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Une Cit Industrielle, detail, dated 1917. Tony Garnier, Architect.

Une Cit Industrielle

ne Cit Industrielle portrays a utopian, modernist vision that in corporates functionalist principles a

decade before they were advocated by any other architect (Miriani, 1990). Garnier envisioned an entire city in plan and in detail, including schools, hospitals, factories, residential quarters and recreational facilities. His generating concepts included a decentralized layout, traffic-free pedestrian zones, and residential districts with gardens to emphasize continuous pedestrian circulation and orientation and placement to follow local climatic design variables. In the Preface to Une Cit Industrielle, presented below, Garnier includes regulations to institute his design and plannng principles. The proposed materials and building techniques of reinforced concreteup to then used only experimentally would permit open plans and roof terraces, and glass windows disposed generously for sunlight and natural ventilation.

1. DISPOSITION AND LAYOUT The architectural studies presented here with many plates focus on the establishment of a new city, Une Cit Industrielle. Most new towns that will be built from now on will be derived from industrial conditions. Therefore, the most generalized case is considered here. In such a scope of town planning, all possible architectural types will be required and all of these are examined here. The town is assumed to be of average size, to have a population of 35,000 inhabitants. A generalized approach to research is adopted for this scale that would not have been applicable to the study of a smaller village or to a larger city. It is also assumed that the site includes an equal amount of hillside and level plain that is transected by a river.

Although the town under study is fictitious, the existing towns of Rive-de-Gier, Saint-tienne, Saint-Chamond, Chasse, and Givors that represent similar basic needs as the scheme we have imaged here. The setting is assumed to be southeastern France and the building materials proposed are indigenous to the region. The reasons motivating the establishment of such a town could be assumed to be the availability of raw materials for manufacturing, the existence of a natural energy source available for industrial use, or the sites accessibility to transportation. In this case, the determining factor is taken to be a rushing stream that is advantageous for a dam and location of a hydroelectric power station to provide electricity for heating, lighting and power for factories and town. There are also mines nearby, although these could be assumed to be located farther away. The main factory is situated in the plain, where the stream meets the river. A major railway line runs between the factory and the town, located above on a higher plain. Higher still are the well-spaced hospital buildings. Like the town itself, these are shielded from cold winds, oriented to the southern sun on terraces sloping facing the river. Each of these principal elementsfactory, town, and hospitalis sited to allow for expansion, so that our study represents a more general longer term planning proposal. To arrive at a design that completely fulfills the moral and material needs of the individual, a set of standards are established concerning traffic circulation, hygiene, and so on. The assumption is that a certain progress of social order would have already established such standards, thus insuring the adoption of such regulations although these are completely unrecognized by current law. As such, it is assumed that there is the enabling public power of eminent domain, governance of uses of the land, distribution of water, food essentials and medicines, and the reutilization of refuse.

Fig. 1. Une_Cit_Industriel lgee, neral view, dated 1917. Tony Garnier, Architect.

Fig. 2. Une_Cit_Industriel lfea,ctory view, dated 1917. Tony Garnier, Architect.

2. HOUSING Many towns and cities have already enacted standards for hygiene according to local geographic and climatic conditions. In this city, it is assumed that the direction and conditions of the prevailing winds prompt particular practices represented in the following set of building regulations: In residences, each bedroom should have at least one south-facing window, large enough to illuminate the whole room and admit direct sunlight All spaces in residences, however small, should be illuminated and ventilated directly from outside and not rely upon internal shafts House interiors (walls, floors, and so forth) should be of a smooth surface with rounded corners These standards, required for residential construction, will, whenever possible, also serve as guidelines for public buildings. The area in residential quarters is subdivided into blocks measuring 150 meters in the east-west direction and 30 meters in the northsouth. These blocks are then divided into lots of 15 by 15 meters, each one abutting directly onto the street. This partitioning ensures the best possible use of land and fulfills the standards cited above. A residence or any building for a public function may occupy one or more lots. But the area of lot coverage for construction must always be less than half the entire site, with the remainder devoted to public garden accessible to pedestrian use: that is, each building lot must include a public pathway available from the street to the building behind. This arrangement makes it possible for pedestrians to cross the city in any direction, independent of the street pattern. The land of the town as a whole is similar to a great park, free of enclosures and walls delimiting the terrain. The minimum distance between two houses in the north-south direction is equal to at least the height of the construction situated to the south. Due to these planning standardswhich limit site coverage and prohibit the use of enclosuresand also because the land is graded for drainage, there is great variety in overall design. The town is composed of a grid of parallel and perpendicular streets. Its main street originates at the railway station and runs east-west. The north-south roads, tree-lined on either side, are 20 meters wide and planted on both sides. The east-west roads are 13 or 19 meters wide; those of 19 meters are planted on the south side.

3. ADMINISTRATIONPUBLIC BUILDINGS At the center of the city, an extensive area is reserved for public buildings. They form three groups: I. Administrative services and assembly halls; II. Museums; III. Facilities for sports and entertainment Groups II and III are situated in parks, bordered to the north by the main street and to the south by planted terraces which afford an open view of the plain, the river, and mountains beyond. Group I: Administrative services and meeting halls A very open hall continuously accessible to the public, with a capacity of 3,000; the hall is equipped with public notice boards and a public address system to amplify meeting or musical entertainment; it is also used for large-scale meetings A second hall with amphitheater seating for 1,000 people, and two further amphitheaters for 500; all are equipped for conferences and film projection A large number of small meeting rooms (each with its own office and changing room) for unions, associations, and other groups. All these rooms are located beneath a vast portico that provides a covered promenade for the town center and a spacious area where people can meet, sheltered in case of inclement weather. To the south of this portico is the clock tower, visible along the length of the main street. It is a landmark indicating the center of town. The administrative services include: A building containing municipal offices open to the public records (births, marriages, and deaths), and an arbitration tribunal; each of these will include rooms for the public, committees, and related offices. An office building for all those branches of civic government that require at least one clerk in direct contact with the administration A building for social research A building for archives, sited near the fire station There will also be an office housing the labor organizations, which include employment registry office; information offices; offices for trade union organizations and associations; temporary residences and cafeterias. There are also special advisory offices, including a building fitted out as a medical clinic, a pharmacy, and a center for hydrotherapy. Further south on the main street is the central post and telecommunications office, with complete mail, telex and telephone facilities. Group II: Museum buildings Historical collections and important archaeological, artistic, industrial and commercial documents relating to the city; permanent monuments will be erected in the park surrounding the rooms containing the archives Botanical collections; in the garden and in a large greenhouse The library, including a spacious reading room (one side devoted to library volumes, the other to periodicals and newspapers) and a large map room (at its center a vast globe fitted with a stair to facilitate consultation). Located at the entrance to the library are service rooms for cataloging, book maintenance, book-binding, archiving, printing, a book loan office, and so forth.; surrounding these are the various storerooms A large separate hall for temporary exhibitions; with four entrances so that several small exhibits can be set up at once, or a large exhibition can utilize the entire hall Group III: Public buildings for sports and entertainment A hall for entertainment and theater (1,900 seats), with all necessary support facilities; movable stage sets for quick scene changes (to eliminate equipment above and below the stage); green rooms for performers, orchestra and for theater sets; cloakrooms, toilets, foyer, and public restaurant A semi-circular amphitheater (after the ancient Greek theater) for open-air performances framed within a natural landscape Gymnasia A large public bath building with heated and unheated pools, changing cabins and bathing pools, shower rooms, massage and relaxation rooms, a restaurant, a fencing room, and tracks for athletic training Athletic fields (tennis courts, football pitches, and so forth), tracks for cycling and running; areas for high jump and discus throwing, and so forth; this area will be bordered by covered grandstands and grassy terraces screened by trees.

Fig. 3. Primary School (Pl. 38). Tony Garnier, Architect.

Fig. 4. Primary School Garden (Pl. 39). Tony Garnier, Architect

Fig. 5. View Residential Quarter (Pl. 72). Tony Garnier, Architect.

Fig. 6. View Residential Quarter (Pl. 74). Tony Garnier, Architect.

Fig. 7. Plan Residential Quarter (Pl. 66). Tony Garnier, Architect.

As explained above, Groups II and III are situated in the midst of gardens, furnished with park benches, fountains, and so forth. All public buildings are constructed almost entirely in reinforced concrete and glass.

4. SCHOOLS Conveniently located throughout the citys neighborhoods are primary schools for children up to approximately fourteen years of age. Schools will be coeducational; grouping of children will be by age, ability and advancement. A special landscaped street will separate the classes for smaller children from those of their elders, and will provide a play area for use between classes. Recreation areas will also include arcades and open porticoes. Schools will be equipped with projection theatres in addition to the necessary classrooms. The school principal and grounds attendants are housed nearby. Secondary schools will be situated at the most northeastern point of the town. The curriculum will be addressed to the needs of an industrial town. For the majority of students, the education will involve general courses in vocational studies. A limited number of students will receive specialist training in administration and trade (that is, professional arts instruction). All children attend the secondary schools between fourteen and twenty years of age. Those qualified for further studies will enroll in professional schools or colleges. The professional arts school is intended to prepare those who will engage in artistic productionin architecture, painting, and sculpture, as well as related areas of design such as furniture, fabrics, linen, embroidery, clothing, leatherwork; also in copper, tin, iron, glass, pottery, enamel, printing, lithography, photography, engraving, mosaic, poster art, and so forth. The professional industrial school is concerned primarily with supporting the two major industries of the region, metallurgy and silk production, and will offer specialized courses devoted to the study of production and procedures. 5. HEALTH FACILITIES The hospitals (715 beds) are situated on the hillside north of the city center. They are sheltered from the cold mountain winds by trees forming a screen to the east and west. The complex contains four main buildings. Hospital Heliotherapy center Hospital for contagious diseases Hospital for invalids The plan as a whole as well as in detail has been designed according to current standards of medical science. Each section is disposed to accommodate future expansion. 6. RAILWAY STATION The district around the railway station is mainly reserved for collective housing, such as hotels, and department stores, and so forth, so that the rest of the city is free of tall structures. The railway station square will face an open-air market. The station is of average size and is sited at the intersection of the great artery leading out of town and the streets leading to the older developed area along the riverbanks. The main building opens onto the square and its clock tower is visible from all over town. Public amenities are at street level and underground walkways are equipped with platforms and waiting rooms. The railway yard is situated farther to the east, with the sidings serving the factory to the west. The railway tracks are planned as straight lines, so that trains can move as rapidly as possible. 7. PUBLIC SERVICES Certain basic services depend on the municipal administration and are subject to special requirements. These services include meat distribution, flour and bread production and storage, water supply, the control of pharmaceutical and dairy products. The administration is in charge of sewage and garbage disposal, and the recycling of refuse. It also controls the water supply, electrical power, and heating for industrial as well as for private consumption, and requires a centralized plant to provide such municipal services to all buildings and areas of the city. 8. FACTORIES The main factory is a metallurgy works. Nearby mines supply raw materials. Energy is generated from the local hydropower site and power plant. The factory produces steel rods and pipes, rolled-steel section, sheet metal, wheels, machine tools, and agricultural machinery. In addition, it fabricates metalwork for railway stock and naval equipment and

bodywork for automobiles and airplanes. The factory complex includes blast furnaces, steel mills, workshops with large presses and power hammers, assembly and repair shops, a dock for launching and repairing ships, a river port, workshops for outfitting automobile bodies, and workshops for refractories. It also includes vehicle testing tracks, numerous laboratories, and housing for engineering staff. Support facilities will be distributed throughout the complex, including rest rooms, changing rooms, cafeteria, and first aid points. Spacious roads with trees arranged in quincunx patterns will lead to the various areas of the industrial complex. Each department is arranged to allow for future expansion without curtailing other parts of the complex. Around the center of the city, other manufacturing facilities may be added, including farmsteads for food production, silkworm production, spinning-mills, and so forth.

9. CONSTRUCTION Materials used in building construction include concrete for foundations and walls, and reinforced concrete for the sills and roofing. Important structures are to be built in reinforced concrete. These two materials are highly plastic, and require specially prepared formwork; with simple forms, the installation is easier and construction costs are lower. This simplicity of means logically leads to simplicity of structural expression. Note that if the construction remains simple, without ornamentation or moldings and with sheer surfaces, the decorative arts can be effectively employed in all their forms, and each artistic object will maintain a cleaner and fresher expressiveness, due to its independence from the construction itself. Moreover, the use of concrete and cement makes it possible to obtain large horizontal and vertical surfaces, endowing the building with a sense of calm and balance in harmony with the natural contours of the landscape. Other construction methods and materials will without doubt contribute to other forms that will be equally interesting to study. This concludes the summary of the planning of a city, an endeavor in which all can appreciate that work is a human law and that the cult of beauty and order can endow life with splendor. REFERENCES
Miriani, Riccardo, ed., 1990. Tony Garnier: Une Cit Industrielle, New York: Rizzoli International Publications. Wiebenson, Dora. 1969. Tony Garnier: The Cit Industrielle, New York: George Braziller.