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Chapters 1 4 Resources

Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such materials be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with the Glencoe Chemistry: Matter and Change program. Any other reproduction, for sale or other use, is expressly prohibited. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240-4027 ISBN: 978-0-07-878760-7 MHID: 0-07-878760-2 Printed in the United States of America. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 045 11 10 09 08 07

Table of Contents
To the Teacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

Chapters 1-4 Resources


Reproducible Student Pages
Student Lab Safety Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 2 Analyzing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Chapter 3 MatterProperties and Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Chapter 4 The Structure of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Teacher Guide and Answers


Chapter 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Chapter 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Chapter 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Chapter 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

iii

To the Teacher
This booklet contains resource materials to help you teach more effectively. You will find the following in the chapters:

Reproducible Pages
Hands-on Activities
MiniLab and ChemLab Worksheets: Each activity in this book is an expanded version of each lab that appears in the Student Edition of Glencoe Chemistry: Matter and Change. All materials lists, procedures, and questions are repeated so that students can read and complete a lab in most cases without having a textbook on the lab table. All lab questions are reprinted with lines on which students can write their answers. In addition, for student safety, all appropriate safety symbols and caution statements have been reproduced on these expanded pages. Answer pages for each MiniLab and ChemLab are included in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.

Transparency Activities
Teaching Transparency Masters and Worksheets: These transparencies relate to major concepts that will benefit from an extra visual learning aid. Most of the transparencies contain art or photos that extend the concepts put forth in the textbook. Others contain art or photos directly from the Student Edition. There are 73 Teaching Transparencies, provided here as black-and-white masters accompanied by worksheets that review the concepts presented in the transparencies. Answers to worksheet questions are provided in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book. Math Skills Transparency Masters and Worksheets: These transparencies relate to mathematical concepts that will benefit from an extra visual learning aid. Most of the transparencies contain art or photos directly from the Student Edition, or extend concepts put forth in the textbook. There are 42 Math Skills Transparencies, provided here as black-and-white masters accompanied by worksheets that review the concepts presented in the transparencies. Answers to worksheet questions are provided in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Intervention and Assessment


Study Guide: These pages help students understand, organize, and compare the main chemistry concepts in the textbook. The questions and activities also help build strong study and reading skills. There are six study guide pages for each chapter. Students will find these pages easy to follow because the section titles match those in the textbook. Italicized sentences in the study guide direct students to the related topics in the text.

The Study Guide exercises employ a variety of formats including multiple-choice, matching, true/false, labeling, completion, and short answer questions. The clear, easyto-follow exercises and the self-pacing format are geared to build your students confidence in understanding chemistry. Answers or possible responses to all questions are provided in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.
iv

To the Teacher

continued

Chapter Assessment: Each chapter assessment includes several sections that assess students understandings at different levels.

The Reviewing Vocabulary section tests students knowledge of the chapters vocabulary. A variety of formats are used, including matching, true/false, completion, and comparison of terms. The Understanding Main Ideas section consists of two parts: Part A tests recall and basic understanding of facts presented in the chapter, while Part B is designed to be more challenging and requires deeper comprehension of concepts than does Part A. Students may be asked to explain chemical processes and relationships or to make comparisons and generalizations. The Thinking Critically section requires students to use several different higher-order learning skills, such as interpreting data and discovering relationships in graphs and tables, as well as applying their understanding of concepts to solve problems, compare and contrast situations, and to make inferences or predictions. The Applying Scientific Methods section puts students into the role of researcher. They may be asked to read about an experiment, simulation, or model and then apply their understanding of chapter concepts and scientific methods to analyze and explain the procedure and results. Many of the questions in this section are open-ended, giving students the opportunity to demonstrate both reasoning and creative problem-solving skills. Answers or possible responses to all questions are provided in the Teacher Guide and Answers section at the back of this book.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

STP Recording Sheet: Recording Sheets allow students to use the Standardized Test Practice questions in the Student Edition as a practice for standardized tests. STP Recording Sheets give them the opportunity to use bubble answer grids and numbers grids for recording answers. Answers for the STP Recording Sheets can be found in the Teacher Wraparound Edition on Standardized Test Practice pages. Teacher Guide and Answers: Answers or possible answers for questions in this booklet can be found in the Teacher Guide and Answers section. Materials, teaching strategies, and content background, along with chapter references, are also provided where appropriate.

Teacher Approval Initials Date of Approval

Lab Safety Form


Name: Date: Lab type (circle one) : Launch Lab MiniLab ChemLab Lab Title: Read carefully the entire lab and then answer the following questions. Your teacher must initial this form before you begin the lab. 1. What is the purpose of the investigation?

3. Is this a design-your-own procedure? Circle:

Yes

No

4. Describe the safety procedures and additional warnings that you must follow as you perform this investigation.

5. Are there any steps in the procedure or lab safety symbols that you do not understand? Explain.

vi

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Will you be working with a partner or on a team?

Table of Contents

Reproducible Pages

Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry


MiniLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ChemLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Teaching Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Chapter Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 STP Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

mini LAB 1

Developing Observation Skills


Observing and Inferring A chemists ability to make careful and accurate observations
is developed early. The observations often are used to make inferences. An inference is an explanation or interpretation of observations.

Materials petri dish (2), graduated cylinder, whole milk, water, vegetable oil, four different food colorings, toothpick (2), dishwashing detergent

Procedure
1. 2. 3. 4. Read and complete the lab safety form. Add water to a petri dish to a height of 0.5 cm. Add 1 mL of vegetable oil. Dip the end of a toothpick in liquid dishwashing detergent. Touch the tip of the toothpick to the water at the center of the petri dish. Record your detailed observations. 5. Add whole milk to a second petri dish to a height of 0.5 cm. 6. Place one drop each of four different food colorings in four different locations on the surface of the milk. Do not put a drop of food coloring in the center. 7. Repeat steps 3 and 4.

Analysis
1. Describe what you observed in step 4.

2. Describe what you observed in step 7.

3. Infer Oil, the fat in milk, and grease belong to a class of substances called lipids. What can you infer about the addition of detergent to dishwater?

4. Explain why observations skills were important in this chemistry lab.

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB

Identify the Water Source

he contents of tap water vary among communities. In some areas, the water is hard. Hard water is water that contains large amounts of calcium or magnesium ions. Hardness can be measured in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of calcium or magnesium ions. Hard water makes it difficult to get hair, clothes, and dishes clean. In this lab, you will learn how hard water is softened and how softening water affects its ability to clean. You will also collect, test, and classify local sources of water.

Problem
How can hard water be softened? How do hard and soft water differ in their ability to clean?

Objectives
Compare the effect of distilled water, hard water, and soft water on the production of suds. Calculate the hardness of a water sample.

Materials
3 large test tubes with stoppers test-tube rack grease pencil 25-mL graduated cylinder distilled water dropper hard water 250-mL beaker dish detergent metric ruler

Safety Precautions
Always wear safety goggles and a lab apron. Washing soda is a skin and eye irritant.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Pre-Lab
Read the entire CHEMLAB. 2. Hypothesize about the effect hard and soft water will have on the ability of a detergent to produce suds. Then, predict the relative sudsiness of the three soap solutions.
1. 4.

Are there any other safety precautions you need to consider?

5.

Suppose you accidentally add more than one drop of detergent to one of the test tubes. Is there a way to adjust for this error or must you discard the sample and start over?

3.

Use the data table on the next page.

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB
6.

1
Obtain about 50-mL of water sample 1 in a beaker from your teacher. Slowly pour the water sample into Test Tube 1 until you reach the marked height. 6. Obtain about 50-mL of water Sample 2 in a beaker from your teacher. Slowly pour water Sample 2 into Test Tube 2 until you reach the marked height. 7. Add one drop of dish detergent to each test tube. Stopper the tubes tightly. Then shake each sample for 30s to produce suds. Use a metric ruler to measure the height of the suds.
5.

The American Society of Agricultural Engineers, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Water Quality Association agree on the following classification of water hardness. GPG stands for grains per gallon. One GPG equals 17.1 mg/L. If a sample of water has 150 mg/L of magnesium ions, what is its hardness in grains per gallon?

Classification of Water Hardness


Classification Soft Moderate Hard Very hard mg/L 060 61120 121180 180 GPG 03.5 3.57 710.5 10.5

Cleanup and Disposal


Use some of the soapy solutions to remove the grease marks from the test tubes. 2. Rinse all of the liquids down the drain with lots of tap water. Return all lab equipment to its designated location.
1.

Procedure
Read and complete the lab Safety form. 2. Use a grease pencil to label three large test tubes D (for distilled water), 1 (for Sample 1), and 2 (for Sample 2). 3. Use a 25-mL graduated cylinder to measure out 20-mL of distilled water. Pour the water into Test Tube D. Stopper the tube. 4. Place Test Tube 1 next to Test Tube 2 and make a mark on Test Tube H that corresponds to the height of the water in Test Tube D.
1.

Production of Suds
Sample Distilled water Sample 1 Sample 2
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Level of Suds (cm)

Analyze and Conclude


1.

Compare and Contrast Which sample produced the most suds? Which sample produced the least amount of suds?

2.

Conclude Soft water produces more suds than hard water. Use the table on the next page to determine from which community each water sample originated.

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB
3.

Calculate If the 50 mL of hard water that you obtained contained 7.3 mg of magnesium, how hard would the water be according to the table below (50 mL = 0.05 L)?

Classification of Water Hardness


Classification Soft Moderate Hard Very hard 4. mg of Calcium or Magnesium /L 060 61120 121180 >180

Apply Scientific Methods Identify the independent and dependent variables in this lab. Was there a control in this lab? Explain. Did all your classmates have the same results as you? Why or why not?

5.

Error Analysis Could the procedure be changed to make the results more quantitative? Explain.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Inquiry Extension
Investigate There are a number of products that claim to soften water. Visit a grocery store or home-improvement store to find these products and design an experiment to test their claims.

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

1
Use with Chapter 1, Section 1.1

Earths Atmosphere

Exosphere 500 Thermosphere 100


Altitude (km)

75

Mesosphere

50

Stratosphere

25

Troposphere

0
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

Teaching Transparency Masters

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

1
Use with Chapter 1, Section 1.1

Earths Atmosphere
1. In which layer of Earths atmosphere do commercial airplanes fly?

2. In which layer of Earths atmosphere would you find the peaks of mountains?

3. In which layer of Earths atmosphere would you find the ozone layer?

4. In which layer of Earths atmosphere would you find the air you breathe?

5. In which layer of Earths atmosphere does ozone form? Explain how it forms.

6. Over which region(s) of Earth are the highest concentrations of ozone found? Over

which region(s) of Earth are the lowest concentrations of ozone found?


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. What is the source for the ultraviolet radiation in Earths atmosphere?

8. How does ultraviolet radiation affect Earths surface?

9. How does ultraviolet radiation affect humans and other organisms?

10. How does the ozone layer protect Earth from ultraviolet radiation?

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

TH

EXP E

8
ENTS IM R

Name

A Scientific Method

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

OBSERVATIONS Existing knowledge Qualitative data Quantitative data

RY EO

THEORY Hypothesis supported by many experiments

PERIMENTS EX

NCLUSION S CO
R

R HY
E TH VIS E D EO RY

HYPOTHESIS Testable statement or prediction

E PO VIS E D THE SIS

Date

SCIENTIFIC LAW Facts of nature accepted as truth

Class

Use with Chapter 1, Section 1.3

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

2
Use with Chapter 1, Section 1.3

A Scientific Method
1. Define the term scientific method.

2. What is typically the first step in a scientific method? Give two examples.

3. What is a hypothesis?

4. Compare and contrast a hypothesis and a theory.

5. Distinguish between an independent variable and a dependent variable.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. Suppose you observe that tadpoles hatched in stagnant water have a lower rate of survival

than tadpoles hatched in water that is churned and aerated. Write a possible hypothesis you might test based on your observations. How might you test your hypothesis?

7. You notice that when salt is sprinkled on an icy sidewalk, the ice melts even when the

temperature is below freezing. Write a possible hypothesis you might test based on your observation. How might you test your hypothesis?

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

3
Use with Chapter 1, Section 1.4

Laboratory Safety

10

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

3
Use with Chapter 1, Section 1.4

Laboratory Safety
1. What should you do before entering the lab? List at least three things.

2. What should you do if a chemical comes in contact with your skin?

3. When should you read the label on a chemical container?

4. What is the proper way to prepare an acid solution?

5. When should you wear safety goggles? Gloves?


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. What kind of clothing should NOT be worn in the lab?

7. What should you do when you have completed an assignment in the lab?

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

11

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Introduction to Chemistry
Section 1.1

A Story of Two Substances

In your textbook, read about the ozone layer.

Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
atmosphere stratosphere oxygen gas troposphere ozone ultraviolet radiation ozone hole

Earths (1)

is made up of several layers. The air we breathe . The next layer

makes up the lowest level. This layer is called the (2) up is called the (3)
(4)

. This level contains a protective layer.

Ozone forms when (5)

is struck by ultraviolet radiation in the

upper part of the stratosphere. The ozone forms a layer around Earth, which absorbs
(6)

. Without ozone, you are more likely to get a sunburn or ,


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

possibly skin cancer. The thinning of the ozone layer, called the (7) is worrisome because without ozone all organisms on Earth are subject to harm from too much radiation.
In your textbook, read about chlorofluorocarbons.

For each statement below, write true or false.


8. CFC is another name for a chlorofluorocarbon. 9. CFCs are made up of carbon, fluorine, and cesium. 10. All CFCs are synthetic chemicals. 11. CFCs usually react readily with other chemicals. 12. CFCs were developed as replacements for toxic refrigerants.

12

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

Study Guide

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 1.2

Chemistry and Matter

In your textbook, read about chemistry and matter.

Define each term.


1. chemistry

2. matter

3. mass

Write each term below under the correct heading. Use each term only once.
air light magnetic field radio car radio wave feeling flashlight heat textbook human body thought

Made of Matter
4.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Not Made of Matter


10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

For each statement below, write true or false.


16. The mass of an object can vary with the objects location. 17. A mass measurement includes the effect of Earths gravitational pull on

the object being measured.


18. Scientists measure the amount of matter in terms of mass. 19. Subtle differences in weight exist at different locations on Earth. 20. Your mass on the Moon would be smaller than your mass on Earth.

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

13

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 1.2 continued Identify each branch of chemistry described.


21. The study of the matter and processes of living things

22. The study of carbon-containing chemicals

23. The study of the components and composition of substances

24. The study of matter that does not contain organic chemicals

25. The study of the behavior and changes of matter and the related energy changes

For each branch of chemistry in Column A, write the letter of the item in Column B that pertains to that branch. Column A
26. Organic chemistry
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Column B

27. Physical chemistry 28. Biochemistry 29. Analytical chemistry 30. Inorganic chemistry

Answer the following questions.


31. Compare the macroscopic world with the submicroscopic world.

32. Why are chemists interested in the submicroscopic description of matter?

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

Study Guide

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 1.3

Scientific Methods

In your textbook, read about a systematic approach that scientists use.

Use the words below to complete the concept map. Write your answers in the spaces below the concept map.
conclusions experiments hypothesis scientific law theory
4.
RY EO
PERIMENTS EX

3. 1.
Testable statement or prediction
EV PO ISE D THE SIS

TH

OBSERVATIONS Existing knowledge Qualitative data Quantitative data

2.

Hypothesis supported by many experiments

E TH VIS E D EO RY

5.
Facts of nature accepted as truth

R HY

1. 2.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. 4. 5.

For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B. Column A
6. Refers to physical characteristics such as color, odor,

Column B
a. observation b. qualitative data c. quantitative data d. independent variable e. dependent variable

or shape
7. Refers to mass, volume, and temperature measurements 8. A variable controlled by the experimenter 9. The act of gathering information 10. Changes in value based on the value of the controlled

variable

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

15

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 1.3 continued Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
11. A constant is a factor that a. changes during an experiment. b. changes from one lab group to another. 12. A control is a a. variable that changes during an experiment. b. standard for comparison. 13. A hypothesis is a(n) a. set of controlled observations. b. explanation supported by many experiments. 14. A theory is a(n) a. set of controlled observations. b. explanation supported by many experiments. 15. A model is a(n) a. visual, verbal, and/or mathematical explanation of how things occur. b. explanation that is supported by many experiments. c. description of a relationship in nature.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. is affected by the dependent variable. d. is not allowed to change during an experiment.

c. type of dependent variable. d. type of experiment.

c. tentative explanation of observations. d. law describing a relationship in nature.

c. tentative explanation of observations. d. law describing a relationship in nature.

d. tentative explanation about what has been observed.

In the space at the left, write the word or phrase in parentheses that correctly completes the statement.
16. Molina and Rowland used a (model, scientific method) to learn

about CFCs in the atmosphere.


17. Their hypothesis was that CFCs break down in the stratosphere

due to interactions with (ultraviolet light, oxygen).


18. Molina and Rowland thought that these interactions produced a

chemical that could break down (chlorine, ozone).


19. To test their (data, hypothesis), Molina and Rowland examined

interactions that occur in the stratosphere.


20. Based on their data, Molina and Rowland developed a

(hypothesis, model) that explained how CFCs destroy ozone.


21. Molina and Rowland concluded that (chlorine, radiation) formed

by the breakdown of CFCs in the stratosphere reacts with ozone and destroys it.

16

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

Study Guide

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 1.4

Scientific Research

In your textbook, read about types of scientific investigations.

For each description below, write A for applied research or P for pure research.
1. Is undertaken to solve a specific problem 2. Seeks to gain knowledge for the sake of knowledge itself 3. Is used to find CFC replacements 4. Was conducted by Molina and Rowland In your textbook, read about students in the laboratory and the benefits of chemistry.

Answer the following questions.


5. When should you read the label on a chemical container?

6. What do scientists usually do when a scientific problem first arises?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. What kinds of clothing should not be worn in the lab?

8. What is technology?

9. Which type of research would you be more interested in working inpure research or

applied research? Why?

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

17

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Introduction to Chemistry
Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B. Column A
1. A systematic approach used in all scientific study 2. Anything that takes up space and has mass 3. A chemical that protects organisms from UV radiation 4. Any substance with a definite composition 5. A visual, verbal, or mathematical explanation of how

Column B
a. chemical b. chlorofluorocarbon c. model d. matter e. ozone f.

things occur
6. The study of matter and the changes it undergoes 7. The act of gathering information 8. A judgment based on the information obtained during an

scientific method

g. conclusion h. technology i. j.

experiment
9. The practical use of scientific research 10. A chemical made up of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon

chemistry observation
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.


11. qualitative data, quantitative data

12. hypothesis, theory

13. dependent variable, independent variable

18

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

Chapter Assessment

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)


Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Which of the following is NOT matter? a. atoms b. ultraviolet radiation c. air d. the Sun

2. At the end of an experiment, the scientist forms a conclusion based on the a. variable. b. scientific law. c. data obtained. d. control.

3. Which of the following is a set of controlled observations that tests a hypothesis? a. mass b. experiment c. weight d. constant

4. The branch of chemistry that focuses on carbon-containing chemicals is called a. analytical chemistry. b. inorganic chemistry. 5. How should you prepare an acid solution? a. Add the water to the acid all at once. b. Add the acid to the water all at once. c. Add the water to the acid very slowly. d. Add the acid to the water very slowly. c. biochemistry. d. organic chemistry.

Answer the following questions.


6. Compare the macroscopic world with the submicroscopic world.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. Explain the relationship between CFCs and the depletion of the ozone layer.

8. What effects might the ozone hole have on humans and other organisms? Explain.

9. List three safety precautions you can take before entering the laboratory.

Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

19

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)


Identify each piece of data as either qualitative or quantitative.
1. red 2. 100 pounds 3. 105C 4. tall 5. round 6. smells like bananas 7. 40 mph 8. pink with purple polka dots 9. cold 10. 78 books

Identify each kind of investigation as an example of pure research or applied research.


11. A researcher analyzes different compounds that might be sources of cancer drugs.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

12. Researchers study the components of living cells.

13. Researchers look for a vaccine to prevent AIDS infection.

14. A researcher works on ways to improve agricultural yields.

15. A researcher observes chimpanzees in their natural habitat to learn about their behavior.

16. A researcher analyzes the composition of Jupiters atmosphere.

17. A researcher designs a more efficient internal-combustion engine.

20

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

Chapter Assessment

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Thinking Critically
In 1988, the international community formed an agreement to limit the production of CFCs. More than 140 countries agreed to phase out the production of the chemicals, starting in 1996. The graph below compares the predicted chlorine concentrations in the stratosphere with and without the 1996 phase-out of CFCs.
Chlorine concentration (parts per billion)

Concentration of Chlorine in the Stratosphere


Without phase-out of CFCs 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Year With phase-out of CFCs

1. What does the graph predict will happen to chlorine concentrations if CFCs are phased out?
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. What is the independent variable in these predictions? What is the dependent variable in

these predictions? Explain.

3. What conclusion can be made based on the predicted data?

4. Write a hypothesis scientists might test based on the graph.

Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

21

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Applying Scientific Methods


A chemist is studying the effects of minerals on plant growth. She knows that phosphorus stimulates plant growth. She decides to test the effects of different phosphorus concentrations on corn plants over a 20-day period.
1. What hypothesis might the chemist be testing?

2. What is the independent variable in the chemists experiment? What is the dependent

variable?

3. List three possible constants in the chemists experiment.

4. What quantitative data is the chemist likely to collect over the course of her experiment?

5. What qualitative data is the chemist likely to collect over the course of her experiment?

6. The chemist decides to apply the following concentrations of phosphorus to the corn

plants: 0% phosphorus, 10% phosphorus, 25% phosphorus, and 50% phosphorus. Draw a table that the chemist might use to record her data over the course of her experiment.

22

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

Chapter Assessment

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Applying Scientific Methods, continued After 20 days, the chemist organized her data into the following graph.
Effects of Phosphorus Concentration on Corn-Plant Growth
30

Plant growth (height in cm)

25

50% phosphorus 25% phosphorus

20

15

10
10% phosphorus

5
no phosphorus

0 0 5 10 Day 15 20 25

7. Based on the graph, what conclusions might the chemist make?


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

8. What practical application might the chemists experiment have?

9. What subsequent experiment might the chemist want to conduct to build on her experiment?

Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

23

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 1

Assessment
Multiple Choice

Student Recording Sheet

Standardized Test Practice


Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
1. 2. Short Answer 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Answer each question with complete sentences.


8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Extended Response

Answer each question with complete sentences.


13.

14.

SAT Subject Test: Chemistry 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

24

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Table of Contents

Reproducible Pages

Chapter 2 Analyzing Data


MiniLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 ChemLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Teaching Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Math Skills Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Chapter Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 STP Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

25

Name

Date

Class

mini LAB 2

Determine Density
Measuring To calculate density, you need to know both the mass and volume of an
object. You can find the volume of an irregular solid by displacing water.

Materials balance, graduated cylinder, water, washer or other small object Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Obtain several unknown objects from your teacher. Note: Your teacher will identify each object as A, B, C, and so on. 3. Create a data table to record your observations. 4. Measure the mass of the object using a balance. Record the mass and the identity of the object in your data table. 5. Add about 15-mL of water to a graduated cylinder. Measure and record the initial volume in your data table. Because the surface of the water in the cylinder is curved, make volume readings at eye level and at the lowest point on the curve, as shown in the figure. The curved surface is called a meniscus. 6. Tilt the graduated cylinder, and carefully slide the object down the inside of the cylinder. Be sure not to cause a splash. Measure and record the final volume in your data table.

Analysis
1. Calculate Use the initial and final volume readings to calculate the volume of each mystery object.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Calculate Use the calculated volume and the measured mass to calculate the density of each unknown object.

3. Explain Why cant you use the water displacement method to find the volume of a sugar cube?

4. Describe how you can determine a washers volume without using the water displacement method. Note that a washer is similar to a short cylinder with a hole through it.

26

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB

Use Density to Date A Coin


technician claims she can determine if the coin was minted before 1982 without altering the coin in any way. Knowing that pennies minted from 1962 to 1982 are 95% copper and 5% zinc, whereas those minted after 1982 are 97.5% zinc and 2.5% copper, hypothesize about what the technician will do

AThe year the coin was minted is important to the case. A forensics

penny that has had its date scratched off is found at a crime scene.

Problem
How can you use density to determine whether a penny was minted before 1982?

Objectives
Predict whether the pre1982 or the post-1982 pennies will have a higher mass and volume Measure the volume and mass of pennies Draw conclusions based on your analysis.

Materials
water 100-mL graduated cylinder small plastic cup balance Pre-1982 pennies (25) Post-1982 pennies (25) Metric ruler pencil graph paper graphing calculator (optional)

Safety Precautions
Always wear safety goggles and a lab apron.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Pre-Lab
Read the entire CHEMLAB. 2. Prepare all written materials that you will take into the laboratory. Be sure to include safety precautions and procedure notes.
1.

5.

3.

Review the equation for density. What would be the impact on density of increasing mass while keeping volume constant?
6.

What was the make-up of pennies before 1962? How would you expect the density of pre-1962 pennies compare to pennies made post-1982? Between 1962 and 1982?

4.

Increasing the amount of the heavier element in an object would increase the density of the object. Do you expect the pre-1982 pennies or the post1982 pennies would have the higher density?

Large objects cannot be placed in water to determine their volume. Determine a procedure that could be used to calculate the density of such an object.

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

27

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB
7.

2
5. Add 5 pre-1982 pennies to the cup, and measure 6. 7.

Review the equation to calculate percent error.

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Record all measurements in your data table. 3. Measure the mass of the plastic cup. 4. Pour about 50-mL of water into the graduated

8.

9.

the mass again. Add the 5 pennies to the graduated cylinder, and read the volume. Repeat steps 5 and 6 four times. After five trials there will be 25 pennies in the graduated cylinder. Cleanup and Disposal Pour the water from the graduated cylinder down the drain, being careful not to lose any of the pennies. Dry the pennies with a paper towel. Repeat steps 3 through 7, using post-1982 pennies.

cylinder. Record the actual volume.


Data Table for the Density of a Penny
Trial Mass of Pennies Added (g) Total Number of Pennies 5 10 15 20 25
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Total Mass of Pennies (g)

Total Volume of Water Displaced (mL)

1 2 3 4 5

Analyze and Conclude


1. Calculate

Complete the data table by calculating the total mass and the total volume of water displaced for each trial.

2. Make and Use Graphs

Graph total mass verses total volume for the pre-1982 and post- 1982 pennies. Plot and label two lines on the graph, one for pre-1982 pennies and one for post-1982 pennies.

3. Make and Use Graphs

Draw a best-fit line through each set of points. Use two points on each line to calculate the slope.

28

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB
4. Infer

Examine the units for the slopes of the lines. Verifying the slopes of the lines give you the density of the pre-1982 pennies and density of the post-1982 pennies.

5. Apply

Can you determine if a penny was minted before or after 1982 if you know only its mass? Explain how the relationship among volume, mass, and density support using a mass-only identification technique.

6. Error Analysis

Determine the percent error in the density of each coin.

Inquiry Extension
Compare your results with those from the rest of the class. Are they consistent? If not,

explain how you could refine your investigation to ensure more accurate results. Calculate a class average density of the pre1982 pennies and the density of the post1982 pennies. Determine the percent error of each average.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

29

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

4
Use with Chapter 2, Section 2.2

Converting Units

139.40 Swiss francs 593.30 French francs 175.95 Germ an ma rks 90.10 euros

29020

06280

Exchange Rates
Country Belgium Britain Canada France Germany Italy Switzerland Euro Currency units per U.S. dollar 42.70 0.66 1.48 6.98 2.07 2,051 1.64 1.06

Source: The Economist, July 15, 2000

30

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

4
Use with Chapter 2, Section 2.2

Converting Units
1. How much does the portable radio cassette player cost in U.S. dollars?

Exchange rates fluctuate daily. The ones shown on the transparency are for July 15, 2000. Show your work when necessary.

2. Which currency listed is closest to the value of the U.S. dollar?

3. Assume that you have only British pounds. How many pounds would the portable radio

cassette player cost? Show your work.

4. While traveling in Germany and France, you buy ice cream cones. The French cones sell

for 10 French francs. The German cones sell for 1.25 German marks. Which cone costs you more U.S. dollars?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Suppose on January 15, 2001, the exchange rates have changed as shown to the right. Use these exchange rates to answer questions 5 and 6. Show your work when necessary.
5. A video game costs 570 French francs on January 15, 2001.

Exchange Rates
Country Belgium Britain Canada France Germany Italy Currency units per U.S. dollar 42.95 0.71 1.37 6.51 2.09 2,085 1.61 1.02

What is its price in U.S. dollars? Has the price risen or dropped since July 15, 2000?

6. A department store has stores in both Germany and in

Switzerland euro

Switzerland. A Swiss shopper pays 12 Swiss francs for a candle. A German shopper pays 12 German marks for the identical candle.
a. Which shopper gets the better deal?

b. What is the advantage of using the euro in both Germany

and Switzerland?

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

31

32

Name

1 4 4 3 5 4 3 4 36 4 3 5 4 4 4 3 5 4

Total 9 Score 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Score Score 36 72

Precision and Accuracy

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

Hole Par

Date Class

Use with Chapter 2, Section 2.3

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

5
Use with Chapter 2, Section 2.3

Precision and Accuracy

In golf, a player tries to use the fewest swings, or strokes, of a club to hit a ball into a series of holes. The player keeps score by counting the number of strokes used for each hole. The players final score is the total number of strokes. The lower the number of strokes used, the better the score. Par is a term that refers to the target score for a particular hole. It is the number of strokes that a player is expected to use to hit the ball into that hole. A players accuracy is related to how closely his or her score comes to par. The closer a players score is to par, the more accurate the player. A players precision refers to the consistency of his or her score in comparison with par. A player whose score deviates consistently from par at each hole is more precise than one whose score deviates inconsistently.
1. Which players overall game was most accurate?

2. Which players overall game was both accurate and precise?

3. Use the terms accurate and precise to describe Marguerites overall game.

4. Which player seems to be neither accurate nor precise in his or her golf play?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. At the end of a golf game, which is more important: precision or accuracy?

Explain your answer.

6. Compare and contrast the results of a golf game to the data from an experiment.

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

33

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

6
Use with Chapter 2, Section 2.4

Interpreting Graphs

Brands of Stereo Speakers


200
Price (in dollars)

Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor


Magnasound Hi-technic Wals Best Thoreau Wolfvox K-Sonic Venus Sound quality
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

150 100 50 0

Sound quality Price

34

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

Teaching Transparency Masters

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

6
Use with Chapter 2, Section 2.4

Interpreting Graphs
1. What kind of graph is this?

2. What variables are compared in the graph?

3. Which product has the best sound quality? Which has the poorest sound quality?

4. Which product costs the most? The least?

5. If there are no limits on the amount of money you can spend, which product would you

buy? Why?

6. If you can spend only $120, which product would you buy? Why?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. If you can spend up to $200, which product would you buy? Why?

8. Which product is the best deal? Which is the worst deal?

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

35

Name

Date

Class

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY MASTER

1
Use with Chapter 2, Section 2.4

Interpreting and Drawing Graphs

Political Supporters
Political affiliation among 18- to 21-year-olds

Republican 19% Other 6% Democrat 25% Independent 50%


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Source of Data: The Economist, July 15, 2000

36

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

Math Skills Transparency Masters

Name

Date

Class

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

1
Use with Chapter 2, Section 2.4

Interpreting and Drawing Graphs


1. What kind of graph is shown on the transparency?

2. What does the circle represent?

3. Based on the data shown, what percentage of 18- to 21-year-olds think of themselves as

Republicans? As Democrats?

4. Which group do most 18- to 21-year-olds say they belong to?

5. The data on the right shows the political

affiliations for the general population. Make a graph that compares the political affiliations of 18- to 21-year-olds with those of the general population. Label the appropriate parts of your graph.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Political Supporters
Political affiliation Republican Democrat Independent Other party Source: The Economist, July 15, 2000 Percent of general population who identify with the affiliation 25 31 36 8

Use the graph you made in question 5 to answer the following questions.
6. What kind of graph did you make?

7. Compare the responses of the general population with those of 18- to 21-year-olds. How

are they alike? How are they different?

8. What is the greatest difference between the responses of the general population and those

of 18- to 21-year-olds?

Math Skills Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

37

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Analyzing Data
Section 2.1

Units and Measurement

In your textbook, read about SI units.

Complete the following table.


SI Base Units
Quantity Base unit Unit abbreviation s

1. 2. Mass 3. 4. Length In your textbook, read about base units and derived units.
kelvin

For each SI unit in Column A, write the letter of the matching item from Column B. Column A
5. second 6. meter 7. kilogram 8. cubic meter

Column B
a. A platinum-iridium cylinder that is stored at constant temperature and

humidity
b. The microwave frequency given off by a cesium-133 atom c. A cube whose sides all measure exactly one meter d. The distance that light travels through a vacuum in 1/299 792 458 second
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

9. Use Table 22 in your textbook to arrange the following prefixes in order from largest

to smallest. centigigakilomegamillinanopico-

10. List the symbols and factors that the following prefixes represent. a. centib. kiloc. milli-

38

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

Study Guide

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 2.1 continued Answer the following questions.


11. Which temperature scale will you use for your experiments in this class? Is this an SI unit?

12. How many grams are in a kilogram?

13. How many liters are in a megaliter?

14. How many centimeters are in a meter?

15. What is the difference between a base unit and a derived unit?

16. What is density?

17. Explain in terms of density why a grocery bag containing all canned goods is harder to

lift than a grocery bag containing all paper goods.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

18. How can you obtain an objects volume if you know its density and its mass?

19. What is the three-part process for problem solving?

20. How are degrees Celsius converted to kelvins?

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

39

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 2.2

Scientific Notation and Dimensional Analysis


1.61 161 km 10
8 27

In your textbook, read about scientific notation. 1. Circle the figures that are written in scientific notation.

1.61 1.61

102 100 kg

10

10
31

1.627 62 2.8 10

9.109 39 1,380,000

10

kg

2. Change the following data into scientific notation. a. 5,000,000 km b. 8,394,000,000 s In your textbook, read about dimensional analysis. c. 0.000421 g d. 0.03 cm

Answer the following questions.


3. What is a conversion factor?

Complete the following dimensional analysis problems.


5. Convert 50 kilograms into grams.

50

1000

/1

50,000

6. Convert 5 meters into centimeters.

100

/1

500

7. Convert 5 liters into kiloliters.

/1000

0.0005

8. Convert 5 centimeters into meters.

/100

0.05

9. Convert 55 kilometers per hour into meters per second. Use the conversion factor 1 km = 1000 m.

55 1

/ /60

1000 15

/1

/60

40

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

Study Guide

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. What is dimensional analysis?

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 2.3

Uncertainty in Data

In your textbook, read about accuracy and precision. 1. Use the terms precise and accurate to describe the following figures. You may use both

terms for some figures. If a term does not apply to a figure, leave the space blank.

a.

b.

c.

Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
2. The difference between an accepted value and an experimental value is called a(n) a. error. b. percent error.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. measured value. d. precise measurement.

3. The ratio of an error to an accepted value is called a(n) a. accuracy-to-precision value. b. accuracy. c. percent error. d. precision.

4. When you calculate percent error, you can ignore the a. accepted values. b. measured values. c. experimental values. d. plus and minus signs.

5. If two measurements are very close to each other, then they are a. accurate. b. precise. c. both accurate and precise. d. accepted values.

6. Which of the following is most likely to produce data that are not precise? a. a balance that is not set to zero b. not reading a graduated cylinder at eye level c. altering the procedure during an experiment d. making the same error with each trial

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

41

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 2.3 continued


In your textbook, read about significant figures.

Use each of the terms below just once to complete the statements.
counting numbers scientific notation estimated significant figures non-zero placeholders zeros

7. The digits that are reported in an answer are called 8. The numeral 9.66 has three significant figures, two known figures and one

figure.
9. 10. All final 11. Zeros that act as 12. 13. When you convert to

numbers are always significant. to the right of the decimal place are significant. are not significant. have an infinite number of significant figures. , you remove the placeholder zeros.

In your textbook, read about rounding off numbers. 14. Round the following to four significant figures. a. 12.555 km b. 1.0009 c. 99.999 d. 23.342999
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

15. Round 12.783 456 to the requested number of significant figures. a. 2 significant figures b. 5 significant figures c. 6 significant figures d. 7 significant figures

16. Round 120.752416 to the requested number of significant figures. a. 3 significant figures b. 4 significant figures c. 5 significant figures d. 7 significant figures

17. Complete the following calculations. Round off the answers to the correct number of

significant figures.
a. 51.2 kg b. 6.435 cm c. 16 m

64.44 kg 2.18 cm 0.05 m

2.82 m

d. 3.46 m/1.82 s

42

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

Study Guide

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 2.4

Representing Data

In your textbook, read about graphing.

Label each kind of graph shown.


1.

Sources of Chlorine in the Stratosphere


CFC12 28% CFC113 6% HCFC22 3% CFC11 23%

2.
Average precipitation (inches)

Precipitation in Jacksonville (19611990)


8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Ja n Fe b M ar A pr M ay Ju n Ju l A ug Se p O ct N ov D ec

Methyl chloroform Carbon 10% tetrachloride Methyl 12% chloride 15% Hydrochloric acid 3% Manufactured compounds Natural sources

Months

Answer the following questions about the graphs.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. What percent of the sources of chlorine in the stratosphere are CFCs? 4. During which month of the year does Jacksonville usually get the most precipitation?

The least?

In your textbook, read about line graphs.

Sequence the following steps. Write 1 beside the first step in plotting a line graph. Write 2 beside the second step, and so on.
5. Give the graph a title. 6. Choose the ranges for the axes. 7. Identify the independent and dependent variables. 8. Plot the data points. 9. Determine the range of the data that needs to be plotted

for each axis.


10. Draw the best fit line for the data. 11. Number and label each axis.

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

43

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Analyzing Data
Reviewing Vocabulary
Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B. Column A
1. base unit 2. derived unit 3. graph 4. scientific notation 5. accuracy 6. conversion factor 7. dimensional

Column B
a. Refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another b. A ratio of equivalent values used to express the same quantity in

different units
c. The ratio of an error to an accepted value d. A defined unit in a system of measurement that is based on an

object or event in the physical world


e. Refers to how close a measured value is to an accepted value f.

analysis
8. kelvin 9. percent error 10. precision

A unit in a system of measurement that is defined by combining base units

g. The SI base unit of temperature h. A means of expressing numbers as a multiple of two factors: a

number between 1 and 10; and ten raised to a power, or exponent


i. j.

A method of problem-solving that focuses on the units used to describe matter, often using conversion factors A visual display of data that may include plotting data on x- and y-axes

Use the following terms to complete the statements.


density significant figures 11. The SI base unit of time is the 12. The SI base unit for length is the 13. The SI base unit for mass is the 14. The SI derived unit for volume is the 15. 16. 44 liter meter kilogram second

. . . .

is a ratio that compares the mass of an object to its volume. include all known digits plus one estimated digit.
Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2 Chapter Assessment

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)


In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the italicized word or phrase to make it true.
1. In an answer that has four significant figures, two are

estimated and two are known.


2. The liter is the base unit of density. 3. The prefix deci- indicates a larger number than the

prefix centi-.
4. The number 1,234,000 in scientific notation is equal to

1.234

105.

Answer the following questions. Show your work when a calculation is needed.
5. You live 6 kilometers from your school. How many meters do you live from school?

6. How many seconds are there in a millisecond?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. How many nanograms are in 34 g?

8. Solve the following problem: (2

109)

(5

105).

9. Solve the following problem: (12

109)

(6

105).

10. Convert 100 km/h to m/s.

11. Add: 3

109

1010.

12. Subtract: 5.01

10

30

10

Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

45

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)


Circle the letter of the choice that best answers the question. Use the following figure for questions 1 and 2.
1. What can you conclude about the figure? a. The arrow locations represent precision. b. The arrow locations represent both high accuracy and

good precision.
c. The arrows have been thrown accurately toward the

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

bulls-eye.
d. The arrow locations represent neither accuracy

nor precision.
2. What can you conclude about the figure? a. To be accurate, all the arrows would have to be inside the ring labeled 2. b. To be precise, half of the arrows would need to be inside the ring labeled 9. c. To be accurate, all the arrows would need to be near the ring labeled 10. d. It is not possible to be both accurate and precise at the same time. 3. You calculate that 213,000 m/s is the answer to a problem. What can you conclude about

your answer?
a. It has six significant figures. b. It has three significant figures. c. Its not possible to know how many significant figures are in an answer
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

without knowing its accepted value.


d. It is not possible to know how many significant figures are in an answer

without knowing its percent error.


4. You calculate that 215,000 g is the answer to a problem. You are asked to write your

answer in scientific notation. What can you conclude about your answer?
a. It has six significant figures. b. You should round the 1 up to 2 because it is followed by a 5. c. The answer is too small to be written in scientific notation. d. It has three significant figures. 5. You calculate that 319,000,000 m is the answer to a problem. You are asked to write your

answer in scientific notation. Which answer is correct?


a. 3.19

108

b. 31.9

1010

c. 32

1010

d. both b and c

6. You calculate the following answer to a problem: 12.655 cm. You are asked to round

your answer to four significant figures. Which answer is correct?


a. 12.66 cm b. 12.65 cm c. 12.60 cm d. 12.70 cm

46

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

Chapter Assessment

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Thinking Critically
A tennis racket needs to be both strong and stiff. But it also needs to be lightweight. Tennis rackets can be made of a number of different materials. The graphs below show some of the advantages and disadvantages of different materials that are used in tennis racket frames. Use the graphs to answer the questions.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Steel

2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0

250 200 150 100 50 0

Carbon-fiberreinforced plastic

Aluminum

Steel

Aluminum

Carbon-fiberreinforced plastic

Density (g/cm3)

Strength (GPa)

Stiffness (GPa)

1. Which material is the strongest? 2. Which material is the stiffest? 3. Aluminum, steel, and wood all cost about the same. Nylon costs twice as much as aluminum,
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

steel, and wood. Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic costs three times as much as aluminum, steel, and wood. Make a graph to present the relative cost of these materials.

4. Is steel a good material for a tennis racket frame? Explain your answer.

5. Assume that you have no limit on the amount of money you can spend on a tennis

racket. What kind of racket would you buy? Explain your answer.

Carbon-fiberreinforced plastic

Aluminum

Nylon

Steel

Wood

Wood

Nylon

Wood

Nylon

Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

47

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Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Applying Scientific Methods


A chemistry student is given the task of analyzing three unknown samples. Her data is listed in Data Table 1. Use Data Table 1 to answer the questions below.
Data Table 1
Sample A Trial Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Sample B Sample C Volume (in mL) 10.00 9.99 9.95 9.98

Mass (in grams) Volume (in mL) Mass (in grams) Volume (in mL) Mass (in grams) 80.72 80.64 80.91 80.76 10.01 10.00 10.05 10.02 95.41 92.33 93.78 93.84 10.72 10.51 10.62 10.62 72.28 72.32 72.34 72.30

1. Based on the data given, what is the density of each sample? Follow the rules for

significant figures and rounding for your answers. Sample A Sample B Sample C
2. Compare the data collected for each trial and each sample in Data Table 1. Which

sample(s) did the student measure precisely? Explain your answer.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. The student compares her data to the following chart in the back of her textbook. Can she

identify Samples A, B, and C based on the data she recorded?


Table A Properties of Common Metals
Name Aluminum Copper Iron Nickel Tin Color at room temperature silver metal red metal silver metal silver metal white metal Density (g/cm3) 2.701 8.92 7.86 8.90 7.28

48

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

Chapter Assessment

Name

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Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Applying Scientific Methods, continued


4. What information would you suggest the student obtain so that she can more accurately

identify the samples?

5. Assume that Sample A is copper, Sample B is nickel, and Sample C is tin. What is the

percent error of the students data?

6. What kind of graph would best compare the densities of the three samples? Explain your

answer.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. Assume that Sample A is copper, Sample B is nickel, and Sample C is tin. Which sam-

ple(s) did the student measure accurately? Explain your answer. What does this tell you about conclusions drawn from the data?

8. What advice would you give this student to produce more precise and accurate data next time?

Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

49

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CHAPTER 2

Assessment
Multiple Choice

Student Recording Sheet

Standardized Test Practice


Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
1. 2. 3. Short Answer 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Answer each question with complete sentences.


12. 13. 14. 15. 16. SAT Subject Test: Chemistry 17. 18.

19.

20.

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Table of Contents

Reproducible Pages

Chapter 3 MatterProperties and Changes


MiniLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 ChemLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Teaching Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Math Skills Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Chapter Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 STP Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

51

Name

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mini LAB 3

Observe Dye Separation


Applying Concepts Chromatography is an important diagnostic tool for chemists.
Many types of substances can be separated and analyzed using this technique. In this experiment, you will use paper chromatography to separate the dyes in water-soluble black ink.

Materials 9-oz wide-mouth plastic cups (2); round filter paper; 14 piece of 11-cm round
filter paper; scissors; pointed object, approximately 34 mm diameter; water-soluble black felt pen or marker

Procedure
1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Fill one of the wide-mouth plastic cups with water to about 2 cm from the top. Wipe off any water drops on the lip of the cup. 3. Place the round filter paper on a clean, dry surface. Make a concentrated ink spot in the center of the paper by firmly pressing the tip of the pen or marker onto the paper. 4. Use a sharp object to create a small hole, approximately 34 mm or about the diameter of a pen tip, in the center of the ink spot. 5. Roll the 1/4 piece of filter paper into a tight cone. This will act as a wick to draw the ink. Work the pointed end of the wick into the hole in the center of the round filter paper. 6. Place the paper/wick apparatus on top of the cup of water, with the wick in the water. The water will move up the wick and outward through the round paper. 7. When the water has moved to within about 1 cm of the edge of the paper (about 20 minutes), carefully remove the paper from the water-filled cup and put it on the empty cup.

Analysis
1. Record the number of distinct dyes you can identify on a drawing of the round filter paper. Label the color bands. 2. Infer why you see different colors at different locations on the filter paper.

3. Compare your chromatogram with those of your classmates. Explain any differences you might observe.

52

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

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Class

CHEMLAB

Identify the Products of a Chemical Reaction

ne of the most interesting characteristics of matter, and one that drives the study and exploration of chemistry, is the fact that matter changes. By examining a dramatic chemical reaction, such as the reaction of the element copper and the compound silver nitrate in a water solution, you can readily observe chemical change. Drawing on one of the fundamental laboratory techniques introduced in this chapter, you can separate the products. Then, you will use a flame test to confirm the identity of the products.

Problem
Is there evidence of a chemical reaction between copper and silver nitrate? If so, which elements reacted and what is the name of the compound they formed?

Objectives
Observe the reactants as they change into product. Separate a mixture by filtration. Predict the names of the products.

Materials
copper wire AgNO3 solution sandpaper stirring rod 50-mL graduated cylinder 50-mL beaker funnel filter paper 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask ring stand small iron ring plastic petri dish paper clip Bunsen burner tongs

Safety Precautions
Always wear safety goggles, gloves, and a lab apron. Silver nitrate is toxic and will harm skin and clothing. Use caution around a flame.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Pre-Lab
Read the entire CHEMLAB. 2. Prepare all written materials that you will take into the laboratory. Be sure to include safety precautions and procedure notes. Use the data table on the next page. 3. Define the terms physical property and chemical property. Give an example of each.
1.

4.

Form a hypothesis regarding what you might observe if a. a chemical change occurs.

b.

a physical change occurs.

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

53

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Class

CHEMLAB
5.

Distinguish between a homogeneous mixture and a heterogeneous mixture.

Tear corner

8.

Procedure
1. 2. 3.

9.

4.

5.

11. 12.

6.

7.

13.

Reaction Observations
Time (min) 5 10 15 20 Observations

54

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Read and complete the lab safety form. Obtain 8 cm of copper wire. Rub the copper wire with the sandpaper until it is shiny. Measure approximately 25 mL AgNO3 (silver nitrate) solution into a 50-mL beaker. CAUTION: Do not allow to contact skin or clothing. Make and record an observation of the physical properties of the copper wire and AgNO3 solution. Coil the piece of copper wire to a length that will fit into the beaker. Make a hook on the end of the coil to allow the coil to be suspended from the stirring rod. Hook the coil onto the middle of the stirring rod. Place the stirring rod across the top of the beaker immersing some of the coil in the AgNO3 solution. Make and record observations of the wire and the solution every five minutes for 20 minutes.

10.

Use the ring stand, small iron ring, funnel, Erlenmeyer flask, and filter paper to set up a filtration apparatus. Attach the iron ring to the ring stand. Adjust the height of the ring so the end of the funnel is inside the neck of the Erlenmeyer flask. To fold the filter paper, examine the diagram above. Begin by folding the circle in half, then fold in half again. Tear off the lower right corner of the flap that is facing you. This will help the filter paper stick better to the funnel. Open the folded paper into a cone. Place the filter paper cone in the funnel. Remove the coil from the beaker and dispose of it as directed by your teacher. Some of the solid product may form a mixture with the liquid in the beaker. Decant the liquid by slowly pouring it down the stirring rod into the funnel. Solid product will be caught in the filter paper. Collect the filtratethe liquid that runs through the filter paperin the Erlenmeyer flask. Transfer the clear filtrate to a petri dish. Adjust a Bunsen burner flame until it is blue. Hold the paper clip with tongs in the flame until no additional color is observed. CAUTION: The paper clip will be very hot. Using tongs, dip the hot paper clip in the filtrate. Then, hold the paper clip in the flame. Record the color you observe.

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB

Cleanup and Disposal


Dispose of materials as directed by your teacher. 2. Clean and return all lab equipment to its proper place. 3. Wash hands thoroughly.
1.

Analyze and Conclude


1.

Observe and Infer Describe the changes you observed in step 6. Is there evidence a chemical change occurred? Why?

2.

Compare Use resources such as the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, the Merck Index, or the Internet to determine the colors of silver metal and copper nitrate in water. Compare this information with your observations of the reactants and products in step 6.

3.

Identify Copper emits a blue-green light. Do your observations confirm the presence of copper in the filtrate collected in step 11?

4.

Classify Which type of mixture is silver nitrate in water? Which type of mixture is formed in step 6? Explain.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Inquiry Extension
Compare your recorded observations with those of several other lab teams. Form a hypothesis to explain any differences; design an experiment to test it.

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

55

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TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

7
Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.1

States of Matter

Gaseous state

56

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

Liquid state

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Solid state

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

7
Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.1

States of Matter
1. Name the physical states in which almost all matter exists.

2. In which state(s) of matter are the molecules most compressed?

3. In which state(s) of matter do the molecules fill the entire volume of a container?

4. In which state(s) does matter take the shape of a container?

5. Compare the distance between the molecules of a gas in a very small container with the

distance between the molecules of the same gas in a very large container. Explain your answer.

6. What happens to the volume of a liquid when it is poured from a small container into a

large container?
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. Suppose you fill a glass with ice cubes. When the ice cubes melt, is the glass still full?

Explain your answer.

8. Suppose you fill a container with steam and then seal the container. When the steam in

the container changes to liquid water at room temperature, will the container still be full? Explain your answer.

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

57

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

8
Use with Chapter 3, Sections 3.2

Conservation of Mass

58

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

8
Use with Chapter 3, Sections 3.2

Conservation of Mass
1. What happens when mercury(II) oxide is heated?

2. What does the law of conservation of mass state?

3. Write the law of conservation of mass in mathematical terms.

4. Assume that the test tube shown in the transparency started out having 15.00 g of

mercury(II) oxide. After heating the test tube, you find no mercury(II) oxide left and 1.11 g of oxygen gas. What mass of liquid mercury was produced by the chemical reaction? Show your work.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Assume that the test tube shown started out having 10.00 g of mercury(II) oxide. After

heating the test tube briefly, you find 1.35 g mercury(II) oxide left and 8.00 g of liquid mercury. How much oxygen gas was produced by the chemical reaction? Show your work.

6. Suppose you heat some mercury(II) oxide in a test tube similar to the one shown. After

the chemical reaction, you find 12.5 g of liquid mercury and 1.0 g of oxygen gas. There is no mercury(II) oxide left in the test tube. How much mercury(II) oxide did you start with? Show your work.

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

59

Name

Date

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TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

9
Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.4

Types of Matter

Matter

Can it be separated by physical means? yes no

Mixtures

Pure substances

yes

no

yes

no

Homogeneous mixtures lemonade, gasoline, steel

Heterogeneous mixtures dirt, blood, milk

Compounds salt, baking soda, sugar

Elements oxygen, gold, iron

60

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Is the composition uniform?

Can it be broken down by ordinary chemical means?

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

9
Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.4

Types of Matter
1. Into what two broad classes can all matter be divided?

2. What is the difference between a mixture and a pure substance?

3. What is the difference between a compound and an element?

4. Can a compound be a heterogeneous mixture? Explain your answer by referring to the

diagram.

5. A list of compounds and elements is given below. Circle the substances that are elements.

gold
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

aluminum oxygen chlorine

water platinum brass

sugar salt mixture?

6. How can you tell the difference between a homogeneous mixture and a heterogeneous

7. Label each mixture below as either homogeneous or heterogeneous. a. air b. clay c. homemade lemonade (with pulp) d. oatmeal raisin cookie 8. List three methods that are commonly used to separate mixtures into their component e. finger paint f. vinegar g. soil

substances.

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

61

62

Name

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

Mass Percentage and the Law of Definite Proportions

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

Chemical Composition of Sucrose (by mass)

Hydrogen 6.50% Oxygen 51.30%

Carbon 42.20%

Date

mass percentage of an element (%)

mass of element mass of compound

100%

Class

10

Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.4

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

10
Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.4

Mass Percentage and the Law of Definite Proportions

1. Suppose you analyze the composition of an unnamed compound. Your analysis shows

that the compound is 51.30% oxygen, 42.20% carbon, and 6.50% hydrogen by mass. What can you conclude about the compound?

2. What is the mass percentage of carbon in 5.000 g of sucrose? 50.00 g of sucrose?

500.0 g of sucrose? Explain.

3. How many grams of oxygen are in 50.00 g of sucrose? Show your work.

4. How many grams of carbon are in 100.0 g of sucrose? Show your work.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. How many grams of hydrogen are in 6.0 g of sucrose? Show your work.

6. A 20.00-g sample of ordinary table salt contains 12.13 g of chlorine and 7.87 g of

sodium. Calculate the mass percentage of each element in salt.

7. Draw a circle graph to represent your answer to question 7.

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

63

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MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY MASTER

2
Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.2

Visualizing the Conservation of Mass


Hydrogen, H2 Potassium hydroxide, KOH

Products

64

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

Math Skills Transparency Masters

Potassium, K

Reactants

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Water, H2O

Name

Date

Class

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

2
Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.2

Visualizing the Conservation of Mass


many are in the products?

1. How many potassium atoms are in the reactants of the chemical reaction shown? How

2. How many oxygen atoms are in the reactants of the chemical reaction shown? How many

are in the products?


3. How many hydrogen atoms are in the reactants of the chemical reaction shown? How

many are in the products?


4. Assume that the chemical reaction shown started out having a total of 15 g of potassium

and water. How much potassium hydroxide and hydrogen gas will be produced by the chemical reaction? Show your work.

5. Assume that the chemical reaction shown started out having 6 atoms of potassium and

6 molecules of water. How many molecules of potassium hydroxide will be produced by the chemical reaction? How many hydrogen atoms will result?
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. Assume that you are working with a chemical reaction that decomposes water into

hydrogen and oxygen. You begin with 36 grams of water and end with 32 grams of oxygen. If all of the water decomposes, how many grams of hydrogen gas will result?

7. Assume that you are working with a chemical reaction that synthesizes salt from sodium

and chlorine. You begin with 70.9 g of chlorine. You synthesize 116.90 grams of salt. If all of the reactants were used up, how many grams of sodium did you begin with?

Math Skills Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

65

66

Name

Carbon 20.00 g sucrose carbon 6.50% 100% hydrogen 51.30% 100% oxygen 42.2% 51.30% 6.50% 100%

8.44 g carbon

8.44 g carbon

42.2%

1.30 g hydrogen 20.00 g sucrose

Finding Percent by Mass

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY MASTER

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

Hydrogen

1.30 g hydrogen

Oxygen 20.00 g sucrose

10.26 g oxygen

10.26 g oxygen

Date

Total

20.00 g sucrose

Class

Math Skills Transparency Masters

Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.4

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

3
Use with Chapter 3, Section 3.4

Finding Percent by Mass


1. What percentage of the 20.0 g sample does sugar (sucrose) represent? 2. What is the percent by mass of oxygen in sugar? Of carbon? Of hydrogen?

3. How many grams of oxygen are in 100 g of sucrose?

4. How many grams of carbon are in 30.0 g of sucrose? Show your work.

5. A sample of baking soda contains 34.48 g of sodium, 1.51 g of hydrogen, 18.02 g of

carbon, and 72.00 g of oxygen.


a. What is the total mass of the sample?
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b. What is the mass by percent of each element in baking soda?

Sodium Hydrogen Carbon Oxygen


6. Draw a circle graph to represent your answer to Question 7.

7. Complete the following statement by underlining the correct words in parentheses.

To calculate percent by mass, you first divide (a part, a whole) by (a part, the whole). Then you multiply by 100%.
Math Skills Transparency Worksheets Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

67

Name

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Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

MatterProperties and Changes


Section 3.1

Properties of Matter

In your textbook, read about physical properties and chemical properties of matter.

Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.
chemical density mass properties physical substance

Matter is anything with (1)


(2)

and volume. A

is a form of matter with a uniform and unchanging composition. that can be observed.

Substances have specific, unchanging (3) Substances have both physical and chemical properties. (4)

properties can be observed without changing a substances chemical composition. Color, hardness, and (5) are examples. Other properties cannot be

observed without changing the composition of a substance. These are called


(6)

properties. An example is the tendency of iron to form


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

rust when exposed to air. Label each property as either physical or chemical.
7. Chemical formula H2O 8. Forms green carbonate when exposed to moist air 9. Remains unchanged when in the presence of nitrogen 10. Colorless 11. Solid at normal temperatures and pressures 12. Ability to combine with another substance 13. Melting point 14. Liquid at normal temperatures and pressures 15. Boiling point is 100C 16. Conducts electricity 17. Density is

1g cm3
Study Guide

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

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CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 3.1 continued


In your textbook, read about states of matter.

Label each drawing with one of these words: solid, liquid, gas.
18.

19.

20.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

For each statement below, write true or false.


21. All matter that we encounter in everyday life exists in one of three

physical forms.
22. A solid has definite shape and volume. 23. A liquid has a definite shape and takes on the volume of its container. 24. A gas has both the shape and the volume of its container. 25. The particles in a gas cannot be compressed into a smaller volume. 26. Liquids tend to contract when heated. 27. The particles in a solid are spaced far apart. 28. The words gas and vapor can be used interchangeably.

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

69

Name

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Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 3.2

Changes in Matter

In your textbook, read about physical change and chemical change.

What kinds of changes do these words indicate? Write each word under the correct heading. Use each word only once.
boil burn condense corrode crumple ferment melt rust crush freeze oxidize tarnish explode grind rot vaporize

Physical Change
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Chemical Change

For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B. Column A
17. The new substances that are formed in a chemical reaction 18. A chemical reaction that involves one or more substances

Column B
a. chemical change b. reactants c. products d. chemical equation e. law of conservation

changing into new substances


19. Shows the relationship between the reactants and products in a

chemical reaction
20. States that mass is neither created nor destroyed in any process 21. The starting substances in a chemical reaction

of mass

Answer the following question. Write an equation showing conservation of mass of reactants and products.
22. In a laboratory, 178.8 g of water is separated into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. The

hydrogen gas has a mass of 20.0 g. What is the mass of the oxygen gas produced?

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

Study Guide

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

16.

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 3.3

Mixtures of Matter

In your textbook, read about pure substances and mixtures.

Use the words below to complete the concept map.


heterogeneous mixtures saltwater mixture solutions sandwater mixture water

matter

substances

1.

2.

3.
mixtures

homogeneous mixtures

4.

5.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6.

In your textbook, read about separating mixtures.

For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B. Column A
7. Separates substances on the basis of the boiling points of

Column B
a. filtration b. distillation c. crystallization d. chromatography

the substances
8. Separates by formation of solid, pure particles from a

solution
9. Separates substances based on their movement through a

special paper
10. Separates solids from liquids by using a porous barrier

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

71

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Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 3.4

Elements and Compounds

In your textbook, read about elements and compounds.

Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. A substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical

means is a(n)
a. compound. b. mixture. c. element. d. period.

2. A chemical combination of two or more different elements is a(n) a. solution. b. compound. c. element. d. period.

3. Which of the following is an example of an element? a. water b. air c. sugar d. oxygen

4. Which of the following is an example of a compound? a. gold b. silver c. aspirin d. copper

5. What are the horizontal rows in the periodic table called? a. block elements b. groups or families c. grids d. periods

6. What are the vertical columns in the periodic table called? a. block elements b. groups or families c. grids d. periods

Label each substance as either an element or a compound.


7. silicon 8. sodium chloride 9. francium 10. nickel 11. ice
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Write the symbol for each element. Use the periodic table on pages 7273 in your textbook if you need help.
12. neon 13. calcium 14. iron In your textbook, read about the law of definite proportions. 15. titanium 16. fluorine

Use the law of definite proportions and the equation below to answer the questions. The law of definite proportions states that regardless of the amount, a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass. Mass percentage of an element (%) bon in sucrose? Show your work. mass of element mass of compound 100%

17. A 20.0-g sample of sucrose contains 8.4 g of carbon. What is the mass percentage of car-

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

Study Guide

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Class

CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 3.4 continued


18. Sucrose is 51.50% oxygen. How many grams of oxygen are in 20.0 g of sucrose? Show

your work.

19. A 2-g sample of sucrose is 6.50% hydrogen. What is the mass percentage of hydrogen in

300 g of sucrose? Explain your reasoning.

20. Two compound samples are found to have the same mass percentages of the same ele-

ments. What can you conclude about the two samples?

In your textbook, read about the law of multiple proportions.

Use the law of multiple proportions to answer the questions and complete the table below. The law of multiple proportions states that if the elements X and Y form two compounds, the different masses of Y that combine with a fixed mass of X can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

21. Two compound samples are composed of the same elements, but in different proportions.

What can you conclude about the two samples?

For each compound in the table, fill in the ratio of the mass of oxygen to the mass of hydrogen.
Compound H2O H2O2 Mass of Oxygen 16 g 32 g Mass of Hydrogen 2g 2g Mass O/Mass H

22. 23.

24. Write a brief statement comparing the two mass ratios from the table.

25. Are H2O and H2O2 the same compound? Explain your answer.

Study Guide

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

73

Name

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CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

MatterProperties and Changes


Reviewing Vocabulary
Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B. Column A
1. A homogeneous mixture 2. States that mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical

Column B
a. law of multiple

proportions
b. percent by mass c. periodic table d. law of conservation

reaction
3. States that regardless of the amount, a compound is always

composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass


4. States that different masses of one element combine with the

of mass
e. law of definite

same relative mass of another element to form different compounds


5. The grid organizing elements into periods and groups 6. The ratio of the mass of each element to the total mass of

proportions
f.

solution

the compound
7. Three physical forms that describe all matter that exists on Earth 8. A separation technique that results in the formation of

g. crystallization h. chromatography
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

i. j.

states of matter solid

pure solid particles from a solution


9. A technique that separates the components of a mixture 10. A form of matter with a constant volume that takes the

k. liquid

shape of its container


11. A form of matter with a definite shape and volume

Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.


12. chemical property, physical property

13. substance, mixture

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

Chapter Assessment

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)


Identify each property as either physical or chemical. Tell whether each physical property is extensive or intensive.
1. color 2. tendency to rust 3. boiling point 4. density 5. mass 6. ability to burn 7. malleability 8. ability to conduct electricity

Match each term in Column A with its example in Column B. Column A


9. alloy 10. element
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Column B
a. gold b. methane c. steam d. sterling silver (silver and copper)

11. gas 12. vapor

Circle the item that is an example of the term.


13. compound

salt
14. homogeneous mixture

air

nickel

silicon
15. element

air

nickel

salt

brass

aluminum

Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

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CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)


Identify each change as either physical or chemical.
1. breaking a pencil in half 2. wood burning 3. silver tarnishing 4. ice melting 5. hard-boiling an egg 6. grinding coffee beans 7. burning gasoline

Identify each mixture as either homogeneous or heterogeneous.


8. stainless steel 9. granite 10. air 11. blood
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

12. hand lotion 13. oil and water 14. wild bird seed 15. chunky peanut butter 16. dirt 17. vinegar 18. gasoline

Identify the technique you would use to separate each mixture.


19. two substances with different boiling points

20. sand from water

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

Chapter Assessment

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Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Thinking Critically
Answer the following questions.
1. If 2 g of element X combines with 7 g of element Y to form compound XY, how many

grams of Y are needed to form compound XY2? Explain your reasoning.

2. A 24-g sample of carbon combines with 64 g of oxygen to form CO2. a. What is the mass of the reactants?

b. What is the mass of the product?

c. Which law do these data support?

3. A 58.33-g sample of milk of magnesia, Mg(OH)2, always contains 24.31 g of magne-

sium, 32.00 g of oxygen, and 2.02 g of hydrogen. Find the mass percentage of each element in milk of magnesia.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

a. Mg

b. O

c. H

d. Which law do these data support?

Chapter Assessment

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CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Applying Scientific Methods


A chemist recorded the following data in an experiment to determine the composition of four similar samples extracted from four different sites.
Data Table
Sample 1 Mass of sample (g) 9.63 Mass of A (g) 6.42 Mass of B (g) 3.21 Mass A/Mass B

95.62

63.75

31.87

40

32

25.5

17.0

8.5

1. What is the ratio of the mass of A to the mass of B in each sample? Write your answers

in the appropriate column of the data table.


2. How do these ratios compare?

3. What can you conclude about the samples?

4. Assume that the chemist was looking for a compound that is 66.67% A and 33.33% B.

How could the chemist determine whether he was successful in finding this compound?

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

Chapter Assessment

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Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Applying Scientific Methods, continued


5. Calculate the mass percentage of A in each of the chemists samples. Show your

calculations.
a. Sample 1

b. Sample 2

c. Sample 3

d. Sample 4

6. Did the chemist locate the compound he was looking for? How do you know?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7. Explain how the data support the law of multiple proportions.

Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

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CHAPTER 3

Assessment
Multiple Choice

Student Recording Sheet

Standardized Test Practice


Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
1. 2. 3. Short Answer 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Answer each question with complete sentences.


10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. SAT Subject Test: Chemistry
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

17.

18.

19.

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

Table of Contents

Reproducible Pages

Chapter 4 The Structure of the Atom


MiniLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 ChemLab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Teaching Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Math Skills Transparency Masters and Worksheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Chapter Assessment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 STP Recording Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

81

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mini LAB 4

Model Isotopes
Formulating Models Because they have different compositions, pre- and post-1982
pennies can be used to model an element with two naturally occurring isotopes. From the penny isotope data, the mass of each penny isotope and the average mass of a penny can be determined.

Materials bag of pre- and post-1982 pennies, balance Procedure


1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Get a bag of pennies from your teacher, and sort the pennies by date into two groups: pre-1982 pennies and post-1982 pennies. Count and record the total number of pennies and the number of pennies in each group. 3. Use the balance to determine the mass of ten pennies from each group. Record each mass to the nearest 0.01 g. Divide the total mass of each group by ten to get the average mass of a pre- and post-1982 penny isotope.

Analysis
1. Calculate the percentage abundance of each group using data from step 2. To do this, divide the number of pennies in each group by the total number of pennies.

3. Infer whether the atomic mass would be different if you received another bag of pennies containing a different mixture of pre- and post-1982 pennies. Explain your reasoning.

4. Explain why the average mass of each type of penny was determined by measuring 10 pennies instead of by measuring and using the mass of a single penny from each group.

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 3

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Determine the atomic mass of a penny using the percentage abundance of each isotope and data from step 3. To do this, use the following equation: mass contribution = (% abundance)(mass) Total the mass contributions to determine the atomic mass. Remember that the percent abundance is a percentage.

Name

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Class

CHEMLAB

Calculate the Atomic Mass of the Element Snackium

ackground: Most elements in nature occur as a mixture of iso-

topes. The weighted average atomic mass of an element can be determined from the atomic mass and the relative abundance of each isotope. In this activity, you will model isotopes of the imaginary element Snackium. The measurements you make will be used to calculate a weighted average mass that represents the average atomic mass of Snackium.

Problem
How are the atomic masses of the natural isotopic mixtures calculated?

Objectives
Observe the impact of the weights of different sub-atomic particles on the element. Infer the importance of each type of particle to the final weight of the element. Calculate the average mass of your element. Compare this element with elements observed in nature.

Materials
balance calculator bag of snack mix

Safety Precautions
Warning: Do not eat the food used in the lab work.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Pre-Lab
Read the entire CHEMLAB. 2. What sub-atomic particles do the different types of snacks represent?
1.

3.

The mass of neutrons and protons is much greater than the mass of electrons; therefore the mass of an element is dominated by the mass of the nucleus. Predict which, if any, types of snacks will dominate the mass of your imaginary element.

4.

How will the mass of an isotope differ from the mass of the element?

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

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CHEMLAB
5.

You will need to record the data that you collect during the lab. Use the data table below.

Item 1 2 3 4 5

Quantity

Mass

Notes

Procedure
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Analyze and Conclude


1.

Calculate Find the percent abundance of the pieces by dividing the individual piece quantity by the total number of snack pieces.

2.

Calculate Use the isotopic percent abundance of the snack pieces and the mass to Calculate the weighted average atomic mass for your element Snackium.

3.

Interpret Explain why the weighted average atomic mass of the element Snackium is not equal to the mass of any of the pieces.

84

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Read and complete the lab safety form. Create a table to record your data. The table will contain the mass and the Abundance of each type of snacks present in the mixture. Open your snack mix bag. Handle the pieces with care. Organize the snack pieces into groups based on their types. Count the number of snack pieces in each of your groups. Record the number of snack pieces in each group and the total number of snack pieces in your data table. Measure the mass of one piece from each group and record the mass in your Data table. Cleanup and Disposal Dispose of the snack pieces as directed by your teacher. Return all equipment to its designated location.

Name

Date

Class

CHEMLAB
4.

Peer Review Gather the average atomic mass data from the other lab groups. Explain the differences between your data and the data obtained by other groups.

5.

Error Analysis Why are the atomic masses on the periodic table not expressed as whole numbers like the mass number of an element?

6.

Research Look in a chemical reference book to determine whether all elements in the periodic table have isotopes. What is the range of the numbers of isotopes chemical elements have?

7.

Error Analysis What sources of error could have led the lab groups to different final values? What modifications could you make in this investigation to reduce the incidence error?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Inquiry Extension
Based on your experience in this lab, look up the atomic masses of several elements on the periodic table and predict the most abundant isotope for each element.

ChemLab and MiniLab Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

85

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TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

11
Use with Chapter 4, Section 4.2

Cathode Ray Experiments

Voltage source Hole N Anode Cathode Gas at low pressure A Electrically charged plates Magnet
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

86

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

Teaching Transparency Masters

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

11
Use with Chapter 4, Section 4.2

Cathode Ray Experiments


1. What is a cathode ray?

2. What do the experiments in A, B, and C have in common?

3. Examine the cathode ray experiment in A. Describe the path of the cathode ray from its

origin to its termination.

4. Compare the experimental setup in B with the setup in C. How do the two setups differ?

What do both experiments show in terms of the cathode rays charge?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Examine the cathode ray experiment in B. What does this experiment show?

6. Examine the cathode ray experiment in C. Explain why the cathode ray bends.

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

87

Name

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TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

12
Use with Chapter 4, Section 4.2

Understanding Rutherfords Gold Foil Experiment


Electrons Evenly distributed positive charge

Alpha particle path

Electrons

Alpha particle path

Nucleus

Diagram B
88
Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4 Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Diagram A

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

12
Use with Chapter 4, Section 4.2

Understanding Rutherfords Gold Foil Experiment


1. What kind of particles do the arrows represent? What is the charge of the particles?

2. Which diagram depicts the plum pudding model of an atom?

3. Which diagram depicts Rutherfords actual results from his gold foil experiment? How

did the actual results differ from the expected results?

4. What did Rutherford conclude from the results of his experiment?

5. Explain why Rutherford expected the alpha particles to pass through the plum pudding

model of the atom with little or no deflection.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

89

90

Name

Isotopes

Potassium-39
19 20 19 19e 19e 19 21 19 19 22 19

Potassium-40

Potassium-41

Protons Neutrons Electrons

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

19e

Date

19p 20n0

19p 21n0

19p 22n0
Class

13

Use with Chapter 4, Section 4.3

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

13
Use with Chapter 4, Section 4.3

Isotopes
1. What do the following symbols represent? a. e b. n0 c. p 2. Which subatomic particles are found in an atoms nucleus?

3. Which subatomic particle identifies an atom as that of a particular element?

4. Explain why atoms are neutral even though they contain charged particles.

5. What do the numbers 39, 40, and 41 after the element name potassium refer to?

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. Write the symbolic notation for each of the following isotopes. a. potassium-39 b. potassium-40 c. potassium-41 7. Write an equation showing the relationship between an atoms atomic number and its

mass number.

8. Lithium has two isotopes: lithium-6 and lithium-7. Draw a diagram, like those shown on

the transparency, for each lithium isotope. Label the protons, electrons, neutrons, and electron cloud in each diagram.

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

91

92

Name

Characteristics of Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Radiation


Composition
Helium nuclei (alpha particles)
4 2He

Radiation Type
4 1/1840 0 0 1 2

Symbol

Mass (amu)

Charge

Alpha Electrons (beta particles) High-energy electromagnetic radiation

Radioactive Particles

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY MASTER

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

Beta

Gamma

Positive plate Hole

Date

Lead block

Beta particles (1 charge) Gamma rays (no charge) Alpha particles (2 charge)

Radioactive source

Class

Negative plate

Zinc sulfide coated screen

14

Use with Chapter 4, Section 4.4

Teaching Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

TEACHING TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

14
Use with Chapter 4, Section 4.4

Radioactive Particles
1. Which radioactive emission has the greatest mass? Least mass?

2. Why do you think gamma rays are drawn as wavy lines?

3. Which charged plate are the alpha particles attracted to? Explain.

4. Which charged plate are the beta particles attracted to? Why do the beta particles have a

greater curvature than the alpha particles do?

5. Explain why the gamma rays do not bend toward one of the electrically charged plates.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Teaching Transparency Worksheets

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

93

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MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY MASTER

4
Use with Chapter 4, Section 4.3

Calculating Atomic Mass


Given the data in the table, calculate the atomic mass of unknown element X. Then, identify the unknown element, which is used medically to treat some mental disorders.

Isotope Abundance for Element X


Isotope
6X 7X

Mass (amu) 6.015 7.016

Percent abundance 7.50% 92.5%

1.

Analyze the Problem You are given the data in the table. Calculate the atomic mass by multiplying the mass of each isotope by its percent abundance and summing the results. Use the periodic table to confirm the calculation and identify the element. Known For isotope 6X: mass 6.015 abundance For isotope 7X: mass 7.016 abundance amu 7.50% amu 92.5% Unknown atomic mass of X ? amu name of element X ? 0.0750

0.925

2. Solve for the Unknown

Calculate each isotopes contribution to the atomic mass. For 6X: Mass contribution (mass)(percent abundance) mass contribution (6.015 amu)(0.0750) 0.451 amu For 7X: Mass contribution (mass)(percent abundance) mass contribution (7.016 amu)(0.925) 6.490 amu Sum the mass contribution to find the atomic mass. Atomic mass of X (0.451 amu 6.490 amu) 6.941 amu Use the periodic table to identify the element. The element with a mass of 6.941 amu is lithium (Li).
3. Evaluate the Answer

The result of the calculation agrees with the atomic mass given in the periodic table. The masses of the isotopes have four significant figures, so the atomic mass is also expressed with four significant figures.

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

Math Skills Transparency Masters

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name

Date

Class

MATH SKILLS TRANSPARENCY WORKSHEET

4
Use with Chapter 4, Section 4.3

Calculating Atomic Mass


1. Look at the data table. What do the numbers 6 and 7 in 6X and 7X represent?

2. Look at step 1. What does amu stand for? What does it mean?

3. Look at step 2. Why is each isotopes mass multiplied by the isotopes percent abundance?

4. In step 3, why isnt the answer a whole number?

5. Assume that a new lithium isotope, 8Li, is identified. It is a trace isotope, meaning that it
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

exists in a very tiny quantity. How will this discovery affect the atomic mass of lithium?

6. Calculate the atomic mass of the unknown element. Then identify the element.
Isotope
185X 187X

Mass (amu) 184.953 186.956

Percent abundance 37.40 62.60

7. Calculate the atomic mass of the unknown element. Then identify the element.
Isotope
113X 115X

Mass (amu) 112.904 114.904

Percent abundance 4.30 95.70

Math Skills Transparency Worksheets

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CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

The Structure of the Atom


Section 4.1

Early Ideas About Matter

In your textbook, read about the philosophers, John Dalton, and defining the atom.

For each statement below, write true or false.


1. Ancient philosophers regularly performed controlled experiments. 2. Philosophers formulated explanations about the nature of matter based on

their own experiences.


3. Both Democritus and Dalton suggested that matter is made up of atoms. 4. Daltons atomic theory stated that atoms separate, combine, or rearrange

in chemical reactions.
5. Daltons atomic theory stated that matter is mostly empty space. 6. Dalton was correct in thinking that atoms could not be divided into

smaller particles.
7. Daltons atomic theory stated that atoms of different elements combine in

simple whole-number ratios to form compounds.


8. Dalton thought that all atoms of a specific element have the same mass. 9. Democritus proposed that atoms are held together by chemical bonds, but
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

no one believed him.


10. Daltons atomic theory was based on careful measurements and extensive

research.

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

Study Guide

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CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 4.2

Defining the Atom


Column A Column B
a. Thomson b. Millikan c. Rutherford

In your textbook, read about the electron and the nuclear atom.

For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.

1. Proposed the nuclear atomic model 2. Determined the mass-to-charge ratio of an electron 3. Calculated the mass of an electron

Draw and label a diagram of each atomic model.


4. plum pudding model

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. nuclear atomic model

In your textbook, read about the discovery of protons and neutrons.

Complete the following table of proton, electron, and neutron characteristics.


Particle Symbol Location Relative Charge Relative Mass

6. Proton 7. 8.
n 1/1840

Study Guide

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CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 4.3

How Atoms Differ

In your textbook, read about atomic number.

For each statement below, write true or false.


1. 2. 3. 4.

The number of neutrons in an atom is referred to as its atomic number. The periodic table is arranged by increasing atomic number. Atomic number is equal to the number of electrons in an atom. The number of protons in an atom identifies it as an atom of a particular element. Most atoms have either a positive or a negative charge.

5.

Answer the following questions.


6. Lead has an atomic number of 82. How many protons and electrons does lead have?

7. Oxygen has 8 electrons. How many protons does oxygen have? 8. Zinc has 30 protons. What is its atomic number? 9. Astatine has 85 protons. What is its atomic number? 10. Rutherfordium has an atomic number of 104. How many protons and electrons does it have?
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

11. Polonium has an atomic number of 84. How many protons and electrons does it have?

12. Nobelium has an atomic number of 102. How many protons and electrons does it have?

In your textbook, read about isotopes and mass number.

Determine the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons for each isotope described below.
13. An isotope has atomic number 19 and mass number 39.

14. An isotope has 14 electrons and a mass number of 28.

15. An isotope has 21 neutrons and a mass number of 40.

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STUDY GUIDE

Section 4.3 continued


16. An isotope has an atomic number 51 and a mass number 123.

Answer the following question.


17. Which of the isotopes in problems 1316 are isotopes of the same element? Identify the

element.

Write each isotope below in symbolic notation. Use the periodic table to determine the atomic number of each isotope.
18. neon-22 19. helium 20. cesium-133 21. uranium-234

Label the mass number and the atomic number on the following isotope notation.
22. 23.

24Mg 12

In your textbook, read about mass of individual atoms.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Circle the letter of the choice that best completes the statement.
24. The mass of an electron is a. smaller than the mass of a proton. b. smaller than the mass of a neutron. 25. One atomic mass unit is a. 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom. b. 1/16 the mass of an oxygen-16 atom. c. exactly the mass of one proton. d. approximately the mass of one proton plus one neutron. 26. The atomic mass of an atom is usually not a whole number because it accounts for a. only the relative abundance of the atoms isotopes. b. only the mass of each of the atoms isotopes. c. the mass of the atoms electrons. d. both the relative abundance and the mass of each of the atoms isotopes. c. a tiny fraction of the mass of an atom. d. all of the above.

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Section 4.3 continued Use the figures to answer the following questions.
Osmium 76 Niobium 41

Os
190.23

Nb
92.906

27. What is the atomic number of osmium? 28. What is the chemical symbol for niobium? 29. What is the atomic mass of osmium? 30. What units is the atomic mass reported in? 31. How many protons and electrons does an osmium atom have? A niobium atom?

Calculate the atomic mass of each element described below. Then use the periodic table to identify each element.
32.
Isotope
63X 65X

Mass (amu) 62.930 64.928

Percent Abundance 69.17 30.83


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

33.

Isotope
35X 37X

Mass (amu) 34.969 36.966

Percent Abundance 75.77 24.23

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CHAPTER

STUDY GUIDE

Section 4.4

Unstable Nuclei and Radioactive Decay


Column A Column B
a. nuclear reaction b. beta radiation c. radiation d. radioactive decay

In your textbook, read about radioactivity.

For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching item in Column B.

1. The rays and particles that are emitted by a radioactive material 2. A reaction that involves a change in an atoms nucleus 3. The process in which an unstable nucleus loses energy

spontaneously
4. Fast-moving electrons In your textbook, read about types of radiation.

Use the diagram to answer the questions.


Lead block Hole

Positive plate

Beta particles (1 charge)

Gamma rays (no charge) Alpha particles (2 charge) Negative plate Zinc sulfide coated screen

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Radioactive source

5. Which plate do the beta particles bend toward? Explain.

6. Explain why the gamma rays do not bend.

7. Explain why the path of the beta particles bends more than the path of the alpha particles.

Complete the following table of the characteristics of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.
Radiation Type Composition Symbol Mass (amu) Charge

8. Alpha 9. 10.
Study Guide High-energy electromagnetic radiation 1/1840

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CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

The Structure of the Atom


Reviewing Vocabulary
Match each definition in Column A with the term in Column B. Column A
1. Radiation deflected toward the positively charged plate 2. Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers

Column B
a. atom b. nucleus c. atomic mass d. isotopes e. gamma ray f.

of neutrons
3. High-energy radiation that has no charge and no mass 4. The smallest particle of an element that retains the properties

of that element
5. The weighted average mass of an elements isotopes 6. The center-most part of an atom where the protons and neutrons

alpha radiation

g. beta radiation h. atomic mass

are contained
7. Radiation deflected toward the negatively charged plate 8. The rays and particles emitted by radioactive material 9. Equal to 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom 10. Ray of radiation traveling from the cathode to the anode 11. Process (not requiring energy) by which unstable nuclei lose energy 12. States that all matter is composed of atoms 13. Process whereby some substances spontaneously emit radiation

unit
i. j.

radiation
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Daltons atomic theory

k. cathode ray l.

radioactivity decay

m. radioactive

Compare and contrast each pair of related terms.


14. mass number, atomic number

15. nuclear reaction, nuclear equation

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Chapter Assessment

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CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)


Use the periodic table to identify each element described below.
1. atomic number 65 2. 78 protons 3. 44 protons and 44 electrons 4. atomic number 24 5. 21 protons 6. atomic number 55

In the space at the left, write true if the statement is true; if the statement is false, change the italicized term to make it true.
7. An atoms nucleus contains its protons and electrons. 8. Neutrons have no electrical charge. 9. Beta particles have a charge of 2 . 10. An alpha particle consists of two protons and two electrons.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Complete the table below.


Isotope Symbolic Notation Number of Protons 1
3H 1

Number of Electrons 1

Number of Neutrons 0

11. Hydrogen-1 12. 13. 14. Copper-65 15.


235U 92

10 36

Chapter Assessment

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CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Understanding Main Ideas (Part B)


For each description in Column A, write the letter of the matching symbol in Column B. Column A
1. Isotope in which the number of neutrons is six more than the

Column B
a. 17O 8 b. 63Cu 29 c. 12C 6 d. 50Cr 24 e. 14C 6 f.
65Cu 29

isotopes atomic number


2. Copper-63 3. Copper with seven neutrons more than its atomic number 4. Isotope that has one neutron more than its number of protons 5. Carbon with equal numbers of neutrons, protons, and electrons 6. Carbon with two more neutrons than its number of protons 7. Chromium with two more neutrons than its number of protons 8. Isotope in which the difference between the neutrons and number

g. 52Cr 24 h. 54Cr 24

of protons is 4 Answer the following questions.


9. Calculate the atomic mass of gallium (Ga). Gallium has two isotopes: 69Ga and 71Ga.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

has a relative abundance of 60.12% and an atomic mass of 68.9257 amu. 71Ga has a relative abundance of 39.88% and an atomic mass of 70.9249 amu. Show all your work.

69Ga

10. Calculate the atomic mass of the element X. Then use the periodic table to identify the

element. Show all your work.


Isotope
27X 28X 29X

Mass (amu) 27.977 28.976 29.974

Percent Abundance 92.23 4.67 3.10

104

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

Chapter Assessment

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Thinking Critically
Antimony (Sb) has two stable isotopes. 121Sb has a mass of 120.90 amu. 123Sb has a mass of 122.90 amu.
1. What is antimonys atomic mass? Use the periodic table.

2. Write an equation to describe the relationship between the percent abundance of 121Sb

and the percent abundance of 123Sb. Assume that no other isotopes exist.

3. Write an equation that you can use to calculate the percent abundance of each isotope.

4. Calculate the percent abundance for each isotope of antimony. Show all your work.

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Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

105

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Applying Scientific Methods


Data Table I is a chemists record of data about six isotopes.
Data Table I
Isotope Isotope 1 Isotope 2 Isotope 3 Isotope 4 Isotope 5 Isotope 6 Number of Protons 24 24 26 24 24 26 Number of Electrons 24 24 26 24 24 26 Number of Neutrons 26 28 30 29 30 31 Mass (amu) 49.946 51.941 55.999 52.941 53.939 56.969

1. Which of the isotopes listed are the same element? Explain your reasoning.

2. Explain why the mass of each isotope is not a whole number.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Upon further research, the chemist determined the percent abundance of each isotope. These are listed in Data Table II below.
Data Table II
Isotope Isotope 1 Isotope 2 Isotope 3 Isotope 4 Isotope 5 Isotope 6 Percent Abundance 4.35 83.80 81.32 9.50 2.35 18.68

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

Chapter Assessment

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER

CHAPTER ASSESSMENT

Applying Scientific Methods, continued


3. Assume that Isotope 1 is an isotope of element X and that all the isotopes of X are listed

in Data Table II. Determine the atomic mass of X. Show all your work.

4. Which isotope of X is most abundant? Least abundant?

5. Which isotope of X has the greatest effect on the atomic mass of X? Explain why.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. If the chemist later discovered the following isotope, what could you conclude?
Isotope Isotope 7 Number of Protons 24 Number of Electrons 24 Number of Neutrons 31 Mass (amu) 54.939

Chapter Assessment

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

107

Name

Date

Class

CHAPTER 4

Assessment
Multiple Choice

Student Recording Sheet

Standardized Test Practice


Select the best answer from the choices given, and fill in the corresponding circle.
1. 2. 3. Short Answer 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Answer each question with complete sentences.


11. 12. 13. Extended Response

Answer each question with complete sentences.


14.

15.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

16.

SAT Subject Test: Chemistry 17. Statement 1: Statement 2: 18. Statement 1: Statement 2: 19. Statement 1: Statement 2: 20. Statement 1: Statement 2: 21. Statement 1: Statement 2:

108 Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

CHAPTER 1
MiniLab 1 Developing Observation Skills
Analysis 1. The oil moved away from the detergent. 2. The colors moved to the outside of the dish. 3. It helps remove grease and oil from items

have been used as a control because it does not have minerals dissolved in it. Comparison of results will vary.
5. The volume of the liquids and the detergent

could be measured with more precision.


Inquiry Extension

being washed.
4. If observations are not made carefully, there

might not be enough information to explain or infer what is occurring.


Expected Results: When the toothpick touches the milk, the detergent temporarily destroys the surface tension. The colors move to the outside of the dish. The detergent emulsifies any fat in the milk. Convection-like currents are established, causing the colors to move from the outside toward the center.

There are a number of products that claim to soften water. Visit a grocery store or home improvement store to find these products and design an experiment to test their claims. Student designs will vary but should include an independent variable, dependant variable, and a control.

Teaching Transparency 1 Earths Atmosphere


1. the troposphere 2. the troposphere 3. the stratosphere 4. the troposphere 5. Ozone forms in the stratosphere when oxygen

ChemLab 1 Identify the Water Source


Pre-Lab 2. Students might hypothesize that hard water and
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

detergent produces fewers suds and that relative sudsiness: distilled water > soft water > hard water.
4. Safety glasses and lab apron; washing soda can

gas is struck by ultraviolet radiation. The energy from the radiation breaks apart the gas molecules, which then can interact to form ozone.
6. The highest concentrations of ozone are found

over the equator. The lowest concentrations are found over the north and south poles.
7. the Sun 8. Ultraviolet radiation helps to warm Earths

irritate the skin and eyes.


5. You could adjust by adding the same number of

additional drops of detergent to the other tubes.


6. 8.8 GPG Analyze and Conclude 1. Answers will depend on which sample is soft

surface.
9. Answers will vary. Ultraviolet radiation can

water and which is hard water. The soft water produces the most suds. The hard water produces the least suds.
2. According to the background introduction, the

cause sunburn, skin cancer, and cataracts in humans. It can also harm plants and animals, affecting the food supply.
10. The ozone layer absorbs much of the ultraviolet

radiation before it reaches Earths surface.

soft water came from Community A. The hard water came from Community B.
3. 7.3 mg Mg/0.05L = 147 mg Mg/L; hard 4. Independent variable, volume of water samples

Teaching Transparency 2 A Scientific Method


1. A scientific method is a systematic, organized

and amount of detergent; dependent variable, amount of suds produced; No, there was not a control in this experiment. Distilled water could
Chemistry: Matter and Change

approach used in all scientific study to do research and verify the work of others.

Teacher Guide and Answers Fast Files, Chapters 1-4 Resources

109

TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

2. Making observations; examples include any

7. Clean and put away all equipment, clean the

information gathered by using the five senses or by making measurements.


3. Answers should include that a hypothesis is a

work area, make sure the gas and water faucets are turned off, and wash your hands with soap and water.

testable, tentative statement of explanation for observations.


4. Both are tentative explanations of scientific

Study Guide Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry


Section 1.1 A Story of Two Substances 1. atmosphere 2. troposphere 3. stratosphere 4. ozone 5. oxygen gas 6. ultraviolet radiation 7. ozone hole 8. true 9. false 10. true 11. false 12. true Section 1.2 Chemistry and Matter 1. Chemistry is the study of matter and the

phenomena, subject to revision based on new data. However, a theory is supported by many experiments and lines of evidence.
5. An independent variable is a variable that is

controlled by the experimenter. The dependent variable is the variable that may change in response to the changes in the independent variable.
6. Answers will vary. One possible hypothesis is

that the stagnant water kills tadpoles. One way to test the hypothesis is to raise tadpoles in aquariums that have different levels of aeration.
7. Answers will vary. One possible hypothesis is

that the salt lowers the freezing point of water. One way to test the hypothesis is to compare the temperatures at which ice freezes with salt and without salt.

1. Answers may include any of the following: read

2. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up

the entire lab assignment, read all caution statements, review all safety symbols, ask the teacher questions if necessary, dress appropriately, tie back long hair, and remove contact lenses.
2. Flush the area immediately with large quantities

space.
3. Mass is a measure of the amount of matter. 4. air 5. radio 6. car 7. flashlight 8. textbook 9. human body 10. light 11. magnetic field 12. radio wave 13. feeling 14. heat 15. thought 16. false 17. false

of cool, running water and inform the teacher of the incident.


3. The label should be read three times: before

picking up the container, while holding the container, and when putting the container back.
4. Always add the acid slowly to water. 5. Safety goggles should be worn whenever a

person is working in the lab. Gloves should be worn when chemicals are used that cause irritations or can be absorbed through the skin.
6. Very loose-fitting clothes, long sleeves, open-

toed shoes, and dangling jewelry should not be worn in the lab.

110

Teacher Guide and Answers Fast Files, Chapters 1-4 Resources

Chemistry: Matter and Change

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Teaching Transparency 3 Laboratory Safety

changes that it undergoes.

TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

18. true 19. true 20. false 21. biochemistry 22. organic chemistry 23. analytical chemistry 24. inorganic chemistry 25. physical chemistry 26. c 27. a 28. d 29. e 30. b 31. The macroscopic world can be seen without the

17. ultraviolet light 18. ozone 19. hypothesis 20. model 21. chlorine Section 1.4 Scientific Research 1. A 2. P 3. A 4. P 5. before picking up the container, while holding

the container, and when returning the container to its place


6. Scientists usually look to see what pure research

aid of a microscope. The submicroscopic world is so small that it cannot be seen with the types of microscopes used in the biology lab.
32. Macroscopic events depend on events at the

has been done in the area related to the problem.


7. contact lenses, loose clothing, open-toed shoes,

and dangling jewelry


8. Technology is the practical use of scientific

atomic and subatomic (submicroscopic) levels. By understanding the submicroscopic events of matter, chemists hope to explain and better understand macroscopic events.
Section 1.3 Scientific Methods
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

information obtained from both pure and applied research.


9. Answers will vary. Students may say that they

1. hypothesis 2. experiments 3. conclusions 4. theory 5. scientific law 6. b 7. c 8. d 9. a 10. e 11. d 12. b 13. c 14. b 15. a 16. scientific method

are more interested in working in pure research because they are curious about nature and do not want to be guided by a specific problem. Others may say that they would prefer to work in applied research because its purpose and benefits are immediately evident.

Chapter Assessment - Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry


Reviewing Vocabulary 1. f 2. d 3. e 4. a 5. c 6. i 7. j 8. g 9. h

Chemistry: Matter and Change

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111

TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

10. b 11. Both describe matter. Qualitative data is

3. quantitative 4. qualitative 5. qualitative 6. qualitative 7. quantitative 8. qualitative 9. qualitative 10. quantitative 11. applied research 12. pure research 13. applied research 14. applied research 15. pure research 16. pure research 17. applied research Thinking Critically 1. Chlorine concentrations will gradually decrease. 2. The independent variable is the phasing out of

nonnumerical information such as color and odor. Quantitative data is numerical information that describes variables that can be measured, such as mass and volume.
12. Both are explanations of observations. A

hypothesis is a tentative explanation. A theory is an explanation that is supported by many experiments.


13. Both are quantities that can have multiple

values. The value of the independent variable in an experiment is controlled by the experimenter. The value of the dependent variable depends on the value of the independent variable.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A) 1. b 2. c 3. b 4. d 5. d 6. Answers will vary. The two are different levels

3. The agreement to phase out CFC production

7. When ultraviolet radiation from the Sun causes

will result in lower levels of chlorine in the stratosphere.


4. Answers will vary. A possible hypothesis is that

CFCs in the atmosphere to break down, the chlorine in the CFCs destroys the ozone in the atmosphere, thus depleting the ozone layer around Earth.
8. The thinning of the ozone layer causes

with decreased concentrations of chlorine in the stratosphere, the ozone layer will stop thinning or will replenish itself.
Applying Scientific Methods 1. Answers may vary. A possible hypothesis is that

organisms to be overexposed to the Suns ultraviolet radiation, which may lead to sunburn, skin cancer, cataracts, lowering of crop yields, and disrupted food chains.
9. Answers will vary and may include the

plants receiving higher concentrations of phosphorus grow faster than plants receiving lower concentrations of phosphorus.
2. The independent variable is the concentration

following: study the lab assignment, tie back long hair, remove contact lenses, and avoid wearing loose clothing or dangling jewelry.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part B) 1. qualitative 2. quantitative

of phosphorus applied to the plants. The dependent variable is the amount of plant growth.
3. Possible answers include the type of plant

grown, the age of the plants, the amount and frequency of water given to the plants, the type

112

Teacher Guide and Answers Fast Files, Chapters 1-4 Resources

Chemistry: Matter and Change

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

of matter. People see the macroscopic level, not the submicroscopic; however, chemical events that occur at the submicroscopic, or atomic, level affect what people see.

the production of CFCs because it is the variable being controlled. The dependent variable is the concentration of chlorine in the stratosphere because it depends on the phasing out of CFCs.

TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

of soil and pots the plants are grown in, the amount of sunlight received by the plants, the weather conditions the plants are subjected to, and so on.
4. the mass and height of each plant every day for

the hole from the area of the washer and multiply the answer by the thickness of the washer.
Expected Result: Density is determined in

g/mL by dividing mass by volume.

20 days
5. the appearance of each plant, possibly including

its color and the texture of its leaves


6. Data tables should indicate which plant received

ChemLab 2 Use Density to Date a Coin


Pre-Lab 3. Increasing the mass of an object will increase

which concentration of phosphorus and should include a place to record the growth and appearance of each plant over 20 days.
7. Corn-plant growth increases with increased

the density if the volume is held constant.


4. The post-1982 pennies should be more dense

since they contain more Zinc.


5. From 1864 to 1962 pennies were 95% copper

concentration of phosphorus up to a point. Applying 50% phosphorus does not enhance plant growth any more than does applying 25% phosphorus.
8. Answers might include using phosphorus

and 5% tin and zinc. Since tin is heavier than zinc, the pre-1962 pennies will be more dense.
6. The mass of the object could be calculated after

supplements to increase the food supply or to increase the cost effectiveness of growing corn plants. For example, if applying 25% phosphorus is as effective as applying 50% phosphorus, then farmers can save money by applying only 25% phosphorus to their corn crops.
9. Possible answers include conducting an
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

determining the composition of the object, and then density could be calculated. 7. % error = observed value true value *100% true value
Analyze and Conclude 1. Refer to the Solutions Manual. 2. Refer to the Solutions Manual. 3. The slope for pre1982 penny is 7.1g/mL. The

experiment to find the exact level at which increased phosphorus concentration stops enhancing plant growth, by using smaller increments in phosphorus concentration. A second experiment might test whether too much phosphorus retards plant growth. A third experiment might test whether the results from the original experiment would be repeated if other types of plants were used.

slope for post1982 penny is 9.0 g/mL.


4. Verifying the slopes of the lines give you the

density of the pre1982 pennies and density of the post1982 pennies.


5. Both pennies have similar volume but the mass

is different, therefore the density is different. Mass can be used to identify both pre and post 1982 pennies.
6. Pre 1982 pennies (9.0 - 8.96)/8.96 100 = 0.45%

CHAPTER 2
MiniLab 2 Determine Density
Analysis 1. Vobject = Vfinal Vinitial 2. Answers will vary depending on object chosen.

error Post 1982 pennies (7.1 - 7.16)/7.16 100 = 0.84% error


Inquiry Extension

Students will use the equation, mass = volume/density.


3. The sugar cube would dissolve in the water. 4. Measure the outside diameter of the washer and

The results should be consistent. More accurate results could be achieved with a graduated cylinder that reads a more accurate volume. Make sure the pennies are dry before they are massed.

calculate its area. Measure the diameter of the hole and calculate its area. Subtract the area of
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113

TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Teaching Transparency 4 Converting Units


1. Students should use any of the conversions

Teaching Transparency 6 Interpreting Graphs


1. It is a bar graph. 2. The graph compares sound quality and price

shown to calculate that the item costs $85.


2. At 1.06 per dollar, the euro is closest in value to

for different brands of speakers.


3. Magnasound has the best sound quality. Wals

that of the U.S. dollar.


3. 56.10. $85 multiplied by 0.66 pounds/dollar =

Best has the worst.


4. Wolfvox costs the most. Wals Best costs the

56.10.
4. 10 FF divided by 6.98 FF/dollar = $1.43. 1.25

least.
5. Accept all answers that are supported by the

DM (German marks) divided by 2.07 DM/dollar = $0.60. Therefore, the French cone costs more U.S. dollars.
5. The game costs slightly more today than it

data. Students might choose Magnasound because it has the best sound quality.
6. Accept all answers that are supported by the

would have six months ago. 570 FF divided by 6.51 FF/dollar = $87.56.
6. a. The German shopper gets the better deal. 12

data. Students might choose Thoreau because it has the best sound quality for the given price.
7. Accept all answers that are supported by the

SF divided by 1.61 SF/dollar = $7.45 and 12 DM divided by 2.09 DM/dollar = $5.74.


b. If the price is in euros, then the cost is the

same for each shopper.

data. Students might choose Hi-technic because it has the best sound quality below $200. The only product with (slightly) better sound quality costs more than $200.
8. Accept all answers that are supported by the

Teaching Transparency 5 Precision and Accuracy


1. Shegeckis game was most accurate. 2. Anne-Maries game was most accurate and

precise.
3. Marguerites game is precise, but not accurate. 4. Jon is neither accurate nor precise in his golf

game.
5. Accept all supported answers. Students may say

that accuracy is more important because it determines the winner. Students may say that precision is more important because it is a better gauge of a players skill and a better predictor of his or her performance on future games.
6. Answers will vary. Students should recognize

Math Skills Transparency 1 Interpreting and Drawing Graphs


1. The graph shown is a circle graph. 2. The circle represents the total number of people

aged 1821 who responded to the survey.


3. 19% think of themselves as Republicans; 25%

the similarity between accepted value in an experiment and par in golf. They should note, however, that in golf, variables are not held constant as they are in experiments. Also, the way in which data are produced in multiple experimental trials does not vary, whereas the way in which the results of a golf game are reached does vary.

think of themselves as Democrats.


4. Most 18- to 21-year-olds (50%) say they are

independent.
5. graph 6. Answers may vary, but a bar graph would be a

clear way of presenting the comparison of data.


7. Both groups are divided among affiliations in a

similar manner: most say they are independent.

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Teacher Guide and Answers Fast Files, Chapters 1-4 Resources

Chemistry: Matter and Change

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

data. Students might say that Thoreau is the best deal because it has the highest sound quality per dollar. Others might say that Hitechnic is the best deal because it offers almost the highest sound quality of all the products, but at a lower price than Magnasound. Students might suggest that Wolfvox is the worst deal because it costs the most, but has only average sound quality. There are products with better sound quality available at a lower price.

TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

However, a smaller portion of the general population says they are independent.
8. The greatest difference is the decrease in the

19. analyze, solve, and evaluate 20. Add 273 to degrees Celsius. Section 2.2 Scientific Notation and Dimensional Analysis 1. 1.61

percentage of people in the general population who say they are independent.

102 10-27 kg 10-31 kg 106 km 109 s 10-4 g 10-2 cm 10-8

Study Guide - Chapter 2 Analyzing Data


Section 2.1 Units and Measurement 1. Time, Second 2. Kilogram, kg 3. Temperature, K 4. Meter, m 5. b 6. d 7. a 8. c 9. The correct order is: giga-, mega-, kilo-, centi-,

1.627 62 2.8
2. a. 5

9.10939
b. 8.394 c. 4. d. 3

3. A conversion factor is a ratio of equivalent

values used to express the same quantity in different units.


4. a method of problem solving that often uses

milli-, nano-, pico-.


10. a. c; 1/100 b. k; 1000 c. m; 1/1000
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

conversion factors
5. kg; g; kg; g 6. m; cm; m; cm 7. L; kL; L; kL 8. cm; m; cm; m 9. km; h; m; km; h; min; min; s; m/s Section 2.3 Uncertainty in Data 1. a. (blank) b. precise c. accurate, precise 2. a 3. c 4. d 5. b 6. c 7. significant figures 8. estimated 9. Non-zero 10. zeros 11. placeholders 12. counting numbers 13. scientific notation

11. Celsius; no, the SI unit for temperature is the

kelvin.
12. 1000 g 13. 1,000,000 liters 14. 100 cm 15. Base units are defined units based on specific

objects or events in the physical world. Derived units are defined by combining base units.
16. Density is a ratio that compares the mass of an

object to its volume.


17. Canned goods are more dense than paper

goods. They have more mass per unit volume. Thus, for the same volume, the canned goods have more mass than the paper goods. The greater mass is more difficult to lift.
18. Answers may vary. Students should note that

density is defined as the mass of an object divided by its volume. Thus, algebraically, you can determine that an objects volume is equal to its mass divided by its density.

Chemistry: Matter and Change

Teacher Guide and Answers Fast Files, Chapters 1-4 Resources

115

TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

14. a. 12.56 km b. 1.001 c. 100.0 d. 23.34 15. a. 13 b. 12.738 c. 12.7835 d. 12.78346 16. a. 121 b. 120.8 c. 120.75 d. 120.7524 17. a. 115.6 kg b. 4.25 cm c. 2 m3 d. 1.90 m/s Section 2.4 Representing Data 1. circle graph 2. bar graph 3. 60% 4. August; November 5. 7 6. 3 7. 1 8. 5 9. 2 10. 6 11. 4

6. b 7. i 8. g 9. c 10. a 11. second 12. meter 13. kilogram 14. liter 15. Density 16. Significant figures Understanding Main Ideas (Part A) 1. one is estimated and three are known 2. derived unit of volume 3. true 4. 1.234

106 m or 6 km 103 m/1 km) = 1000 m/1 km = 6000 m 103 s 1010ng


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Answers may vary: 6 km (1

103

6. 1 s (1 7. 34 g 8. 1 9. 2

103 ms/s) = 1

109ng/g = 3.4

1015 or 1,000,000,000,000,000 104 or 20,000

10. (100 km/h) 11. 0.3 12. 5.01

(1000 m/1 km) (1 h /60 min) (1 min/60 s) = 27.8 m/s = 30 m/s 1010 + 5 109 = 5.3 1010 = 5 1010 10-7 30 10-9 = 5.01 10-7 = 4.7 10-7 10-7 0.3 10-7

= 4.

Understanding Main Ideas (Part B) 1. d 2. c 3. b 4. d 5. a 6. a Thinking Critically 1. carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic 2. steel 3. Accept any graph that displays the data given

Chapter Assessment Chapter 2 Analyzing Data


Reviewing Vocabulary 1. d 2. f 3. j 4. h 5. e

and is labeled properly. Students may make a


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116

TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

bar graph, in which aluminum, steel, and wood have bars of length 1, nylon has a bar of length 2, and carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic has a bar of length 3.
4. No; although steel is strong, stiff, and

percent error can be misleading. Conclusions drawn from the data on Samples A and B could lead to misidentification of the metals. Only the data for Sample C is reliable.
8. Accept all reasonable answers. Students may

inexpensive, it is also very dense.


5. Answers will vary. Students may say that they

would prefer a racket with a frame made of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic because it is strong, stiff, and not very dense.
Applying Scientific Methods 1. Sample A: 8.060 g/mL

suggest that she note the appearance of her samples next time, that she measure only the sample and not the container it is in, that she use proper rounding conventions when recording data, or that she ensure that her equipment is calibrated so that her measurements will be more accurate.

Sample B: 8.836 g/mL Sample C: 7.24 g/mL


2. The students measurements for Samples A and

CHAPTER 3
MiniLab 3 Observe Dye Separation
Analysis 1. Drawings should show the filter paper with the

C are very precise. The data for these two samples is consistent.
3. Accept all supported answers. Students may

suggest that Sample A could be iron, Sample B could be either copper or nickel, and Sample C could be tin. Students should suggest that additional information is needed and perhaps further tests need to be made before the samples can be identified accurately.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

ink spot in the center and different dyes spreading out from the center.
2. Different components of the ink have varying

attraction for the filter paper. Therefore, the colors that comprise the ink will be deposited at different distances from the center of the paper.
3. Answers will vary. Different makes and types of

4. Students may suggest noting the color of each

black ink have different dyes in them.


Expected Results: As the water spreads out on

metal. Color is probably the most practical and distinguishing feature of the metals.
5. percent error = error/accepted value

100% percent error of sample A = 8.92 g/mL 8.060 g/mL 8.92 g/mL 100% = 9.64% percent error of sample B = 8.90 g/mL 8.836 g/mL 8.90 g/mL 100% = 0.719 % percent error of sample C = 7.28 g/mL 7.24 g/mL 7.28 g/mL 100% = 0.549% of each sample because the relative heights of the bars would compare the density of each sample. A pie chart would not make sense in this case because there are no parts or whole. Students may also make a case for line graphs; however, the curves will be difficult to compare because the data points are very close.

the paper, different dyes in the ink will spread out from the center and be deposited on the filter paper at different distances from the center.

ChemLab 3 Identify the Products of a Chemical Reaction


Pre-Lab 3. A physical property is a characteristic that can

6. A bar graph would best compare the densities

be observed or measured without changing the substances compositionfor example, color, shape, or mass. A chemical property is the ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substancesfor example, reactivity with water.
4. a. You might observe a change in color or

7. Although both Samples B and C have a low

percent error based on average mass and density, only Sample C was measured accurately. Looking only at the averages and

odor, the evolution of heat or light, the absorption of energy, or the formation of a gas, liquid, or different solid. A different product will form.

Chemistry: Matter and Change

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117

TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

b. You might observe a change in shape or in

6. The liquids volume remains the same,

physical state, such as boiling, condensing, freezing, melting, evaporating, dissolving, or crystallizing.
5. A homogeneous mixture is one in which one or

regardless of the size of the container.


7. When the ice cubes melt, the resulting liquid

more substances are evenly distributed throughout another substance. A heterogeneous mixture is one in which there is an observable separation of component substances.
Reaction Observations
Time (min) 5 Students should observe gradual formation of gray solid on the copper wire. The solution will turn blue-green. Observations

water will not fill the glass because there were air spaces within the ice cubes. The liquid will conform to the shape of the container and fill it only partially.
8. The liquid water will not fill the container

because the molecules of the liquid will be much closer together than the molecules of the steam were.

Teaching Transparency 8 Conservation of Mass


1. A chemical reaction occurs in which

10 15 20

mercury(II) oxide becomes liquid mercury and oxygen gas.


2. Mass is neither created nor destroyed in any

Flame test: blue-green color

process.
3. Massreactants = Massproducts 4. Massreactants = Massproducts

Analyze and Conclude 1. A grayish solid formed on the wire. The

solution turned blue-green. Yes, a solid formed and a color change occurred. The products are silver and copper nitrate.
2. Silver metal is white to gray. Copper nitrate is

Massmercury(II) oxide = Massmercury + Massoxygen 15.00 g = Massmercury + 1.11 g Massmercury = 13.89 g Massmercury(II) oxide used in the reaction = Massmercury + Massoxygen 10.00 g 1.35 g = 8.00 g + Massoxygen Massoxygen = 0.65 g
6. Massreactants = Massproducts
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blue-green.
3. Experimental results should agree with blue-

5. Massreactants = Massproducts

green light.
4. homogeneous; heterogeneous and

homogeneous
Inquiry Extension

The copper wire might not have been clean. The better observations will be more detailed.

Massmercury(II) oxide = Massmercury + Massoxygen Massmercury(II) oxide = 12.5 g + 1.0 g Massmercury(II) oxide = 13.5 g

Teaching Transparency 7 States of Matter


1. solid, liquid, gas 2. solid 3. gas 4. liquid and gas 5. The gas molecules will be spaced farther apart

Teaching Transparency 9 Types of Matter


1. mixtures and pure substances 2. A mixture can be separated into its component

substances by physical means; however, a pure substance cannot.


3. A compound can be broken down chemically

in a large container than in a small container because the molecules in a gas spread out to fill the entire volume of a container.

into smaller substances; however, an element cannot.

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

4. No; according to the diagram, a heterogeneous

mixture can be separated into its components by physical means. A compound cannot be separated into its components by physical means.
5. gold, aluminum, oxygen, chlorine, platinum 6. A homogeneous mixture has a uniform

mass of hydrogen = 6.50% 0.39 g element/mass of compound

6.0 g/100% =

6. mass percentage of an element (%) = mass of

100%

mass percentage of chlorine = 12.13 g/20.00 g 100% = 60.65% mass percentage of sodium = 7.87 g/20.00 g 100% = 39.35%
7. Students should show a circle graph divided

composition, whereas a heterogeneous mixture does not. Thus, if you can see the different components in a mixture, then it is a heterogeneous mixture.
7. a. homogeneous b. heterogeneous c. heterogeneous d. heterogeneous e. homogeneous f. homogeneous g. heterogeneous 8. Separation methods include filtration,

into two wedges: one representing approximately 60% of the circle and one representing approximately 40% of the circle.

Math Skills Transparency 2 Visualizing the Conservation of Mass


1. 2; 2 2. 2; 2 3. 4; 4 4. Massreactants = Massproducts

distillation, crystallization, and chromatography.

If the reactants total 15 g, then the products will total 15g.


5. Massreactants = Massproducts

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Teaching Transparency 10 Mass Percentage and the Law of Definite Proportions


1. It is sucrose. 2. 42.20%; the mass percentage of carbon is

There will be 6 molecules of potassium hydroxide and 12 atoms of hydrogen.


6. Massreactants =Massproducts

Masswater = Masshydrogen + Massoxygen Masshydrogen = Masswater Massoxygen Masshydrogen = 36 g 32 g = 4 g


7. Massreactants = Massproducts

consistent regardless of the amount of sucrose; this is the law of definite proportions.
3. mass percentage of oxygen = mass of

oxygen/mass of sucrose mass of oxygen = 51.30% 25.65 g carbon/mass of sucrose mass of carbon = 42.20% 42.20 g hydrogen/mass of sucrose

100% 100% 50.00 g/100% =

Masssodium + Masschloride = Masssodium chloride Masssodium = Masssodium chloride Masschloride Masssodium = 116.90 g 70.9 g = 46.0 g

51.30% = mass of oxygen/50.00 g

4. mass percentage of carbon = mass of

100% 100% 100.0 g/100% =

Math Skills Transparency 3 Finding Percent by Mass


1. 100% 2. 51.30% oxygen; 42.2% carbon; 6.50% hydrogen 3. Mass percentage of oxygen = mass of

42.20% = mass of carbon/100.0 g

5. mass percentage of hydrogen = mass of

oxygen/mass of sucrose (mass of oxygen = 51.30

100 100 100)/100 = 51.30 g

100% 100%

51.30% = (mass of oxygen/100)

6.50% = mass of hydrogen/6.0 g

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

4. Mass percentage of carbon = mass of

17. physical 18. gas 19. solid 20. liquid 21. true 22. false 23. true 24. false 25. false 26. false 27. false 28. false Section 3.2 Changes in Matter 1. boil 2. freeze 3. condense 4. vaporize 5. melt 6. grind 7. crumple 8. crush 9. explode 10. rust 11. oxidize 12. corrode 13. tarnish 14. ferment 15. burn 16. rot 17. c 18. a 19. d 20. e 21. b 22. Masswater = Masshydrogen + Massoxygen; 178.8 g
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carbon/mass of sucrose

100 100 100 = 140.7

42.2% = mass of carbon/30.0 mass of oxygen = 42.2/30.0 g = 141 g 126.01 g

5. a. 34.48 g + 1.51 g + 18.02 g + 72.00 g = b. Mass percentage of element = mass of

element/mass of baking soda Mass percentage of sodium = (34.48/126.01) 100 = 27.36% Mass percentage of hydrogen = (1.51/126.01) 100 = 1.20%

100

Mass percentage of carbon = (18.02/126.01) 100 = 14.30% Mass percentage of oxygen = (72.00/126.01) 100 = 57.14%
6. Students should show a circle graph divided

into four wedges: sodium, 27.36%; hydrogen, 1.20%; carbon, 14.30%; and oxygen, 57.14%.
7. a part, the whole

Study Guide Chapter 3 Matter Properties and Changes


Section 3.1 Properties of Matter 1. mass 2. substance 3. properties 4. Physical 5. density 6. chemical 7. physical 8. chemical 9. chemical 10. physical 11. physical 12. chemical 13. physical 14. physical 15. physical 16. physical

water = 20.0 g hydrogen + Massoxygen; Massoxygen = 178.8 g 20.0 g; Massoxygen = 158.8 g

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Section 3.3 Mixtures of Matter 1. mixtures 2. water 3. heterogeneous 4. sand-water mixture 5. solutions 6. salt-water mixture 7. b 8. c 9. d 10. a Section 3.4 Elements and Compounds 1. c 2. b 3. d 4. c 5. d 6. b 7. element 8. compound 9. element
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

24. The mass ratio of oxygen to hydrogen in H2O2

is two times the mass ratio of oxygen to hydrogen in H2O. This follows the law of multiple proportions. and oxygen.

25. No; they have different proportions of hydrogen

Chapter Assessment - Chapter 3 MatterProperties and Changes


Reviewing Vocabulary 1. f 2. d 3. e 4. a 5. c 6. b 7. i 8. g 9. h 10. k 11. j 12. Both are characteristics of substances. A

10. element 11. compound 12. Ne 13. Ca 14. Fe 15. Ti 16. F 17. 8.4 g carbon/20.0 g sucrose

physical property can be observed without changing the composition of the substance. A chemical property is the ability or tendency of a substance to change into another substance.
13. Both are kinds of matter. A substance cannot be

separated into other substances by physical means. A mixture can be separated into two or more substances.
Understanding Main Ideas (Part A)

100% = 42.00%

1. physical, intensive 2. chemical 3. physical, intensive 4. physical, intensive 5. physical, extensive 6. chemical 7. physical, intensive 8. physical, intensive 9. d 10. a 11. b

carbon
18. 51.50% oxygen = Massoxygen/20.0 g sucrose

100%; 51.50% oxygen Massoxygen = 10.3 g

20.0 g sucrose/100% =

19. 6.50%; because the mass percentage is

consistent regardless of the amount of sucrose


20. They are the same compound. 21. They are not the same compound. 22. 8 g O/1g H 23. 16 g O/1g H

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

12. c 13. salt 14. air 15. aluminum Understanding Main Ideas (Part B) 1. physical 2. chemical 3. chemical 4. physical 5. chemical 6. physical 7. chemical 8. homogeneous 9. heterogeneous 10. homogeneous 11. heterogeneous 12. homogeneous 13. heterogeneous 14. heterogeneous 15. heterogeneous 16. heterogeneous 17. homogeneous 18. homogeneous 19. distillation 20. filtration Thinking Critically 1. 14 g; by looking at the chemical formulas for

c. Using the mass percentage equation: (2.02 g

hydrogen)58.33 g milk of magnesia = 3.46% hydrogen


d. law of definite proportions Applying Scientific Methods 1. Sample 1: 2.00 g A/1.00 g B

100%

Sample 2: 2.000 g A/1.000 g B Sample 3: 4 g A/1 g B Sample 4: 2.0 g A/1.0 g B


2. Samples 1, 2, and 4 have the same ratio. Sample

3 has a different ratio.


3. Samples 1, 2, and 4 are the same compound,

according to the law of definite proportions. Sample 3 is a different compound because its ratio of mass A to mass B differs from the ratios in samples 1, 2, and 4.
4. The chemist could calculate the mass

percentage of A or B in each sample and compare the percentages with the percentages of the desired compound.
5. a. (6.42 g A)9.63 g sample b. (63.75 g A)95.62 g sample

100% = 66.67% A 100%


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

= 66.67% A
c. (32 g A)40 g sample

100% = 80% A 100% = 66.67% A

d. (17.0 g A)25.5 g sample

6. Yes; the compound the chemist was looking for

the two compounds, students should know that the subscript 2 of the Y component indicates that twice as much Y is needed for XY2 as for XY.
2. a. 24 g carbon + 64 g oxygen = 88 g

is in samples 1, 2, and 4. In all three samples, the mass percentage of A is 66.67%. According to the law of definite proportions, a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportions.
7. The data show that there are two different

b. 88 g CO2 c. law of conservation of mass


3. a. Using the mass percentage equation: (24.31

g magnesium)58.33 g milk of magnesia 100% = 41.68% magnesium


b. Using the mass percentage equation: (32.00

compounds represented in the chemists samples. Samples 1, 2, and 4 are the same compound. Sample 3 is a different compound made up of the same elements. By comparing the ratio of the mass of A to the mass of B in sample 3 with that in sample 1 (or sample 2 or 4), one arrives at a small whole number, as follows: (mass ratio of sample 3)(mass ratio of sample 1) = 4/2 = 2

g oxygen)58.33 g milk of magnesia = 54.86% oxygen

100%

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

CHAPTER 4
MiniLab 4 Model Isotopes
Analysis 1. The relative number of pre- and post-1982

3. Answers will vary. The students should find

that the atomic mass is closest to the most abundant piece. In the sample data, the atomic mass is closer to the chex pieces than the pretzels or bagel chips due to their high percent
4. Answers will vary. Students should realize that

pennies in the bag determines the percentage abundance of each group.


2. The atomic mass of a penny depends upon the

the small sample size and difference in samples will lead to differences.
5. The atomic mass is different from the mass

mixture of pennies each student receives. Sample data is shown here. mass contribution (pre-1982) = (55.0%)(3.11 g) = 1.71 g mass contribution (post-1982) = (45.0%)(2.55 g) = 1.15 g atomic mass = (1.71 g + 1.15 g) = 2.86 g
3. A different mixture would have a different

number because it is an average and therefore will not be a whole number.


6. Answers will vary depending on the reference

sources used. They should find most elements have numerous natural isotopes.
7. The error in the lab is due to small sample size.

The experiment could be modified by starting with a much larger sample size.
Inquiry Extension

relative abundance and a different atomic mass.


4. Masses of individual pennies will vary due to

wear.
Expected Results:

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Pre-1982 pennies have a greater mass than post1982 pennies. Mass of ten pre-1982 pennies = 31.10 g Average mass of a pre-1982 penny = 3.11g Mass of ten post-1982 pennies = 25.48 g Average mass of a post-1982 penny = 2.55 g The atomic mass depends on the mixture analyzed.

Answers will vary. The students should be able to predict the most abundant element based on the atomic mass listed on the periodic table.

Teaching Transparency 11 Cathode Ray Experiments


1. A cathode ray is a beam of negatively charged

particles or electrons.
2. Answers may vary. All three experiments have a

ChemLab 4 Calculate the Atomic Mass of the Element Snackium


Pre-Lab 2. protons, neutrons, and electrons 3. Answers will vary. 4. If there are more heavy subatomic particles, the

voltage source, a cathode, an anode, gas at low pressure, and a phosphor that allows the position of the cathode ray to be determined.
3. The cathode ray travels from the cathode

toward the anode, passing through the hole in the anode and traveling in a straight line through the tube, where it strikes the phosphor screen.
4. In B, the cathode ray passes through a magnetic

isotope will be heavier. If there are fewer heavy subatomic particles, the isotope will be lighter.
Analyze and Conclude 1. Answers will vary depending on the type of

field, whereas in C, the cathode ray passes between two electrically charged plates. Both experiments show that the cathode ray is made of charged particles.
5. The experiment shows that the cathode ray

snack bags.
2. Answers will vary depending on the type of

snack bags. If the snacks all have similar masses, the average atomic mass will be closest to the most abundant snack.

consists of charged particles that are affected by a magnetic field.


6. The negatively charged cathode ray bends

toward the positively charged plate due to electrical forces of attraction.

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

Teaching Transparency 12 Understanding Rutherfords Gold Foil Experiment


1. The arrows represent alpha particles, which

8. Students should draw two atomic nuclei, each

have a positive (2+) charge.


2. diagram A 3. diagram B; some of the alpha particles were

surrounded by an electron cloud. Both atoms should have three protons in the nucleus and three electrons in the electron cloud. One of the atoms should have three neutrons in the nucleus; the other should have four neutrons in the nucleus.

deflected at large angles.


4. Rutherford concluded that the plum pudding

Teaching Transparency 14 Radioactive Particles


1. Alpha particles have the greatest mass. Gamma

model of the atom was incorrect. He also concluded that an atom is made mostly of empty space with a tiny, dense, centrally located nucleus that is positively charged and contains almost all of the atoms mass.
5. The massive alpha particles were expected to be

rays have no mass.


2. Answers may vary. Answers should include the

fact that gamma rays have no mass and are often characterized as light (waves).
3. Because they have opposite charges, the

largely unaffected by the much less massive electrons. The weak, diffusely distributed positive charge inside the atom was also not expected to affect the positively charged alpha particles.

positively charged alpha particles are attracted to the negatively charged plate.
4. The beta particles are attracted to the positively

Teaching Transparency 13 Isotopes


1. a. electron b. neutron c. proton 2. Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus. 3. The number of protons in an atom identify the

charged plate. Their curvature is greater because they have a much smaller mass than alpha particles do and are therefore more greatly affected by the electric field.
5. Gamma rays have no charge; therefore, they are

not attracted to either charged plate.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Math Skills Transparency 4 Calculating Atomic Mass


1. The numbers are the mass number of each

atom as a particular element.


4. The protons and electrons in an atom have

opposite charges and are equal in number. Because of this, the net charge on an atom is zero.
5. The numbers refer to the mass numberthe

isotope. The mass numbers refer to the sum of each isotopes protons and neutrons, which make up most of the mass of an atom.
2. It stands for atomic mass unit. The mass of 1

amu is defined as 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom.


3. Atomic mass is a weighted average of the

sum of protons and neutrons in each atoms nucleus. They are an approximate value of each atoms mass.
6. a. 39K 19 b. 40K 19 c. 41K 19 7. Mass number = atomic number + number of

masses of an atoms isotopes. This means that 7X, which occurs 92.5% of the time, has a larger effect in determining the elements atomic mass than does 6X, which occurs 7.5% of the time.
4. Accept either of the following answers: The

neutrons

mass of 1 amu is slightly less than the mass of a proton or a neutron. The atomic mass is a weighted average.

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

5. The discovery of 8Li will have a very small effect

on lithiums atomic mass because the percent abundance of 8Li is so small.


6. Mass contribution = (mass)(percent

The pit should be labeled nucleus and should include labeled protons and neutrons. The outer circle of the peach should be labeled electrons.
Particle Symbol Location Relative Charge Relative Mass

abundance)
185X: 187X:

(184.953 amu)(0.3740) = 69.17 amu (186.956 amu)(0.6260) = 117.0 amu

6. Proton 7. Neutron 8. Electron

In the nucleus In the nucleus In the space surrounding the nucleus

1 0 1

1 1 1/1840

Atomic mass of X = 69.17 amu 1 117.0 amu = 186.2 amu


7. Mass contribution = (mass)(percent

n0 e

abundance)
113X: 115X:

(112.904 amu)(0.0430) = 4.86 amu (114.904 amu)(0.9570) = 110.0 amu

Section 4.3 How Atoms Differ 1. false 2. true 3. true 4. true 5. false 6. 82 protons; 82 electrons 7. 8 protons 8. 30 9. 85 10. 104 protons; 104 electrons 11. 84 protons; 84 electrons 12. 102 protons; 102 electrons 13. 19 protons, 19 electrons, 20neutrons 14. 14 protons, 14 electrons, 14 neutrons 15. 19 protons, 19 electrons, 21 neutrons 16. 51 protons, 51 electrons, 72 neutrons 17. The two isotopes with atomic number 19 are

Atomic mass of X = 4.86 amu + 110.0 amu = 114.9 amu The element is indium.

Study Guide Chapter 4 The Structure of the Atom


Section 4.1 Early Ideas About Matter 1. false 2. true 3. true
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. true 5. false 6. false 7. true 8. true 9. false 10. true Section 4.2 Defining the Atom 1. c 2. a 3. b 4. Drawing should look like a ball of chocolate

both isotopes of potassium.


22 18. 10Ne 4 19. 2He

20. 133Cs 55 21. 234U 92 22. mass number 23. atomic number 24. d 25. a

chip cookie dough. The chocolate chips should be labeled with negative charge or as electrons. The dough should be labeled as evenly distributed positive charges.
5. Drawing should look like a peach with a pit.

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TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

26. d 27. 76 28. Nb 29. 190.2 30. atomic mass units 31. osmium: 76 protons, 76 electrons; niobium: 41

Chapter Assessment - Chapter 4 The Structure of the Atom


Reviewing Vocabulary 1. g 2. d 3. e 4. a 5. c 6. b 7. f 8. i 9. h 10. k 11. m 12. j 13. l 14. Both pertain to atoms. The mass number is the

protons, 41 electrons.
32. Mass contribution = (mass)(percent

abundance)
63X: 65X:

(62.930 amu)(69.17%) = 43.53 amu (64.928 amu)(30.83%) = 20.02 amu

Atomic mass of X = 43.53 amu + 20.02 amu = 63.55 amu The element is copper.
33. Mass contribution = (mass)(percent

abundance)
35X: 37X:

(34.969 amu)(75.77%) = 26.50 amu (36.966 amu)(24.23%) = 8.957 amu

Atomic mass of X = 26.50 amu + 8.957 amu = 35.46 amu The element is chlorine.
Section 4.4 Changes to the Nucleus Nuclear Reactions 1. c 2. a 3. d 4. b 5. the positive plate, because beta particles are

sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of a given atom. The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom.
15. Both concern changes in atoms. A nuclear

Understanding Main Ideas (Part A) 1. terbium 2. platinum 3. ruthenium 4. chromium 5. scandium 6. cesium 7. neutrons
Charge

negatively charged
6. Gamma rays have no charge. 7. The beta particles have less mass than the alpha

particles and ar more greatly affected by the electric field.


Radiation Type Composition Symbol Mass (amu)

8. true 9. Alpha 10. neutrons 11. 1H 1 12. Hydrogen-3, 1, 1, 2 13. Oxygen-18, 18 O, 8 8

8.

Alpha

Helium nuclei, or alpha particles Electrons, or beta particles


High-energy electromagnetic radiation

4He 2

4
1/1840

2 1 0

9.

Beta Gamma

0 1

10.

0 0

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Chemistry: Matter and Change

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reaction involves a change in an atoms nucleus. A nuclear equation shows the atomic number and mass number of the particles involved in a reaction.

TEACHER GUIDE AND ANSWERS

14. 65Cu, 29, 29 29 15. Uranium-235, 92, 92, 143 Understanding Main Ideas (Part B) 1. h 2. b 3. f 4. a 5. c 6. e 7. d 8. g 9. Mass contribution = (mass)(percent

1.140 amu = 2x amu x = 0.570 Percent abundance of 121Sb = 57.0% Percent abundance of 123Sb = 1 x = 1 0.570 = 43.0%
Applying Scientific Methods 1. Isotopes 1, 2, 4, and 5 are the same element;

they all have 24 protons. Isotopes 3 and 6 are another element; they both have 26 protons.
2. Answers may vary. Although the masses of

abundance) 69Ga: (68.9257 amu)(60.12%) = 41.44 amu 71Ga: (70.9249 amu)(39.88%) = 28.28 amu Atomic mass of Ga = 41.44 amu + 28.28 amu = 69.72 amu
10. Mass contribution = (mass)(percent

protons and neutrons, which make up most of the mass of an atom, are very close to 1 amu, they are not exactly 1 amu. Thus, the mass of each isotope is very close to a whole number, but is not exactly a whole number.
3. Mass contribution = (mass)(percent

abundance) Isotope 1: (49.946 amu)(4.35%) = 2.17 amu Isotope 2: (51.941 amu)(83.80%) = 43.53 amu Isotope 4: (52.941 amu)(9.50%) = 5.03 amu Isotope 5: (53.939 amu) (2.35%) = 1.27 amu Atomic mass of X = 2.17 amu + 43.53 amu + 5.03 amu + 1.27 amu = 52.00 amu
4. Isotope 2; Isotope 5 5. Isotope 2; because the atomic mass of an

abundance) For 27X: (27.977 amu)(92.23%) = 25.80 amu For 28X: (28.976 amu)(4.67%) = 1.35 amu
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

For 29X: (29.974 amu)(3.10%) = 0.929 amu Atomic mass of X = 25.80 amu + 1.35 amu + 0.929 amu = 28.08 amu The element is silicon.
Thinking Critically 1. 121.760 amu 2. Percent abundance of 121Sb + Percent

element is a weighted average, the isotope that is the most abundant generally has the greatest effect on the atomic mass of the element.
6. Answers will vary. Students should include in

abundance of 123Sb = 100%, or 1 3. Atomic mass of Sb = (mass of 121Sb)(percent abundance of 121Sb) + (mass of 123Sb)(percent abundance of 123Sb)
4. Assume:

Percent abundance of 121Sb = x Percent abundance of 123Sb = 1 x Then solve: Atomic mass of Sb = 121.760 amu = (120.90 amu)x + (122.90 amu)(1 x) = 120.90x amu + 122.90 amu 122.90x amu

their conclusions that Isotope 7, because it has 24 protons, is an isotope of element X. They may also conclude that the percent abundance of each isotope of X in Data Table II and the atomic mass of X calculated in question 3 may be inaccurate if Isotope 7 occurs in more than a trace amount. Students may suggest that the atomic mass of X should be greater than the calculation in question 3 suggests. Accept all other reasonable conclusions based on the data provided.

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