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//1956

i i i

//1956
006:004.62(083.74)(476)
01.040.35; 35.020
05
: , , ,
, , ,

, ,

.
1
( )


2

3 1956-2009

, 2011

II

//1956

..................................................................................................................................... IV
1 ................................................................................................................ 1
2 ............................................................................................................... 1
3 .......................................................................................................... 1
3.1 ................................................................................................................... 1
3.2 ................................................................................... 2
3.3 ............................................................ 3
3.4 .................................................................................. 3
3.5 ..................................................................................... 4
3.6 ................................................................................................. 5
3.7 ................................................................................................................. 5
3.8 ............................................................... 6
3.9 ................................................. 6
3.10 ..................................................... 7
3.11 ...................................................................................................... 7
4 ............................................................ 9
5 .................................................... 12
() ,
.............................................................................................................................. 15
............................................................................................................................ 16

III

//1956

,
.
, , .
-
.

.
, , .
,
, .
,
, ,
, .
, .

.

(en) .

.
,
, .

IV

//1956




i i i
Data transmission
Terms and definitions

1

.
, ,
, ,
/
.

2
:
1343-2007 .

15971-90 .
17657-79 .



( ) , 1
, , .
(),
() .
, , , ,
.

//1956
3
3.1
3.1.1 : , ,

( 15971)
3.1.2 ( ):
, : ,
, ,

3.1.3 :

3.1.4 () : ()
,

( 17657)
3.1.5 :


3.1.6 :
, ,

3.1.7 () : ()
,
( 17657)
3.1.8 : ,
,

3.1.9 ; :


3.1.10

:
,

()

en

data

en

data carrier in data


transmission network

en

data communication

en

message sender

en

data packet

en

data transmission

en

message recipient

en

protocol

en

traffic

en

network layer address

en

data link layer address

en

data transmission
network


: IPv4-, IPv6-, IPX-.

3.1.11

,

()


: MAC-

3.2
3.2.1 :

( 17657)

//1956
3.2.2 :
,
( 17657)
3.2.3 :
,
( 17657)
3.2.4 :
,

3.2.5 :
,

3.2.6 : ,

3.2.7 : ,
,

3.2.8 ; :

en

analog data
transmission network

en

digital data
transmission network

en

packet switching data


transmission network

en

access network

en

transport network

en

personal area network

en

local network

en

regional network


,
,
.

3.2.9
:

,
(
, , )
3.2.10 ():
,

.
3.2.11 :
,

3.2.12
:



3.2.13 :
, ,

3.2.14 : ,

3.2.15 :

( 17657)
3.2.16 :
,

aggregation network

en

backbone network

en

wide area network

en

autonomous system

en

data transmission
system
data transmission
network structure

en

en

data transmission
network node

//1956
3.2.17 :
,
,

3.2.18

,
,

3.2.19 :
- ,

(, , .
.),
3.2.20

(
):
,
,


, ,

3.2.21 ( ):

.

en

channel switching
node

en

message switching
node

en

packet switching
centre

en

network resources

en

network topology

en

circuit [line]
switching

en

packet switching

en

message switching

en

data transmission
equipment

en

data source

.
2

3.3
3.3.1

[]:

,

[] ( 1343)
3.3.2 :
,
()
( 1343)
3.3.3 :
,
,

( 1343)
3.4
3.4.1

:
, ,

3.4.2 : ,

//1956
3.4.3 :

,
, / ,
/ .

en

switch

en

hub

en

router

en

modem

en

bridge

en

multiplexer

3.4.4 :

,


3.4.5 :

,

()


,

3.4.6 : ,
()
,

3.4.7 : ,
()


,

3.4.8 :

,



3.4.9 ;
:
,

( 1343)

en

subscriber
terminal

en

data terminal
equipment

en

data sink

en

(broadband)
remote
access
server

:
,

3.4.10 ; :
( 17657)

, IPTV, VoIP

3.4.11 : ,

3.4.12 () ,

: DSLAM, OLT, Ethernet, Wi-Fi,
3-4G

//1956
3.4.13 : ,



3.4.14 : ,
()

en

packet terminal

en

access node

3.4.15 ():
,
,
( 17657)
3.4.16 ():

( 17657)
3.4.17 : ,
()

,

3.4.18 : ,

,
,

en

input device

en

output device

en

gateway

en

peering point

en

addressing

en

packet
disassembly

en

switching

en

routing

en

interworking

en

redundancy

en

packet assembly

3.5
3.5.1 :
,

,

3.5.2 :
,

3.5.3 : ,

()
,

3.5.4 : ,

()
,

3.5.5 :
,

,

3.5.6 : ,


-
3.5.7 :
,

//1956
3.5.8 : ()
,


3.5.9 :
, ,
,
( )
3.5.10 :
,


3.5.11 :
,


en

packet
assembly/
disassembly

en

error protection
system

en

data flow control

en

packet
fragmentation

en

data channel

en

analog
data
transmission
channel
duplex
data
transmission
channel

3.6
3.6.1 :
,


,


() ( 1343)
3.6.2 :
,
( 17657)
3.6.3
: ,

( 17657)
3.6.4 :
,

( 17657)
3.6.5 :
,

( 17657)
3.6.6 :
,


( 17657)
3.6.7

;
:
,
( 17657)

en

en

backward
data
trans-mission
channel

en

forward
data
transmission
channel

en

half duplex data


transmission
channel

en

simplex
data
transmission
channel

//1956
3.6.8 :
,
( 17657).

en

digital
data
transmission
channel

en

data signal

en

digital data signal

en

significant
condition of digital
data signal
data
signal
transform

3.7
3.7.1 :

,

3.7.2 : ,


( 17657)
3.7.3 :

( 17657)
3.7.4 :
,
,

3.7.5 :
(, ,
, , .)
3.7.6 :
,

3.7.7 :
,

3.7.8
:

,


( 17657)
3.7.9

: ,
( 17657)
3.7.10

:
, ,

( 17657)
3.7.11 ;
: ,

( 17657)
3.7.12 ;
: ,
,
( 17657)
8

en

en

data symbol

en

data word

en

data message

en

time combining
of digital data
signal

en

time division of
digital data signal

en

combining
of
digital data signal

en

signal element

en

unit element

//1956
3.8
3.8.1 :
,

( 17657)
3.8.2 :
,
,


3.8.3 :
,

( 17657)
3.9

en

asynchronous
trans-mission

en

anachronous
trans-mission

en

synchronous
transmission

en

signaling

en

synchronization

en

element
synchronization

en

frame
synchronization

en

control header

en

signaling
message

en

feedback

en

ideal feedback

3.9.1 :

( 17657)
3.9.2 ;
:



( 17657)
3.9.3

; :


3.9.4
; :
,


( 17657)
3.9.5 : ,


,

3.9.6 : ,

( 17657)
3.9.7 :

( 17657)
3.9.8 :
,
( 17657)

//1956
3.9.9 : en information
,
feedback
,
,
( 17657)
3.9.10 : en monitoring
,
feedback
,
,
( 17657)
3.10
3.10.1 ; :

( 17657)
3.10.2
; :
, -
( 17657)
3.10.3
: ,

( 17657)
3.10.4 (, ...)
: ,
(, ) () () ()
() n
( 17657)
3.10.5 :
, ,
, , . .
3.10.6 :
c
( 17657)

en digital data signal


error
en erroneous
unit
ele-ment
of
digital data signal
en erroneous code
combination
of
digital data signal
en single
(double,
triple)
digital
data signal error

en erroneous
element burst

en data
transmission
channel
with
error protection
3.10.7 : en data
c
transmission
( 17657)
channel without
error protection
3.10.8 : en encoding
( 17657)
3.10.9 :
,

en decoding
( 17657)
3.10.10 : en voice-stop
,
encoding
, ()
( 17657)
3.10.11 : en effective
,
encoding
,
( 17657)

10

//1956
3.10.12 ( en margin
):

( 17657)
3.11
3.11.1 ( ): en distortion

( 17657)
3.11.2

(
en individual
):
distortion

3.11.3 ( en relative individual
):
distortion
,
3.11.4 ( ):

,

3.11.5 ( ):
,

3.11.6 ( ):
,

3.11.7 ( ):
, -

( 17657)
3.11.8 :
,

3.11.9 ( ):
,


3.11.10 (): ,
,

3.11.11 ():
, ,
( 17657)
3.11.12 ():
,
,

3.11.13 (): ,
,

en telegraph
distortion

en isochronous
distortion
en start-stop
distortion
en splitting

en particular
characteristic
en bias

en symbol signaling
rate
en bit signaling rate

en effective symbol
signaling rate

en data
word
signaling rate

11

//1956
3.11.14 (): en digital
channel
,
trans-mission rate
,
.
,
(
) /,
/, /

3.11.15 :
,

3.11.16 :
(

),
, () ,
(
)
3.11.17 :
,

3.11.18 :

12

en slip

en network
throughput

en relative degree of
start-stop
distortion
en clock rate

//1956
4
.......................................................................................................................3.2.13
...........................................................................................................................................3.5.1
...................................................................................................................3.1.10
..............................................................................................................3.1.11
.........................................................................................................3.4.1
..........................................................................................................3.5.5
.................................................................................................................................................3.1.1
.................................................................................................................................3.10.9
.................................................................................................................3.5.2
.........................................................................................................................................3.11.7
......................................................................................3.11.7
.................................................................................................................3.9.5
.........................................................................................................................................3.11.1
...................................................................................................................3.11.5
..........................................................................................................3.11.2
.............................................................................3.11.3
..........................................................................................................................3.11.4
................................................................................................................3.11.6
......................................................................................3.11.1
................................................................3.11.5
......................................................3.11.2
..........................3.11.3
.......................................................................3.11.4
.............................................................3.11.6
...............................................................................................................................3.4.2
...................................................................................................................3.6.1
............................................................................................3.6.2
..........................................................3.6.3
, ....................................................................3.10.6
, ..............................................................3.10.7
................................................................................................3.6.4
..........................................................................................3.6.7
...................................................................................3.6.6
.....................................................................................................3.6.5
.........................................................................................3.6.7
................................................................................................3.6.8
.....................................................................................................................................3.10.8
...............................................................................................3.10.10
.........................................................................................................3.10.11
..............................................3.10.3
.........................................................................................................................................3.4.3
.........................................................................................................................................3.5.3
.........................................................................................................................3.3.1
.............................................................................................................................3.3.1
.........................................................................................................................3.3.2
...................................................................................................................3.3.3
......................................................................................................................................3.4.4
..................................................................................................................................3.4.5
..................................................................................................................................3.5.4
...................................................................................................................................................3.4.6
......................................................................................................................................................3.4.7
...................................................................................................................................3.4.8
.................................................................................................................................3.1.2
.................................................................................3.1.2
.................................................................................................................................3.1.3
...............................................................................................3.4.10
13

//1956
............................................................................... 3.7.10
............................................................ 3.7.8
........................................................................................................................... 3.1.4
................................................................................................... 3.1.4
............................................................................................................................................... 3.10.1
......................................................................................... 3.10.1
(, ) ............................. 3.10.4
...................................................................................................................................... 3.1.5
.................................................................................................................................... 3.10.5
.......................................................................................................... 3.11.8
................................................................................................................... 3.8.2
..................................................................................................................... 3.8.1
............................................................................................................................... 3.1.6
....................................................................................................................... 3.8.3
.......................................................................... 3.7.3
............................................................................................................................. 3.1.7
..................................................................................................... 3.1.7
.................................................................................................................................... 3.11.9
............................................................................... 3.11.9
.................................................................................................. 3.7.4
............................................................................................................................ 3.4.11
.......................................................................................................................... 3.11.15
............................................................................................................................................. 3.1.8
................................................................ 3.7.9
................................................................................................................................. 3.5.6
...................................................................................................................................... 3.2.20
................................................................................................... 3.2.20
..................................................................................................................................... 3.5.7
.............................................................................................. 3.5.8
.................................................................................................................................. 3.9.7
.............................................................................................................. 3.9.8
................................................................................................. 3.9.9
........................................................................................................... 3.9.10
................................................................................................................................. 3.2.10
.............................................................................................................................. 3.2.12
....................................................................................................................................... 3.2.5
.......................................................................................................................... 3.2.7
.................................................................................................................................. 3.2.8
.................................................................................................................................... 3.2.11
..................................................................................................................... 3.2.1
............................................................................................... 3.2.2
........................................................................ 3.2.4
.................................................................................................. 3.2.3
............................................................................................................................ 3.2.9
............................................................................................................................ 3.2.6
................................................................................................................................... 3.7.1
............................................................................................................... 3.7.2
..................................................................................................................................... 3.9.1
.................................................................................................................................. 3.7.5
..................................................................................................................................... 3.9.2
.......................................................................................................... 3.9.3
.................................................................................................................... 3.9.4
.............................................................................. 3.9.2
................................................... 3.9.3
........................................................... 3.9.4
............................................................................................................ 3.2.14
............................................................................................................. 3.5.9
............................................................................................................... 3.11.11
14

//1956
.............................................................................................3.11.11
.........................................................................................................3.11.10
......................................................................................3.11.10

15

//1956
............................................................ 3.11.12
................................................................................. 3.11.12
................................................................................................................. 3.11.13
............................................................................................... 3.11.13
.......................................................................................... 3.11.14
...................................................................... 3.11.14
.................................................................................................................................... 3.7.6
........................................................................................................................... 3.7.7
................................................................................................................ 3.9.6
.......................................................................................................... 3.10.12
.............................. 3.10.12
.................................................................................................... 3.11.16
................................................................ 3.11.17
................................................................................................ 3.2.15
............................................................................................................................................ 3.4.10
...................................................................................................................... 3.4.9
............................................................................................................... 3.4.12
................................................................................................................................... 3.2.21
................................................................................................ 3.2.15
................................................................................................................................... 3.4.18
.................................................................................................................................................. 3.1.9
....................................................................................................... 3.1.9
.............................................................................................................. 3.2.17
........................................................................................................ 3.2.18
.......................................................................................................... 3.2.16
........................................................................................................ 3.5.10
............................................................................................ 3.4.16
.............................................................................................................................. 3.4.13
............................................................................................................. 3.4.13
............................................................................................................................ 3.4.14
.......................................................................................................... 3.4.14
................................................................................................................... 3.5.11
.......................................................................................................... 3.2.19
........................................................................................................................... 3.11.18
.................................................................................................................................................. 3.4.15
......................................................................................................................... 3.7.12
........................................................................................................................ 3.10.2
.............................................................................................................................. 3.7.11
.......................................................................................... 3.7.11
.................................................................... 3.7.12
.............................................. 3.10.2

16

//1956
5
access network ....................................................................................................................................3.2.5
addressing............................................................................................................................................3.5.1
agregation network ...........................................................................................................................3.2.10
anachronous transmission.................................................................................................................3.8.2
analog data transmission channel ....................................................................................................3.6.2
analog data transmission network ....................................................................................................3.2.2
asynchronous transmission...............................................................................................................3.8.1
autonomous system ..........................................................................................................................3.2.13
backbone network .............................................................................................................................3.2.11
backward data transmission channel ...............................................................................................3.6.4
bias ......................................................................................................................................................3.11.9
bit signaling rate ..............................................................................................................................3.11.11
bridge ....................................................................................................................................................3.4.7
circuit [line] switching .........................................................................................................................3.3.1
channel switching node ....................................................................................................................3.2.17
clock rate ..........................................................................................................................................3.11.18
combining of digital data signal.......................................................................................................3.7.10
control header ......................................................................................................................................3.9.5
data .......................................................................................................................................................3.1.1
data carrier in data transmission network ........................................................................................3.1.2
data channel .........................................................................................................................................3.6.1
data communication ............................................................................................................................3.1.3
data flow control ................................................................................................................................3.5.10
data link layer address ......................................................................................................................3.1.11
data message .......................................................................................................................................3.7.7
data packet ...........................................................................................................................................3.1.5
data signal ............................................................................................................................................3.7.1
data signal transform ..........................................................................................................................3.7.4
data sink .............................................................................................................................................3.4.11
data source...........................................................................................................................................3.4.2
data symbol ..........................................................................................................................................3.7.5
data terminal equipment ...................................................................................................................3.4.10
data transmission ................................................................................................................................3.1.6
data transmission channel with error protection ...........................................................................3.10.6
data transmission channel without error protection .....................................................................3.10.7
data transmission equipment.............................................................................................................3.4.1
data transmission network .................................................................................................................3.2.1
data transmission network node .....................................................................................................3.2.16
data transmission network structure ..............................................................................................3.2.15
data transmission system ................................................................................................................3.2.14
data word ..............................................................................................................................................3.7.6
data word signaling rate .................................................................................................................3.11.13
decoding .............................................................................................................................................3.10.9
digital channel transmission rate ..................................................................................................3.11.14
digital data signal ................................................................................................................................3.7.2
digital data transmission channel .....................................................................................................3.6.8
digital data transmission network .....................................................................................................3.2.3
digital data signal error .....................................................................................................................3.10.1
distortion ............................................................................................................................................3.11.1
duplex data transmission channel ....................................................................................................3.6.3
effective encoding ...........................................................................................................................3.10.11
effective symbol signaling rate ......................................................................................................3.11.12
element synchronization ....................................................................................................................3.9.3
encoding .............................................................................................................................................3.10.8
erroneous code combination of digital data signal .......................................................................3.10.3
erroneous element burst ..................................................................................................................3.10.5
17

//1956
erroneous unit element of digital data signal ................................................................................. 3.10.2
error protection system ...................................................................................................................... 3.5.9
feedback ............................................................................................................................................... 3.9.7
forward data transmission channe .................................................................................................... 3.6.5
frame synchronization ........................................................................................................................ 3.9.4
gateway .............................................................................................................................................. 3.4.15
half duplex data transmission channel ............................................................................................. 3.6.6
hub ........................................................................................................................................................ 3.4.4
Ideal feedback ...................................................................................................................................... 3.9.8
individual distortion .......................................................................................................................... 3.11.2
information feedback .......................................................................................................................... 3.9.9
input device........................................................................................................................................ 3.4.13
interworking ......................................................................................................................................... 3.5.5
isochronous distortion ..................................................................................................................... 3.11.5
local network........................................................................................................................................ 3.2.8
MAC-address ..................................................................................................................................... 3.1.11
margin ............................................................................................................................................... 3.10.12
message recipient ............................................................................................................................... 3.1.7
message sender .................................................................................................................................. 3.1.4
message switching.............................................................................................................................. 3.3.3
message switching node .................................................................................................................. 3.2.18
modem .................................................................................................................................................. 3.4.6
monitoring feedback ......................................................................................................................... 3.9.10
multiplexer ........................................................................................................................................... 3.4.8
network layer address ...................................................................................................................... 3.1.10
network resources............................................................................................................................. 3.2.20
network throughput......................................................................................................................... 3.11.16
network topology............................................................................................................................... 3.2.21
output device ..................................................................................................................................... 3.4.14
packet assembly .................................................................................................................................. 3.5.7
packet assembly/disassembly ........................................................................................................... 3.5.8
packet disassembly ............................................................................................................................ 3.5.2
packet fragmentation ........................................................................................................................ 3.5.11
packet switching.................................................................................................................................. 3.3.2
packet switching centre .................................................................................................................... 3.2.19
packet switching data transmission network ................................................................................... 3.2.4
packet terminal .................................................................................................................................. 3.4.12
particular characteristic .................................................................................................................... 3.11.8
peering point ...................................................................................................................................... 3.4.18
personal area network ....................................................................................................................... 3.2.7
protocol ................................................................................................................................................ 3.1.8
redundancy .......................................................................................................................................... 3.5.6
regional network .................................................................................................................................. 3.2.9
relative degree of start-stop distortion ......................................................................................... 3.11.17
relative individual distortion ............................................................................................................ 3.11.3
router .................................................................................................................................................... 3.4.5
routing .................................................................................................................................................. 3.5.4
signal element .................................................................................................................................... 3.7.11
single (double, triple) digital data signal error ........................................................................... 3.10.4
signaling ............................................................................................................................................... 3.9.1
signaling message .............................................................................................................................. 3.9.6
significant condition of digital data signal ....................................................................................... 3.7.3
simplex data transmission channel................................................................................................... 3.6.7
slip .................................................................................................................................................... 3.11.15
splitting ............................................................................................................................................... 3.11.7
start-stop distortion .......................................................................................................................... 3.11.6
subscriber terminal ............................................................................................................................. 3.4.9
switch ................................................................................................................................................... 3.4.3
switching .............................................................................................................................................. 3.5.3
symbol signaling rate ..................................................................................................................... 3.11.10
synchronization ................................................................................................................................... 3.9.2
18

//1956
synchronous transmission.................................................................................................................3.8.3
telegraph distortion ...........................................................................................................................3.11.4
time combining of digital data signal ................................................................................................3.7.8
time division of digital data signal .....................................................................................................3.7.9
traffic .....................................................................................................................................................3.1.9
transport network ................................................................................................................................3.2.6
unit element........................................................................................................................................3.7.12
voice-stop encoding ........................................................................................................................3.10.10
wide area network .............................................................................................................................3.2.12

19

//1956

()
,
.1 : ,
,
,
, ,
,

,
( 1343).

en

telecommunication system

en

telecommunication circuit

1 ,
, , , ,
, , ,
, .
2

.2 :
,

,

,

() ( 1343).

1
, , , , .
2
, , ,

20

//1956

[1]

19 2005 . 45-

[2]


17 2006 . 1055

[3]


02140.29-2004 .

21

//1956

. .
05.05.2009. 09.06.2009. 6084/8. .
Arial. . . . . 2,44 .- . . 1,01 .
:
-
()
02330/0133084 30.04.2009.
. , 3, 220113, .

22