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2.

,
.
.
. .
,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
(.2.1).

U.
3
/( /).
(1)
= 2
, U 2 U,
:
U = 2 U.
U,
U. ,
B B.
, .
B, U.
, , , U, U U

(2)

U = U = U .


(3)
= / ,
= 2 ,

( 4)

= 2 ,

c
2c
= 2 .
2

,
. , (2.3)
d/d, .
, . ,
, ,

. , ,
. ,
:
.

2.1.
,
.

-
,

<< T ,

(1.1)

, T
:

U T 2

(1.2)

.2.1.1 . -

, .
, , .
, (
.2.1.1),
:

U d .

- .

.
( .2.1.1) :

(1.3)

a
U 3 exp
.
T

, . ,
3 U . U

, , .
-.
, ,
. a ,
.
.


max . ,
, :

max
= const .
T

. ,
B B.

-.
- , ,
, :

U = U d = aT 4 .
0

.
.
.

2.2.
.
, (,
.2.1). U d dN
(, + d), V, < E >:

dN < E >
V
dN < E >.
(2.1)

U d =


,
. dN
.

(2.2)

2c

+ d,

2
=

c
k k + dk. L L L. k
kx, ky, kz.
(2.3)

k=

(2.4)

kx

ky

kz

2N x
L
2N y
L
2N z
L

Nx, Ny Nz .
kx, ky, kz
. k
, :

(2.5)

k = k x2 + k y2 + k z2 .


. Nx, Ny Nz
(2.4)
. . 2.1
. Nx, Ny Nz .

(2.6)

N = N x2 + N y2 + N z2 .

Nx, Ny Nz , N
.(2.1) -. (2.46),
N:

( 2 .7 )

k=N

2
.
L

, , k k + dk,
N N N + dN. ,
N N + dN, ,

g ( N ) dN = 4N 2 dN .
, , k k + dk
3
V = L

g (k ) dk = 4N 2 dN =

1 2
k dk L3 .
2 2

(2.7).
2 , ,
(2.3), :

(2.8)

1 2 d
dN
.
= 2
V
c3

(2.8), , (2.3)

d dpx dp y dpz dx dy dz
=
h3
h3
dN d.
, , V
dpx dpy dpz V dpx dpy dpz /h3.
dN =


dpxdpydpz = p2 dp sin d d
:

sin d d = 4.
, p dp 4p2 dp.
p=/c :
3


p dp = 2 d,
c
2

V d
:

dN = V

2 d
.
2 2 c 3

,
(2.8). , .
, .
.

2.3
p q:

E ( p, q ) =

p 2 m 2 q 2
.
+
2m
2

( )

W ( E ) = A exp( E / T ).

< E >=

(3.1)

A E ( p, q ) exp( E ( p, q ) / T ) dp dq
A exp( E ( p, q ) / T ) dp dq

P=

p
,
2m

Q = q

m
,
2

P2 + Q2
dP dQ
+ Q 2 exp
T

< E >=
.
2
2
P +Q
exp T dP dQ
P Q .

(P

P exp( P / T )dP Q exp( Q / T )dQ


.
+
< E >=
exp( P / T )dP
exp( Q / T )dQ
2

x2
n
dx .
exp
x

n : 0 2,
(3.2) I0,2
(3.2)

In =


x2
I n = 2 x n exp dx,
T
0

n = 0,2.

< E >=

2I0 I 2
I
=2 0 .
2
I0
I1

In

( + 1) =

e t dt ,

+ 1

1 2

2
exp
.
t

at
dt
=
+1
0
2
a 2
In
n +1
n +1
I n =
T 2 .
2

(3.3)

< E >= 2

(3 / 2) T 3 / 2
/2
=2
T = T .
1/ 2
(1 / 2) T

:
T/2, T.
(2.1). (3.3),

U d =

2 d
T ~ 2 T d .
2 3
c

, .

2.4
,
.
,
.
. ,
()
(4.1)

0=,

.
(4.2)

E = En = n 0 = n ,


(4.3)

n = 0, 1, 2,

, , , :
.

.
, .
, ,
(3.1) :

E
exp n
T .
< E >= n =0
E
exp n

T
n =0

(4.4)

x=

En
,
T

<E> :

E
exp n
T = A.
< E >= n = 0
B
E
exp n

T
n=0

x
2x
3x
nx
(4.5)
B = 1 + e + e + e + +e
+
x
e :

B=

1
.
1 e x

(4.5) x,

dB
= e x 2e 2 x 3e 3 x ne nx + = ne nx ,
dx
n=0
A:
dB
e x
.
A=
=
dx (1 e x )2
, A/B
A
e x
1
.
=
= x
x
B 1 e
e 1

, T
:

(4.6) < E > =

exp

1
T

(4.7)

n =

exp

1
,

1
T

, .

< E > = n .
(4.6) (2.8) (2.1),
:

(4.8) U d =

2 d
3 d

=
n

2 c3
2 c 3

exp

1
.

1
T

,
.
:

(4.9) N =

U
2
= 2 3
c

exp

1
.

1
T

2.5
?
. .
1) . ,
1
: ~ 1 .

= ~ 1027 ~ 1015 ~ 1011 .
,
.
2) . , 100 ,
6 . = 2 c/ ~ 31010 1,
~ 31017 ~ 3105 ~ 0.3 .
, 1028 /( 2 )
200 500 .
= 300 = 3108 .

31020 2 =31017 2 1.
1017 , ,
.
. :
6 .
.
3) .
, , ~ 1016 1.
:
~ 1011 ~ 10 ~ 105 .
.

2.6
.
( ), ( ).

<< kT

>> kT

n T >> 1

n exp ( T ) << 1

< E >= T <<

< E >= exp ( T ) <<

U d = 2 T d/(2c3)

U d = 3 exp(/T) d/( 2c3)

2.7
,
:
, ,  T.
max .
max(T) .
W. (4.7), :

U W =

(7.1)


3 exp
.
c
T
2

x=

( 7 .2 )

( 7 . 3)

T3
= 2 3
c

( x ),

f W ( x) = x 3 e x
f W( x)
W
(7.5)
xmax
= 3.
3
e 20, ,
(7.4)

(7.5) .
. (4.7)

x3
T3
.
(
)
,
(
)
=
f
x
f
x
2c3 2
e x 1
df/dx = 0
x
3(1 e ) = x.
U =

,
x=3 , . :

3+

=e

e 1 + + 2/2.
x :

3 2
e3 3 + 3 = 0 .
2

(e

e3 3

3) 18
2

= 0.178

x = 3 = 2.822.
x (7.2) ,
:

(7.6)

T max = 0.50996 K .

2.8 .

: U U. (2)

(8.1)

U = U

d 16 2 c
=
d
5

1
.
2c
exp
1
T

(7.2)
x = 2c/(T).
, ,

(8.2)

f ( x) =

1
.
x ex 1
5


W
(8.3)
xmax
= 5.
e5 150, , (8.3) , (7.5)
.
, ,
=5x

0.0349,
, ,

(8.4)

xmax = 4.965

:
(8.5)
Tmax = 0.28979 ,
, .
, , ,
. ,
5500, , 8800 .
.
(8.5). ,

, ,
, (7.6).