = lim P { X n = q} q
n

,
,
pq > 0
,

.

n X n 1 = q .

a1,s

a
s 1 , 2,v
v 2 , s = 0, q , v = 0, N q .
a1, s = a1s (1 a1 )

qs

a2,v = a (1 a2 )

,
.
, ,
,
.
a1
( 1 ),
1 a1 1 .
,
( 2 )
a2,
1 a2.
,
a = 1 < 1, i = 1, 2. ,
1 2
.

c ,
,

, .
, c ,
.

() X n

v
2

, s = 0, q .

N q v

(1)

, v = 0, N q .

(2)

n s 1 v
2 , s = 0, q , v = 0, N q . ,
s
s + v 1 ,
;
v
s + v 2 ,
.
s + v c ,
. s + v > c ,
s + v c .
1 2 ,

s min ( c, s + v )
s+v
,
1
v min ( c, s + v )
s+v
2
,
.
= ( pij )
,
X n , i, j , n 0,

, X n

1 n

n s 1
v 2 , s = 0, q , v = 0, N q .

q + 1) ( N q + 1)
(

:

) q
(
1 , ..
X n 1 = q , q . ( s, v ) ,
n 1

1 n , n 0.
X n = {0, 1, ... , N } , n 0.

n 1)
1 (

n 2 , n 3 , , 0 ,
X n , n 0, ().
X 0 = 0 ,
Registrar,
SIP
pij

i j :

-74

(0,0)

(0,1)

(1,0)

(1,1)

(q,0)

(q,1)

(0,Nq)
(1, N
q)

(q, N
q)

" . "

( a ( s, v ) )s=0,q; v=0, N q

(1) (2)
:
qs
N q v
a ( s, v ) = a1s a2v (1 a1 ) (1 a2 )
,
s = 0, q , v = 0, N q .
(3)
(3)
.
, q
,
1 . ,
2
1 .
s + v c , :
n v = 0 q ,

q , 0 < v N q ( q + v ) ,
( q + v ) , .4. .5
s + v > c .
.

s + v > c s + v c (.4).
1 2
,
,
sc
sc
s
c
s+v
s + v , n

0 s < c < s + v
c s , 0 s = c < s + v
q , s > c s c .
,
X n1 = q, s + v c;
q + v,
Xn =
+

q
c
s
,
X
s + v > c.
n 1 = q,

t t

c , 1 , 2 N


SIP ,
:

;
SIP
;
/
SIP

;
SIP ,
;

;

SIP .

.4. Registrar, s + v c .

.5. Registrar, s + v > c .

1.
.., ..
Softswitch
SIP // , 2007,
N12, .16 19,
ISSN 0013 5771.
2.
Requirements for Management of Overload in the Ses
sion Initiation Protocol // IETF, February, 2006.
3.
The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) CONGESTION
Header Field // IETF, April, 2006.
4.
SIP Overload Control // Valker Hilt, IETF Design Team
Status, 2009.
5.
..

: . ... . . . : 05.13.17
, 2005 131 . , 61:05 1/1192.
6.
.., ..

//
. 1984. .. 1. .95 104.

75

" . "


SIP

SIP ,
.
SIP SIP (SIP
), .
, . ,
, .
SIP, ,
, .
..

Skype.

Skype
()
. ,

(
),


,
Skype.
,

.
,
Skype

()

.

, ,
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(NGN/IMS). ,
,
[6].
,
, ,

. ,

.


,
.
,
SIP (,
SIP ) ,

21 2010 .
Skype
.

Skype Skype [1].

,
.

4 . Skype .
.


2007 . [2].
15 17 2007 .

Skype

.
,
.
.

, .

IM,
.
Skype
Win
dows, Microsoft [3].
Skype
,
Windows.

,
Windows.

. ,

.

76

" . "

, .
,
NGN (, Verizon, British Telecom, NTT)
SIP
,
[4, 5, 6].
,
,
.
:


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;

,

SIP
;

,
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;



, SIP

.

, .1,

[8].

NGN/IMS
,

.
1



16,2%


700000

600000

16,0%
15,3%
9,0%
6,1%
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- ,

DDoS


,
.
, SIP

. ,
,
. ,
,
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. SIP

,
. ,


UDP, .
,
[, 9, . 2.1],

, ,

. ,
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(accept) (reject)
, .1.


SIP
PartySIP [10], .2.
,
, .3.

.
,
(),
.

500000

400000

300000

200000

100000

0
5

, ,

,
0,3 .

,
,
.
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. SIP [7, . 10.2.7]
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.

10

15

20

25

30

- ,

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

t 1 , .

- ,

.1.



.
(reject) .

,

77


,
.
.4,

,
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SIP-

10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000

: 280 /
: 20

4000
3000
2000


Registrar

1000
0
1

21

41

61

81

101

121

141

161

181

201

221

241

261

281

301

.5. SIP ,

.2.

900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
40 41 t

100

1 ( )


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2 ( )

.3.
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,
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,

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.
,
,
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,
.

,
, .6.
12000


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10000


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12000

8000

10000

6000

: 280 /
: 35

8000

4000
6000

: 280 /
: 40

2000


Registrar

4000

0
1

21

41

61

81

101

121

141

161

181

201

221

241

261

281

2000


Registrar
0
1

21

41

61

81

101

121

141

161

181

201

221

241

261

281

301

.4. SIP ,

.6. SIP ,

, ,


.
, , ,
SBC,

.
IETF.

REGISTER SIP.
,
.


, ,
, ,
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SIP ,
. ,
,
, .5.

78

301

" . "

[7] ,

SIP
Retry After: X,
, SIP
.
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP
ss1.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP
client.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9;received=192.0.2.101
Record Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.example.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.example.com;lr>
From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>;tag=314159
Call ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.example.com
Congestion: Server = proxy1.nyc.example.com; Network; level = 4; text="80% Utilization
Threshold"
Retry after: 30
CSeq: 2 REGISTER
Contact: <sip:bob@client.biloxi.example.com;transport=UDP>

[11] ,

,
SIP
.
,
,
oc_validity
.
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP
ss1.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP
ss2.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1;received=192.0.2.1;oc=20;oc
_validity=500
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP
ss3.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1;received=192.0.2.11
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP cli
ent.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9;received=192.0.2.101
Record Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.example.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.example.com;lr>
From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>;tag=314159
Call ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.example.com
CSeq: 2 REGISTER
Contact: <sip:bob@client.biloxi.example.com;transport=UDP>

[6]
Register Restart.


,
.
(R/C) * (1+k), R SIP
, , C
, k
,

( 0,1).

client.atlanta.example.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9;received=192.0.2.101
Record Route: <sip:ss2.biloxi.example.com;lr>, <sip:ss1.atlanta.example.com;lr>
From: Alice <sip:alice@atlanta.example.com>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Bob <sip:bob@biloxi.example.com>;tag=314159
Call ID: 3848276298220188511@atlanta.example.com
Register Restart: 300
CSeq: 2 REGISTER
Contact: <sip:bob@client.biloxi.example.com;transport=UDP>


SIP
,
, SIP
. ,
10 15 ,
,

.
,

SIP
,
NGN/IMS,
.

1.
International Business Time. "Skype outage leaves site
down in US and Europe." 21 Jan. 2010. http://www.ibtimes.com/
articles/20100121/ skype outageskype down skype status skype
outage skype offline.htm (23 Feb. 2010).
2.
Skype 2007 . //
. 2007.
211. .12 13.
3.
Peter Sayer. IDG News Service. "Skype Offers More De
tails of Outage." 21 Aug. 2007. http://www.pcworld.com/ arti
cle/136209/ skype_offers_more_details_of_outage.html (14 Mar.
2008).
4.
Session Initiation Protocol Overload Protection // Steavan
H. Helden, Brian Somes, Timothy W. Bischoff, Arthur Doskow, Kevin
V. Bohn, Gary L. Lockhart, Verizon Business Services, 2009.
5.
NGN Control Plane Overload and its Management //
Ian Jenkins, British Telecom. MSF Technical Report MSF TR ARCH
007 FINAL. February 2006.
6.
C. Shen, H. Schulzrinne, A. Koike. "A Mechanism for
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Avalanche Restart Overload Control."
// IETF SIPPING Working Group. 23 May 2010.
7.
J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne, G. Camarillo, A. Johns
ton. RFC 3261 "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol". IETF. Jun. 2002.
8.
Sean Donelan. Internet outage trends. Atlanta, Georgia,
2001. NANOG 21.
9.
A. Johnston, S. Donovan, R. Sparks, C. Cunningham,
K. Summers. RFC 3665 "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Basic Call
Flow Examples". IETF. Dec. 2003.
10. M. Zubair Rafique, M. Ali Akbar, Muddassar Farooq.
"Evaluating DoS Attacks Against SIP Based VoIP Systems". FAST
National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences (NUCES)
Islamabad, Pakistan. 2009.
11. V. Hilt, I. Widjaja, H. Schulzrinne. "Session Initiation Pro
tocol (SIP) Overload Control". // IETF, draft hilt sipping overload 06.
7 Mar. 2009.

Via: SIP/2.0/UDP

79

" . "


SIP
IMS/Softswitch
(NGN) IMS/Softswitch

SIP.
SIP ,
. SIP , ,
Presence, IMS.
..,
,
..,


SIP
,
.
SIP ,
,
,
, SIP
.
,
, ,

. , SIP
, ,
,
.
SIP,
, , UDP,
, SIP
(
, 8 ).
SIP
[1].
,
() ,
,
IMS/Softswitch SIP
. SIP
() .

,
.

SIP
. 1


SIP Softswitch
300 CPS
SIP , 10000 .

SIP
SIP .

SIP ,
:



;
SIP
;
()
.


.
IMS/Softswitch
,
,
, ..
, ,
,
,
SIP
,
(
). ,

.
, ,
, .


,

.

(, )
.

- 80

" . "

700000

- ,

600000

500000

400000

300000

200000

100000

0
5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

t 1 , .

- ,
- ,

. 12.

SIP

() N . c
Registrar.

900
800

N
SIP ,
,
( 1)
( 2)
. ,
, .
[5],
SIP
.
SIP 1 ,
2 .

700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
100

,
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
40 41 t

1 ( )


SIP-

2 ( )

. 13.
,

,

,
.

[2, 3, 4].

,

.
, ( )
.

.
.
,
,
SIP ,

SIP N , N 0 .
Registrar
c
, 0 < c << N .

SIP
:
. SIP
() Registrar
,
SIP ,
SIP
.
SIP ()
Registrar, SIP
, SIP
SIP .

Registrar
c

h
, h .
1 := t1 / h , 2 := t2 / h . ,
1 < 2 < 1

. 1 2

SIP

SIP
, .

()
h,
nh , n=1,2, .
, n
[(n 1)h, nh ) ,
n,
nh 0; nh
, ,
n, ,
. nh +0
. n+1
nh +0,
(n+1) (. 3) [6].

1 2


,
Registrar ( IMS/Softswitch,
).
Registrar
81-


(n-1)h

. . .
0

)[

nh
n-

)[

X n 2 , X n 3 , , X 0 ,

(n+1)h
(n+1)-

)[

. . .
t

i j :
pij = P { X n = j X n 1 = i} i, j n
,
,
1.
,
X n , n 0,
.
pq = lim P { X n = q} q
n

,
,
pq > 0

,
.

n
X n 1 = q .

Geom | Geom | 1


,
. ,

,
, .
, ,
, ,
.
,

. c


Geom | Geom | c +1

a1, s = a1s (1 a1 )

qs

a2,v = a (1 a2 )

1 ,

, s = 0, q .

2 ,

a1,s

a2,v

s = 0, q ,

(1)

N q v

. v = 0, N q
(2)
n s 1 v
2 , s = 0, q , v = 0, N q . ,
s
s + v 1 ,
;
v
s + v 2 ,
.
s + v c ,
. s + v > c , s + v c
.
1 2 ,
,
s min ( c, s + v )
s+v
1 ,
v min ( c, s + v )
s+v
2 .
v
2

= ( pij )

X n , i, j , n 0,
.

X
, n

1 n , n 0.
X n = {0, 1, ... , N } , n 0.
1 n
1


v = 0, N q .

,
.
, ,
,
.
a1
( 1 ),
1 a1 1 .
,
( 2 )
a2,
1 a2.
,
a = 1 < 1, i = 1, 2. ,
1 2
.

c ,
,

, .
, c ,
.

Xn

pij

. 14.

()

X
n , n 0,
(). X 0 = 0 ,

Registrar, SIP

) q
(
1 , ..
X n 1 = q , q . ( s, v ) ,
n 1

( n 1)

n s 1

- 82

" . "

q + v,
Xn =
q + c s,

v 2 , s = 0, q , v = 0, N q .

q + 1) ( N q + 1)
(

:
(0,0)

(0,1)

(1,0)

(1,1)

(q,0)

(q,1)

( a ( s, v ) )

(0,Nq)
(1, N
q)

(q, N
q)

X n 1 = q, s + v c;
X n 1 = q, s + v > c.

t t

c , 1 , 2 N


SIP ,
:

;
SIP
;
/
SIP

;
SIP ,
;

;

SIP .

s = 0, q ; v = 0, N q

(1) (2)
:
qs
N q v
a ( s, v ) = a1s a2v (1 a1 ) (1 a2 )
,
s = 0, q , v = 0, N q .
(3)
(3)
.

, q
,
1 . ,
2
1 .
s + v c , :
n v = 0 q ,

1.
.., ..
Softswitch
SIP // , 2007,
N12, .16 19,
ISSN 0013 5771.
2.
Requirements for Management of Overload in the Ses
sion Initiation Protocol // IETF, February, 2006.
3.
The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) CONGESTION
Header Field // IETF, April, 2006.
4.
SIP Overload Control // Valker Hilt, IETF Design Team
Status, 2009.
5.
..

: . . . . : 05.13.17
, 2005 131 . , 61:05 1/1192.
6.
.., ..

//
. 1984. .. N1. .95 104.

q , 0 < v N q ( q + v ) ,
( q + v ) (.4). .5
s + v > c .
.
s + v > c s + v c (.
3.4). 1 2
,
,
sc
sc
s
c
s+v
s + v , n

s
<
c < s + v

c s , 0 s = c < s + v

q , s > c s c
.
,

83

" . "




Random Early Detection (RED)
RED
.
/ .
,
, , .
.
..,
,
izaryadov@gmail.com
..,
,
akorolkova@sci.pfu.edu.ru




(, ).
, RED,
(. 1).



(Active
Queue Management, AQM),

, ,
(Differentiated Ser
vice, DiffServ). , AQM
RED (Random Early Detection,
RED) [1, 2],

, .
,
.
.
, TCP (Transmission Control Protocol),

.

,

,
,
, ,
.

[3 5].
[6, 7]
RED
.

. 15. RED


.

p d (q ), 0 p d (q ) 1 ,
. pd (q )

q ,
,
q . pd (q )
:
0 q q min ,
0,

p d (q ) = p (q ), q min < q q max ,


1,
q > q max .

-84

(1)

" . "

p (q ), 0 p (q ) 1 ,
RED (. [2, 3]), q min q max ,

pi = lim P{X n = i}, i W , ,

q min < q max , .


q


i . pi , i W ,


(Exponentially Weighted Moving Average, EWMA):

() p T P = p T
p T 1 = 1 , p T = ( p 0 , p1 , K, p w )T , P

max

q k +1 = (1 wq )q k + wq q k , k = 0, 1, 2, K ,


.
:
A0 ,

(2)

wq , 0 < wq < 1 wq ,
,
[8] wq = 1 e 1 / C ,


C ;
AC + k ,C +l (q ), k = 1, 2, K ,

C ( ).


RED
GI | M | n | , C
,
,
(TCP ).
q min
q max , q min < q max .


k l ,
C + k ;
Ak ,l , k = 1, C 1, l = 0, k , ,

k l ,
k ;
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,
C + k l
,
C+k;
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A( x)


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[1];
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.

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[6, 7]
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, ( k ) ( s) k
(s ) ;
;

C lk k l .


:
(3)
A0 = (C ), Ak ,k = (k ), k = 1, C 1; ;
(C)m
(1)m (m) (C),
1 k qmin, 1 m k 1, 0 q qmin,

m
!

(C)m1
(C)m
(1)m1 (m1) (C) + (1 p(q))
(1)m (m) (C),
p(q)

(
m
1
)!
m!
AC+k ,C+k m (q) =

1 k qmax, 1 m k 1, qmin < q qmax,

m1
(C)
m1 (m1)
(m 1)! (1) (C), k > qmax, 1 m k 1, q > qmax,




, ,
{w (t )} = {w (t ), t 0}
W = {1, K, w max }
w (0) = 1 w max , w (t )

(4)

TCP t 0 .
n , n = 1, 2, K ,

k l

Ak ,l = C C
j =0

l
k

j
k l

(1) (( j + l ) ), k = 1, C 1, l = 0, k ;
j

(5)


n .
w ( n )

(C ) k +1
(1) k +1 ( k +1) (C ),
0 k q min , 0 q q min ,

(k + 1)!

(C ) k +1
(C ) k
(1) k +1 ( k +1) (C ),
( 1) k ( k ) (C ) + (1 p (q ) )
p (q )
AC + k ,C 1 (q ) =
(k + 1)!
k!

q min < k q max , q min < q q max ,

(C ) k
(k )
k
(1) (C ),
k > q max , q > q max ,

k!

TCP .

{X n = w ( n ), n 0} X 0 = 1
W
{w (t ), t 0} ,

n .

(6)
85


C 1 l C 2 l C k + 2
j
C C 2
(1)

i =0 C i l
C
j

k +1

((i + l ) ) (1) j ((C i l ) ) ( j ) (C ) ,

j
!

j =0

0 k q min , 0 q q min , l = 0, k ,

k +1
C 2 l
C
j
C 1 Cl
(1)
C 2
C
i =0 C i l

k

((C i l ) ) j ( j ) (C ) p(q ) +

(1) j

((i + l ) )
j!
j =0
AC + k ,l (q ) =

j
k +1

C
((C i l ) ) ( j ) (C ) (1 p(q )),
+
((i + l ) ) (1) j

C il
j!
j =0

q min < k q max , q min < q q max , l = 0, k ,

C 1 l C 2l C k +1
j
C C 2
(1)

i =0 C i l
C

k
((C i l ) ) j ( j ) (C ) ,
((i + l ) ) (1) j

j!

j =0

k > q max , q > q max , l = 0, k ,

(7)

:
p C + j = p C 1 g qmin m , j = 0, q min 1,

m=0

l =0

pC + qmin + j = pC 1 g qmin m g~qmax qmin l , 0 j q max q min l

(9)
qmin 1

qmax qmin

m =0

l =0

pC + qmax + j = pC 1 g qmin m

g~ g

j +1

, j0

pi =

pA
j

j =i 1

j +1,i

g qmin j =

g = (C Cg ) ,
(C )
g~ =
, i = 1, q max q min ,
Ki

L1 = 1 + C (1) (C )

qmax qmin +1

i = qmin +1 j

j =1

(11) (12)

(0, 1) ,

i 2

AC +i + qmin ,C + qmin ( q2 ) g% qmax qmin l


l =0

K1 = 1 + (1 p(q))C(1) (C) + (C) g ,

qmin j 1

g A
m

qmin j 1

C +i + j ,C + j
i = qmin +1 j

qmax qmin

g
m

m =1

i=2

i =1

C +i + j ,C + j

(q 2 )

(q1 ) (i 1) g qmin j m

m =0

qmax 1 qmin 1

j qmin

A
g
+

qmin m g qmax qmin l A j ,i +


qmin m j ,i

j = qmin m =0

l =0

qmax qmin

+ g qmin m g l g j qmax +1 A j ,i ,
l =0 j =qmax
m =0
qmin 1

p
i =0

(11) (12)

0 i C 1.

= 1 pi , i = 0, C 1.



qi , i 0 , ,

qi = pC +i , i 0, q0 = pi .

i
(13)

i =0

,
( N ) ( Q ) ,
, ,

i=0

i =C

Q = iqi = (i C ) pi .

(14)

i qmin + j 1

g~

qmax qmin l


(i ), i 0 , ,
, i
,
. (i ), i 0 ,
:
0 i qmin ,
0,

(16)

(i ) = p (q )(1 (C )), q min < i q max ,


1 (C ),
i > q max .

(1 (C )) ,

.

:

qmin 1

qmax qmin

m =0

l =0

+ g qmin m

m =1

l =0

j =C

2 i qmax qmin 1,

qmin 1
i qmin

qmax 1
p (loss ) = (i ) pC +i = pC 1 (1 (C ) ) p (q ) g qmin m g% qmax qmin l +
i =0
m=0
l =0
i = qmin

i 1

qmax j

m =1

qmin j

i
qmax qmin

C g ) ( i )
(

(C )
g
qmax qmin

i!
i =0
,
g% l
qmax qmin
g
l =1

Lqmin j = 1 + C (1) (C )

p0 = p j 1 Aj ,0 + pC 1 A0* ,

+ pC 1 A , i = 1, C 1,

Lqmin j

l =1

C 1

*
i

(C ) ,

qmin 1

Ai* =

N = ipi ,

(10)
C 1

j =2

i 1

(Cg ) j ( j )
g
(c )

j!
j =0
,

g i 1

m =0

j 1


.
(8)

qmin 1

K i = 1 + (1 p(q ) )C (1) (C ) AC +qmax i + j ,C + qmax i (q 2 ) g~i l

qmax j 1

( Cg )i (i ) (C )
g

i!
i =0
, 0 j q 2
g~l
min
qmax j 1
g

g% l

g
.
1 g

(17)

:
(18)
p ( serv ) = 1 p ( loss )

)
Wi ,( serv
( x), i 0, j 0,
j

,
i ,
x, x 0, j .

-86

" . "

, Wi ,(0serv ) ( x), i 0, ,
x, x 0,

,
qmin qmax .

, i ,
)
. wi(,serv
( x), i 0, j 0,
j
( serv )
Wi , j ( x), i 0, j 0, x, x 0 :

(C ) i +1 x i C x

e
,
0 < i qmin , j 0,

i!
x
i
i +1 i
i +1

(C ) x C x
(C ) (x y ) C ( x y )

)
wi(,serv
e
+ e C y
e
dA( y ),
( x) = (1 p( q ))
j
i!
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0

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i
i +1
x
(
x y ) C ( x y )
C y (C )
e
e
dA( y ),
i > qmax , j = 0.
i!
0

. 16.
q min = 5 ,
qmax = 10 , = 8, 16, 32


,
:
( serv ) ( s ) =

i +1
qmin 1 i
C 1
C
p
p
g

+
+

i
C

1
q

min
p ( serv ) i =0
i =0 m=0
C + s

qmin 1

+ pC 1 g qmin m
m =0

qmax 1 i qmin

g%

i = qmin

l =0

i +1

C
qmax qmin l
(1 p (q ) + (C + s )) +
C + s

qmin 1
qmax qmin
C
+ pC 1 g qmin m g% l (C + s )

C + s
m =0
l =0

qmax


gC
.
C (1 g ) + s

s s ,

:

( serv )

. 17.
qmin = 5 , qmax = 10, 20, 32

p 1 qmin 1 i + 1 i

= (Cserv
g q m +
p ) i =0 C m=0 min
qmin 1

g
m=0

qmax 1 i qmin
qmin m

g~

i = qmin l = 0

qmax qmin l

(i + 1)(1 p(q ))
(i + 1) (C )

(1) (C ) +
+
C
C

. 4
Q ,
,
. Q

qmin 1
qmax qmin (C ) gqmax
(C ) g (1) (C ) g
.
+ g qmin m g~l
+

(1 g )
C (1 g ) 2
m=0
l =0 C (1 g )

(19)

,
qmin qmax .




R.
: = i, i W
, = 33
,

. 5



. p (loss ) Q
(serv ) ,
qmin qmax .
(serv )

0,
0 < q qmin ,
q q

min
pmax, qmin < q qmax,
pd (q) =
q
q

max min
q > qmax
1,

RED [1],
qmin = 5 ,
qmax = 10, 20, 32
, pmax = 0.1 , wmax = 32 .

. 2

qmin = 5 , qmax = 10 ,

= 8, 16, 32 .
. 3
( loss )
qmin = 5 ,
p
qmax = 10, 20, 32 .

. 18. ,
, q min = 5 , qmax = 10, 20, 32

87

1.
Floyd S., Jacobson V., Random Early Detection
Gateways for Congestion Avoidance // IEEE/ACM Transactions
on Networking, No 1(4), Aug. 1993. Pp. 397413.
2.
..; .., , ..
RED //
. . . .
2009.
N3. . 34 46.
3.
..

RED
. . .. ..: .
, 2010. 115 .
4.
.., ..
RED //
. . .
. 2010. N2(1). . 54 64.
5.
Korolkova A.V., Zaryadov I.S. The Mathematical
Model of the Traffic Transfer Process with a Rate Adjustable by
RED // IEEE / International Congress on Ultra Modern
Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops
(ICUMT), Moscow, October 18 20, 2010.
6.
..

. . .. ..: . ,
2010. 160 .
7.
Zaryadov I.S., Pechinkin A.V. Stationary time
characteristics of the GI|M |n| system with some variants of the
generalized renovation discipline Automation and Remote
Control. 2009. Vol. 70, No 12. Pp. 2085 2097.
8.
Floyd S., Gummadi R., Shenker S. Adaptive RED: An
Algorithm for Increasing the Robustness of REDs Active Queue
Management,
2001.
http://www.icir.org/floyd/
papers/adaptiveRed.pdf.
9.
Floyd S. RED: Discussions of Setting Parameters.
1997. http://www.aciri.org/floyd/REDparameters.txt.

. 19.
q min = 5 , q max = 10, 20, 32

,
, [9],
RED:

.


RED


/
.
(8)(12),
,
(14) (15),
(18),
(
)
(19).

THE APPLICATION OF MODEL WITH GENERAL RENOVATION TO THE ANALYSIS OF CHARACTERISTICS


OF ACTIVE QUEUE MANAGEMENT WITH RANDOM EARLY DETECTION (RED)
Zaryadov Ivan S., Peoples Friendship University of Russia, Probability theory and mathematical statistics department,
Senior lecturer, izaryadov@gmail.com
Korolkova Anna V., Peoples Friendship University of Russia, telecommunications system department, Senior lecturer,
akorolkova@sci.pfu.edu.ru
In the article for RED like systems the model for calculation of the probability and time characteristics with the help of queu
ing systems with a general renovation is introduced. The model is based on the multiserver queuing system with the recurrent
input flow and the queue of finite / infinite capacity. Steady state probability distributions of packets in the system over imbed
ded Markov chain as well as some probabilistic and time characteristics are obtained. A numerical analysis of the obtained
characteristics is given.
words: RED algorithm, queuing theory with generalized renovation, queue with thresholds, probabilistic and time characteristics,
Markov chain, recurrent input flow.

88

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:
(., unicast),
(., multicast)
(., elastic). ,
,
.


(Virtual Private Network, VPN),
,

,


.

1.

c
.
C
VPNn, n = 1,..., N . k = 1,..., K
. ,

102

" . "


, ..
.
:
VPN,
.
,
I II .
,
, ..

Cn VPNn, Cn = C ,
n =1


VPN ( I)

( II).
k k .
k VPNn

nk .

nk ( Cn )

k VPNn.

. 1.

nk (C n ) ,
,
nk ( Cn ) =

k
K

Cn ni i

, k = 1,..., K , n = 1,..., N .

i =1

2

,
:
Cn R + {0} , n = 1,..., N .

,
N 1
N 1 K
K
N 1

( C1 ,..., C N 1 ) = nk ( Cn ) + Nk C Cn .
n =1 k =1
k =1
n =1

,

,
.
1.

k =1

< Cn , n = 1,..., N ,

nk k

( C1 ,..., CN 1 )

K

C + N ni i jii

j =1 i =1
, n = 1,..., N 1 .
N

, ,

CnI =

i =1

N 1

C I = C C I
n
N
n =1

. 1.
VPN


VPN .


N

min nk (Cn ) ,
C

n =1 k =1

C
n =1

=C,

.
N 1

2. C I = C C I
N
n
n =1

n =1,..., N
k =1,..., K

C
n =1

nk

=C,

Cn Z+ {0} , n = 1,..., N .

(1)(3) (4)(6)

.

i =1

3.

Cn Z {0} , n = 1,..., N ,

j =1 i =1
.
N
(1)


(2)
[5].

CNI =



min max (C ) ,

C N Nii jii

k =1

< Cn , n = 1,..., N ,
(3)

nk k

( C1 ,..., CN 1 )

( C1I ,..., C NI 1 ) .

(4)
,
I.
(5)
4. (1)(3)

(6)
K
N K
C + N ni i ji i
i =1
j =1 i =1
, n = 1,..., N .
CnI =
N
. nk ( CnI )

103

I n ,

,
N k
n1k ( CnI1 ) = n2 k ( CnI2 ) =
N K
C ji i

, ,

.
1
( N = 3 )

j =1 i =1

n1 , n2 {1,..., N }, ..
VPN .
.

,
VPN,

.
, ,
.

.
5. C I (1)(3)

(4)(5)
,
..
C II
N

min nk ( Cn ) = min max nk ( Cn )


C

n =1 k =1

C
n =1

2

( N = 3 )

n =1,..., N
k1,..., K

+
= C Cn Z {0} , n = 1,..., N .

, ,

.
,
,

, ,

,
. ,
, ..
,
,
, .
3.


VPN.
Gigabit Ethernet
VPN, 60%,
.. 600 /.
8 /,

() 1 (8 ).
600 / 75
.
1 7
.
2
: VPN,
,
.
. 2
I
VPN1 VPN2, C3 = C C1 C2 .

. 2.
VPN1 VPN2



,
.


Triple Play,
,
.

,


104

" . "

3. Luzgachev M., Samouylov K. The Resource Allocation


Problem in the Design of Virtual Private Networks with Unicast and
Multicast Connections // Proc. Of the IEEE International Confer
ence on Ultra Modern Telecommunications ICUMT 2010.
Moscow, Russia: 2010. Pp. 16.
4. .., ..

// T Comm . 2010. N7.
.2224.
5. ..
. . 2.
. : .
3 ., . .: , 2005. 424 .

,


.

1. .., .. :
// .
2007. .7. N3. . 248322.
2. .., ..


// . .
. . 2010.
2(1). . 4253.

AN ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR THE STAND ALONE LINK RESOURCE ALLOCATION PROBLEM
WITH ELASTIC TRAFFIC
Mikhail V. Luzgachev, PhD, Telecommunication Systems Department, Peoples Friendship University of Russia,
mluzgachev@mail.ru
Konstantin E. Samouylov, Head of the Telecommunication Systems Department, Peoples Friendship University of Russia,
Prof., Doctor of Sciences, ksam@sci.pfu.edu.ru
In this paper we present the results of our study on the stand alone network link resource allocation model in the design of vir
tual private networks (VPNs) with best effort traffic. In the considered problem there are no blockings of the requests for data
transmission. The criterion of the optimal resource allocation is the average data transmission delay.
Keywords: elastic traffic, average data transmission delay, virtual private network, optimal resource allocation.

105

" . "



P () .
, ,
.
. , ,
.
..,
.



(): ()
GSM CDMA ,
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// , 2010,
17, 2, . 284 285.
4.
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. . 31. 4. 1997. . 88 107.
5.
..
.
. , 1983, . 27, 11, . 19 41.

109

" . "



QoS,
, .
, Y.1541 .
()
, 0,001.
100 .
, ,
, .

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..,
2222 , ...
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tsergeeva@zniis.ru
, ,

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8

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110

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1.
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: . .
. . .: , 2010.

111






()

, .
..,
Nazarov@itc.ru
..

,



,

(, , ), (
) .

(Next Generation Network, NGN),

, ,
,
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[1, 2].



[2].
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, (
, ).


,
()
NGN.
,
,
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.)
.

r
M r / M / V / K

.
r
M r / M / V / K .
1 V <
,

{V 2048 /,K,}, 0 < K < .


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r ,
.


: B (t ) = 1 exp( t ), 0, t 0 .
[3]

i: 0 i V + K :
i
R P0 (R, V ), 0 i < V ,
i!

i V

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V V

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, r V , V i V + K,

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L
r
R

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2
,
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112

" . "

(1) P0 (R, V ) ,

r = 1, R , ;
Q =1

V 1

Pi (R,V ) ,

i =0

i =1

1, r ; Lr

1, r . i


r : 0 < r < .
r
[2] M r / M / V / K

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),
:
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i =0

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1
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,
:
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r ( ):
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V
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K 1

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(r ) )

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r :

, (5)
(6).

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r
Gr / G / V / K .
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()
, [2].
r
(1)(11) M r / M / V / K ,

[5, 6],

[5], "
" (
) [4, 6].

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Gr / G / V / K
:
r :
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L
,
r
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,
R
,

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r 1
r
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2
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), (7), C a2 , C 2
b
,

;
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r :

( 2)
(8)
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(r ) t (r ) ;
, r ,
,

:

PV (r ,V )

) 0


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; t
( r )
r [2, 4]:
( 2)
(11)
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(r ) = wr( 2) + 2 wr b + b ( 2) ;

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) (

r ,
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,

.
(9)(10) t ( r )

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(6), (7), wr (13), b ,


b ( 2) ;

113

br ,
,
:
c1* c 2*
c*
c*

... r .. R , c r = f t (r ) ,
*
*
*
*
b1 b2
br
bR

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2
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1, R , (1);
r
:

P t (r ) t (r ) =

t ( r )

t ( r )

dWr (t )

dB(t )

br = f (br ) ,

f t (r ) , f (br )
t (r ) , br .

(16)

(19)


.
,
() [8, 9].

:
,
,
, ,
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.

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,
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r
r

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r
G r / G / V / K
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[6]
:

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(18)
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r

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wr
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), (7).

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), , ,
( C 2 = 1 )
b

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b
.



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,

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)
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x +1 , min x max , 0 < < 2

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= 3 2 H ,
min , max
,
( );
H .
o ( x ) ,

. ,
NGN

.

(),
.
[2] ,

(x ) , "
": C a2 > 1 .

[2],

,

114

" . "

, (12).




(20) (12)(18).
.


r
NGN G r / G / V / K


br (
)

C a2 , C 2
b

(12)(18).
r
G r / G / V / K
[2].

NGN.
NGN

r
,
r
Gr / G / V / K .


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G ( N , M ) , N , M
;

( );

,
j = 1, M ;

i = 1, I , :
)
:

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k

i .
)
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):
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r ), (
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K (
),
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:

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P t j (r ) t (r ) P (r )
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P P , j (t (r ) ) (r ) .

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, (25)
,

.
,

.

,

.
:

115

1) V ( )
"
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, 0 < r*j <

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,
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( )

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j

1 m M

1. .., .., ..,


.., .. NGN /
. .. . .: , 2008. 424 .
2. .., ..


. : , 2010. 390 .
3. .., ..

//
. . 2. .V. 1969. .
5360.
4. .., ..
. .:
, 1976. 220 .
5. .., .., ..
. .:
, 1984. 176 .
6. . . .:
, 1979. 600 .
7. .. . .: , 1986.
432 .
8. Norros I. A storage model with self similar input // Queueing
Systems And Their Applications, 16: 387396, 1994.
9. .., .., ..
/ . .. . .:
, 2003. 480 .
10. .. QoS
:
. .: 2005. 129 .

( )

4) (

ATM, IP,
MPLS, :


, (
) ;

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,
.
,
NGN, :
,


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);
,

(),
( )

(),
.

3) P t (r ) t (r ) ,
j

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) (
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, 2.


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G r / G / V / K

, ,
( ,
).
(
): ,
,
,
,
.


r
G r / G / V / K

116

" . "


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.
.
.
: , .

.., ..

NGN (Next Generation Network)


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().

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.

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, , [2, 3].
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NGN
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.
.1.

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).

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.

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;

(Signalling Gateway, SG)


;

Call Agent ,
.

117

" . "

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NGN
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VoIP .
NGN
PSTN (Public Switched Telephone
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H.323 Softswitch
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, , ,
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.


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,
.

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3G.IP.
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2001 3GPP 4,
ALL IP ( IP).

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.

,

;
S CSCF IMS,
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.

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Huawei).
53725 2009
53733 2009 [5].

118

HSS ,

,
. , IMS
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IMS.

, IMS
GSM.

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, ,
, ,
.

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:
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;
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,

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/,
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,
,

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, ,
,

119

" . "

,
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. , ,
on line .


( ).


(Enriched Voice Calling).

.

(File
Sharing) .



(NGN)
.
IP
,


: ,
, (WiMAX, WiFi)
(ETTH, PLC ..) .



:

IP

, ;


.


IMS

,
,

.

IMS
. ,
IMS ( IMS) ,

.
IMS ,
,
,
. ,
,
532 25.06.2009 .
IMS
,
.

IMS, ,
IMS
. IMS
().
IMS
,

161 28.03.2005 .,
()
,

98 08.08.2005,
.
MGCF/MGW

97
08.08.2005 MGCF
, MGCF/MGW
, MGCF
, MGCF/MGW
.

Softswitch, IMS.

1.
International Telecommunication
Union http://www.itu.int/ITU T.
2.
NGN/ .
... .: , 2008. 424.
3.

/..
, .. , .. . .:
, 2009. 442 .
4.
Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF) http://www.ietf.org.
5.

http://protect.gost.ru.
6.
3rd Generation Partnership Project
(3GPP) www.3gpp.org.
7.

ETSI
TISPAN
www.etsi.org/tispan.
8.
3GPP TS 23.002 V9.2.0 (2009 12) 3rd Generation Part
nership Project; Technical Specification Group Services and Systems
Asp. cts; Network architecture (Release 9).

120

" . "



,
.

. ,
.
..

(NGN Next Generation


Networks)
,
.
().
, ,

.

,
. ,
NGN

,
,
.
,
NGN


,
IP. , , ,
NGN
.
NGN
,
,


,
.
,


:

.
, NGN


.
:
, ;
,

,


.

NGN

(DiffServ Differentiated Services). Diff
Serv
.
DiffServ

,

.
DiffServ [1]
.

DSCP (DiffServ Code Point),
.

(PHB Per Hop Behavior),

.
PHB
: EF PHB (Expe
dited Forwarding Per Hop Behavior),
AF PHB (Assured Forwarding Per Hop
Behavior) BE (Best Effort).
,

.
NGN.

,
,

.

(. 1).
,
,
, .

. , ,
,

[1].

121

" . "


().
, . 2.

( )


,

PHB .



,

,
. ,
, M => M (

) [2].
,
,
,

, . ,
,
GPS,

2 M/M/1/ .
GPS 3
[3].

.



,
,

[4]. , ,
(MVA
Mean Value Analysis).

[5] .
,


.
:
,
[2].
, :
,
.
,


, ,

[4].


,
(),


.
,

,
(
, ).

.


. FCFS (First Come First
Served),
,
.

.
:

.


(Weighted Fair Queuing WFQ).
WFQ
,
.

.
.
( )
.
WFQ

(Class Based Weighted Fair Queuing CB
WFQ),
,
, WFQ.


(General Processor Sharing GPS).
NGN ,
CB WFQ.

122


.4.


*/G/1/ .
.3.

,

.
.5.


xr = R 0 r , r = 1, R ( R
, 0
), B


e xr = 1 , r = 1, R .


.
,
,
, R
[4].


,


, ,

.


, ,
(, EF 1, AF 2, BE
3).
,
(q1, q2, q3). ,
, 1
.
, PRIk
r , :
q
(1)
PRI k = k ,
i ,k
: q k k , i ,k = i ,k si ,k
i k ,

i ,k


, ,
, .
r i
, ,
[4]:

~
si ,r =

si ,r
~

1
k =1
k r

r ,k

i ,k

(2)

i ,k

si , r
r i , R
( R = 3).
~r ,k ,
j r :
PRI k2
.
(3)
~r ,k =
PRI k2 + PRI i2
1,
j i . ,
(r = j),
~r ,k = 1. ,


, .
i,r :
~
(r )[1 (r )] + (r ) (r ) ,
(4)
i ,r =
(r )[1 (r )]2 + (r ) (r )
~
R
si,k ,
i ,r ,
: (r ) =
~i ,r = i ,r ~si ,r ,
wr ,k =

si ,r
k =1 wi , k

i k ,
si ,k = 1 i ,k i
k ,

i ,k

i k
, PRIk,
k . ,
k i
qk k .

k r

(r ) = ~i ,k
k =1
k r

123

, ~ (r ) = (r ) + ~i ,r .

" . "

4. , i j
, j = 1,..., (mi 1) , k,
:

1 R e
i ( j | k ) = ir r (k ) i ( j 1 | k 1r ) , j = 0
j r =1 ir

:
m 1

1 R e
i (0 | k ) = 1 ir r (k ) + (mi j ) i ( j | k ) .
mi r =1 ir
j =1



. ,

~
si ,r .
~
si ,r :

1.
i,r .

5. r = 1,..., R
:
.
k
r (k ) = N r
eirTir (k )

2. ,
: i ,r = i ,r si ,r .
3.
, (2).
4.

i =1

6. i = 1,..., N r = 1,..., R

i
:
K ir (k ) = r (k ) Tir (k ) eir .

i,r , .
5.

i , r i , r <


,



.
.

,

,
. ,

.2 i,r ,
.



.
1.

i = 1,..., N , r = 1,..., R, j = 1,..., (mi 1) : K ir (0,0,...,0) = 0 ,

1.
Kun I. Park. QoS in Packet Networks. Springer, 2005.
245 p.
2.
..
, : , 2003.
512.
3.
M. van Uitert. Generalized Processor Sharing Queues.
Ponsen&Looijen BV, 2003. 231 pages.
4.
St. Greiner, G. Bolch, K. Begain, A Generalized
Analysis Technique for Queueing Networks with Mixed Priority
Strategy and Class Switching. Computer Communications Volume
21, Issue 9, 1 July 1998, pages 819 832.
5.
M. Reiser and S. Lavenberg. Mean Value Analysis of
Closed Multichain Queuing Networks. Journal of the ACM,
27(2): April 1980, pages 313 322.

i (0 | 0) = 1 , i ( j | 0) = 1 .
2. k = 0,..., K ,
k = (k1 ,..., k R ) .
3. i = 1,..., N r = 1,..., R
r i :
R

1
Tir (k ) =
1
K is (k 1r ) ,
+

x s =1

(k 1r ) = (k1,...,kr 1,...,kR ) .

124

" . "

call
call .
(IVR),
. ,
.
: Call , , IVR, .

..,
..


,
.


, .
call .
,
,
.
,
, ,
,
call . ,

, .
,
,
. , ,
,

,
call ,

.

call .

.
,
call , ,
[5],
(60 65%)
.
call ,

.

call
, call
,
, ,
,
.
. :
[7],


( ) [7],
-
[3, 6, 9, 10].

.
,
,
.
.
,
,
call .
,
.
,

.

,
.
,
. ,
. ,

, .
, , ,
,
[3,6, 9, 10]


.
, call .

(IVR Interactive Voice Response),

.

call ,
60 70% [5].

ACD (Automatic Call Distribution), IVR
(

) [1,3].
,
IVR, :

125

" . "


(
call ),


,
call
,

,
IVR
.
call


IVR,
[5]. IVR

,
call . ,
, ,
,
,
,

.

.

, , .
, (
) .
,
,
, / ,
.
,
.. ,

.


. [6]
call ,

VIP . ,
[2], ,

,
,
.


call
,
.
call
,
,
, SMS ,
VoIP (Voice over IP). ,

Web ,
[8].

.
,
. ,

, .

call ,

, ,
IVR .

.



,
,

.
, ..
.

, ,
,

.. .

.
call .1

. 1.
call


call .
. ,
call
.

,
IVR, ,

.

126

,
H
,
,
1
c
, [9,10].
.2.

. ,
:
IVR,


. ,
IVR

1 ,
2 , k
k .

. q ,
,
IVR .
p ,
,

. m
. k
p k , k = 1,2,,m, m p k .

.2. call

k =1

, , 1q 1p
.
.
.
IVR,

,
,

,

.


.
.

,
.
,
,

, k ,

.
.
j ,
, i
, IVR, l
,
l k
k , k = =1,2,,m.
( j , i, l , l1 ,..., l m )
call . S
. S
( j , i, l , l1 ,..., l m ) ,

j = 0,0,...; i = 0,1,..., n; l = 0, ,..., + l ;
l k = 0,1,..., k + Lk ; k = 1,2,..., m.
r(t),

. j(t) ,
t
, i(t)
, IVR, l(t)
t
, l k (t)
t
k , k = 1,2,,m.
,

r (t) = ( j (t), i (t), l (t), l1 (t ),..., l m (t ) ) .

,
,
.
P( j , i, l , l1 ,..., l m ) ,

k k = 1,2,,m.
, IVR.
n ,
IVR,
, k k
, k = 1,2,,m.
. ,
. L

, Lk
k ,
k = 1,2,,m.

. , ,

.
( j , i, l , l1 ,..., l m ) ,

127

" . "

,
call . IVR,
, , ,
,
, ..

,


b, n + b, + b,1 ,..., b, m
b, n =



call .

.

.



.
call
c .


call ,

c =
, call


call ,
, : IVR;
, ;
,
;
,
.

call ,
call

.

call .



, ,
c .

.
b, n
,
IVR. b, n
b, n =

p ( j , i, l , l1 ,..., l m )(
{( j , i , l , l1 ,..., l m )S |l = L + n}

+ j ).

b,
,

.
b,
b, n =

p ( j , i, l , l1 ,..., l m )i1q +

{( j , i , l , l1 ,..., l m )S | l = L + n}

1.
.., .. Call
. .: , 2002.
2.
Stolletz R., Helber S. Perfomance analysis of an inbound
call center with skills based routing. Hannover: Springer Vellag, 2004.
3.
.., ..
,
// . 1995.
4. .2629.
4.
.., .., ..
(Call Centre). .: , 2002.
5.
Shrinivasan R., Talim J., Wang J. Perfomance analysis of a
call center with interactive voice response units // Sociedad de Estadis
tica e Investigacion Operativa Top (2004) Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 91 110
6.
. , . . Call :
//
. 2010. 2 3. .15 19
7.
. Call :
// . 2003.
8.
.85 89.
8.
.., ..

.
:
http://www.niits.ru/public/2002/200203.pdf
9.
.., ..
//

. 2009. .44 46.
10. ..

//
. 2009. .46 47.

{( j , i , l , l1 ,..., l m )S |l }

p ( j , i, l , l1 ,..., l m )(l ) .

b, k
, k

k
k , k = 1,2,,m.
b, k
b, n =

p( j , i, l , l1 ,..., l m )lpp k 2 +

{( j , i, l , l1 ,..., l m )S | l , l k = L k + k }

p( j , i, l , l1 ,..., l m )pp k 2 +

{( j , i, l , l1 ,..., l m )S |l , l k = Lk + k }

p ( j , i, l , l1 ,..., l m )(l k k ) k .

{( j , i, l , l1 ,..., l m )S | Lk k }


, call
.
=
p ( j , i, l , l ,..., l )( + j ). .

{( j , i, l , l1 ,..., l m )S }

128

" . "



*

c .
.
,
. , ,
. .
. ,
.
*

( 09 07 12032).

..,
,
rrazumchik@ieee.org

1.


. ,
. [1],
() ,
( ),

.
,


.
() ,
,
,



.
, ,
(policing) . ,

,
,
.
[2],
,
.
2.
1 < n <
,
.
.

( )
.
,

. , ,
()

( ),
.
,
, ,
, ,
.
,

.

.

. ,
.
,
.
,

.
,



,

.
3.
(t ) ,

129

" . "

t , (t )
t . X (t ) = ( (t ), (t )) .
{X (t ), t 0}

() .
{X (t ), t 0}
= 0 U 1 ,
0 = {(i,0), 0 i < n}, 1 = {(k + n, m), k 0, m 0} .
(i,0) 0 i < n { X (t ), t 0}
, i ,
. (k + n, m) k 0
m 0 , t n
, k ,
m ,
.
pi
(i,0)

0 i < n,

pkm

(k + n, m) .
{X (t ), t 0}

():
(1)
0 = p0 + p1 , i = 0,
0 = ( + i ) pi + pi 1 + (i + 1) pi +1 , 1 i n 2, (2)
0 = ( + (n 1) ) pn1 + pn2 + np00 , i = n 1,

(3)

0 = ( + n ) p00 + pn1 + np10 + np01 ,

(4)

0 = ( + n + ) pk 0 + pk 1,0 + npk +1,0 , k 1, m = 0,

(5)
0 = ( + n ) p0 m + p1,m1 + np1m + np0,m+1 , k = 0, m 1,
(6)
0 = ( + n + ) pkm + pk +1,m1 + npk +1,m + pk 1,m , k 1, m 1,

(7)

n 1

p + p
i

i =0

km

= 1. (8)

k = 0 m =0

4.

{ pitotal , i 0}
, ,
, , ..
pitotal = pi , 0 i n 1 , p total =
p , in.
i

k + m=i n

km

0 i n 1, (1)(4)
0 = p0total + p1total ,
0 = ( + i ) p

+ p

(9)

+ (i + 1) p

, 1 i n 1.
(10)
i = n (4), i > n
(5)(7),

total
.
(11)
0 = ( + n ) pitotal + pitotal
1 + npi +1 , i n
total
i

total
i 1

total
i +1

(9)(11)


M/M/n/


. ,


M/M/n/ , .. :
i total
i! p0 , 0 i n 1,
pitotal = i
p total , i n,
n! n i n 0
= / , p0total = p0
(8), ..
1

n1 i

n1 .
(12)
p0 = +

i =0 i! (n ) (n 1)!

,

M/M/n/ . (12) ,
p0

< n .


.
5.


, .
, (1)(8),
(
.), .
,
,

.

,

, n .
(t ) ,

t , (t )
t . Y (t ) = ( (t ), (t )) .
{Y (t ), t 0}

() .
{Y (t ), t 0}
= {( k , m ), m 0, k u ( m)} ,
u (m) . (k , m)
, t
k , m ,
.
0

(0,0) ,

k ,m

(k + 1, m), k 0 .
{Y (t ), t 0}
:

-130

0 = 0 + n 00 , i = 0,

(13)

0 = ( + n ) 00 + 0 + n 10 + n 01 ,

(14)

,
,
[2], (20)(23)

.

0 = ( + n + ) k 0 + k 1,0 + n k +1,0 , k 1, m = 0,

(15)
0 = ( + n ) 0 m + 1,m1 + n 1m + n 0,m+1 , k = 0, m 1,

(16)
0 = ( + n + ) km + k +1,m1 + n k +1,m + k 1,m , k 1, m 1,

(17)

0 + km = 1.

(18)

k =0 m=0

, ,
, ,
, .
,
. (1)
(3) i = 0, n 1 ,
(19)
0 = pn1 + np00 .

n 1

i =0

m=0

m =0

p0 = pi + p0 m , k = 0, pk = pkm , k 1.

,
,
[2],
q

p0 = 1 c(n) n , q = n + , k = 0,
(24)

p = c(n) (1 q ) q k , k 1.
k
n
, M nak

, (19),(4)(7)
(13)(17).
{ pn1 , pkm , k . m 0}
{ 0 , km , k . m 0}
. , ,
(n 1)
, .
,
. ,

( )
,
,
(n 1) .
,
,
(n 1) , X (t )
,
Y (t ) .
, [3] (. 1, . 385),
{ pn1 , pkm , k . m 0}
{ 0 , km , k . m 0}

,
pn1 = c(n) 0 ,
pkm = c(n) km , k . m 0 .

6.

,
[2] ,

.
{ pk , k 0}

, ..

Dnak

M nak = c(n)

q1 + q c(n)
, Dnak = c(n)

n .

n(1 q )
n(1 q ) 2
,
q
= c ( n)
n (1 q)

, .

,
[2] , ,
(20)(23),

.
, .
M bun Dbun

n , ..

(20)

:
2

, =
,
M bun = c(n)

n 2 1 1 +
n
n

2 3 2 21 +
n

+ M (1 M ).
Dbun = c(n)
bun
bun
2
3

3
n 1 1 +
n
n

7.

,
GPSS [4], ,
.

(21)

c(n)

(8). (1)(2)
pi , 0 i n 2 p n 1
(n 1)! 1
(22)
pi =
pn1 , 0 i n 2 .
i! n 1i
, , [2] 0 = 1 / n ,
c(n) ,
(8):
.
(23)
1
c (n) =

n2 (n 1)! 1
1 + 1

n 1i
n i =0 i!

131

" . "

= / (n ) ;

M nak ;


Dnak ;

M bun ;


Dbun ;

10, n
3.
. 13
= 7
7, 17, 27 . . 46 . 79
= 17 = 27
, . 13,
.
,

,
.

1
= 7, = 7

M nak

Dnak

M bun

Dbun

0,233

0,008

0,112

0,002

0,057

0,001

0,233

0,009

0,112

0,003

0,059

0,001

2
= 7, = 17

M nak

Dnak

M bun

Dbun

0,233

0,006

0,093

0,004

0,081

0,0009

0,233

0,007

0,095

0,005

0,081

0,001

3
= 7, = 27

M nak

Dnak

M bun

Dbun

0,233

0,005

0,081

0,006

0,094

0,0007

0,233

0,005

0,083

0,006

0,096

0,001

4
= 17, = 7

M nak

Dnak

M bun

Dbun

0,566

0,266

0,804

0,143

0,582

0,015

0,566

0,267

0,809

0,143

0,587

0,016

5
= 17, = 17

M nak

Dnak

M bun

Dbun

0,566

0,177

0,589

0,232

0,819

0,010

0,566

0,177

0,589

0,234

0,829

0,010

= 17, = 27
M nak

Dnak

M bun

Dbun

0,566

0,133

0,276

0,920

0,007

0,566

0,133

0,478
0,479

0,276

0,922

0,008

-132

" . "

8.



, .

,

.
,
,

1. Gelenbe E., Glynn P., Sigman K. Queues with negative


arrivals // J. Appl. Prob. 1991. V. 28. P. 245 250.
2. ., . ..

. .
2008.
9, C.103 113.
3. .., ..
. .: , 1995 528 .
4. .. .
GPSS World. .: , 2004
368 .

133

" . "

WiMAX

, WiMAX,
.
Wi MAX. , ,
.
..,
. .
,
.
IEEE
Wireless
MAN ( ) 802.16.

.
OFDM 256
802.16d 2048 802.16e.
(TDD Time division duplex),
(FDD Frequency division duplex)
.

,

Wi Fi WiMAX,
LTE [1,2].
, ,
,
,
.
WiMAX
,
: , ,
.
[3,4].

, Wi MAX
.
[3] ()
,
.

. ,

.

( ,
.),
,
,
.

,
, [4].
0,5 < < 1. 0,5
, 1

.
.
,
, ,
, ..
.


: (Traffic Shaping) (Traffic Policing)
[3]. :

( )
() ,
;

,
.
,
(,
) .
, , ,

.
:
,
,
.
.
IEEE 802.16
.

,

() .


.
,

,
.

() (),

.

-134

" . "

X.509 [IETF RFC32800], RSA


(RKCS#1]
.
:



, : 1)
,
; 2)

MAC;

,

.
; ,
,
.

MAC.
MAC.
MAC , .. MAC
,
.
IEEE 802.16
:
(Data Encryption
Standard DES) (Cipher Block
Chaining CBC) DESCBC,
21 ;
(Advanced Encryption
Standard AES) ,
(Counter Encryption with Cipher Block
Chaining message authentication code CCM) AESCCM,
17 ;
AES (Counter Encryp
tion CTR), AESCTR,
13 ;
AES
(Cipher Block Chaining CBC) ESCBC,
29 .


WiMAX
. WiMAX ,

.

Windows XP Proffes
sional
() Ethereal,
10 6 .
12,7 .
67% TCP.

MatLab 7.10.
,
,
,
,
C.

,
,
. , Mat
Lab
,
10000,
.

,

.

. , ,

.
,
, .
, Trafic_WiMAX.dat
Trafic_DES
CBC.dat, Trafic_AES CCM.dat, Trafic_AES CTR.dat, Trafic_AES
CBC.dat.
1000 10, 2000 5, 5000 2, 10000
1. 1
.

= 600
/, = 1000
/, .. 0.6.

,
,
, ..
, .
, ,
,
,
.

1.
.., .., ..
WiMAX. 4G. .: , 2009. 472 .
2.
.., .., ..,
..
. .: , 2005. 592 .
3.
.., .., ..
. . / . ..
. .: , 2003. 480 .
4. .., .., ..
. . / .
.. . .: , 2008. 368 .

135

" . "


LTE ADVANCED

(OFDMA), LTE LTE Advanced, .
,

. *
: LTE Advanced, , .
*

( 10 07 00487 ).

..,
,
ksam@sci.pfu.edu.ru
..,
,
sopineduard@yandex.ru

E
UTRA (Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access)

(Long Term Evolution LTE) 3GPP (3rd Gen
eration Partnership Project).
LTE, 2004 ,
, ,
,
. LTE Advanced
LTE
,
.
LTE (3GPP Release 8 9)


, 1,4; 3; 5; 10; 15 20
[2]. LTE LTE Advanced
, 100
[1].
LTE Advanced
()
, (Component
Carriers CC).

LTE Advanced:

RR (Round Robin,
)
.
LTE Advanced
,
.
.


.
1.
LTE
LTE
OFDM (Orthogo
nal Frequency Division Multiplexing),
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( ,
)
,
.
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PRB (Physical Resource Block).
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. 12

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PRB.
PRB
.

. 1. PRB [3].

-136

" . "

(FDPS
Frequency Domain Packet Scheduler),
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tion),
. FDPS

,
PRB
. CQI
,
,
/, .
[4], FDPS
CQI
PRB
,
40 55%.


LTE Advanced
3GPP 100
1/,
LTE Release
8 . ,

[6].

.

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LTE Advanced.
RR

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,

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2.
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= F / C .

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:
.

FDPS [4, 5]:
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1.38, k 13;

k (
).
k C G ( k ) ,
G ( )

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C (k ) =
k G ( )

C G (k )
.
F k G ( )

, pk , 0 k v

k =


k
k

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= p0 k
i

i
i =1
i =1 G (i )
1

k
v

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p0 = 1 + k

k =1 i =1 G (i )
= F .
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:
v

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i =1 G (i )

= pv = p0 v

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, n
Ci , i = 1, n .

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n

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i
i =1

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n
i =1

ki , i
.
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min
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1, ki = min k j ;
k j k

{ }

{ }

137

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i =1

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= 1 ( k < v )

RR
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=

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n

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.
i =1
i =1
i =1

+ (k i + 1) ki +1 p (k + e i ), k S
i =1

S B = {k S : k = v} =

p(k ) .

(8)

kS B

2.



:
.

(9),
(10) (11)

. 4.

. 4

. ,
CC
(200 300%)

- 138

" . "

.

,
.


LTE
Advanced:
RR
.

.

:
.

1.
3GPP Draft LTE Advanced Requirements, REV
080057, 2008.
2.
3GPP TS 36.104 v.9.6.0 Evolved Universal Terrestrial
Radio Access; Base Station radio transmission and reception,
2010.
3.
3GPP TS 36.211 v.9.1.0 Evolved Universal Terrestrial
Radio Access; Physical Channels and Modulation, 2010.
4.
Pokhariyal A., Kolding T.E., Mogensen P.E., Per
formance of downlink frequency domain packet scheduling for the
UTRAN long term evolution, IEEE PIMRC, cc. 1 5, 2006.
5.
Wang Y., Pedersen K.I., Mogensen P.E., Sorensen T.B.
Carrier Load Balancing Methods with Bursty Traffic for LTE
Advanced Systems, IEEE PIMRC, cc. 22 26, 2009.
6.
Chen L., Chen W., Zhang X., Yang D., Analysis and
Simulation for Spectrum Aggregation in LTE Advanced System,
IEEE VTC, cc. 1 6, 2009.
7.
.., .., ..
LTE: . .:
, 2010. 284 .

CARRIER LOAD BALANCING METHODS FOR LTE ADVANCED SYSTEMS


Samouylov K.E., Sopin E.S.
In this paper we propose traffic model for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) used in LTE and LTE
Advanced systems. On the basis of our model carrier load balancing methods are analyzed and QoS parameters such as cell
throughput and average user throughput are investigated.
Keywords: LTE Advanced, elastic traffic, adaptive multirate system.

139

" . "





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140

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141




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I (v < i + d + 1 v + L).

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+ P(i1 + 1, i2 , d )(i1 + 1)1I (i + b1 v) +


+ P(i1, i2 + 1, d )(i2 + 1)2 I (i + b2 v) +
+ P(i1, i2 , d + 1)(d + 1)d I (i + d + 1 v) +
+ P(i1, i2 , d + 1) ( (v i)d + (i + d + 1 v) )

p(i1, i2d s) f j ( j s)

d v+ L

+d f j P(i1, i2 , d s) I (i + d = v + L) +

p(i1,i2 ,d )d +
p(i1,i2 ,d )(v i).

{(i1,i2 ,d )S|i +d >v}


{(i1,i2 ,d )S|i+d v}

,

. [2]
(i1,i2,d) S
P(i1, i2 , d ) 1I (i +b1 v) + 2 I (i + b2 v) + d I (i + d < v + L) +

(2)

+i11I (i1 > 0) + i2 2 I (i2 > 0) + d d I (i + d v) +

+ (v i) + (d + i v) ) I (i + d > v) ) =
d
= P(i1 1, i2 , d )1I (i1 > 0) + P(i1, i2 1, d )2 I (i2 > 0) +
b1

+ P(i1 1, i2 , d + j)1I (i + d = v + L, i1 > 0) +


j =1

b2

+ P(i1, i2 1, d + j )2 I (i + d = v + L, i2 > 0) +
j =1

+d P(i1, i2 , d s) f s I (i + d < v + L) +
s =1

142

P(i1, i2 , d ) = 1.


,
p(i1,i2,d),


.
4.


.
:
b1 = 1, b2 = 10, k =
, k = 1, k = 1,2.
[2], ,

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v = 100 .

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2 = 0,065865.

64,3129 .


1/3
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,
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. :
= 0,01, L = 75.
d < 0,03, Td < 1,2

1.
Ross K.W. Multiservice loss models for broadband
telecommunication networks. London: Springer, 1995.
2.
..
.: , 2010.

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143

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Call //
T Comm. N4. .51 53.

.6.

The results of the development of approaches to improve the capacity of emergency services
center megalopolis
Stepanova I.V., Kiselev V. I.
The capacity of the centers of emergency services characterized by the number of processed calls in peak hours. One of the
requirements becomes a service call without a loss, so in the call centers, emergency services becomes the main service
discipline with the expectation. For cities characterized by a sharp increase in the number of incoming calls during emergencies.
Based on these statistics are examined and compared options for a service call center emergency services, taking into account
the capabilities of modern switching systems for call routin.

147

" . "


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, .
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(EENA).
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- 148

" . "



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. 53 55.

Challenges and opportunities the organization automatically determine the location of the caller
Stepanova I.V., Kiselev I.V
One of the urgent tasks for maintenance of emergency calls is to determine the subscriber location from which the call comes.
According to the testimony of experts rescue services communicate with a person under stress, it is extremely difficult. More than
half of the whereabouts of the victim becomes a serious problem people are confused, forget the names of places where they
are. Automatically detect the location of subscribers, you can define and map the position of the subscriber in an emergency,
time saving service applications and allows you to quickly organize search activities.

- 150

" . "



,
, . ,

OSS/BSS.
..,
" " ,
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Wi Max LTE
1%.

1. .., .., ..
4G. .: , 2009, 472.
2. http://www.mts.ru.
3. http://www.beeline.ru/index.wbp.
4. http://megafon.ru.
5. http://www.t mobile.com.
6. http://www.vodafone.com/content/index.html.
7. http://www.orange.co.uk.
8. http://www.tele2.lv.
9. http://www.telenor.com.
10. .., .., ..,
..
. .: , 2005, 592.
11. .., .., ..
LTE: . .:
, 2010, 284.
12. .., ..
. .:
. 1983, 216 .

- 158

" . "



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10 15 20}

1.
Ross K.W. Multiservice Loss Models for Broadband
Communication Networks / London, Berlin, New York: Springer
Verlag, 1995. 343 p.
2.
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sized speech: quality assessment and prediction / S. Moeller // Acta
Acustica united with Acustica, 2004. vol. 90, P.121 136.
3.
Moeller S. Estimating the quality of synthesized and
natural speech transmitted through telephone networks using single
ended prediction models / S. Moeller, D. S. Kim, L. Malfait // Acta
Acustica united with Acustica, 2008. vol. 94. P.21 31.
4.
..

// .. .
, 2010.
3. . 338 340.
5.
Jiang W. Modelling of packet loss and delay and their
effect on real time multimedia service quality / W. Jiang, H.
Schulzrinne. Proceedings of 10th International Workshop Network
and Operations System Support for Digital Audio and Video
(NOSSDAV 2000), Chapel Hill (USA), 2000.
6.
..

// T Comm, 2010.
7. . 182 185.

.5. {0 10
15 20 25}

- 160

" . "


:

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. ,
, ,
. ,
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, ,
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..,

konstantin.shirin@gmail.com

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, ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
,
.
2009
,
, 219 .
2008 30
. ,
2009 , ,

, 71%
. 2010

150 . [1,
2] Arbor Networks,

, 2000 DDoS
, 2004
40 /,
2010 ,

100 /,

.
,

,
100 /.

, , , .

DDoS
DDoS ,
()
,

(), . [4]
DDoS 3
:
;
;
.



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(UDP),
TCP (
TCP reset ),

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SYNFlood, TCP Connection Flood,
UDP Flood DoS, DNS Malformed Flood, Stream
DoS, ICMP Flood.
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161-

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SYNflood UDP flood.

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[1]

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tem Scanner Real
Secure Network Engine. ISS

Database Scanner
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1.
;
2.
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3.

IPS/IDS ;
4.

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:

-162

Hop counts Filter


ing (HCF), Source IP address monitoring (SIPM), Bit per
Second (BPS) . . ,
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1. .. , .. . DDoS :
, ,
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2. . . DDoS ? PC Week
3. ... .
4. . . DDoS
.
5. . . .
6. Cliff C. Zou, Nick Duffield, Don Towsley, Weibo Gong.
Adaptive Defense Against Various Network Attacks.

163

" . "





ZIGBEE
, ZigBee [1].

,
(Distributed Borrowing Addressing Scheme, DIBA) [2]
(Distributed Address Assigning Mechanism, DAAM).
..,
 , ,
shuvaev@lanit.ru

7
(

)
(
).
ZigBee.
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OSI (
). ZigBee
IEEE 802.15.4 [10] 2003 ,
(Physical Layer PHY)
(Media Access Control Layer MAC) .


.
Network
Simulator 2,3 [3][4], QualNet Developer [5], OM
NeT++ [6] .


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NS 2,3


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[7][8],

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nection OSI) [9]. OSI

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:
1.
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2. (MAC).

164

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.

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work JUNG) [12].

:
1.
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,

,
.
,
.

1.
ZigBee Alliance, ZigBee Specification Document, no.
0534r17, Jan. 2008.
2.
Park S., Ryu J.H., Joo S. and Kim H.S., Distributed Borrow
ing Addressing Scheme for ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor
Networks / S. Park, J.H. Ryu, S. Joo and H.S. Kim // ETRI, vol. 31, no. 5,
527 528, Oct. 2009.
3.
Network Simulator 2, URL: http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/
( : 23.10.2010).
4.
Network Simulator 3, URL: http://www.nsnam.org/ (
: 23.10.2010).
5.
QualNet
Developer,
URL:
http://www.scalable
networks.com/products/qualnet/ ( : 23.10.2010).
6.
OMNeT++, URL: http://www.omnetpp.org/ (
: 23.10.2010).
7.
Mallanda C., Suri A., Kunchakarra V., Iyengar S.S., Kan
nan R. and A. Durresi, Simulating Wireless Sensor Networks with OM
NeT++, / URL: http://bit.csc.lsu.edu/sensor_web/final_papers/ Sen
sorSimulator IEEE Computers.pdf ( : 23.10.2010).
8.
Yang T.A., Applying image processing techniques to simulate
a self organized sensor network for tracking objects, / URL:
http://sce.uhcl.edu/transa/ ( : 23.10.2010).
9.
Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model: The
Basic Model, // ISO, URL: http://standards.iso.org/ittf/ PubliclyAvail
ableStandards/s020269_ISO_IEC_7498 1_1994(E).zip (
23.10.2010).
10. IEEE Std 802.15.4 2003, Wireless Medium Access Control
(MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low Rate Wireless
Personal Area Networks (LR WPANs), / URL: http://standards.ieee.org/
getieee802/download/802.15.4 2003.pdf
(

23.10.2010).
11. Oracle Java, URL: http://www.java.com/ (
23.10.2010).
12. Jetbrains IntelliJ Idea 9 Community Edition, URL:
http://www.jetbrains.com/idea/ ( 23.10.2010).
13. Java Universal Network/Graph Framework, URL:
http://jung.sourceforge.net/ ( 23.10.2010).




.
, .

,

.


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ZigBee,

167

" . "

IP TV

Equation Section (Next)
, IP TV,

.
,
(. hannel surfing). *
* ( 10 07 00487 ).

: , , .

..,
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oplaksina@sci.pfu.edu.ru
;

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n
n 1 , n 2 ..,
.

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,

.

(. RCC, Rapid Channel Change) Cisco,
VQE (Visual Quality
Experience) [5],
(. ICC, Instant Channel Change) Micro
soft, Microsoft TV [6].

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(. Channel change server,
Distribution server), .

IP (IP TV)


(. QoE, Quality of Experience),

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zapping time). [1], 1000

0,9 70
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1 2 .

,
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,


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.
1. 
IP TV
,


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[2]:
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(Internet Group Management Protocol)
IPv4 MLD (Multicast Listener Discovery)
IPv6;

168

" . "

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), IP TV
:
;

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Real time Transport Protocol),
. ,
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;



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. IP TV

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. , [7]
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. ,
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nmi ( t ) ( i, m )

t,

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m {1,..., M } ,

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m =1

: n I ( t ) + n II ( t ) = n . ,
169

n II ( 0 ) = 0 ,


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.3.

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(., , [8])
.
,

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, T0 = 0 . Tk

{ }

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1 q ,

T = min sup Tk < , T .


k

K = max k : Tk T

. 3.



, [9, 10,
11].
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0, t j
(I ,) , 1,
(II , ) . f j ( t )

.
Yk = Tk Tk 1 ,
k = 1,..., K ,
. Yk

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, T1 0 ( II , m1 ) ,
H1 = min { , Y1} , d m

:
0, T0 t < T1 j ,

(1)
f j ( t ) = 1, Tkj t < Tk j + H kj , k = 1,..., K j ,

j
j
j
j
0, Tk + H k t < Tk +1 , k = 1,..., K ,
j
j
, j {1,..., n} . ,

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1

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( I , mK ) ,

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), j :

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,
k = 0,..., K

c j ( t ) = bm j 1 f
k

(t )) + dm

j
k

(t ) ,

Tkj t < Tkj+1 , k = 1,..., K j .


,

n

c (t ) = c j (t ) f
j =1

(2)

t ,

( t ) + bmu ( nmI ( t ) ) , 0 t < T .

(3)

m =1



: 400
100 ,
200
,
.
[12], ,

, i i
, . SD (3,75
/) HD (15 /).
, 2,5
,


, . 2.

. 2. ,

3.

,
IP TV,

- 170

" . "

= 0, 67 .
, 0,9
SD , ,
, 0,1 HD .

4 ,

q = 0,91 ,
0,09 . . 4

,
,
0.
,
. ,

IP TV,

3, 75*0,9 + 15*0,1 = 4,875
/, 400
1950 /,

.

1.
Y. Kim, J. K. Park, H. J. Choi, S. Lee, H. Park, J. Kim,
Z. Lee, and K. Ko, Reducing IPTV Channel Zapping Time Based
on Viewers Surfing Behavior and Preference, IEEE International
Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting
2008, March 31 April 2, 2008, pp. 1 6.
2.
T. Janevski and Z. Vanevski, Statistical analysis of
multicast versus instant channel changing unicast IPTV provision
ing, in Proceedings of the 16th Telecommunications Forum (TEL
FOR '08), Belgrade, Serbia, November 2008.
3.
Chunglae Cho, Intak Han, Yongil Jun, and
Hyeongho Lee, Improvement of channel zapping time in IPTV
services using the adjacent groups join leave method, The 6th
International Conference on Advanced Communication Technol
ogy, vol. 2, pp. 971 975, 2004.
4.
Hyunchul Joo, Hwangjun Song, Dai Boong Lee, and In
kyu Lee, An Effective IPTV Channel Control Algorithm Considering
Channel Zapping Time and Network Utilization, IEEE Trans. Broad
casting, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 208 216, Jun. 2008.
5.
Cisco CDA Visual Quality Experience Application User Guide,
Release
3.0,
2008,
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/
docs/video/cds/cda/vqe/3_0/user/guide/vqe_userguide3_0.pdf.
6.
Microsoft Corporation, Microsoft TV: IPTV Edition,
http://www.microsoft.com/tv/IPTVEdition.mspx, 2007.
7.
Donald E. Smith. IP TV Bandwidth Demand: Multicast
and Channel Surfing // INFOCOM 2007. 26th IEEE Interna
tional Conference on Computer Communications. 2007. pp.
2546 2550.
8.
.
. 2 // .: . 1967. 765 .
9.
.., .., ..,
..
// . 2009.
12. . 16 28.
10. Irina Gudkova and Olga Plaksina. Performance
Measures Computation for a Single Link Loss Network with Uni
cast and Multicast Traffics // Lecture Notes in Computer Science.
2010, Volume 6294, Smart Spaces and Next Generation
Wired/Wireless Networking. pp. 256 265.
11. .., ..

.
. ,
. 2010.
3(1). . 54 60.
12. D.T. vanVeen, M.K. Weldon, C.C. Bahr, and E.E.
Harstead, An analysis of the technical and economic essentials
for providing video over fiber to the premises networks, Bell Labs
Tech J., vol. 10, no.1, pp.181 200, 2005.

. 15.

4.
,



. , 200

MODELING IPTV BANDWIDTH DEMAND INCREASED BY CHANNEL SURFING AT COMMERCIAL BREAKS


Olga Schukina, senior lecturer at Telecommunication Systems Department, Peoples Friendship University of Russia, Moscow
Channel changing experience is a key factor in an IPTV subscriber's viewing satisfaction. Due to high multicast connection establishment latencies
additional mechanisms such as instant channel change are used to improve channel zapping time. In this paper, an access network link serving IP TV
traffic is considered. We focus on channel surfing traffic burst during commercial breaks.
Key words: IP TV, channel surfing, instant channel change, bandwidth demand, multicast.

171



75 % ,
, 3G
, ,
, . ,
, ,
(, ..).
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yakhina@zniis.ru
100 .
(. Femtocell) ( .
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,


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), PON.

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, ).
10 30 ,
1000 .,

. 1. (
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.

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,
3GPP Release 8,
2009 .


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(GSM, CDMA).


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.
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.
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1.
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Controller).
Node B. RNC
lu b.

lu b IP
IP Sec
(tunnelling luB over IPsec).
RNC.
IP lu b
RN.
2. ,

. IP .

.
3.
,
IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem
IP).
IP ( VoIP),
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol
). IMS
, RNC
( ,
).
RNC IMS
,
(. 2).
,
RNC ,
. ,
lu b ,

,
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, IMS
.

. 2.


Sprint ()
.
2007 .,
Samsung Electronics, Sprint Airave.
, Sprint.
,
AT&T IPACCESS (

173

CISCO), Vodafone
Alcatel Lucent, Softbank
NEC, SturHub
HUAWEI.
2010 . .
SFR ()
NEC, Optimus () HUAWEI,
Telefonica, Mobicom Austria, Tele
com Italia, T mobile Germany .

1) 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical


Specification Group Radio Access Network; Mobility Procedures
for Home NodeB; Overall Description; Stage 2 (Release 8).
2) 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical
Specification Group Radio Access Network; Base Station (BS)
radio transmission and reception (FDD) (Release 8).
3) 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical
Specification Group Radio Access Networks; 3G Home NodeB
Study Item Technical Report (Release 8).
4) 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical
Specification Group Radio Access Network; UTRAN Iuh Interface
RANAP User Adaption (RUA) signalling (Release 8).
5) 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical
Specification Group Radio Access Network; UTRAN architecture
for 3G Home NodeB; Stage 2 (Release 8).
6) http://www.techeye.net/mobile/qualcomm ip access
sign femtocell partnership.

3G

,
,

.

174