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01 .



( )

...
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. 1962
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..

2001

.............................Error: Reference source not found


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2.

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2.1. ......23
2.2. ..........31

2.3. ..............36
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2.5. ..................46
2.6. ...............49
2.7. ..........51
2.8. ..........53
2.9. ..............56
2.10. .....58
2.11. ..............59
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2.13. ...................62
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2.............................................................71


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50
70%

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, ,

.
, , ,

, ,
,
.

, ,

(., rural ``

L.

Ruralis

rus,

ruris

`,

`,

cardiac`` Gk. Kardiakos Kardia ``,


. , gloss `, ;
`

glossary

`,

`,

dynasty

`` dynastic `` .

. ,

.
, ,
,


get ``, skill ``, sky ``, skirt ``, skin
``, they ` `, street `` .

, (garage) chise-longue chic),


(., .. datum, nucleus, antenna .. datd, nuclei, antennae)
(., taiga, tundra, rouble, knout
. ,

).

..

. ,

taiga,

tundra

, :
taiga swampy coniferous forest of Siberia, beginning where the tundra
ends; tundra treeless plain characteristic of arctic and subarctic regions.

rouble

, ,
: rouble see money table: 100 kopecks,
Russia.
1.1.


. ,



( ).

, , .


.
.

, ,
: ( I
V ..), (VI-VII
.) (XV-XVI
.)


,
. 1066

.

, .
:

1789 .
XI . ,
.

.

.
,

, .. ,
.

, ..
,


.
, .. ,

.
:

,

,
,
.

.

.

-.

, (
) (
).

.
( )

, ).

(football), (trailer), (jeans) .

regime, ballet, bouquet .
,
:


.
.

(.

cruise),

(.

motel),

(.

club).


: (.
Washington), (. Texas),

(. London).

,
,
,
.
,

.


.
, ..
,

Vaterland, ,

Fatherland;


suicide

(sui

cide

);

selfservice,

. , ,
below one`s dignity
( . infra dignitatem); under consideration

sub juice); vicious circle

( . circulus vitiosus); masterpiece


( . chef d`oeuvre); pen name
( . nom de plume) .
,

.
,

,

, ,


).

, the Speaker

backbenchers

..

1.
, .
,

.

.

.


,
.
1)
1 . . ., 1966. . 201.

, ,
,

(
).

audio . :
auditorum, audience. bios . : biology, biography.
entum . : cent, century, centenary. Demos :
democracy, demography. Grapho . : graphic,
phonograph.

Homos

homonym,

homophone. Lexis . ; lexicon . :


lexicology, lexicography.
Onoma . : synonim, antonim, pseudonym
Phone . : phonetics, phoneme, phonology
Scribe,

scriptum

describe,

subscribe, scritwriter, inscription .


Tele . , ; telescope, telegraph.
Video . ; visus . 1) ; 2) ,
: visible, vision, revise, television, evidence.
Vita . : vital, vitality, vitamin.
2)

. ,
,
,
.

: anti-, re-, pro-, counter-, -ism-, -age-, -able-, -ous .


3)

.
,


river, battle, army,
astronomy, arithmetic, poetry, they,
them

; sky anger
heaven wrath
.
4)

(
).
5)

,
,
, .
: catch chase, goal jail, channel canal.

canalis


channel

canal,

. quies, quietus
, ,

quiet,

,
quite.

corpus

corps corpse .

(disk disc, shirt skirt)


(shade shadow, scale shell).

(shade shadow, frail fragile)


(liquor liqueur, through
thorough, corpse corps).
.

.

,

.
,
,
. , host guest, hotel hostel, ounce

inch,

prune

plum.

,
, : ward ,
guard ; , .
6)

,
. : , address
(.), adresse (.), Adresse (); Telegraph (.); ,
socialism (.), socialisme (.), Sozialismus (.)

.
7)

.
,

, :
,

, g []: genre,
prestige; ch []: machine, chauffeur;
: corps, ballet.

[k]

ch: Christ, character;


p s : psychology, psychiatry; [f]

ph:

alphabet,

emphasis; i y: sympathy,
physics.

2.


2.1.

.


,
,

:
1. , , :
) ; ) ; )
; )
.) .
2. ,


.
3.

, ;
,

(
,

eatable

).

eat

able-,

, , ,
;
eat-
(. etan).

: , , .:
house, . Haus, . huis, . hus, . hus, . day
, . Tag, . dag, . dag, . dag. .

, ,
, ,
: . day, . Tag; . night, .
Nacht; . way, . Weg; . book . Buch ..
,
, . ,

,
. , ,
,
, , -

,
inch

(. uncia 1/12
- ),
, . . foot ,
inch,
, ,
.

. ,

, ,
,
IX-XI

.,


1066 .

,

.

IX-XI .


,

.
anger (. anger , ,
, : . . angr , );
fellow

(.

.-.

felawe

felagi

, ); fit , ,
, (. fitten :
. fitja ); weak (. weik: . veikr)
.


,
,

:
. angry , wrooth ,
; skye , ; heaven , ;
taken , , niman , ;
they hi, heo, he .

,
, , ,
, ,
, . ,

,

.
-.

. ,
,

( ,
) ,

(, , ,
)

, ,

.
,
.


,
-
, ,

, they
hi (heo, he) ,

,

they.



.
,

( ,
).

Ken

(. cennan)
, ,

Kenna , ; .

dwell

. dwellan ,
, , ,
dvelza, - sk, .

,


: anger, angry,
fellow, fit, get, hit, leg, low, skill, take, want, week, till, they
.
(they take)
(sky
. heaven, skin . hide).

: hap ,
, haphazard , , haphazard

, hapless , , happen
,

happening

happy

, happily , happiness , perhaps


; weak , weaken , ,
weak-headed , , weak-kneed
, weakling , weakness
.
,
,


.

,
. ,
[c], ,
, []
(sky, skin, skill, scathe ).


[],
, - :
scobs , , scoff , scope ,
,

scorch ,

score ,

Scotch

, scout .


.

- : tungsten, geyser, ski


.

, (
): waltz , nickel ,
zinc , Luftwaffe .
2.2.
,
,

, , ,

,
( ).

, ,

:
action (. accioun , :

. accioun .); agreeable ,


(ca. agreable: . agreable); beauty (. beautee:
. beate); carpenter (carpenter: . carpentier);
duke (. duk: . duc) .

XVI ,

: , ,

, .
,


,
- .
XIII .

.

-,
-

), XIII .

, ,

-,

.
, ,

.
,
: , face ,
gay , hour , ink , joy ,
letter , money , pay , river ,
several , table , very
. , , -,
,
,
,

, , -, ,
,
.
,

,
,

.

,
,
.
: able-,
, acceptable accept
; ence- difference, excellence,
evidence, violence; .
,
.
,

,
,

, : honour
(. honour: . honur, honour) honour
(. honouren: . honorer) .
,
,


,
: abuse
, abuse
, , (.
abusen , , ,
: . abuser) .

,
: ,
, honour (to) honour; labour (to) labour; note
(to) labour; note (to) note; pain (to) pain ..,
, abuse (to) abuse; act (to) act; direct (to)
direct ..
,
,
honour () honour (), ,
abuse () abuse (),

. ,

.
XIX XX
. ,


.


(

XX

).

, ,
.
,

,
.

, -


.
2.3.
, ,
,
,


. ,
,
-
.
,

c : port (Lat. portus), cycene (kitcen)


Lat. coquina, piper (pepper) Lat. Piper .
,
-
,


. , ,
- .
,
,
,
,


.

597 .

-
,

,
.
,

.
1.

: ancor (anchor) Lat. ancora; box (box)


Lat. buxus; cealc (chalk) Lat. calcem; paper (paper)
Lat. paryrus; pyle (pillow) Lat. pulvinus; post
(post) Lat. postis; purs (purse) Lat. bursa; sicol
(sikle) Lat. secula;
2. : cappe (cap) Lat. cappa; socc
(sock) Lat. soccus.
3. : circul (circle) Lat. circulus;
pund (pound) Lat. pondo; ynce (inch) Lat. incia.
4. , : assa (ass) Lat.
asinus; camel (camel) Lat. camelus; turtle (turtle)
Lat. turtur; truht (trout) Lat. tructa.
5. : palm (palm) Lat. palma; pere
(pear) Lat. pirum; rose (rose) Lat. rosa; lilie (lily)
Lat. lilium; plante (plant) Lat. planta.
6. , :
engel (angel) Lat. angelus; biscop (bishop) Lat.

episcopus; cyrice (church) Lat. cyriaca; munuc


(monk) Lat. monachus; nunne (nun) Lat. nonna;
papa (pope) Lat. papa.
, ,

450 ,
.

XI-XIII ,
. , ,
,

, .

,
. ,
,

, .

. ,
, .
, ,
,

. ,
,

.

XVI,
XV-XVI ., .

,
.

, , ,
.
.
.

, , ,
ate-,
I
, separate, translate, meditate, exaggerate, congratulate;
,

ute-,

III ,
prosecute,

execute;


ant- ent-, , evident, transparent, patient, triumphant,
apparent, obedient.

XVII,

XVIII

, inertia, sanatorium, genus, radius, curriculum, datum,


vacuum.
,
,
, ,

.
.
:
,
, .
, :
alma mater, bona fide, ex officio, conditio sine qua non .
,

, .
,
.


, ,

. -


.
,

, ,

,

.

,


.
.

XVIIXVIII .

, , ,

.
,

,
obligation,

constitution,

alibi,

agriculture,

microscope, modern, laboratory, program, system, socialism, communism,


capitalism, climate, radius, tradition .
2.4.
, ,
, V .,

- ,

,

.

()

.

: bard , , ; bin ,
( , ); brat , ,
; brock ; down ; dun .

,
,

.

, ,
. , : bannock
; cross ; pillion
; plaid .

, : Aberdeen, Ben Lomond, Dunbar,


Kildare, Dunstable, Billigshurt.

,
, .
coracle ,
;
cromlech

);
eisteddfod ;

flanel ;
flummery ,
; , .

( ).
,
, .

:
lan , ( );
claymore ( );
rag , ;
glen ;
loch , ;
veel () ;
slogan ,
tartan ;

:
banshee , ;
bog , ;
galore
shamrock
shillelagh
spalpen
tory ,

2.5.

, .
,
, ,

,

-,

XII .
,

.: meodu, . . mead; . henap,


. . hemp; . meolk, . . milk;
. ploz, . . plough.

sable (). XII-XIII .,

, .

XIV , ,
,

, , XVI ,

.

, , ,

, beluga, sterlet, rouble, pood, czar, ztarosta, moujik,


kvass, shuba, vodka, samovar, troika, babushka, pirozhki.

: siberite ( ), uralite (
).

.
XIX -

,

Decembrist

, nihilist , nihilism, nihilistic, narodnik,


intelligentsia. , nihilist, Decembrist,
intelligentsia .
,
,

.
XVIII-XIX .,
.
, , , ispravnik, miroed,
obrok, barshina ,

,
,


.
kopeck, knout ( : naut), sterlet
,

steppes,
sables .

narodism, nihilistic, to knout


, sable ( ) .
XIX ,
, ,

-
XX


.


,
.

2.6.

. ,

, . ,
,

,
, , ,
.
,
,

- .

16 .
, , ;
; ,
. : halt (!), lance-knight (),
kreuzer (, ), junker ().
XVI

, . ,
,
,
.
17 .
, : zinc,
bismut, cobalt
.
XVII
. , groschen
(); drillinq (); plunder (); staff ();
fieldmarshal () .
XVIII
, . , ,

.
XVIII
, ,
: iceberq, wolfram, nickel, qletscher.

XIX

.
, .
(
,

).


. ,

ibdogermanic

(Indogermanisch), Middle English (Mittelenglisch), umlaut, ablaut,


grade (Grad), breaking, folk etymology (Folksetymologie), vowel0shift
(Lauterverschieburg), loanword (Lehnwort).
,

: marzipan, kohl-rabi, schnapps, kummel, kirsch, vermuth.


: leitmotiv, kapellmeister, claviatur,
humovresgue.
: spits, poodle.
XX
, , ,
.

,
. : Black
Shirt (Schwarhemd), Brown Shirt (Braunhemd), der Euhrer, gauleiter,
Gestapo, Hitlerism, Nazi, Stormtroopers (Stumabteilung), the
Third Reich ( ), blitzkrieg, bunker, Luftwaffe,
Wehrmacht.
2.7.

,

.
XVI
.

, , ,
.

, .

,
.
.

. ,

.

pack (, ) 1225 .


XIV-XVII .

bulwark

();

ledger

( ); keel (); freight (); hose


(); skipper (); rover (); deck ();
spool (); nap ( ).
XVII


, ,
:

();

easel

landscape

();

sketch

().
2.8.

XIV .

,
.

III

.

,

XIV

.
.
,

, ,
,

,
,
. , barouche (
baroccio ); cohl-rabi (. cavoli rape )

XVI
,

XVI

.
(XIV-XV .)
.
: ducat, million, lombard.

alarm

(), brigand (), bark ().


XVI

carat

(),

traffic

), porcelain (), contraband (),


bankrupt (), soldo (), battalion, squadron, citadel,
pistol.

(,

). : sonnet, stanza, motto, model, miniature,


madonna, fresco.
: bandit, biretta,
mustachio, lottery, bravo, duel, cavalcade, escort, artichoke, gondola.
XVII ,

, ,
, : manifesto, intrigue, bulletin, risk,
umbrella, balcony, corridor, pedal, solo, opera, vivace, piano, largo, allegro,
grotto, volcano, cascade.

XVIII


soprano, falsetto, viola,
cantata, mandolin, trombone, trio, fantasia, aria, tempo, obligate, crescendo,
andante.

: picturesque, costume, terracotta, dilettante.

XIX

. ,
carbonary, cammorra. ,
, ,
, ,
.
: sonatina,
cavatina, legato, prima donna, diva, fiasco, studio, replica.
XX :
autostrada, duce fascist.
fasces

(
).
, ,

,
, sotto voce (, ), traditori
.
2.9.

XVI . ,
,
XV - XVI
. (1492 .)
(1498 .)
,
, ,

XIX .

,
, ,
cotton, zenith. XV
: lemon, tare ()
.
XVI
, ,

XVI

, .
XVI
.

: infanta,
don, hidalgo, renegade, bravado, armada, comrade, mulatto, mosquito.
, XVII
, : cargo, guitar, castanet, toreador,
matador, duenna, dona, embargo, parade, escapade.

XVIII

,
,

. , quadrille, bolero, picador,


marinade, caramel, flotilla, cigar.

XIX .


. : querilla
( : werra-war), cigarette,

lasso, mustang.

,
.
,

, : cotton,
zenith, renegade, grenade, alligator, banana, cargo, guitar, guerilla, cigarette,
cafeteria, tango, rumba.

dinero, macho, amigo,


gringo, el nino(a) .
2.10.

.

.

,
,

,
, ,
.

.

, , , .

marmalade, flamingo, madeira, buffalo, coco(nut), port (wine), guinea, caste,


mandarin.
2.11.


. (VIIIXV ), (XI-XIII ),

( XVI ),
, , ,


,
,
.
,

.
, ,
,
, .

, , .

( )

,
.
, ,

, , ,
.
XIV-XVI .

: caliph, mameluke, shekh, hashish, nadir.

: calibre, sultan,
magazine.

: algebra, carat, tariff.


: apricot.
: alcohol.
assassin,
,
, ,
,

.
2.12.

.

,
,

),

, ,
.

.
, ,
XV , .

XVI

, : satrap,
tiard. ,
VI ..) XIII
scarlet.

XIV

: tiger, azure, arsenic,


salamander.

,

, .
, , ,
,
, ,
.

, : shah, dervich,
toman, divan, caravan, bazaar, caravan serai, padichah, dinar, shawl.
2.13.

.

XVI
,

.
, XVII ,

-
,


,
.

, .
, nabob , maharadja (h) ,
bungalow , , jut , jungle
, cashmere , pyjamas .
,
,
,
.
.

,
,

, .


, ,

.


,

. , ,

.


,

, ,
, ,
. ,

,
. , ,
, .
, ,

. , , ,
.

, ;

,

, ,
,
.


1. Modern English Lexicology. Moscow external university of
humanities, 1996.
2.

..

. ., 1982.
3. - .
.
4. .. .
., 1977.
5.

..

. ., 1989.
6. . . .,
1956.
7.

..

. ., 1991.
8. , .
. ., 1981.
9. .., ..
. ., 1995.
10.

.,

. ., 1963.
11.

..

. ., 1949.

12. .. .
: , 1992.

:
father, sun, arm

(5-6 . ..)
budget, career, plaid

:
summer, storm, shirt

:
1 . 1 . ..
colony, cup, wall
2 . 7 . ..
altar, chapter, disciple
:
3 . .. (exampli, gratia) for
example, i.e. (id est) that is to say

-:
( 5 . ..)
bird, girl, woman

(8-11 . ..)
sister, want

1. (11-13 ..)
table, plate
2. (.
)
Regime, cafe
(. ):
analysis, dialogue, comedy
(
):
violin, aria, influenza
(

): apricot, banana,
potato
:
Sugar, candy
:

Homeopathy, waltz
:
sadle

2

,

Ambience

Ballet

Bon vivant

Boulevard

Bouquet

Buffet

Cafe

Clientaile

Cognoscenti

()

Conjure

Connosseur

(, )

Coup

Coup d`Etat

Coup d`Grace

Debris

Decor

Denoument

De rigueur

Elan
Eminance grise
Enclave
Enfant terrible
Espirit du corps
Fait accompli

Faute de mieux

Femme fatale

Fin-de-siecle

Force majoure

Genre

Gourmand

()

Gourmet

Haute couture

Impass

Joi de vivra

Laissez fair

Lese majeste

Liarson

Matinee

Naivtee

Nom de gerre

Noblesse oblige

Object d`art
Overture
Passe
Repertoir
Raison d`etre
Raprochment
Soiree
Savoir fair
Verve



, ,

,



,

:
father, sun, arm

(5-6 . ..)
budget, career, plaid

:
summer, storm, shirt

:
1 . 1 . ..
colony, cup, wall
2 . 7 . ..
altar, chapter, disciple
:
3 . .. (exampli, grutia) for
example, i.e. (idest) that isto say

-:
( 5 . ..)
bird, girl, woman

(8-11 . ..)
sister, want

3. (11-13 ..)
table, plate
4. (.
)
regime, cafe
(. ):
analysis, dialogue, comedy
(
):
violin, aria, influenza
(

): apricot, banana,
potato
:
Sugar, candy
:

Homeopathy, waltz
:
salde