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. ..

..

III

.. , .. ,
.. , ..

2006

530.1 (075.8)
22.2
62

-

. ..
:

.. ,

..
..

.., .., .., ..


62

: - . .: . .. (
05899 24.09.2001 .), 2006. 327 .: . (
-. . .. . III)
ISBN 5-89407-263-8

"
" " ".
.
,
.
.
,
. 400 ,
100 .

.

.
.
. 183.

530.1(075.8)
22.2
ISBN 5-89407-263-8

. .. , 2006
.., .., .., .., 2006

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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13 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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4
5
25
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322


,
(, ,
, ,
),

() . .. .
,
,
,
. .
, .
,
,
e
.
,
. (
..,
-
..,

..), .., ..
.., ..,
,
.
-,

.

,
.
.. ..
.
2006 .
..

1.

1.

.
,
.
. :
.
, - .

( ) e = 1,6021892 10 19 .
: 1 = 1 1 ,

( )

(. 7).
.
: ,
.
. ( ,
)
, q1 , q 2
r :

F = kq1 q 2 r / r 3 .

(1.1)

, ,

( r ,
). k
k = 9 10 9 2 / 2 .
1
k =
, 0 = 8,85 10 12 2 / 2 4 0

1.

6
.

-:

2 / 2 = / , , (.
5).

, (,
), ,
.
. ,
, ,

E = F /q.

(1.2)

q,
, .
Q . (1.1)
(1.2) , Q
, -

E=

Q
4 0 r 3

. 1.1

r.

r ,
(1.3)

,

(. .1.1),

).

1.

,
E .

.1.2.

.1.2

(. .1.2).

, l .
( )
r
r
p e = ql ,
(1.4)
l . ,
, ,
, l . ,
r
p e .

1. 1. a
q , - Q . ,
.

1.

. ,
Q . ,

q i Q ,

AD, BD CD
(. .1.3).
, (1.1),

Fi =

qQ

(i = 1,2,3) .

4 0 a 2

(1.5)
.1.3

F = F1 + F2 + F3 . 0 z
OD,

x 0 y

ABC. Fi x 0 y
, 1200. ,

Fxy = 0 . Fi
0 z
ADE
(. .1.4).
,

F1Z
F1

DO
.
DA

a 3
-2
.
OD ADE ,
S OD
EP:
, AE=DE=

.1.4

S=

ADE

1
1
AE OD = AD EP ,
2
2

1.

9
2

OD =

2
a AE 2 a 2 / 4
a
= a 1
.
=a
2
3
AE
AE

F1 =

(1.5),

Qq
4 0 a

F1Z =

qQ
4 0 a

2
.
3

, Q , 0 z
Fz = 3F1Z =

qQ
4 0 a 2

6.

, q i .
, .
, ,
F5 = F4 =

AB

q2
4 0 a 2

AC , --

Fx = 2 F4 cos 30 0 =

q2
4 0 a 2

Fx

0x

3 . q , ,
F1

(.

.1.4).

F1 , ,

F ' = Fx2 + F12 2 Fx F1 cos( ) . ADO


,
2

cos =

AO
1
OD
= 1
.
=
a
a

F ' ,

F' =

q
4 0 a 2

3q 2 + Q 2 + 2qQ .

1.

10

1.2. q

2a .
,
, ,
( ).
. 0 x ,

0 z AB
( ), .1.5.

M (0,0, z )

, ,
:
1
q
1
q
E A = EB =

4 0 AM 2 4 0 a 2 + z 2

. E A + E B

.1.5

0 z
E z = 2 E Az = 2 E A cos = 2 E A

MO
.
AM

E A ,

E z (M ) =

2 0 a + z
2

z >> a E z

z
2

a +z
2q

4 0 z 2

qz

2 0 a + z 2
2

3/ 2

(1.6)

2q
.
N (x,0,0) E A + E B ,
0 x ,

x > a , . (1.3)

1.
E A =

1
4 0

11
q

(x + a )

EB =

1
4 0

(x a )2

E x (N ) =

2 0

E x (N ) =

(x + a )
(x a )
2

2 2

(x

xa
2

a2

x >> a E x

x
,
x

x > a ,

(1.7)

x < a .

1
2q

,
4 0 x 2

2q .

1.3.
M N 2,
B ,
?
.

EB

(.1.6).
M
0 x

E x (M ) = 2 E A sin =

.1.6

1
q
a
q
a

2
2
2

2 0 a 2 + z 2
2
0
a +z
a + z2

32

1.

12

.1.7

.1.7

Ex

4 0

2qa
z3

E x (z ) .

z >> a

, (2.8),

1
.
r3
N (x,0,0)

p e = 2qa ,

0 x
E x (N ) =

E x (N ) =

q
q
q
ax

=
2
2
2
4 0 (x a )
(x + a ) 0 x a 2
1

(
(

)
)

q
q
q
x2 + a2
+

=
2
2
4 0 (x a )
(x + a ) 2 0 x 2 a 2 2
1

, x > a ,

x < a .

E x (N ) x .1.7.

x >> a E x (N )

qa

0 x 3

1.

13

1.4. Q a .

,
.
.

x0 y
, 0 z
.
N (. .1.8), ,
0 x .


Q
dq =
d . dq
2
M (0,0, z )

dE =

d .

.1.8

1
dq
1
Qd
.

4 0 a 2 + z 2 8 2 0 a 2 + z 2
(1.8)

dE NM
0 x, 0 y , 0 z

dE x = dE sin cos( + ) =
dE y = dE sin sin ( + ) =
dE z = dE cos =

zdE
2

a +z

1
8 2 0
1
8 2 0
1
8 0
2

Qa cosd

(a

3/ 2

+ z2

Qa cosd

(a

(a

+ z2

3/ 2

Qzd
2

(1.9)

+ z2

3/ 2

(1.9) 0 2 ,
, M q , :

1.

14

Ez =

1
8 2 0

Ey =

Ex =

1
8 2 0

1
8 2 0

(a

Qz
2

+z

(a
(a

+ z2

Qa
2

Qz

d =

,
4 0 (a 2 + z 2 )3 / 2
) 0

2 3/ 2

Qa
2

+ z2

sin d = 0 ,
)

(1.10)

3/ 2

cosd = 0 .
)
3/ 2


. N N '
. N ,
0 x . d .

dq . , ,

2, 0 z

Q
d .
2
0 , ,
(1.6), q dq =

, E z (1.10).

(z = 0)

. z >> a

Q E z

z = z max =

1
Q

.
4 0 z 2
,

dE z
= 0 .
dz
1
Q
E z (z max ) =

.
6 3 0 a 2

1.

15

a Q .

1.5.


M .
. 0 z
(.
.1.9). .
r , , ,
,
- d .

Q
Q
dq =
2a sin ad = sin d .
2
4a 2
:

.1.9

1) z > a .
(1.10) , ,

dE z =

1
8 0

Q sin (z a cos )d

([z a cos ]

+ a 2 sin 2

3/ 2

, 0

. t = cos ,
Ez =

+1

(z at )dt

[(2z

2azt + a 2 a 2 dt

=
8 0 (a 2 + z 2 2azt )3 / 2 16 0 z
(a 2 + z 2 2azt )3 / 2
1
1

) ]

Q
I (1) + z 2 a 2 I (3)
16 0 z

(1.11)

I (n ) =

dt

(a 2 + z 2 2azt )n / 2

1
2 n
2 n
az
a+z
.
az (n 2 )

Ez =

1
Q
2
2 1
.

(a + z ) (z a ) + z a
=

16 0 az
z a z + a 4 0 z 2

, z > a .

1.

16

, ,
Q , .

2) z < a .
(1.11) :
Ez =

kQ
2

+1

(at z )dt

(a 2 + z 2 2azt )3 / 2 = 4 z { I (1) + (a
kQ

) }

z 2 I (3) . (1.11)

I (n ) ,

I (1) =

2
,
a

I (3) =

a a2 z2

).

(1.11), E z = 0 . ,
.
3) z = a .
(1.11) z = a ,

Ez =

Q
16 0 2 a

dt

(1 t )1/ 2 = 8 0 a 2 .

(1.11)

,
.

.
, ,

. (1.11)
.
1.6. R

dq

=
.
dV

M .

1.

17

. ,
. .
r dr ,
dq = 4r 2 dr . r > R
, 5, dE =

dq
4 0 r 2

.
.
,

E=

Q
4 0 r 2

4
R3
R3
3
=
=
.
4 0 r 2
3 0 r 2

(1.12)

Q - .
r < R ,
r ,

4
r3
r
3
E=
=
=
.
2
2
3
0
4 0 r
4 0 r
Q'

(1.13)

Q ' r .

.
1.7. l
. ,
, .

1.

18

.
, 0 x
, 0 y

z=0

M ( x, y ) ,

(.1.10).
,
0 x ,
.
d

.1.10

.
dq = d

dE x = dE cos =

dE y = dE sin =

1
4 0

( x )2 + y 2

d
1

4 0 (x )2 + y 2

(x )
( x )2 + y 2
y

(x )2 + y 2

(1.14)

(1.15)

, , ,
(1.14) (1.15) 0 l :

Ex =

2
2

4 0
x +y

(x l )2

2
+y

(1.16)

Ey =

4 0 y x 2 + y 2

xl

(x l )2

.
+ y 2

(1.17)

, :

Ex =

(sin 2 sin 1 )
4 0 a

(1.16)

1.
Ey =

(cos 1 cos 2 )
4 0 a

19
(1.17)

1 2
0 x ,
.
, (1.17) E y y 0 ( x > l )

0
. y (1.17)
0
, ,
E y y = 0 :

Ey

y
8 0

1
1
2.

2
x
(x l )

(1.18)

, (1.16)-(1.18)
, ,
.
,
(1.16)-(1.18). ,
, , ,
, ,
,
.

.
.
1.8. l ,
.
. q .
p e .

1.

20

. 0 x ,
. dx
x - x .
dq - dq , dq = dx .

= x . q
l/2

q=

dx =

l 2
8

8q
l2

dq - dq

dp e = 2 xdq =

16q

pe =

16q

x 2 dx . ,
l2

l/2

x
0

dx =

2ql
.
3

,
.

1.1. q
, q '

--

. q ' , ,
, ?
1.2. E
a , b << a .
q > 0 .
1.3.
.

1.
m = 9,1 10 31 ,

21

G = 6,67 10

11

e = 1,6 10 19 ,

/ .

1.4. a , ,
r = 1 .

m = 9,1 10 31 , e = 1,6 10 19 .
1.5. ,
= 3 10 6 / , b = 20
. F ?
1.6. ,
1, l,
2,
.
r0. , .
1.7. a
q .
, ) , )
.

1.

22

1.8.


q ,

.1.11

a ,

.1.11.


,
x >> a ,
.

1.9. a
Q . ,
, z .
z << a z >> a .
1.10. ,
, ,
. ,
R1 , - R2 .
1.11.
. , ,
d ,
. ,
.
1.12. R
.
.

1.

23

1.13. R ,
, r ,
.
a ( a + r < R ).
.
1.14. , e
R = 10 8 .
, (
e ), ,
? .
.
. m = 9,1 10 31 .
1.15. c R

.1.12

2l

(. .1.12). ,
,


a .

1.16. 2l
.
, h .
, .

1.

24

1.17.
2l
.
,
h
,
,
(. .1.13).
.1.13

1.18.
l .
+ q ,
. q .
.
1.19. ,
x 0 y , .
M(a,a) a>0..
1.20. ,
,
.
M(a,a,a) a>0.
1.21. ,
, , .
0 z ,
, .

2.

25

2.

,
.
r r
r r
r
, Fdr = q Edr = 0 , F ,

r
q E .

E dr = 0 .

(2.1)

, ,

rot E = 0 .

(2.2)


, :
O

= E dr .

(2.3)

,
.
.
.
(1.3) (2.3), ,
r q ,

2.

26

q
4 0 r

(2.4)


W p = q , .

, ,
: , ,
, ,
.
,
, ( )
r
p e (. 2):

(M ) =

(r p ) ,
e

(2.5)

4 0 r 3

r
r , M.
V

()

r , ,
,

(M ) =

4 0
V

dV
r

(2.6)


. , (2.3), :

E = grad .

(2.7)

(2.5)
:

E=

1
4 0

3 pe n n pe
r3

r
r
n , r .

(2.8)

2.

27


. grad ,
, ,

(. 2.4).
2.1. ,
E q 1 r1 2 - r2 .
. dA = F dr .

F = q E ,
2
r2 r
r r v
A12 = q E dr = qE dr = qE (r2 r1 ) .

(2.9)

2.2.

p e .
. 0 x
, ,
.

-
r.
,
.2.1,

(M ) =

q
4 0

.2.1

1
r r
1
q
=
+ ,
r
r
4

r+ r

0
+

(2.10)

r+ = r 2 2 r l / 2 + l 2 / 4 r = r 2 + 2 r l / 2 + l 2 / 4 .

2.

28

( )

r >> l (2.10) , r+ r r l / (2r )

( )

r r + r l / (2r ) :

(M ) =

( ) = (r p )

q r l

4 0 r 3

(2.11)

4 0 r 3

p e = q l .

(2.7). (2.11) (. )
:

3 pe x

E=

4 0 r

pe
4 0 r

1 3 p e n n pe
.

4 0
r3

(2.12)

2.3. ,

()

p e E r .
. , (. .2.1).
, , 0 x

Fx = q[E x (l / 2,0,0 ) E x ( l / 2,0,0)] .

,
E

Fx = q x l = q l E x = p e E x ,
=i + j
+k .

x
x
y
z

( )

F y = p e E y Fz = pe E z .

F = pe E .

2.4.

(2.13)

r >> li ( l i i )
. p1 p 2 .

2.

29

.
- ,
,
.

p 2 (.2.2)
W2 = q 2 ( A B ) ,

.2.2

p 1 , (2.11). W2 ,
W2 =

q2
4 0

, r + = r +

W2 =

) (

r + p
r p1
1
3
r3
r+

) .

l2
l2
r = r , W2
2
2

l2
.
r

( )( )

q 2 r + r p 1 3q 2 r p1 r l 2
1

=
3
5
4 0
4 0
4 0
r
r

l2
,
r

( )( ) (2.14)

p p
3 r p1 r p 2
13 2
r5
r

2.5. 4
,
.
, .
. 4
M (0,0, z ) ( N
, 0 x ,
d ) (. .1.8). dq

2.

30
d =

dq

4 0 a 2 + z 2

(Q

2 )d

4 0 a 2 + z 2

0 2 ,

(2.15)

4 0 a 2 + z 2

(2.7),

Ez =

Q
z
=

z 4 0 a 2 + z 2

3/ 2

(1.10), 1.
2.6. a .
,
.
. d .
dq = 2 d .
5 (2.15)

d ( z ) =

dq
4 0 + z
2

=
2

(z ) =

2
0

+z
2

2 0 2 + z 2
0

d =

d .

2
2

a + z z .

2 0

z (2.16) (z )
Q = a 2 .

(2.16)

a 2
Q
=
,
4 0 z 4 0 z

2.

31

2.7. R
.
.
. (2.3),
.
(1.12) (1.13),
6 :

(r ) = Ed r =

(r ) =

R 3
3 0

dr

r2
r

R 3
Q
=
3 0 r 4 0 r

r > R ,

R 2

R 2 r 2
Q 1
r 2
+
=

=
+

rdr
1
1

3 0 3 0
2 0 6 0 4 0 R 2
R 2
r
R

r R .

r -
,
Q , .
2.8. .2.3

.

,
.
.2.3

.2.4.
,

.2.4

2.

32

(2.3) 1 2 = E dr , L
L

. 1

L
, ,
1 2 = El > 0 .
2.9. ,
q1 q 2 , d . ,
. R
b
.
. q2 < q1 .

, ,
. 0 x .
0 y 0 z :

0 x ,


x 0 y (. .2.5). M (x, y )
.2.5

q1
4 0

(x b d )

+y

q2
4 0

( x b )2 + y 2

= 0

( x b d )2 + y 2

q1
q2

( x b )2 + y 2 .

2.

33

q
1
q 2

1 y 2 + 1

q 2

1 (x b )2 + 2d (x b ) = d 2 .

q
1
q 2

f =

d2
q1

q2

c=

d
q1

q2

y 2 + (x b )2 + 2c(x b ) = f .
c 2 ,

y 2 + ( x b + c )2 = R 2 .

R=

dq 2 q 2
q12 q 22

(2.17)

b=c=

q1

q2

(2.18)

2.

34

.2.5

.2.5

.
2.10. R
= 0 cos , - , -,
0 z .
.
.
,

.2.6

2.

35

R ,
+ 0 z
a ( a << R ) ,
.2.6. , ,
+ d , (. .2.6)

dq = 2R sin Rd 2a cos .

dS = 2R sin Rd , = 2a cos = 0 cos .


0 = 2a .
, ,
4
4
, p e = 2a R 3 = R 3 0
3
3
, .2.6.
2 .

.2.7

,
r .
E + ,
,


r+ .
E ,
,


r (.(1.13)):

E+ =

q+

4 0 r+2

r +
,
3 0

.2.7

2.

36
E =

4 0 r2

r
.
3 0

, :

E x = E+ x + Ex =

E z = E+z + Ez =

3 0

r cos

3 0

r cos = 0 ,

(r sin a ) (r sin + a ) = 2a .
3 0
3 0
3 0

, 0 = 2 a , ,
, 0 z ,

E=

0
.
3 0

(2.19)


2.1. , q ,
q ' q ' 1 - r1
2 - r2 , .2.8

- 2.8.

2.

37

.2.8

2.2.

().
a , q .

, ,
.
2.3.

N (a / 2,0,0),

+q

M ( a / 2,0,0 ) .

, , q '
? ,
+ q ?
2.4.

pe

E.


.2.9

38

2.

W , M F ,
, .2.9.
2.5. W
p1 p2 , .2.10.

.2.10

2.6. pe

E.
, .2.9.
, .2.9,
.

m , l .
2.7. q .
p e - r .
: ) ,
) , ) .
2.8.
R ,
. pe.

2.

39

2.9.

R , . :
(2.7).
2.10. r = 1 = 3000 .
n ?
?
m = 9,1 10 31 ,
e = 1,6 10 19 .
2.11. 1 , 2 , 3 4

a ( 2.11).

4?
.2.11

2.12.
F q

, d ,
p e .
2.13.
,
,
. ,

l ,
2a ,
R .

2.

40

2.14.

E
,
, , ,

(.2.12).
.2.12

2.15. R
. .

3.

41

3. .

. ,
, ,
.
(
) ,
.
:
- -
,
-
,
- ,
,
-
.

.

,
.
(. .3.1),

.
.3.1

.

.

3.

42

P .

P = n pe ,

(3.1)

n - - , p e .

r
E ( )

P = 0 E .

(3.2)

.
, , ( ),
.
.

( ).
E
D :
D = 0 E + P = 0 (1 + )E = 0 E .

(3.3)

>1

.
.

, :

DdS = qi ,

(3.4)

3.
div D = .

43
(3.5)

- .

3.1. D
, .3.2. ?

.3.2

. D

.
, .3.2
, .3.2. ,
.3.2-3.2, .
3.2. , ,
,
.
. ,
,
,

.

3.

44


,
.
,

z (.3.3).

,
.
:
1 = 2 = SD ,
.3.3

.
,

D .
= 2SD .
q = S , 2 SD = S .
D =

. (3.3),
2

E=

.
2 0

(3.6)


. ,
.
3.3.
. Q -Q,
- S .

3.

45

. .3.4
.

,
(. (3.6)):

E=

=
.
0 0S

(3.7)
.3.4


,
.

.
3.4. R
. ,
- . ,
.
.

, ,
6 .
.
( ) ,
,
.
, .
D

DdS = DdS = D(r ) ds = D(r )4r

r.

(3.8)

3.

46

,
. ,
:

4
3
3 r ,
q=
4
R 3 ,
3

rR
.
r>R

r
,

D = 33
R r ,
3r 3

r R,
.
r>R

D = 0 E ,

r
,

3 0
E=
3
R r ,
3 r 3
0

r R,
r>R

(3.9)

(2.3),
r

= Edr . .

R 2

+
R2 r2 ,

3 0 6 0
=
R 3

3 0 r

rR
.
r>R

3.

47

, r = R .
3.5.
R +Q ,

4R ,
- 2Q .

,
2 R
3R (. .3.5).

.
.3.5

E ,
.
, ?
. ,
. r ,
.
(3.8).
r:

0
+ Q

q = Q q' ,
Q

r<R
R < r < 2R

2 R < r < 3R .
3R < r < 4 R
4R < r

q ' - 3R ,
, 2 R
q ' . ,
( q ' = Q ),

3.

48

0,

D Q
E=
=
0 4 0 r 2
Q

2
4 0 r

r
r
,
r
r
r
,
r

r < R,

2 R < r < 3R

R < r < 2 R,

3R < r < 4 R .

4R < r

E
.3.6.


,
.
R Q1 ,

4 R - Q2 .
Q1 + Q2 = Q 2Q = Q .
.3.6

,
R 4 R :

Q1

2
r 4 0 r r

Q q' r
D
E=
= 1
0 4 0 r 2 r

Q1

2
4 0 r

r
r
r

R < r < 2R

=0,
r
r
r

2 R < r < 3R .
3R < r < 4 R


4R

Q1 1

7Q1

E (r )dr = 4 0 R 2R + 3R 4R = 48 0 R = 0 .
R

, Q1 ,
4 R Q1 + Q2 = Q .

3.

49

3.6. R Q .
,

2 R . ,
.
D

q ,

E .
.

= 2 .
. r ,
.
,
D .
(3.8).
. ,

0
D= Q
4r 2

r<R
.
r>R

50

3.
E E = D / 0 ,

E = D / 0 . ,
,
.

.3.7
D E , .3.7 .3.7 .
D
.

q . E

R < r < 2 R = 2 r > 2 R .


,
, Q q = q . q = Q / 2 .

.
Q
E =
. ,
4 0 r 2
, ,
, ,

3.
E=

Qq
4 0 r 2

51

. ,

1
= Q q , q = Q1 , = 2

, , .

3.7. R

E0 .

, ,
.
. ,
() .
,
, .
10 ,

= 0 cos , - , ,
, 0 z ,
0 z ,
(2.19):

E0 =

0
. 0 z
3 0

0 = 3 0 E 0 , ,
,
= 3 0 E 0 cos .
dq - dq ,

( ) ( d ), + d
dp e = ( )R 2 d sin d 2 R cos

+ d , + d

(1.4)

0 z . dp e

3.

52

0 / 2 0 2 ,
:
2

p e = 2 R 3 d
0

/2

( )sin cos d = 12R 3 0 E0

/2

sin cos

d = 4 0 E0 R 3 .

3.8.

, .
(.3.8)
E A = 3 / .

() EC
( ),
,

h = 2 10 2 D , D

.3.8

).
.3.8
.
,

, ,
,
. , ,
,
.
,
.
, ,

(. 2
): E A =

2 0


,
,

3.

53

,
. E ' , , E A
, 4
1, :

E' =

2 0

D2 / 4 + h2
h

(3.10)


h
EC = E A E ' = E A
;

2
D / 4 + h2
h / D << 1

EC = E A

2h
= 120 / .
D


3.1.
.
m ,
, . q ,
.

3.

54

3.2.

(.3.9).
(

) q1 q 2 -
.3.9

.
3.3. , ,

+q (.3.10)
q .
3.4.
.
.3.10
,
,
?
3.5.
. 1) ,
? 2)
, ?

3.

.3.11

55

3.6.
,

,
.3.11.
?

3.7.
R1 < R2 < R3 , , ,

Q .

.
3.8.
, (.3.12)

,

U .

.
.3.12

.
, E1 E 2

, d .
3.9.

. ,
, ,
, .

3.

56

q1 q 2 . q 3
.
3.10.
,
,

?
3.11.
R.
.
3.12. , d
,
+ . E h
, , ,
. : .
3.13. E
2 d ,
. :

.
3.14. R
r.

. Q,
. .
3.15.

(r )

, E 0
?

3.

57

3.16.
a ,
E 0 , ,
. r >> a .
3.17. q > 0

S1 , S 2 , S 3 ,

)
.3.13

(.3.13).

; ) D

D(r ) ,

?
3.18. 2a

E , . )
x ( 0 x ,
E 0 x , x = 0 );

)
,
.

E ; )

3.19.
.
r
r
P n
.

3.

58

3.20.

l L .
.

.3.14

, .3.14.

E D
: ) l << L , ) l >> L .
3.21.
E .
. E ' ,
,
, , P (
) .
3.22.
E (.3.15)
.

,

.3.15

D?

4.

59

4.

. ,
,
(. 11),

div D = .

(4.1)

rot E = 0 .

(4.2)

(4.1), (4.2) D E ,
,

D = 0 E ,

(4.3)

- .
(4.2) :

E = grad .

(4.4)

D = 0 grad (4.1) (
), :

.
0

(4.5)


V ,

()

r , ,

59

60

4.

S ,
.
.

(4.1), (4.2), D E :
Dn1 Dn 2 = , E 1 = E 2 .

(4.6)

n ,
, 1 2
. n
,
, .
,
E 2 = 0 , (4.6)
Dn = ,

E = 0 .

(4.7)

.4.1

.
V
, . V

4.

61

,
S V .
V , E
(.4.1)
E .
4.1. ,

.
. u (M ) v (M ) V
.

(uv + gradu gradv ) dV = u nds ,

(4.8)

n - S .
u = v = ( - )
,
V . = 0 , E = grad , (4.8)

E
V

dV =
S

ds = E ds .
n

(4.9)

1 E

, , 2

- . (4.8)
u = v = 1 2 ,

(E1 E 2 ) dV = (1 2 ) n1

61

2
ds .
n

62

4.

(E

E2

V , V ,

(1 2 ) n1
S

2
ds = 0 .
n

(4.10)

S ,
,
(4.10) .
V , ,
, V ,
D
(.(4.7)). (4.9)
S S i ( i = 1,2,... ), S i - i .
,

Si

= i ,

E ds = i 0 Dn1ds = 0 ds = 0 qi .

Si

Si

Si

(4.10)

(1 2 ) n1
S

2
1
dS +
0
n

(q1i q2i )(1i 2i ) = 0 .

(4.11)

i =1

V
, (4.11) .
4.2. ,

4.
1

63

a
b R2 r2 ,
(r ) = r R

rR
.
r>R

(4.12)

. ,
,
a
r = 0 . r 0 : (r ) .
r
, (r )

(r ) =

a
+ 1 (r ) , 1 (r ) -
r

a
2
2
b R r
1 (r ) = R
,
a

rR
.
r>R

(4.13)

(4.12) r = 0 ,
, .
q
a
= .

4 0 r r

q = 4 0 a .

(4.14)
(4.7)

D . (4.3)
d 1
, D1 = n r D1 ,
(4.4), , E1 = n r
dr

nr = r / r

2b 0 r

D1 = a 0 ,

r 2

r<R
.
r>R

63

(4.15)

64

4.

R2

= lim D(r ) lim D(r ) =


r R+

r R

+ 2bR 0 .

(4.16)

,
(4.5), ,
r ,

1 =

1 d 2 d1

r
=
2 dr
dr
0
r

1 (4.13),
:

6b 0
,
0

r<R
r>R

(4.17)

, (4.12)
:
) q (4.14), r = 0 ;
) R
(4.16);
) R
(4.17).
(4.12) ,
. , r > R (4.4)
D = 0 . r > R
r = 0 , , .

a
, , (4.16),
2R 3
, q
b =

4.

65

4.3. q h
. F ,
, .
. .
V ,
, z > 0 ,

0 z q (.
.4.1), ( , ).
,
, ,
.
V
( z < 0 ) ,
. ,
q 0 z z = h ( q
z = 0 ), , z = 0
(. .4.1). , E1

z > 0 E 2 , q
q .
q
q q :

F=

q2
16 0 h 2

1 = 2 =

q
4 0 2 + (h z )2

q
4 0 2 + (h + z )2


(4.7)
(4.4):

65

66

4.

( ) = Dn = 0

1
qh
=
2
z z = 0
2 + h 2

3/ 2

, ,

Q = ( ) 2d =
0

qh
2

d 2

( 2 + h 2 )3 / 2 = q .
0

4.4. q a

(a > R )

R . Q .
, q .
. .
V ,

q . E = 0 ,
0 ,

0 =

q
4 0 a

ds
1
=
4 0 R 4 0

1 q Q
q 1

+
ds
a R
= 4 a + R .
0

Q,
.

V (
) ,
.
.
q ' ,
.
9

.4.2

4.

67

2: q q '
, ,
. , q ' x
, A = B = 0 (. .4.2)

A =

q'
q
+

=0
4 0 a R R x

B =

1
4 0

q'
q
+

=0.
a
+
R
R
+ x

(4.18)

(4.18), q ' x

q ' = q

R
,
a

x=

R2
.
a

(4.19)

q ' ' ,
. , q ' '
. ,
q q ' ,

0 =

q' '
4 0 R

1 q Q
+ .
4 0 a R

q' ' = Q + q

R
.
a

(4.20)

E V ,
q, q ' q ' ' . , q ,

F=

q q '
q' '
+ 2 .
2
4 0 (a x )
a

x, q' q ' ' , ,

67

68

4.

Q R 3 2a 2 R 2

2
4 0 a q
a a2 R2
q2

F=

) .

(4.21)

, (4.21)

F=

f ( ) .
q
4 0 a

q2

R
2 2
f ( ) = 3
.
2
a
1 2

0 < < 1 , f ( ) > 0 f ( ) ,


0 < f ( ) < .
q Q , F < 0 ,

q .
q Q , f ( ) =

0 , a = a0 q
( a0 =

), F = 0 . a > a0 ( < 0 ), F > 0 ,

q ; a < a0 ( > 0 ) F < 0 q1


.
, a = a0 .
, q
3

= 1

(1 )
( + 1)( 1) = 0 .
2

a0 =

2 2

Q ,

= R(1 + 0 ) 1,618 R .

0 =

( 5 1)/ 2

4.

4.5.
1

69


2 .

q .

.4.3

, . ,

q ' , A' , A
MN .
, q q ' (. .4.3)

E1 = E 0 + E' =

q r q' r '

,
+
4 0 1 r 3 r '3
1

r r ' - , q q '

69

70

4.

2 q
. , .
q ' ' ,
(.4.3):

E2 =

q' ' r

4 0 2 r 3

q'

q ' '

(4.6) :

E 1 = E 2 ,

Dn1 = Dn 2 ,

sin +

q'

sin =

q' '

sin ,

q cos q ' cos = q ' ' cos .

q' =

1 2
q,
1 + 2

q' ' =

2 2
q.
1 + 2

q ' q ' ' ,

MN .
q ' q ' ' ,

E1 =

r 2 1 r '
1
q

, E2 =
r.
3
3

4 0 1 r
1 + 2 r'
2 0 ( 1 + 2 ) r 3

4.

71

4.6. 2 = 6

E1 = 10 /

, 1
300. E 2 ,
2 , ,
, .

1 = 1 .
.
,
,
,
,
.
(. .4.4).
(4.6)
MN

.4.4

E1 sin 1 = E 2 sin 2 ,

1 E1 cos 1 = 2 E 2 cos 2 ,

(4.22)

E 2 2

2 = arctg

E2 =

E1

tg 1 74 0 ,

12 cos 2 1 + 22 sin 2 1 = 5,2 / .

,
MN M ' N ' , , 2 = 1 ,

. MN

71

72

4.

M ' N ' . ,
(4.6)

0 (E1 cos 1 E 2 cos 2 ) = ,


(4.22),

= 0 E1 cos 1 1

1
63,9 10 12 / 2 .
2
4.7.
R , Q ,
,

(
.
.4.5).


1 2

.4.5
.


.
.
, ,
, , ,
.
, Q

, E = 0 . ,
.
(4.5)
,
R ,
Q ' , (.
5 1). E
.

4.

73

(4.7)
,
, --

1 0 E 0 = 1 ,

2 0 E0 = 2 .

(4.23)

1 2 -- ,

1 , ,

E 0 --

.
. ,
,
, .
(4.23) , Q

Q1 1 1
=
=
,
Q2 2 2

Q1 + Q2 = Q ,

Qi =

i
Q.
1 + 2

, ,
Q'
E 0 =
, Q ' -- Q
4 0 R 2
, , (4.23)

E0 =

1
Q1
Q
=
=
.
1 0 2R 2 1 0 2R 2 ( 1 + 2 ) 0

E 0 , Q ' =

2Q

1 + 2

E=

Q'
4 0 r

Q
2 0 ( 1 + 2 )r 2

73

(4.24)

74

4.

r
,
.
4.8. R ,

,

E 0 .
.
. : V1 -- , V2

-- . V1
1, V2 -- 2.
, , ,
i = 0 ( i = 1,2 ),
(4.5), 0 .
- ,
.
:

1 2
1

1 2
r
+
sin
+
= 0.
2 r
sin 2 2
r r sin

(4.25)

, i .

4.

75

(4.25),
cos
, Ar cos B 2 (.[1]), A B -- .
r

i (r , ) = cos Ai r +

Bi
.
r2
(4.26)

B1 = 0 .

(4.4)
(

e r , e , e .4.6)
Er =

,
r

.4.6

E =

1
,
r

E =

1
,
r sin

:
V1 :

E1r = A1 cos ,

E1 = sin A1 ,

E1 = 0 ,

(4.27)

V2 :

2B

E 2 r = A2 + 32
r

cos ,

E 2 = A2 + 32
r

sin ,

E 2 = 0 . (4.28)

, E 0
,

E 2 r (r ) = A2 cos = E0 cos ,

75

76

4.
A2 = E 0 .

A1 B2 , (4.6)

E1r (R, ) = E 2 r (R, ),

E1 (R, ) = E 2 (R, ) ,

E0 +

2 B2

R3

= A1 ,

A1 = E 0 +

B2

(4.29)

1 3
R E0 .
2+

(4.30)

R3

(4.29)

A1 =

3
E0 ,
2+

B2 =

V1

1 =

3
E 0 r cos ,
2+

(4.31)

E1r =

3
E 0 cos ,
2+

E1 =

3
E 0 sin ,
2+

E1 = 0 . (4.32)

, , E 0 ,

v
v
v 3E 0
v 3 D0
E=
,
D=
.
+2
+2

(4.33)

V2

1 R3

r cos ,
2
2+ r

2 = E 0

(4.34)

4.

77

r
1 r
p e = 4 0 R 3
E0 ,
+2

(4.35)

1 R 3
E 2 r = E 0 1 + 2
cos ,
2 + r 3

1 R3

E 2 = E 0
1 sin ,
3
2+ r

E 2 = 0 ,

v v
v
v
v
1 3 E0 r v E 0 3

R ,
E2 = E0 +
r

+ 2 r 5
r 3
v v
v
v
v
1 3 D0 r v D0 3
D 2 = D0 +
r 3 R
+ 2 r 5
r

(4.36)

4.9.
R ,
E 0 .
. , ,
, V2 ( )

(4.26),

(4.28). A2

--

: A2 = E 0 .
B2
(4.6), (4.7)

E 2 (R, ) = 0 ,

B2 = E 0 R 3 .

77

78

4.

A2 B2 (4.26) (4.28),

R3

2 (r , ) = E 0 cos

r .

(4.37)

p e = 4 0 R 3 E 0 ,

(4.38)

.
:

2R 3
E 2 r = E 0 cos 1 + 3 ,
r

R3

E 2 = E 0 sin 3 1,
r

E 2 = 0 .

(4.39)

(4.7) ,
= 0 E 2 r (R, ) = 3 0 E 0 cos ,
, 7
3.


4.1. R
q .

a . F , .
4.2. q a
.
R . , .

4.

79

4.3. a
. , .
p e ) ; )
.
4.4. R
q , a .
, .
4.5.

R . A ,
, .
: 1) ; 2) , .
4.6. ,
q,


(. .4.7).
q
d .
.4.7

4.7.

CMD R ,
(. .4.8).

MN
a

q .
.4.8

79

80

4.

4.8. q d
R . .
q ?
4.9. R
Q .

(. .4.9).
, q

?

.4.9

4.10.

x 2

+C.
2

?

x :

4.11. q ,
d
? 1 .
2 .

4.

81

4.12.



E (. .4.10).
a ,

1 2
. = 1 .

x .

.4.10

, 1 = 2 , 2 = 4 , a = 1 , E 0 = 3 / .
4.13. R=10
= 5

E = 100 / .

max
, .
4.14. ,
P , ,
.
,
E , ,
.
l , .
4.15. ,
,

81

82

4.

1 2 .
d . ,
, 1 .
4.16.

. L
q .
, Q
F , q .
4.17. , ,
. ) ; )
,
.
4.18. ,
:

r
(r ) =
,
2

ar
3a

+
2R
2 R 3

rR
r<R

r .
4.19. ,
:

(r ) = a 1 + r 3 ,
3

2R

2R

r .

rR
r<R

4.

83

4.20. ,
:

0
,
3
a
R
r3

(r ) =

rR
r<R

r .
4.21. ,
:

1 r2
(r ) = a
,
r R 3

rR
r<R

r .
4.22. ,
:

(r ) =

b
exp( ar ) .
r

r .
4.23.

R1 R2 ( R1 < R2 ),

1 2 (.4.11).

. ,
, 1 ,
- 2
Q , Q .

83

.4.11

( 1 + 2 = 4 ).

5. .

84

5. .

. ,
,
( ), Q

Q
.
C

(5.1)


. ,
. , R,

C = 4 0 R .

(5.2)

,
.
.
+Q, -Q,
, , U,
:

U=

Q
.
C

(5.3)

.
U, Q,
, ,
. ,
, ,

5. .

85

,
.
,
S , .
d
.

C=

0 S
d

(5.4)

- ,
.


.5.1.


C = C1 + C 2 + ... + C n

(5.5)

1
1
1
1
=
+
+ ... +
.
C C1 C 2
Cn
.5.1

(5.6)

.
, ,
.
,
.
,

A=

Q ,

(5.7)

5. .

86

- , Q - .


, U = .
, ,
( ).

, ,

. ,
W ,

,

W =

UQ Q 2 CU 2
=
=
.
2
2C
2

(5.8)

.

.
dW
w =

dV

w=

1
ED ,
2

(5.9)

(4.3)

1
0 E 2 .
(5.10)
2

(5.9) ,
. N

w=

W =

1
2

Qi i ,
i =1

(5.11)

5. .

87

Qi -- i i .
(5.11) (5.8)
.
5.1. C 0 = 600 .
, ,
= 1 / 4 ?
?
.
+Q Q (.
.5.2) ,
.

, ,

Q
E=
=
.
0 0S

:
.5.2

C=

U = E (d d ) =

(5.3)
:

0S
C
Q
=
= 0 = 800 .
U (1 ) d 1

(1 )Qd .
0S

(5.12)

5. .

88

, .5.3.



.
(5.11)
.

(.5.3),
(5.6).

.5.3

5.2. R1

R2 .
C .
. +Q , --

( Q ) .
:

4 0 r 2
E=
,
Q

4 0 r 2

:

R1 < r < R1 + d
.
R1 + d < r < R2

(2.3)

5. .
R2

U =

Edr =

R1

Q
4 0

R1 + d

R1

dr
r

Q
4 0

R2

R1 + d

dr
r

89

Q 1
1
1
1

4 0 R1 + d R2 R1 (R1 + d )

C (5.3)

C=

4 0R1 R2 (R1 + d )
4 0 R1 (R1 + d )
=
.
[R1 (R2 R1 d ) + dR2 ] R1 d
+ d

R1 1
R2 R2

(5.13)

R2 , (5.13) R1 ,
d .
(5.13) d = R2 R1 ,

C=

4 0 R1 R2
.
(R2 R1 )

(5.14)

R2 , (5.14) ,
(5.2).
5.3.
,
d = 0,5 .
,

,

d1 = 0,25 (. .5.4).

.

.5.4

5. .

90

.
,

.
,

(. .5.5). ,
Q' - Q' ,
Q - Q ,

E' =
E=

Q'

0S

Q
.
0S

.5.5

,
BD

AC BD = Ed E ' (d + 2d1 ) =
Q ' = Q

d
.
d + 2d 1

U =

1
[Qd Q' d 2Q' d1 ] = 0 ,
0S

Q 2d 1 d
Q Q'
d=
0S
0 S (d + 2d1 )

C=

0 S (d + 2d1 )
2dd1

= C0

d + 2 d1
= 2C 0 .
2 d1

(5.15)
d1 , (5.15) (5.4).

.5.6

5. .

91

,
, . 5.6.
, ,
.

5.4.

,
R ,
( R ) a .
.
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
Q
Q

+Q , +
,
4 0 R 4 0 a

Q
Q

.
4 0 a 4 0 R

U = + =

Q
Q

.
2 0 R 2 0 a

(5.3)

1 1
C = 2 0
R a

a 2 0 R .

5. .

92

5.5. C1 C2 ,
.5.7,
.
1,
2. U 1
U 2 ,

2.

. 1
C1 ,


1 .

.5.7
1 .
2 q 1

q 2 (. .5.8).
,

q1 q 2 =

C,
1 1

q1 q 2
+
=
C1 C 2

2:

2.

q1 = C1
q2 =

C + C
2

1 1

C1 + C 2

C1C 2
C1 + C 2

( 2 1 ) .

(5.3):

.5.8

5. .

U1 =

C + C
2

1 1

C1 + C 2

U2 =

C1
C1 + C 2

93

( 2 1 ) .

5.6.
a b
,

l,

,
.5.9.
U .

,
.5.9
, . ,
.
. ,
.
, .

.
, .5.9,
:
S1 = ax , ,
S 2 = a(b x ) .
, (5.5)

C ( x) =

0a
l

(x + b x ) = C0 + 0 a x( 1)
l

(5.16)

0 .

dx ,
A = Fdx .

5. .

94

? .
.
, .
,

Fdx = dW =

2
Q2
Q 2 0a
( 1)dx = U 0 a ( 1)dx ,
(
)dC =
2
C 2C
2 l
2C l

(5.17)

, :

F=

0 aU 2
2l

( 1) .

(5.18)

,
,
(5.18) .
,
, .
,
A1= UdQ=U2dC. (
, ) A2= U2dC.
, Fdx = A1-A2 = U2dC, , -

0a

( 1) dx , (5.18) ,
l
. ,,
.
dC =

5.7. R
, Q .
,
? - .
. ,
, ,
. (5.10)
,

5. .

W0 =

2 0E

95

(r )4r 2 dr .


(3.9).
,

W0 =

2 2 R 6
9 0

dr

r2
R

2 2 R 5
.
9 0

4
, Q = R 3 ,
3

W0 =

Q2
8 0R

,
.
,
R

W =

1
2 2
0 E 2 (r )4r 2 dr =
2
9 0

r 4 dr =

2 2 R 5 W0
=
.
45 0
5

, ,

W1 = W0 1 + .
5

5. .

96

5.8.
R r ,
a .

(.
.5.10).

, r << R ,
.
.
.5.10

, a ,
,
.

W0 =

Q2
q2
1
+
=
2C 2C1 8 0

Q2 q2

R + r .

(5.19)

, ,

W =

Q Q
2

q q
2

(5.20)

Q q -- R r .
r << R , Q

r q , .
E = 0
,

Q =

1 q Q
+ .
4 0 a R

(5.21)

q , .

5. .

97


. 4 , ,

Q ,
q' q ' ' ,
, : q ' '
R , q ' -- R 2 / a .
, q : q, q ' q ' '

1
4 0

q =

q'
q' '
q
+ .
+
2
r
a R /a a

q' q ' ' (4.19)

(4.20). q ,

1 q Q
qR 3
.
+

2
2
2

4 0 r a a a R

q =

(5.22)

(5.21) (5.22) (5.20), W

W =

1 Q 2 q 2 Qq
q 2 R3
+
+

4 0 2 R 2r
a
2a 2 a 2 R 2

W = W W0

(5.23)

, (5.23)

(5.19)

W =

q 2Q
R3
q 2 2

.
2
8 0 a
a a R

(5.24)

5.9. R r ,
a . Q ,
. , r << R
.

5. .

98

. ,

(5.24). , q ,
. (5.24) ,
q r , ,
.
(5.24), q = 0 .
.
, ,
, . 7 3
,
E ,

p e = 4 0 r 3 E , ,
(2.8).
=

pe

4 0 a 2

Er 3
a2

, E =

Q
4 0 a 2

-- ,

Q r .

r
.
4 0 a a
Q

,
, r ,

3

W =

Q
Q2 r
=
.
2
8 0 a a

(5.25)

5. .

99

5.1. R1,

.
R2 .
5.2. ,
R1 R2 ( R2 > R1 ),

U. ,
?
5.3. (.
3), ?
5.4.
,
1
2 < 1 . d ,
S . .
5.5.
, .
: ) ; )
?
5.6. a b ( b > a )
,
a
r = a .
r
, ,
U .

5. .

100

5.7. , , r .
--

a .

C 0 a >> r .
5.8.
,

1 2

(. .5.11).
,
. ,
, 1
2

( 1 + 2

= 2 ) .

l , Q .
,
R1

R2 ( R1 < R2 ).

.5.11

5.9. , n
, .
. : )
; ) ?

5. .

101

5.10.
),
) (.5.12). 1)
,

? 2)
,

) )
?
.5.12

5.11.
,
.5.13
) ; )
.
5.12.

.

, C1 = C ,

.5.13

C 2 = 2C C 3 = 3C ?
5.13. ,
,
, W1 .
,
. W2 ?

5. .

102

5.14. R1 = 10 , R2 = 20 R3 = 30
1 = 450 , 2 = 300

3 = 150

. Q ,
? .
5.15. S
d ,

. W
, ?
A ? : 1)
, ; 2)
,
, .
5.16. + q q .
S . A
d 0 d ?
5.17. ,

S

.5.14

d
,

(.5.14).
.
,
.
x
,
A ?

5. .
5.18.

103

. ,
,
b a .
5.19. q R.
R.
, ,
?
5.20. q = 1010
, r = 1 .

. A ?
5.21.
, s . , d
,
:
1) ; 2)
.
5.22. R 4 R
. .


2 R ,
.

.
5.23. ,

1 2 (. .4.11)

104

5. .

.
, ,
-

1 ,

( 1 + 2 = 4 ).

R1 R2 ( R1 < R2 ).
5.24.
,
d ,
,
(.5.15).
R ,

.5.15

d . , M ,
.
U,
.

6.

105

6.

.
(
), . ,
, ,
, v- v+ .
: j
=e(n+v+ - n-v-), n+ n-
.

v v =E,
r
, E
.
( ), :

j = ,

(6.1)

.
=1/.
( ) , , ,
.
( )
.
= 0/ .
,
.

( ),
. ,
. :

6.

106

j = (+),

(6.2)

r
E - ,
.

.
,
, , ,
.
()
r r
= E c dl ,
(6.3)

.
.
:

d/dt + divj = 0,

(6.4)

divj = 0
.
.
r r
I = j dS ,

(6.5)

(6.6)

.
,

dQ/dt = -I,

(6.7)

I .
,
, .
.

6.

107

, U
:
(6.8)

U = IR,

R .
, , ... (6.3)
(6.8) :

I =  /R
,

(6.9)

l
. R =
S
(l- , S - ).

,
: R = U/I, I , U --
.
.
,
, -, :

=(jE) =E2

(6.10)

wE :
=(2/0 )wE

wE= 0 2

(6.11)

N = UI = I2R

(6.12)

6.

108



. ,
,
.
.
6.1.
,
R1 R2 .
. U .
, j
r .
r ,

I=

j dS = 4r

j (r ) .

E =

E=

1
j . I ,

.
4r 2

R2

U =

I 1

Edr = 4 R1 R2 .

R1

R=

R R1
U
= 2
.
I
4R1 R2

d = R2 R1 << R1, 2

6.
R

109

d
,
S

S = 4R12 -- .
R2 >> R1

R=

1
4R1

.
6.2. ,
,
, , .
. S ,

I=

j dS = 0 dS = 0 Q1
S

I=

Q2 .
0

(6.12)

, Q1 = Q2
, .

Q
2 1 = U = .
C
U = IR . ,
IR =

R=

Q
,
C

0
.
C

, (6.12):

(6.13)

6.

110

6.3.
a , (

= const ). R .
. . ,
. (6.12),
, 4 0 a - a :

R' =

1
4a

, ,
. ,
, (.
7 4),
,
. ,
, .
,

R = 2 R' =

1
2a

6.4.
a , , ,
. ,
, U (
).
. , ,

U2
,
R
R , .
2 (6.13). N ,

N=

6.

N=

111

C 2
U .
0

(5.2),

N = 4aU 2 .
6.5.
. U .
1 2 .
.
. 2 , ,
(6.12)

I = 1Q1 = 2 Q2 .

Q1 = CU 1 ,

Q2 = CU 2 .

, .

U 1 2
=
,
U 2 1

U 1 U 2 = U .
,

U1 =

2
1 + 2

U,

U2 =

1
1 + 2

U.

1
U .
2
, 1 0 , U 2 0
1 = 2 , U 1 = U 2 =

U1 U .

6.

112

6.6. r
, .
l 0 , l1 , l 2 >> r , 0 , 1 , 2 . 0
... U 0 , .
E .
. , ,
,
,

j = 0 E c + E0 = 1 E1 = 2 E 2 .

(6.14)

(6.14) j ,

1 E1 = 2 E 2 = 0 (E c E 0 ) .

(6.15)

(6.3) U 0 = E 0 l 0 ,

E 0 l 0 + E1l1 + E 2 l 2 = 0 .

(6.16)

(6.15) (6.16),

E 0 = k1 2U 0 ,

k=

E1 = k0 2U 0 ,
1

l 0 1 2 + l1 0 2 + l 2 0 1

E 2 = k0 1U 0 ,

l 0
:

E = E c E0 =

U0
U 0 0 (l1 2 + l 2 1 )
k1 2U 0 =
.
l0
l 0 (l 0 1 2 + l10 2 + l 2 0 1 )

6.

113

6.7.
l = 10 , d = 1 ,
D = 4 ,
=

= 1013 .

. l . U 0 .

,

E (r ) =

= .
2rl
r

(2.7) E r =

dU (r )
, U (r ) = ln r + , dr

d
. , U = U 0 ,
2

E r (r ) =

D
U = 0,
2

U0
1
.
ln (D / d ) r

(6.1)

j =

U0

ln (D / d ) r

,
l , I = jS = j 2rl =
R

R=

U 0 ln (D / d )
=
.
I
2l

2lU 0
,
ln (D / d )

6.

114

R = 2,2 1011 .
6.8.
a

r0

(. .6.1). R

b
, a << r0 .
, 1

.6.1

. 1 >> ,
,
, .
a
, , ,

.


.

,
.6.2

. ,
. ,
,
,
.6.2.
,
r ,

6.

E=

0 2r

115

(6.17)

j = E =

2 0 r

,
.
,
r ,

I=

jd S = 0 a .

E=

I
1
.
2a r

(6.17),

(6.18)


. ,
, ,

r

= Ed r =
r0

2a

r0

dr
I
r
ln .
=
r
2a r0

(6.19)

R
b :

R=

1
b
(r = b )
ln .
=
I
2a r0

6.

116
6.9.
a
b

r0

(.

.6.3).

, a << r0 << b . ,
1

.
.

.6.3

. 6. ,
, (6.18)
E1 =

1
.
2a r

, , ,
, , ,
, , I
E2 =
.
2a(b r )
,

b r0

1 2 =

r0

b r0
1
I
1
ln
.
+
dr =
2a r b r
a
r0
I

1 2 = RI ,

R=

ln(

b
1) .
r0

6.

117


6.1. R1 R2 ,
. (
) U . .
6.2.
1 2 .
6.3.
a , (

1 = const ). b ,
,

2 .

R .
6.4.
( a1 a 2 ), ,
. l >> a1 , a 2 , .
R .
6.5.

1 = 10 13 ( )1 , -

2 = 10 14 ( )1 . ,
?
6.6.
,

.6.4

6.

118

(. .6.4), - 2
( 1 < 2 ). , ?
d , S .
6.7.
.
6.8. r
. R
? ,
.
6.9. ,
1 2 ,
d . ,
, .
6.10. r1

r3 ( r1 < r3 ) 1
2

r1 , r2 r2 , r3 .

, ,
U .
6.11.
r1 r3 ( r1 < r3 )
1 2

r1 , r2 r2 , r3 .

,
U .
l .

6.

119

6.12. , I , ,
L .
. ,
l ,

. r0 .

: = 2 10

( )

, r0 = 1 , l = 0,75 ,

L = 300 , I = 500 A .
6.13.

D l
d
(. .6.5).
R ,
<< d
.
6.14.


,

.6.5


U .
(.
.6.6). ,

, 2 0 .
.6.6
6.15.
R . ,
. .

6.

120

6.16. R1 R2

U0 .

= 1 = k / r ,
k , r .
.
2

6.17.
, .
(r ) ,

.
6.18.
, .
(r ) ,
.
6.19.

j .

l 1
2 . .
6.20.

n . ,

q1 , q 2 ,..., q n 1 , 2 ,..., n .
N ,


,

1 , 2 ,..., n ?

6.

121

6.21.
, .
,
U0?
R1, R2.
6.22.
.
l, R1 R2>R1.
, , t=0
U0.
6.23. ,

,
v. ?

S, t = 0 d0.
6.24.
, d ,
S=t2,
. .
. .

6.25. ,
,
r<<a.
.

7.

122

7.

. . .
, (,
, )
, .
, ,
.
r
q v
, , :
r
r r
F = q v, B ,
(7.1)

[ ]

r
B ,

. , (7.1)
.
().
:
,
( ),
, (
) .
(7.1)
, ,
.
, .
.
, , , .

7.

123

, ,
r
dl , :
r r
r
dF = I dl , B ,
(7.2)
r
I , B
,
r
dl . ,
,
(7.2) L :
r r
r
(7.3)
F = I dl , B .

, (7.3), .

--.

(7.2),
,
. ( )
--,
r
, B ,
L I ,
r
r
r 0 I dl , rr
B( M ) = dB =
,
(7.4)
4
r3
L
L

[ ]

r
r
dB dl ,
r
r
r , dl , 0 = 4 107 /2
, .
(7.4)
.
()
(7.4) , .
,
I

7.

124

B=

0 I
,
2 a

(7.5)

.
(7.2) (7.5) ,
dl I1
I2,
,
2I I
dF = 0 1 2 dl .
,
4 a
,
.

.
, ,

, 1
, ,

2 10 7 .
. .
L I,
r
B , (7.2)
r
r r r
M = I r dl , B ,
(7.6)

[ [

]]

r
r

,
r
, dl .


r
r r
M = pm , B ,
(7.7)

pmr

7.
v
r
pm = I dS ,

125
(7.8)

(S )

v
dS S ,
,
.
, .

v
v
pm = IS ,

(7.9)

S - .

, .. ,
v
. pm
r
B .
, ,
, .
r
, M ,
.

r
r r
F = pm , B ,
(7.10)


. (
r r
pm , B > 0 ), (
r r
pm , B < 0 ).

(
(

)
)

.
.
r
r I
dl
(7.4) B = 0 rot
.
4
r

7.

126
r
A= 0
4

r
Idl
,
r

,
r
v
B = rot A .

(7.11)

(7.12)

r
A , (7.12),
.
.
(7.12), , ,
r
div B = 0 ,
(7.13)

,
.
, , .
,
, ( .. ,
)
, (. 10)
- , :
r [ pr , rr ]
A = 0 m3 ,
(7.14)
4 r

r 3( pm , rr )rr pr m r 2
B= 0
.
4
r5

(7.15)

, , (
) .
.
7.1. I
, ,

7.

127

, ,
1 2 .
.
r
r
dl , - r ,

,
, ,
+ d (..7.1).

r
d . dB
r
dl , -,
r I rr
r
dB = 0 3 dl ,r . dB
4 r

[ ]

.7.1
,
r
dB , ,
r
. dB
, . 7.1 ,
r
( ). , B
. dB

dB =

0 Idl sin
.
4r 2

(7.16)

r dl (.
a
I
. 7.1): r = a / sin , dl sin = rd =
d . dB = 0 sin d ,
4 a
sin
,

7.

128
2

B =

0 I
I
sin d = 0 (cos 1 cos 2 ) .
4 a
4 a

(7.17)

1 = 0, 2 =
B=

0 I
,
2 a

(7.18)

r
B
,
;
, .

7.2. , a ,
I . ,
.
.

Oy
,
.7.2.
r
B M
(x,0).
,
,

x0.
.7.2
r
B
Oz (
) , , B -

7.

129

. ,
Oz ( ).
,
, . 0 < x < a / 2
:

B1 =

0 I
cos ,
2 (a / 2 x )

B2 = B4 =
B3 =

0 I
(sin + sin ),
2a

0 I
cos ,
2 (a / 2 + x )

.7.2.
:
2
2
2
2

a a
a a


+
+

+
x
x

2 2
2 2
I

B= 0
a
a
a
x+
x

2
2

x > a/2

(. .7.5).
x >> a

2
2
0 I 1 a
1 a
1 +
1
=
a 2 2 x a
2 2 x + a

0 Ia 1 1

2 2 x a 2 x + a

0 Ia 2
p
= 0 m
,
3
4x
4x 3

Ia
8ax
= 0
2
2 4 x a 2

B1

7.

130

pm = I S = Ia 2 . ,

x >> a ,

pm = Ia 2 .
7.3. R I .
r
B ,
, .
. (7.4) .
r
dl ,

r = R 2 + z 2 = const

(. . 7.3).
r r
r r
, r = k z ( k Oz).
r
r

(7.4),

r
r
r
r
I
B = 0 3 dl , k z + , dl .
4r
r

k z = const ,

r r
r r
r
dl , k z = dl , k z = 0 , dl = 0 .
r
r
r
r r
, , dl = 2S = 2k S = 2k R 2 .

{ [

] [
[ ]

r
B(z ) =

.7.3

] [

0 IR 2

2 R2 + z2

]}

3/ 2

r
r
2 pm
k= 0
4 R 2 + z 2

3/ 2

. (7.19)

z >> R :

B (z )

0 IR 2
2z

0 2 pm
.
4 z 3

, z >> R z
pm = IS .

r 0 2 pr m
I
B=
, B = 0
.
2R
4 R 3

(z = 0)

7.

131

7.4. ,
n0 . ,
, I.
. ,
, .


.

B(z ) . n0
,
, ,
,
.
R ,
- l .
.7.4
M
dz ,
z M (. 7.4). dB B
(7.19)

dB =

0 dIR 2

2 R2 + z2

3/ 2

(7.20)

, dI = In0 dz , (7.20):

B=

0 In0 R 2
2

z0 + l

dz

(R 2 + z 2 )3 / 2 .
z
0

z = R ctg ; dz =

B=

0 In0
2

(cos 2 cos 1 )

Rd
, :
sin 2
(7.21)

7.

132

z0 + l

cos 2 =

(z 0 + l )

cos 1 =

,
+ R2

z0
z 02

+ R2

. ,
M ,

l/2

cos 1 = cos 2 =

R +l /4

B = 0 In0

l/2
2

R + l2 / 4

(l>>R)
z.

B 0 n0 I .

(7.22)

7.5.
, I1,
l I2,
. ,
a .
. I2 dx
x . I1

0 I1
B=
, dx ,
2 (a + x sin )

dF = I 2 Bdx =

0 I1 I 2

2 (a + x sin )

dx ,

I2. , :
l

F=

II

II

2
dx = 0 1 2 ln1 + sin .
2 (a +0 x1 sin
2 sin a
)

= 0 F =

0 I1 I 2 l
.
2a

7.

133

7.6.
r r
. , E B .
r
v0 . - m,
- e.
. q, ,

r
r
r
F = qE + q[v , B ] ,
(7.23)

r
v - .
,
;
r
r
E , Oy B . (7.23)
:
m&x& = eE + eBz& ,

(7.24)

m&y& = 0 ,

(7.25)

m&z& = eBx& .

(7.26)

(7.25) y& (0 ) = v0 y

y (0 ) = 0 :
y = v0 y t .

(7.27)

(7.26) z =

e
Bx + C x(0) = 0 z&(0 ) = v0 x ,
m

C = v0 z
z& = v0 z

e
Bx .
m

(7.28)

7.

134

e
B = ; (7.28) (7.24),
m

&x& + 2 x = v0 z

e
E.
m

(7.29)

(7.29) x(0 ) = 0 x& (0 ) = v0 x ,

x=

v0 x

v
eE
sin t +
0 z (cos t 1) .
2

m

(7.30)

(7.30) (7.28), (7.27) (7.30),


:

v
eE
sin t +
0 z (cos t 1),
2

m
y = v0 y t ,

x=

v0 x

z=

v0 x

(cos t 1)

eE

v0 z
eE
t
sin t +

m

7.7. m, ,
,
.

B. I.
.
. ,
.
, ,
, .
,
, ,

7.

135

, IBl 2 sin ,
. ,

(sin )
T = 2

ml 2
,
6

ml 2
&& + IBl 2 = 0 .
6

m
.
6 IB

7.8. R,
q, .
.
. r 2 sin drdd (
)

dI =

r sin

2r 2 sin drd 3q 2
=
r sin drd .
4 3
2
4R 3
R
3

3
q

3
q

r 2 sin 2 dI = r 2 sin 2
r 2 sin drd =
r 4 sin 3 drd .

4R 3
4R3
R

pm =

r
qR 2 r
3q 4 3
qR 2
p
=
r
sin
drd
=

m
5
5
4R3
0 0

7.9.
, I. a
b (a>b).

7.

136

r r
.
, dB = n dB ,
r
n - ,

r r
Idl sin dl , r
,
(7.31)
dB = 0
4r 2

r
r - -, M
v
dl .
,

.7.5,
r r
dl sin dl , r = rd , d - ,


r
dl , (7.31)

I d
dB = 0
.
(7.32)
4 r

r = r ( ) ,
(7.32)

B=

0 I
4

r ( ) .

.7.5

(7.33)

7.

137

x2 y2
+
= 1 (7.34)
a2 b2

.
r
M(0,0) dl
(
.7.6 ).

.7.6

r=

x = r cos ,

b
1 2 cos 2

y = r sin ,

c
=
a

a2 b2
a

( 0 < 1 ). =

B0 =
B0 =

0 I
b

/2

1 2 sin 2 d =

(7.34),

(7.33)
2

E ( ) :

0 I
E ( ) .
b

0 I
I
E (0) = 0 .
b
2b


, F1,
, r =

BF1 =

0 I
2

b2
. (7.33),
a(1 + cos )

Ia
a(1 + cos )
d = 0 2 .
2
b
2b

r
r
I
BF1 = BF2 , (a=b) B0 = 0 .
2b
7.10. ,
I ,
.

7.

138

.
r
r
1
(7.11) dl = [ n; ]dS , = :
r

r
r
I
B = rotA = rot 0
4
=

r r

(L )

r
dl 0 I
=
rot
r
4

r 1
0 I
[nr; rr ] dS =
=
n
;

dS
rot

3
4
r
(S )
(S ) r

0
IdS ; r
rot
.
3
4
(S ) r


r
r
r
r
1
r , = + 3 . r - r
r

, dS
.
,
r
, r
r
r
r
r
r
r
[p ; r ]
dS, B = 0 rot m3 , pm = I ndS = I dS -
4
r

(S )

(S )

. (.
r 3( pr m ; rr )rr pr m r 2
r
)
B= 0
. r
- -,
4
r5
.


7.1. I
. a b.
7.2.

,
r
i .

7.

139

7.3. ,

r
r
i i .
7.4. R I,
.
.
7.5. I
R, d, d<<R,
.
r r>>d.
7.6. R .
r
.
.
7.7.
(. .7.7)
. I
, .
r
B ,
, .
.7.7

7.8.
l I, .
, h
.

140

7.

7.9.

.7.8


. ,
.

.7.8
,
,
I, 2.
7.10. , I,
,
R. ,
r
, B
.
7.11. R I1
, I2.
(a>R) . , .
7.12. ,
r
B , m, q
q . v,
, 2.
.
?
?
.
7.13. q m v0

.
, , ,
, ,
L. .

7.

141

7.14. , n-,
R I.
v
B0 .
7.15. .
...
, B0
.
7.16.

v
B0

.7.9

,
.7.9, I.

R ,
2a.

v
7.17. B0 ,
I.
R1 R2 (R1> R2). ,
. N.
.
7.18. ,
U . l
B, ,
, ,
D (.7.10).
.

142

7.

7.19.
R,
,
r
.

.
7.20. R

r
.7.10
B ,
. ,
, , ?
.

8.

143

8.

. ,
, ,
.
, , ,
, (
) , .

.


, .

r
J=

pm

(8.1)

r
pmi ,
r
V . J
.
.


r
r
v
B
H =
J .
(8.2)

8.

144


r
r
, J = H (
);
, (8.2)
r
r
B = 0 H ,
(8.3)

= 1+

.
r
r
B H
() ,
.

r
r
( < 0 , < 1 , J B ),
r
r
( > 0 , > 1 , J B
) .
r
r
J B ,
(8.3) , >>1 ( ,
, 103).
( )
. (8.3)
, (8.2).


r
H
L I,
:
r r
Hdl = I .
(8.4)



. , ,

8.

145

(),
(
). N I (
), (8.4) NI.
N .
,
(8.4),
r r
rot H = j ,
(8.5)

r
j

.
.
.
r
H
. ( ,
, ). , (7.4) (7.11)
,
0 0:
r
r 0 I dl , rr
,
(8.6)
B=
4
r3
L

v 0
A=
4

[ ]

r
Idl
.
r

(8.7)

(8.3), (8.5)
(7.12),
r
j
r
A :
r
r
A = 0 j .
(8.8)
.
,

8.

146

r
B
;

r
H :

Bn1 = Bn2 ,...H1 = H 2 .

(8.9)

r
B .
r
j


,
.
8.1. , ,
N . , ,
I, .
. ,
, .

,
.
,
,
. ,
, :

r r

NI

Hdl = 2rH = 0

r - . ,
:

NI
,
2r

B = 0

NI
.
2r

(8.10)

8.

147

8.2. ()
N
. , , I, l
R.
.
.
(7.4) .
,
I
,


( ) I,

(. 8.1). ,

(7..4) (7.21),
.8.1
,
z, ,
z + l/2
z l/2
B = Cf (z ) , f (z ) =

, C
2
2
2
R + (z + l / 2)
R + (z l / 2)2
.
Cf (z )
H c =
,

Hb =

Cf (z )

. ,

l / 2

l/2

l / 2

l/2

Hdz = H b dz + H c dz + H b dz = IN .

<< 1
l

l / 2

H b dz =

H b dz =

l/2

l / 2

R,

H c dz = 0 2(l R ) ,

l / 2

8.

148

( ~ (R / l )2 ) ,
C =

2C (l R )

= IN ,

0 IN

f (z ) , ..
2l
. R >> l (


) B(z ) =

H b (z ) =

0 IN
0 IN
f ( z ) .
. , B(z ) =
2(l + ( 1)R )
2(l + ( 1)R )

R << l B(z ) =

2CR

IN
2(l + ( 1)R )

~ 10 3 10 7

0 IN
2R

f (z ) .
H c (z ) =

IN

f (z ) ,
2(l + ( 1)R )
r
f (z ) . H

, .

( z << l ) f ( z ) 2 ,
:

B(z )

0 IN
l + ( 1)R

(8.11)

8.3.
R I, o
r
. H
.
.
,,z.
Oz .
Oz Oz
r
, H .
M
, .
ds1 = dd ,

8.

149

Oz dI1 = jds1 (j - ).
r
r
r
r
dH 1 H , dH1 r1 .
r
ds2. dH 2
r
r
r

r2

dH1 = dH 2 .
r
r
r

dH = dH1 + dH 2

.8.2

, , ,
. ,
r
H
.


r
r r
I i .
H (8.4): Hdl =

L M (. . 8.2),
r
r
r r
. H || dl , Hdl = H ( M )dl . L

M = const , , H ( M ) = const . , (8.4)

2
r r
I M
/ R 2 , 0 M R
.
Hdl = Hdl = 2 M H ( M ) =
I , M > R
L
L

I / 2R 2 , 0 M R
H ( ) =
.
I / 2 , M > R

(8.12)

:
r 1 r r
H = j, ,
(0 R )
2
r 1 r r R2

H = j, 2 ,
2
r

[ ]

[ ]

8.

150
r
j -

( j = I / R ) ,
2

- -,

, r
.
8.4.
N .
, d
.
.
.

(8.9)

r
B
,

.
,

. (. 8.3). r
.8.3

r
r
r
r
B(r )
B(r )
H c =
H =
. ,

r , :
B(r )
IN =
(2r d ) + B(r ) d ,

B(r ) =
Hc =

0 IN
,
2r + ( 1)d

IN
,
2r + ( 1)d

H =

(8.13)

IN
.
2r + ( 1)d

H c

( 1)d << r

IN
.
2r

8.

151

r << d , H c

IN

, H =

IN
IN
, B 0 .
d
d

8.5. R
r
B0 .
.
r
. rot H = 0 ,
r
r
r
B = 0 H , rot B = 0 .
,
,
r
div B = 0 .
r
r

B1

pm , ..
v r 3( pr m rr ) r pr m
B = B1 + 0
r 3 , 1 pm
4 r 5
r
(i) (e) :

r r
r
r r
r
r
v
3 pm(i )r r pm(i ) v (e ) r (e ) 0 3 pm(e )r r pm(e )
B (i ) = B1(i ) + 0
r

B
=
B
+
r

.
1
4 r 5
4 r 5
r 3
r 3
r
r
B1(e ) , B1(e ) , pm(e ) , pm(i )
(8.9) ,
. ,
r
r
r
r
pm(i ) = 0 B (i ) : B (i ) = B1(i ) .
r
r
r , B1(e ) = B0 ,
r
r
B (i ) p (e ) . :
m

r r
r
r
r
r
v
3 pm(e )r r pm(e )
B (i ) = B1(i ) , B (e ) = B0(e ) + 0
r

.
4 r 5
r 3

8.

152


r
p (e ) 1
H , B0 0 m3 = B1(i ) .
4 R

0 pm(e)
1
= B0 B1(i ) .
3
4 R

(8.14)

r
r
, pm(e ) B1(i )
r
r
B (e ) B (i )
r
r r
pm r
r r
( pm r ) rr = r r
.
r5
r3 r
r
r r
r
r
pm
( pm r ) rr pm , rr ,
r ,
r3
r5
r3
(
r
- B0 )
:

B1(i ) = B0 +

0 2 pm(e )
4 R 3

, ,

r
r
r
2 pm(e )
B1(i ) = B0 + 0
.
4 R 3

(8.15)

r
3 r
B ,
(8.14), (8.15), : B (i ) =
+2 0
r r
r
r
r
1 3 B0 r r B0 r (i )
: B (e ) = B0 +
r

; B =
+ 2 r 5
r 3

( )

r
4 1 3 r
pm =
R B0 .
0 + 2
3 r
B .
+2 0

>1
r
B0 .

8.

153

r
B0 ,
r
4 1 3 r
R B0 .
pm =
0 + 2

.

. 8 4,
r
r
D B ( (4.33) (4.36)).
8.6. I

1 2 a
. .
.
,
.
r
B
.
r
B
,
1 I .
r
rot B2 = 0 .

.8.4


,

:

B 1

B 2

; Bn1 = Bn 2 .

I
,
I (.8.4).
r
B1 1 I ( ) I

8.

154

r
( ), B2 I ( ).
, B ,
1

( 1 )
=
:
;
, 1 + = . : = 1 2
1
2
1 + 2

21 2
. ,
1 + 2

, I1 = 1 I , ,
I 2 =

1 ( 2 1 )
I , .
1 + 2

, I 3 =

2 1 2
I ,
1 + 2

.
2 >> 1 ( ), I 2 = I1 = 2 I ; ""
, . I3
, I2
( 2 1 ) . , ,
, ( )
,
.
-
, .

. (7.5 )

B2 (x ) =

0
0 1 2
I =
I ,
2r
(1 + 2 ) x 2 + a 2

B2 n =

B2 =

0 1 2 a
I,
(1 + 2 ) x 2 + a 2

0 1 2 x
I . ,
(1 + 2 ) x 2 + a 2

B1n = B2 n ,

B1 =

1
B ,
2 2

8.
B1n = B2 n =
B2 =

0 1 2 x
I,
(1 + 2 ) x 2 + a 2

155
B1 =

0 12 2 a
I,
(1 + 2 ) x 2 + a 2

0 1 2 a
I.
(1 + 2 ) x 2 + a 2

r
8.7. J
2l r
(.8.5).
BA A
BC .
.

r
. J
r
, rot J = 0 , ,
.
.8.5
,
. :
I=J,
r
. B ,
,
J. ,
7.4.. (7.21),
(In0=J, 1=/2, 2=0), B A =

0 J

.
2
,
, C ,
,
i, .
l>>r, C
(7.21),

8.

156

. 2=r/l<<1, 1=0,
: BC

0 J r 2
2 l2


8.1. :
R1 ()
R2. I,
, -
, ,
( ).
H .
8.2. H

, j,
.
a.
8.3. ,
1
2. ,
d, L. , N , I.
B .
.
8.4. ,
, I.
.
1 2.
8.5.
1 2 .

8.

157

, ,
r r
H 0 (r ) .

r
8.6. B0
R1 .
R2.
.
8.7. I
,
, h . ,
.
8.8.
R,
, I,
o .
v
B
.

.8.6

8.9. l
r (l>>r),
,


r
B0 ,

(.8.6). ( .).

.8.7

8.10. r l
(l<<r),
,

r
,
B0

158

8.

(.8.7).
(.).

r
8.11. J
h R (h<<R) .

(.).
8.12. l r<<l
,
Jm .

.
8.13.

.
. L,
R, Q.
8.14.
R
r
(.8.8).

J
.

,
.8.8
h.
8.15. I
.
.
r .

159

9. . .

9. . . .

.
,
. :

= BdS ,

( d S = ndS )

(9.1)

S , , B
.
,
, .
( )
.
(9.1)
N

BdS ,

(9.2)

i =1 S i

N , Si i- .
,
(9.2) ,
:

= N BdS .
Si

(9.3)

9. .

160

.
I1,
. -- (7.4),
I1. ,
I1.
I1
2, ,
L12:

L12 =

2
.
I1

(9.4)

L12 = L21 .

(9.5)

,
. ,
.
I
, ,
L:

L=

.
I

(9.6)

,
, . ,
( ), ,

WM =

LI 2 1
= I,
2
2

(9.7)

161

9. . .

L , I ,
, I .
( ) .
I1 I2

WM =

1
1
1
( I11 + I 2 2 ) = L1 I12 + L12 I1 I 2 + L2 I 22 ,
2
2
2

(9.8)

L1, L2 , L12 -- ,
1, 2 , (
).

wM =

1
BH ,
2

(9.9)

B , H
. ,
, .
(),
().
.
.
d r
d l I B

([ ] )

A = I d l ; B ; d r ,

(9.10)

, ,

([

]) (

A = I B; d r; d l = I B; d S = Id .

(9.11)

9. .

162

d S

, d l

d r , d -- .

:

A = I ,

(9.12)

- .
9.1. , N=500 ,
,
=500.
l=31,4 , S=10 2.
.
. (9.6)

.
I. ,
(8..2),

B = 0

N
I ,
l

(9.13)

163

9. . .

B
. (.
9.1). ,
,
,
(
(8..2).
, ,

.9.1
,
(9.13).

(9.3):

Si

Si

= N Bd S = N Bds = N 0

N
N2
I ds = 0
IS .
l
l

(9.14)

Si

,
d S B .
I,
:

L = 0

N 2S
.
l

(9.15)


L0,5 .
9.2. ,
. R2=5,4 ,
R1=2 , h=3 ,

9. .

164

=200. N=100 ,
.
.
. I. ,
(8. 1),

B(r ) =

0 NI
,
2r

(9.16)
r ,

.
,
, ..
B

,

(. 9.2).
,

.9.2

B
.
, , (9.3):

Si

Si

= N B ds = N Bds = N 0
h

R2

N
ds
I
=
2
r

Si

R
N
dr
N2
= N 0
I dz
= 0
Ih ln 2
2
r
2
R1
0
R1

(9.17)

165

9. . .

I,
:

L=

0 N 2 h R2
.
ln
2
R1

(9.18)


L12 .
9.3. ,
L1 L2.
.
. (9.4),

, I1,
, 2. ,
,
. 1 2
, ,

L2 N 2
=
L1 N1

(9.19)

N1 N2 , .
(9.3) ,
:

2 N2
=
.
1 N1

(9.20)

9. .

166

,
:

2 = 1

N2
N
L
= L 1 I1 2 = L 1 I 1 2 = I1 L1 L2
N1
N1
L1

(9.21)

I1,
:

L12 =

2
= L1 L2 .
J1

(9.22)

9.4.


h=10 ,
(. 9.3).
. (9.4),

,

(, )

( ).
.9.3
I1. , (7.5)
, ,

B( x) =

0 I1
,
2x

(9.23)

x ,
.

167

9. . .
(9.1):
h

2 = B ds = B ds = dx B( x) dy = 2 B ( x) xdx =
h

(9.24)

I
Ih
= 2 0 1 dx = 0 1
2

I1,
:

L12 =

2 0h
=
.
I1

(9.25)


L=0,04 .
9.5. ,
,
I=10 . R1=0,5 ,
R2=1 . , .
, ,
.
. 8.1,
, I,

Ir
, r R1

2
R
1

I
H (r ) =
, R1 r R2
2r

0, r R2 ,

(9.26)

9. .

168

r ,

(.9.4). (9.9),

wM =

1
1
B H = 0H 2
2
2
(9.27)

.9.4
V0,
,
:

WM =

V0

2l

w M dV = dz d rdr

I2

(2 )2

R1

1
0 H (r ) 2 =
2

2
dr 0 lI

dr
+
=
R14
r
4
R1
0

r3

R2

1 R14
R 2 0 lI 2
R2
+
ln

=
1 + 4 ln

4
R1
16
R1
4 R1

(9.28)


, :

I2
dWM
= 0
dl
16

R
1 + 4 ln 2 32,5 /.
R1

(9.29)

9.6.
,
. I, n,

169

9. . .

S. J
,
. , .
.

,

.
x
=Fx.
,

=I,
.9.5

. F= I/x.
. ,

x,
(. 9.5). =nx,

=(B2-B1)snx,

(9.30)

2 , 1
. , (8 .2)
2=0(+J), 1=0, =In. ,

=0 J snx.
:

(9.31)

9. .

170
F =I0 J sn.

(9.32)

, J , ,
( ,
). J ,
.

9.1. ,
, ,
1=400, c
2 =100. R2=10,8 , R1=4 ,
h=6 . N=400 ,
.
.
9.2. l=1 .
a=0,5 , d
(d=1 ).
9.3. l=1 .
R1=0,5 , R2=1 .
9.4. , .
L1 L2. 1).
? 2). ,
N1 .
9.5. ,
, N=500 ,

9. . .

171

. R2=10,8 , R1=4 ,
h=6 ,
=1000.
.
9.6. n=103
s =10 2
, N=20 .
.
9.7. ,
, .
R2=5,4 , R1=2 ,
h=3 , =1 ,
=200. N=100 ,
.
9.8. n
s, N .
,
.
9.9. l, N c
S, d<<l c
>>1. .
9.10. h=20 R=6
r=3 .
,

9. .

172

J=100 . ,
, =1000.
9.11. , ,
,
I=10 . R2=5,4 , R1=2 ,
h=3 , =500.
N=100 ,
.
9.12. n0=10
-1. .
S1=0,1 2, S2=10 2.
,
,
.
S1<<S2.
9.13. =1 ,
U0=12 ,
L=10 ,
(. 9.6).

?
9.14.

,
.
I1=2 , I2=5 , n1= n2=103
.9.6

9. . .

173

, r=1 .
.
9.15. -

L0

( ).

. .
.

10.

174

10. .

.
,
, (9.1),
,
, .

:

d
,
dt

(10.1)

i , , , t
. , (10.1)
,
,
.
,
(6.9), :
,
, . ,

.
(10.1).

, ,
, ,

10.

175

. ,
(10.1) ,
(9.6):

si

= L

dI
,
dt

(10.2)

si , L , I
.
(10.1) ,
.. .
(6.3),
(9.1) ,
:

rot E =

B
,
t

(10.3)

B , E
, . ,
.
,
.
, ,
.
, .
10.1. v=900 /
. ,
, L=40 ,
B=610-5 .

10.

176

.
,
. q

[ ]

F = q vB

(10.4)


, ,
.
, .
,
. E .
q

F = qE

(10.5)

,
, .. F = F . ,
(10.4) (10.5), :

[ ][ ]

E = v B = Bv .

(2.3), :
2

U = U 1 U 2 = Ed l = Edl = Bv dl = Bvl .
,
, .. ( 1) ( 2).
E d l . ,

10.

177

.
, U = 0,6 .
10.2. a
R ,
d .
I1 (t ) = t 3 , = const .
.
.
(10.1).
, , . (7.5),
, ,

r
I (t ) r
B( x, t ) = 0 1 n ,
2x

(10.6)

n (. .10.1), x
,
.

(9.1) (. .10.1)
a
d +a
r
= B dS = B dS = dy B dx

, B

.10.1

d S .

(10.6),

10.

178
a

= dy
0

d +a

B dx
d

d +a

=a

0 I1
I a d + a 0 I1a
dx = 0 1 ln
=
ln(1 + a d ) .
d
2x
2
2

dI
3 a t 2
a
a
d
= 0 ln (1 + a d ) 1 = 0 ln(1 + a d ) 3t 2 = 0
ln (1 + a d )
dt
2
dt
2
2

.
(6.9), ,

:

I2 =

3 0 a t 2
ln(1 + a d ) .
2R

,
,
n .
10.3. N=500
R=5 . S=10 2.
c
B=10 , =60
. , .
. :

d
,
dt

10.

179

, ,

t. ,
I (6.9):

I=

1 d
.
R dt

(10.7)

q, t
, :

I=

dq
.
dt

(10.8)

(10.7) (10.8)
, :

q (t 2 ) q(t1 ) =

1
((t 2 ) (t1 )) = 1 ((t1 ) (t 2 ) ) ,
R
R

t1 t2 . , t1
, t2
, .
q(t1)=0, q(t2) ( Q),

Q=

1
( ) ,
R

= (t1 )

(10.9)

= (t 2 ) ,

, . ,

(9.3)

10.

180

Si

Si

= N Bd S = N B dS cos
, ,

= NB cos ds =NB S cos .


Si

(10.9), :

Q=

NB S cos
.
R


, .. , ,
,
. :

.
,

Q = 0,5 .

10.

181

10.4. a
v
,

(. .10.2).
I.
t=0
,

d. ,
, ,
.10.2
, a>>d,
,
a.

h

xy,
(. .10.3). B
, M,

, ,
,
,
.10.3
(7.5):

B=

0I
I sin
= 0
.
2 (h sin )
2h

, :

10.

182

= Bd S = B dS cos ,

S , , d S
(. .).
, dS = adx , x ,
A (, C ),
x = hctg d ,
2

0 Ia
ctgd .
2
1

2
2
0 Ia
[ln(sin )]CA = 0 Ia ln h +2(d + 2a )
2
4
h +d

, d << a h << a ,

0 Ia a 2
ln 2
h +d2
4

,
dh
v =
:
dt

d 0 Ia d h 2 + d 2 0 Ia a 2
2h dh 0 Ia
v 2t

ln
=
=
.

i
dt
4 dt a 2
4 h 2 + d 2 a 2 dt
2 v 2 t 2 + d 2
,
,
, ,
.

10.

183

10.5. , n0
, , ,

I 0 cos t . s,

. ,
.
. (9.4),
, ,

2 = L12 I 1 = L12 I 0 cos t ,


1 , 2
. (10.1)
:

d 2
= L12 I 0 sin t .
dt

(10.10)

L12
. ,
(9.5) (9.4):

L12 = L 21 =

1
.
I2

(10.11)

,
I2=const
1 (
). (7.22), ,
, ,

B = 0 n0 I 2 n ,

10.

184

n ,
. ,
, :

1 = Bd S = BdS = BS = 0 n 0 I 2 S ,

S , , d S
. (10.11)
L12:

L12 = 0 n 0 S .
,
(10.10):

= 0 n 0 s I 0 sin t .

,

2,
.
10.6.
, B ,
, ,

R,

.10.4

B
.
, ,

10.

185

B (.10.4).
L.
. ,
, , ,
, .
,
, ,
:

= + .

(10.12)

, :

d d
d
=

.
dt
dt
dt

(10.13)

(6.9),
, :

J 0 =

=0.

(10.13) ,
, .. ,
. ,
,
. ,
.
, (10.12):

= Bs + LI = BR 2 + LI ,
s = R 2 .
:

10.

186

I =

R 2 B
L

(10.14)

,
(, ).
10.7. , n=1000
, l=10 s=10 2,
=1000.
I=10 . ,
?
. ,
,
.
.
... i,
. I ,

), ... :

A = I i dt = I,

(10.15)

,
. ,
, (9.7)

W = I,

(10.16)

,
, ,

A = A+W = I.

(10.17)

10.

187

, .
. ,
. B = 0nI,
, N = nl.
BsN = 0n2Ils 0n2Ils, = 0(1)
n2Ils .

A = 0(1) n2I2ls.

(10.18)

, .
.
,
6,3 .

.10.5

10.1.

,
, d
,
,

,
(. .10.5).
l,
B, 0
(
t=0 ).

10.

188

.
: 0 ,
sin 0 0 .
10.2.
v=10 / B=10 ,
v B
. ,
.
10.3. N L
(.10.6).

.
10.4.

h=17
.10.6
R=0,7
,
d=10 .
I1 (t ) = I 0 e

(t )2

, I0=100 , =1 .

?
10.5. a=20
b=17
I=10 , a .
R=0,8 ,

10.

189

c=10 . 180 ,
a. , .
10.6. a=19
b=11
I=10 , b .
c=21 .
180 b, . ,
, s=1 2,
=6107 ()-1.
10.7.
. a,

B . ,
. ,
. ,
, R, , , .
10.8. a b
v ,
, b (
). I. t=0
c.
, .
10.9. a b
, a,
B .
. B , t=0

190

10.

. ,
.
10.10. a b
,
a, ,
.
B , t=0

B0. , .
10.11. a b
, a,
B .

t . B

= 0 1 e

, t=0 .
, ,
.
10.12. S, I
n ,
R. ,
?
10.13. ,
.
, , R1,2 L1,2.
, ...

10.

191

. ,
.
10.14. L R
. ,

I (t ) = I 0 e

11.

192

11.


, :

rot H = j +

rot E =

D
,
t

B
,
t

(11.1)

(11.2)

div B = 0 ,

(11.3)

div D = ,

(11.4)

H E , ,
, D B , , j
, .

, ,
D E ,

B H , j E . , ,

, .
:

D =0 E ,

(11.5)

11.

193

B =0 H ,

(11.6)

, .

E , E ,
.
:
j =( E + E ).

(11.7)

.

j ,

(. 6):

+ div j = 0
t

(11.8)

.
,
( ),
-:

= j E =E2 =j2/

(11.9)

(11.1-4) , :

dQ
dW
= d S
+
dt
dt

jdV .

(11.10)

11.

194

W=

1
2

(E D + H B )dV

(11.11)

V,

[ ]

S, = E H ,
S, Q V .
(11.10) () ,
.

A :

B = rot A
E = grad

(11.12)
A
t

(11.13)


, ,
.

. .
.

D
) .
t

.
(

A , ,
(2.6) (7.11).
(. 12).

11.

195

11.1.
=6107 ()-1. R1=3 ,
R2=5 , h=1 .
, B
.

k t ,
B (t ) =
0,

0 r R,
r > R,

r , R>R2. ,
, k=0,1 /c.
.
, ,

(10.1),

(11.2):

rot E =

B
.
t

,

{r, , z},

(
.11.1

). (.11.1)
:

B = {0, 0, kt} ,

11.

196

, ,
(11.2) 3
:

1 E z E

= 0,

z
r
E r E z

= 0,

r
z
1 rE
E
r = k .

r r

(11.14)

( )

,
E z. (11.14)
:

0 = 0

E z
=0

r
rE
= kr

( )

E z = C1
E =

kr C 2
+
,
2
r

C1 C2 .
r=0 ( ,
,
) , C2=0.
:

E =

kr
.
2

11.

197

E .
(11.4). = 0 , div 0 E = 0 ,

1 (rE r ) 1 E E z
+
+
=0
.
r r
r
z

z,

C
(rE r )
E r = 3 . ,
= 0 ,
r
r
r=0 , C3=0. ,

E . ,
(
C1):

kr

E = 0, , C1 .
2

(6.1)
:

kr

j = E = 0,
, C1 /
2

, C1
(, ,
, , ). ,
, :

j (r ) =

kr
2

e ,

(11.15)

11.

198

e , .11.1.
, S:

I=

jd S =

jdS =

kh
2

R2

rdr =

R1

kh 2
R 2 R12 .
4

, j dS = hdr ,
(11.15). ,
e , , 11.1.
,

I=

1
kh R 22 R12 =24 .
4

11.2. ,
,
d .
, ,

,
. U 0 ,
.
.

11.

199

.
-,
,

, ,

x (.11.2).
,
(11.2 11.4)

.11.2
.
, , ,
() ,
.

d 2
dx

(x )
.
0

(11.16)

n( x ) ,

(x) = en(x) ,

x = const

j = en(x )v ,
j
.
ev

n( x ) =

mv 02
mv 2
e ( x ) =
e (0) ,
2
2

v:

11.

200

m , v x , v 0
, (0) ,
.
, ,
v 0 0 . v =

2e
.
m

( x ) ,
(11.16),

d 2
dx

j m

0 2e

a =

1 / 2 = a 1 / 2 ,

j m

0 2e

(11.17)

(11.17)

d
,
dx

= 4a ( x ) + C .
dx

(11.18)

,
, , , E (0) = 0 .

d
(0) = 0 .
dx
. (11.18), C = 0 .
(11.18)
,

11.

201

d
= 2 a 1 / 4 (x ) .
dx

(11.19)

(11.19),

(x ) = (

3 a 43
x ) + C1
2

C1 (0 ) = 0 : C1 = 0 ,

(x ) = (

9a 2 3 4 3
) x .
4

(11.20)

.
: (d) = U0. (11.20)
:

( x) = U 0 ( x d )

(11.21)

11.

202

.11.3

11.3.

,

R , I ,
.11.3.
H ,

r


H .
H
?

.


,

(. .11.4).

L ,
, ,
H

H dl = 2rH .
L

.11.4

(11.22)

11.

203

, , (11.1),
, L :

I =

r
2
2
DdS = t (r D ) = r t = R 2
2

r2
Q= 2 I.
t
R

(11.23)

H=

r
2R 2

I.

(11.24)


L1 (.11.4).

I , ,

H1 =

I
2r

(11.25)


,
(.11.4).
11.4.


, -
. ,
.
.
L ,
:

11.

204

2rH = j + D dS = j +
dS .
t
t

S
S

(11.26)


(11.26) , H .
11.5.
R
.
,
H r ,
I .
. ,
L ,
,
, . H
,

H dl = 2rH .

I , , ,
3 (11.23).
H :

2rH = I

r2
I,
R2

H=

I
r2
1 2 .
2r R

11.

205

,
,
.
11.6.
R =10.
.
I = I 0 cos t .
, ,
.
.
= = 1 , = 2 = 100 .
. ,
(5.8)

W =

Q2
Q2d
=
.
2C 2 0R 2

(11.27)

.
3 (11.24).
(9.9).
.
, r r + dr

dW =

1
2d rdr I 2 r 2
0 H 2 dV = 0
.
2
2
4 2 R 4

(11.28)

11.

206

W =

0 dI 2
4 2 R 4

r 3 dr =

0 dI 2

16 2

(11.29)

(11.27) (11.29)
Q = I (t )dt =

I0

sin t

k=

W m
W m

0 0 2 R 2
.
8

,
c 2 =

00

k=

2 R 2
= 0,5 10 14 .
2
8c

,
, .
11.7. ,
N ,
. l ,

R .

I = I 0 cos t .

,
, ,
. R = 5 ,

= = 1 = 2 = 100 .

11.

207

. , ,
(9.7), (9.15):

W =

2
2
1 2 0 N R 2
LI =
I 0 cos 2 t .
2
2l

(11.30)

,
,
,
. C ,
:

E dl = t BdS .

(11.31)

(9.13).
(11.31),

2rE =

2

N
0Nr
I (t )r 2 =
I 0 sin t ,
0
t
l
l

E (r ) =

0Nr
2l

I 0 sin t .

(11.32)

, ,
(5.9).

r r + dr ,

dW =

2 02 2 N 2 2 2
1
0 E 2 dV = 0
r I 0 sin 2 t 2rdrl .
2
2
8l

11.

208
,

W =

0 2 02 2 N 2
4l

k=

I 02 sin 2 t r 3 dr =

0 2 02 2 N 2R 4
16l

I 02 sin 2 t .

W
0 0 2 R 2
=
.
W
8

,
c 2 =

00

k=

2 R 2
8c

= 1,3 10 15 .

11.8. R=10
(. .11.5)

OO

,
B(t ) = k t , k=60 /c.

.11.5

.
a=19 OO ,
,
l=22 .
.
. , ,

11.

209

,
, (11.2).

1. ,
, kr (r<
R). . r>R

(=0)

(rE )
r

= 0 ,

= C/r. r = 0 ,
.
E r = R: C/R = kR, :

E =

kR 2
2r

(11.33)

A
(11.13)
t
.


:
r
r
r
r
r
A
A
E = grad
= 0 , grad = E i , E i =

t
t

.
,
:

= 12 kR 2 ,

(11.34)

11.

210

,
. = 2 arcsin

. ,
4a + l 2

, ,
. (
), ,
.
2

, = kR 2 arcsin

=0,314 .

4a + l 2


11.1. =6107 ()-1
l=4 R=1 .
, B
.

k t ,
B (t ) =
0,

0 r R1 ,

r > R1 ,

r , R1>R. ,
, k=10 /c.

11.

211

11.2.
R=10 (. .11.6)
OO
,
B(t ) = B0 sin t , 0=1.5 .
.
, ,
R1=12
.11.6
R2=15 h=20 .
, .
=5107 ()-1.
11.3. , ,
. ,
0 z , t
r 0 z

j (r , t ) = k r e

, , t=0
.
11.4. , 2,
(x ) x .
U 0 , d .
d / 2 U 0 = 100 B ,

d = 5 .

11.

212

11.5. , 2,
, . U 0 = 200 B ,
d = 5 .
11.6. , 2,
, .
U 0 = 100 B .
11.7. , 2,
. U 0 = 100,
d = 10 .
11.8. ,
d = 1 ,

U = U 0 cos t U 0 = 300 B = 3 10 6 c 1 .

H0

B0

r = 1

, .
,
= 10 = 100 ?
11.9.
.
,
,
.
11.10.

v ,

11.

213

. : 1) ;
2) U .
d
.
11.11. a
j . 1)

E . 2),

, .
11.12. R
. ,
n , - W .
.
11.13. ,
r =1 .
d =5, U0=200.
11.14. ,
,
R. d,
U0.

214

12. .

12. . .


. ,
.
, .
.
.
(
), , .
: ,
, . N ,
N-1
- .
() .
:
,
.
. :
() ,
.
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
.
,
. ,
, ()
, .
,
,

12. .

215

.
+ ,
, .
,
.
. :
(), .
,
R, L, C.
, , :
UR=IR, UL=L dI/dt,

UC= 1/C Idt ,

(12.1)

I , .
,
.
:

1,2 = L12dI2,1/dt,

(12.2)

L12 .
.

.
,
.
E(t) = E0 cos (t + )
E = exp(it), :
= E0exp(i).
k. ,
(
),
:
R = R,

C = /iC,

L = iL.

(12.3)

12. .

216
= Z,

ZR=R,

(12.4)
ZC= 1/iC,

ZL= iL.

,
. Z
() .
()
,
.
,
,
.

12.1. , .12.1,
E 2 , R1 = R, R2 = 2 R, R3 = R, R4 = 2 R .
.
.
( I 1 I 6 ),

.12.1 .
,
:

I 1 I 2 I 5 = 0,
I 2 + I 6 I 3 = 0,

I 4 I 6 I1 = 0 .

(12.5)
.12.1

,
.12.2 ( ),
:

- I 2 R2 I 3 R3 = E1 ,

12. .

217

I 3 R3 + I 4 R4 = E 2 ,

(12.6)

I 1 R1 + I 2 R2 + I 3 R3 + I 4 R4 = 0 .
.12.2
.
:

I 1 = [E1 (R3 + R4 )R2 E 2 (R2 + R3 )R4 ] / ,


I 2 = [E1 (R3 + R4 )R2 + E 2 (R1 + R4 )R3 ] / ,
I 3 = [E1 (R1 + R2 )R4 E 2 (R1 + R4 )R2 ] / ,

(12.7)

I 4 = [E1 (R1 + R2 )R3 + E 2 (R2 + R3 )R1 ] / ,


I 5 = [E1 (R2 R3 + R2 R4 + R1 R3 + R1 R4 ) + E 2 (R1 R3 R2 R4 )] / ,
I 6 = [E1 (R1 R3 R2 R4 ) + E 2 (R1 R3 + R3 R4 + R1 R2 + R2 R4 )] / ,

= R1 R 2 R3 + R1 R3 R 4 + R1 R 2 R4 + R2 R3 R 4 .

R1 = R3 = R, R 2 = R 4 = 2 R

I6 =

3E 2 E1

.
4R 4R
(12.8)

.12.2

12. .

218

: I 6 '
E1 = 0 , I 6 "

- E 2 = 0 ,
I 6 = I 6 '+ I 6 " . I 6 ' I 6 "
.

.12.3

E1 / 2 . I 4 = E1 / 4 R,

E2 = 0

, .12.3.



I 1 = E1 / 2 R, I 6 " = I 4 I 1 = E1 / 4 R .

I 4 = E 2 / 4 R, I 1 = E 2 / 2 R,
I 6 ' = 3E 2 / 4 R .

(12.8).
12.2. , .12.4,


, .
t = 0 .
.

E 2 C .
V ,

,

.12.4
(12.5), (12.6),
E 2 ( V ) ( I 6

V , ).
(12.8):

12. .

I6 =

219

3V + E1
.
4R

I 6 = C

dV
.
dt

3V + E1
dV
=
.
dt
4R

(12.9)

(12.9)
V (0) = 0 . , (12.9) V = E1 / 3 ,

V (t ) =

E1
3t

+ A exp
,
3
4
RC

- .
A = E1 / 3 . :

V (t ) =

E1
3


3t
1 .
exp
4 RC

(12.10)

12.3.
,
U 0 ,
t = 0 ,
.12.5.

.
. t > 0
:

I1 + I 2 + I 3 = 0 .
(12.1) :

.12.5

(12.11)

12. .

220
I1 = C

dU
,
dt

I2 =

U
,
R

dI 3
=U .
dt

(12.12)

(12.11)
, (12.12), : CU "+U ' / R + U / L = 0 ,

d 2U
dt

+ 2

dU
+ 02U = 0 ,
dt

(12.13)

2 = 1 / RC , 02 = 1 / LC .
:

U = exp( t )[A cos(t ) + B sin (t )] ,

(12.14)

= 02 2 , = 1 / 2 RC , 0 = 1 / LC .
A B
.
U (0) = 0 . U ' (0 ) , I 3 (0 ) = 0 ,
. t = 0

I 1 = I 2 , I 2 = U 0 / R . , U ' (0 ) = I1 (0 ) / C = U 0 / RC .
, : A = U 0 ,

B = U 0 / .

U = U 0 exp( t )cos(t ) sin (t ) .

12.4. ,


(. .12.6).
.

, , :

L1

dI1
dI
+ R1 I 1 = E + L12 2 ,
dt
dt

.12.6

(12.15)

12. .
L2

221

dI 2
dI
+ R2 I 2 = L12 1 .
dt
dt

(12.16)

Q2 ,

I 2 dt ,

(12.15),(12.16). (12.16)
:

L2 I 2

+ R2 Q2 = L12 I 1 .
0
0

(12.17)


I 1 (0 ) = 0, I 2 (0) = 0
I 1 ( ) = E / R1

I 2 ( ) = 0 ,
Q2 =

EL12
.
R1 R2

.12.7

12.5. , .12.7,
I1 ,
,
I 2 R2 .

.12.8

?
. .12.8,

.

12. .

222
Z = Z1 + Z 2 ,

Z 1 = iLR1 / (R1 + iL ),

Z 2 = R2 / (1 + iR2 C ) . (12.18)

~
~
U 1 = EZ 1 / (Z1 + Z 2 ), U 2 = EZ 2 / (Z 1 + Z 2 ),
~
~
I 1 = U 1 / i L ,
~

~
~
I 2 = U 2 / R2 .
~

(~

(12.19)

1 + iR2 C
.
1 + iL / R1

= arg I1 arg I 2 = arg I 1 / I 2 = arg

(12.20)

(12.20) :

= arctg (R 2 C ) arctg (L / R1 ) .
,

R2 C = L / R1 .
= 0 .
12.6. ,
I 3 (. .12.9)
.

.12.9

12. .

223

. ,
,
.
, ,
.
. , I 3

(.12.10) ,
. I 3 = 0
.
, , I 3 ,
( ),
.
,
.12.10
, ,
.12.10, V A V B . :

VA =

EZ 3
,
Z1 + Z 3

VB =

EZ 4
,
Z2 + Z4

Z 2 Z 3 = Z1Z 4 .

(12.21)


Z 2 = R1 , Z 3 = R2 , Z1 = iL Z 4 = 1 / iC ,

R1 R2 =

L
.
C

12. .

224

12.7. I ,
.12.11.
,
?
.
,
,
:

Z=
.12.11

Z1Z 2
,
Z1 + Z 2

Z 1 = R + iL,

Z 2 = R + 1 / iC

Z=R

(R + 1 / RC ) + i(L 1 / C ) ,
2 R + i(L 1 / C )

~
E
I = E/Z =
R

4 R 2 + (L 1 / C )2

(R + L / RC )2 + (L 1 / C )2

(12.22)

(12.22),

R + L / CR = 2 R , L = CR 2 ,
(12.22) Z = R
. .


, ,
.
. . ,
+, - .

12. .

225

12.1. 12 , ,
. ,
, , .

. I .
.
12.2. E1 , E 2

r1 , r2

.
.
12.3. R
(.12.12),


?
.12.12

12.4. ,
: R12 =2, R23 =4 R31=5 . ,
: I1=4,5, I2=1,5 . 1 2 ,
3 = 0 .
12.5. ,
r . , ,
, , ,
, .
,
, R .
12..6. , .12.13, R1
R1' ' R2 " .

12. .

226

.
.
E1 = 41B, E2 = 7 B, R1 = 1, R2 = 2,

R3 = 3 R 4 = 4 .
12.7.
(.12.14). :
E1=200 B, E2=10 B, E3=30 B, E4=56 B,
.12.13

r1=6 , r2=r3=30 , r4=15


r6=40 .

.12.14

12.8.
, .12.15.
.12.15
,
E1=5 B, E2=4 B, E3=3B, r1=2 , r2=1 , r3=0,5 R=2,5 .

12. .

227

12.9. , ,
D
(.12.16).
.

.12.16

12.10.

.12.17
(.12.17),
, R.
12.11. ,
.12.18, E1=6 B,
E2=16 B, E3=28 B, ri=2 Ri=9 .

.12.18

12.12.
2, 3 , .12.19,
.12.19

12. .

228

IAB=4 A? E1=4 B, r=0,5 , R=2,25 .


,
, .
,
.
+
1 , - 2 .
12.13. , .12.20,

t = 0 .

.12.20


I R (t ) .
.12.21
12.14.
, .12.21, .

12. .

229

12.15.
,
.12.22, .

.12.22

12.16.
,
.12.23, t = 0
1 2.
.12.23

12.17.

.12.24, t = 0

1
2.
C1 = C 2 = C .

.12.24

12.18.
(.12.25),
t = 0 .
.12.25

12. .

230

12.19.

(.12.26)
?
,
-- .

.12.26
12.20.

(.12.27)
,
t = 0.

.12.27
12.21.
(.12.28)
,
.

.12.28

12.22.
R


(.12.29)?

.12.29

12. .

231

12.23.

t = 0

(.12.30)

.12.30

12.24. R
(.12.31) ,

,
.
.12.31

12.25. (.12.32)

t = 0 .
U (t ) .

.12.32

12. .

232

12.26. U (t ) (.12.33)
, t = 0
: ) , ) .

.12.33
.12.34

12.27. ,
.12.34 3

12.28. 3R
.12.35
,
?

.12.35

12. .

233

12.29.
R (.12.36) ,
.

.12.36

12.30.
I ,
.12.37, ?

.12.37


12.31. 1 2
R ,
.12.38.
R

1.

.12.38

12.32.


(.12.39) r , L

?

.12.39

12. .

234

12.33.
V ,
.12.40.

.12.40

12.34. W ,
, .12.41.

.12.41

12.35.

,
,
.12.42, .
.

.12.42

12.36.
U 1 U 2

.12.43.
.12.43

12. .

235

12.37. I 1
I 2 , .12.44.

.12.44

12.38.

U 1 U 2 , .12.45.

.12.45

.12.46

12.39.
I 1 I 2 ,

.12.46, , I 3 I 4 .
, *, , .

12. .

236

12.40.

L1 , L3 , C 3 ,

,
.12.47,
,
.12.47. L0 , L2

C 2 .

.12.47

12.41. t = 0 r, L
(.12.48).

.

.12.48

12.42.
U 1 U 2 ,
.12.49.
.12.49

12. .

237

12.43.


I 1 I 2 ,
.12.50.
?

.12.50

12.44.
U 1 U 2

.12.51.

.12.51

12.45.

.12.52

U 0 . R

.12.53

(.12.52)

12. .

238

12.46. , ,
.12.53.
12.47. I1 I 2 ,
.12.54.

.12.55

12.48.
.12.54

L1

, .12.55,
I 0 cos t . .

12.49.


r ,
.12.56.

.12.56

13.

239

13.

,
(=const, =const) (

0 ) .

1 2 E
c 2 t 2

= 0,

(13.1)

c = ( 0 0 )1 2 .
( , ==1).

, ,
:

c=

c0 =

c0

00

(13.2)

= 3 108 / .

(13.3)

0
. , (13.2)
,

.
, 1,

13.

240

n = ,
.

,
:
E = E A cos(t kz ) ,

(13.4)

H = H A cos(t kz ) ,

(13.5)

E A H A
, , k ,
:
k=

(13.6)

. (13.4-5) z
.
,
(
) .
,

, :

0 [n E] = 0 H ,

(13.7)

n , .
, n , E H
, .. :

13.

241

E H ,
, .

, .
, ,

w = 0 E 2 .

(13.8)

, .. ,
,
, :

= [ E H ] = wc n .

(13.9)

(13.4), (13.8) (13.9),


2. ,
1015 /c. ,

.
:
T

I=

1
dt ,
T

(13.10)

T = 2 .

(/2).
13.1.
, v,
, , .
, ?

13.

242

.
OZ (. .13.1).
, ,

(13.5):

.13.1

E ( z , t ) = E A cos(t kz ) ,
t , E A , k =


c
, c , .
, , O Z
OZ.

z = z vt ,

(13.11)

v ,
.
, ,
(13.11) (13.4):
E (z ' , t ) = E A cos[t k ( z 'vt )] = E A cos[( + kv )t kz '] .

, k =

E (z ' , t ) = E A cos 1 + t kz ' .


c

(13.4),
.
:

13.

v
c

= 1 + .

243

(13.12)

, ,
.


. ,
, . (13.12),
, ,
.
, , .
13.2.

.
. ,
,
. ,
a0=0,5310-10 ,

. , E i

Ei =

1 e
,
4 0 a 02

e , .

. E ,

(13.4)

13.

244

, E A
E i . ,
I, (13.9-13.10):

I=

= c0 w

= 1 , (13.4)

I = 0 E2

= 0 c 0 E A2 cos 2 t

1
0 c 0 E A2 .
2

, E A = E i ,

I=

c0 e 2
32 2 0 a 04

w ,
,
, T.
, : I 10 20 /2.
13.3.
. (
) , I?
, .

13.

245

.
dV,
.
E H
.13.2.

,

j = E ,
.13.2

.
E H ,
,
. ,
(7.2). d F ,
dV:

[ ]

[ ]

d F = gJ d l , B = 0 dJ d l , H ,
B ,
,

dl

dV (. .13.2),

dJ = j d S 1

, d S 1
.

)[

d F = 0 j , d S 1 d l , H . j d l ,

)[ ]

[ ]

d F = 0 d l , d S 1 j , H = 0 dV j , H .

13.

246

, E

(13.9),
d F = 0

[[ ]

{ ( ) ( )}

0
dV j n, E = 0 0 dV n j , E E j , n ,
0

, , n
,
. E, j n ,

dF =

1
dV ( j E ) .
c

- (6.10),
.
,
. ,
.
dWEM = wdV (w ),
dV dt,

( )

dW = j , E dVdt , .
, d F :

dF =

dW EM
1 dW
n=
n.
c dt
cdt

, cdt = dl dW EM = wdV ,

dF = w

dV
n = wdS 2 n ,
dl

13.

247

dS2 dV,
.
, ,
dV . ,
,
, . , p
:

p=

dFn
,
dS 2

(13.10)

p=

,
c

.
,
:

I
.
c

13.4.
. 1=1 .
, ,
E
d=50 .

U 1max = 20 .

2=3 .

13.

248

.

E
,

(.
.13.3). ,


.
l. U1,2
.13.3
E1,2

:

U 1,2 = E1, 2 l .

(13.13)

, E 1, 2 ,
, .. .

(13.4):

E ( z , t ) = E A cos(t kz ) ,
z , t ,
, k =

E A

. OZ ,

. (13.4) :

E 1 = E A cos t ; E 2 = E A cos(t kd ) .

13.

249

,
(13.13)

U = U 1 U 2 = l (E 2 E1 ) = 2 E A l sin

kd
kd

sin t .
2
2

, ,
U max :

U max = 2 E A l sin

kd
d
= 2 E A l sin
.
2

,
,

U 1max

U 2max ,

1 2, :

U 2max
U 1max

sin
=

sin

2
d

U 2max ,

U 2max

=10 .

13.5. q,

a.
:

,
, ,
.

250

13.

. . ,
t<0 ,
t Ox
a,

.

,

t 0 >> t . ,

0
(
). ,
,
t=0, t0
.13.4

R1 = c0 t 0 . ,
, ,
, , ..
O. ,
Ox (. .13.4).
, . , t > t
, ,
, .
R2 = c0 (t 0 t ) ,
t0,
.
q t0
s :

13.

s x(t ) =

a(t )2
+ at (t 0 t ) // t << t 0 // a t 0 t .
2

251

(13.14)

,
Ox. ,
.
.
, ,
,
,
. ,
. ,
, ..
, .
E E||
:

E
h
s sin
=
=
,
E // c 0 t
c 0 t
(13.14)

E at 0 sin
=
.
E //
c0

:

E|| =

1 q
.
4 0 R22

13.

252
E = E||

a t 0 sin
a (R 2 c 0 ) sin
a q sin
.
E||
=
c0
c0
4 0 c 02 R 2

, t 0

R2
t << t 0 .
c0

, R2
, a
t=+0,
:

E (r , , t ) =

q sin

4 0 c02 r

a (t t 0 ) =

q sin

4 0 c 02 r

a(t r c0 ) ,

r ,
,
.
13.6. I0
1 ,
n1 n2. IR ,
, IT , ,

,
, .

13.

253

.
,
xOz , ..
,

r0

( Oz) n ,

(. .13.5).
E
,
,
.13.5

Oy. ,
E s. , ,
E p. ,
s- p- .

(4.6) (8.9),
,
. ,
(13.4),
(13.5) ( ,
,
z). ,
,
,
, E A H A . 1
( 0) ( R) ,

13.

254

2 ( T) . ,
:

E A0 + E AR = E TA ,

(13.15)

H A0 + H AR = H TA ,

(13.16)

E A H A .
s-
y, . (13.15-16)
(,
s-):
E A0 + E AR = E TA ,

(13.17)

H A0 + H AR = H TA .

(13.18)

(13.7) ,
:

0
0

HA =
x

ny E A nz E A
z
y

E A 0 ,
z

HA =
x

0
nz E A .
y
0

(13.19)

13.

255

, n

. , n z0 = cos 1 , n zR = cos 1 (
), n Tz = cos 2 .
H A0 =

1 0 0

E A cos 1 , H AR = 1 0 E AR cos 1 ,
x
1 0 y
1 0 y

H TA =

2 0 T
E A cos 2 .
20 y

(13.20)


,
n (. (13.2)). (13.20)
(13.18):
n1 E A0 cos 1 n1 E AR cos 1 = n 2 E TA cos 2 ,
y

, 1 2,
,

n2 sin 2 = n1 sin 1 :

sin 1 cos 2
cos 1 E A0 E AR = E TA
.
y
y
y

sin 2

(13.21)

(13.7) (13.11)
, E AR

E TA .
y

:
E AR = E A0
y

sin ( 2 1 )
,
sin ( 1 + 2 )

(13.22)

13.

256
E TA = E A0
y

2
.
1 tg 1 tg 2

(13.23)

, y-
. s-
Oy,
. (13.8), (13.9) (13.10),

:
I=

1
0 c 0 nE A2 .
2

(13.24)

(13.22) (13.23) E AR E TA
y

(13.24), :
2

sin ( 2 1 )
n2
4
I R = I0
.
, IT = I 0
2
(
)
sin

n
1 (1 + tg 1 tg 2 )
1
2

13.1.
, q,
. x0.
13.2. .
H0.
( ) ,
R,
?

13.

257

13.3. ,
,

{,, z}

E = pE 0 e

( / a )2

cos(t kz ) ,

, OZ. ( )
, .. , ?
13.4.
,
E0.
,

E . : ,
; .
13.5.
. a,

H ,
. ,
, ,
E0.
13.6. I0
1 ,
n1 n2. IR ,
, IT , ,
, E
(p- ).

14.

258

14.

14.1.
()
. , q, r m .
v , ,
,
?
.
. .14.1

. ,

,
,
,

mv 2 0 Q
Q
2
+
.
=2
2
2
2
(14.1)
kQ
,
r

.
0 =

.14.1

14.

259

, .14.2.
, x >> r , ,


,

q 02 = Q , . (
,
,
, ,
.
). ,
.14.2

, , q11 (.
4 4):

q1 = q 0

r
,
x

b1 =

r2
.
x

(14.2)

q 02 q11 ,

kq10
.
r
,

q12 ,
, , .
q 12 :

14.

260

q 2 = q1

r
,
x b1

b2 =

r2
.
x b1

(14.3)

q 22 ,
. q13 ..

kq0
.
r

q 0

qi = Q .

(14.4)

1= 0

,
, .
,
.
, . (14.4)
,
.
q i (14.2) (14.3) x = 2r ( ):

q1 =

q0
,
2

q0
,
3
q
q3 = 0 ,
4
q2 =

..

r
,
2
2
b2 = r ,
3
3
b3 = r ,
4

b1 =

14.

261

(14.4),

1 1 1 1

Q = q 0 1 + + ... .
2
3
4
5

, ln 2 .
q 0 ,
(14.1),

v=

0
m

Q =Q

k 1

1 .

mr ln 2

14.2. .
l , - a ,
d . ,
x .
q,
m .
,
x 0 .
. 0 x l
.
dx
.
x , v =
dt

mv 2
, : 2

mg x + ,
2

14.

262

q2
q2

.
2C 0
2C (x )

C (x ) =

0 a(l x )
d

0 ax
d

0a
d

(l + x x ) .

L=

2
mx& 2
q 2d
1
l
q
+ mg + x +

,
2
2
2
C
2

l
+
x x

0
0

m&x& mg

q 2d
1
=0.
2 0 a (l + x x )2


x l . x > l ( ),
,
m&x& = mg .
&x& = 0 ,

x0 =

d ( 1)
lq
.
1
2 0 amg

, x0 l ,

mgl
( 1)3 .
E0

14.

263

mgl
,

E0 =

q2
-- .
2C 0
x0 > l ,

.
14.3. R .
F , ,
Q .
. dS ,
,
dq .
dq , , .
,
Q

=
.
E =
2
0
4 0 R
dS

dq ,

E =

.
2 0

, ,
, dq

.14.3

2 0

.14.3. dq

14.

264

dF =

dq .
2 0

,
.
,

.14.4.
, ,
d ,
0 z

dFz =
.14.4

--

q sin .
2 0
,

q = 2R cos Rd .
q dFz ,

/2

F=

Q2
2 R 2

2R 2 sin cos d =
=
.
2 0
2 0
32 0 R 2

14.4. , ,
d = 1 ,
r = 0,2
.
.
.
( r << d ,
), ,
(. 7 3)

14.

r
p = 4 0 r 3 E = E .

265

.
,
.
,
,
.
,

. 0 x

0 x
. ,
.14.5
,
{x,0,0} , (.14.5)

E
E
y
y

Fx = qE x x, qE x x,
= ql x = p x .
2
y
y
2

Fx = E y

E y
x

E x E y
=
( rot E = 0 ),
y
x

, 0 x dx

dA = Fx dx = E y

E y2
dx = d
2
x

E y

14.

266

A =
E y =

E y2
2

Q
,
0S

= 4 0 r 3 , S .

,
2

W0 =

Q
.
2C

W =

Q2
2C 2

C .

, W = A ,

C = C

W
C
=
,
W0
C

A
4r 3 2
=
C .
W0 0 S 2

C =

0S
d

=40r3/d2 = 8,8510-6 .
14.5.
U .
. , ,
? ?

14.

267

.

,
.

C1 C 2 (. .14.6).

0 , -

( 0 + U ) .
.14.6

( -)
, Q

2.

Q = q (1) + q 2(1)
(1)
q (1) q 2
=
,
C
C2

QC
.
C + C2
2 , q (1)
q (1) =

1.

q (2 ) =

Cq (1)
C 2Q
=
. ,
C + C1 (C + C1 )(C + C 2 )

k=

C2
.
(C + C1 )(C + C 2 )

, ,
.

14.

268

Q2
. ,
2C
1 2.

14.6. C
, l
. ,
B .
m ,
.
, .
, .
.
Ox,
(. .14.7).
, :

FT = mg ,

, (7.2),

.
,
I ,
, ,
.14.7
.
FA = IlB .
Ox:

ma = mg IlB

14.

269

a= g

IlB
,
m

(14.1)

a .

.
:

= B ds = Blx .
S

S , , -
,
d S B .
, :

d
dx
= Bl
= Blv ,
dt
dt

(14.2)

v = v(t ) .

,
1 2 (. .14.7)
: 0 = u 2 u1 + i
,

u12 =

(14.3)

, ,
u12 u1 u 2
, Q: u12 =

Q
C

14.

270

Q = C u12 = CBlv .

:

I=

dQ
dv
= CBl
= CBla .
dt
dt

(14.4)

(14.1),
:

a=

g
B 2l 2C
1+
m

(14.5)

,

,
.
,
(14.5) (14.4):

I=

BlCg
B 2l 2C
1+
m

14.7.

m l . L , R . ,
.
, .

14.

271


.
.

.
0x
,
:

m g

FA = IlB . .14.8.

, 6, - (14.1).

6
(14.2): Ei = Blv . ,
,
6.
:

.14.8

dI1
+ Ei = 0,
dt

RI 2 = L

dI1
,
dt

I = I1 + I 2 .

(14.3)

(14.3) Ei ,

LI 1 + Blx = C .
0 x ,
=0, t = 0 .
(14.3) I :

I = I1 +

L dI 1
.
R dt

(14.9)

14.

272

Bl
x , I (14.1),
L

(14.4) I1 =

d 2x

dt 2

(Bl )2

dx (Bl )2

x=g.
mR dt
mL

(14.5)

, (14.5)
x = x = 0

gmL

x0 =

(Bl )2

(Bl )2 (Bl )2

2 +

1.

mR

(Bl )2
2

4mR

<

mL

(14.5)

= 0.

1
,
L

1, 2 = i ,
=

(Bl )2 ,
2mR

2 =

(Bl )2
mL

(Bl )4
4m 2 R 2

(14.5)

x=

mgL

(Bl )2

+ exp( t )[A cos t + C sin t ] .

: t = 0

x(0) = 0, x(0) = 0 ,

(14.6)

14.

0=

mgL

(Bl )2

273

0 = A + C .

+ A,

x=

2.

mgL

1 exp( t ) cos t + sin t .


2

(Bl )

(Bl )2
2

4mR

1
,
L

>

1 = + 2 ,

2 = 2 , (14.5)

(14.6)

x=

A =

mgL

(Bl )

+ Aexp(1t ) 1 exp( 2 t ) ,
2

mgL 2

(Bl ) (1 + 2 )
2

1 = + 2 ,

mgL

(Bl )2

2 = 2 .

(Bl )2 ,
2mR

(Bl )2
4mR

<

1
mgL

, x =
1 exp( t ) cos t + sin t ,

2
L

(Bl )

2 =

(Bl )2
mL

(Bl )4
4m 2 R 2

14.

274

A =

(Bl )2
4mR

>

mgL 2

(Bl )2 (1 + 2 )

mgL
1
+ Aexp(1t ) 1 exp( 2 t ) ,
, x =
2
L
2
(Bl )

,
mgL

(Bl )2

1 = + 2 ,

2 = 2 .

. 0 x

14.8.

, .14.9:
a = 5, R = 7,5, l = 10, h = 10

N =200, I =2.
,
=200?

. ,

(.14.9).

(
, .14.9.)

A = F , F
.14.9
.
1
W = LI 2 ,
2

14.

W =

275

1
I ,
2

Ai = IEi dt = I ,

.

A = F = I +

1
1
I = I .
2
2

(14.7)

= BNa 2 ,
B , ,
, . ,
,
, .14.9 :
1. , .14.9
B1

[ R + 2 h + l + 2 a ] +

B1

2 = IN ;

2. , .14.9
B2

[ R + 2 h + l + 2 a ] =

IN ;.

B1 B 2 ,
(14.7),

14.

276
F =

(INa )2 0
1
INa 2 (B2 B1 ) =
2
2

1
1

R + 2h + l + 2a R + 2h + l + 2a + 2

.
, << R, h, l , a ,

IaN

0 ,
R + 2 h + l + 2 a
2

IaN

2
F =
0 = 49,8 H .
R + 2h + l + 2a


14.1. Q
R (.14.10).

.14.10

.

.

14.2. , ,
m , k (. .14.11).

d0 .

.
4
d = d 0 . .
5

14.

277

14.3.

,
d ,
,

(.14.12).

R ,

.14.11
d .
, M ,
,
.
V ,
.
.14.12
14.4. ,
d = 1 .
,
. V
?
M = 1 , l = 10 .
: .
14.5. 2d
= 0 x / d

( d x d ) ,

x -

0 x , .

14.

278

0 x , m
p , .
.
14.6. 3,
q ?
.
14.7. ,
q. .
.
, a . ,
, ,
. -
H 1 , h1 ,
H 2 . ,

m?

14.8. , n ,
I . p , .
= 1 .
14.9. ,
.
,
P = k r ( k = const , r -,
).

14.

279

,
R .
14.10. = 100

F = 10 H ,
I = 10 A .
,
(.14.13)
L ( ), l = 50 .
14.11. ,
.14.9 ,

2 ,

.14.13

1 ?

14.12. R
,
U .
r ,
B r
B = B0 (r / R )q r < R, q > 0 ,
B0 q -- . E (r ) , ,
.
14.13. R l

(l << R )

14.

280

, .
= 1 . .
14.14. 2d
= 0 x / d ( d x d ) , x -

0 x , .
0 x , ,
. ,
, .
14.15.

2d

= 0 x / d ( d x d ) , x -

0 x , .
0 x , ,
.
.
14.16. R .

R1. F , ,
Q .
?
14.17. R Q .
, .

14.

281

14.18. m,
q, .
.

.
14.19. .14.14
J
H ,


, N .

l.
() L .
I 0
.14.14

.
B I > I 0 ?
J .
14.20. ,
(. .14.15 )
R , N ,
I . B (
)? ,

r0 << r c

>>1?
.14.15

14.

282

14.21. R = 1 ,

h = 10

? .
14.22. 6

R. .
14.23. 6

L. .
14.24. , n
, V
. , .
14.25. R = 1 ,

h = 10

r
14.26. p m

.14.16


,

(. .14.16 ).
a

R ,

l >> a . n
. .

283

15.

15.
1.
1.1. q ' =

3
1.2. E =

qb

, E ,

8 0 a 3

.
2

1.3.

Fe
1 e
42
=
= 4,2 10
Fg 4 0 G m

1.4. a =

1.5.

e2
4 0 mr 2

= 2,5 108 / 2

2
F
=
= 8,1 /
l
2 0 b

1.6. F =

1 2
l
ln1 + , .
2 0 r0

1.7. E = 0
1.8. E y =

3qa 2
4 0 r 4

Ex = 0 .

284

15.

1.9. E z =

z
1
2
2
2 0 a
a + z2
Q

z << a

E =

E =

4 0 z 2

, z >> a

1.10. E z =

Q
2 0 a 2

z
1
1
, z

2
2
2 0 R 2 + z 2
+
R
z
2
1

1.11.
.15.1, E1 =
1.12. E =

4 0

.
2 0

.
1.13. E =
.15.1

1.15.

E=

1
4

a.
3 0

1.14.

e2

0 mR 3

(r ) = const =

3e
,
4R 3

= 2,5 1015 .

R
1
1

2
2 0 R 2 + (a l )2
R + (a + l )2

285

15.
1.16. E =

l
arctg ,
0
h

1.17. E x =
1.18. E =

l 2 + h2 + l
,
ln
4 0
l 2 + h2 l

0 l 2

Ez =

r r
1.19. E = n

r 1 1
2
, n =
,

4 0 a
2 2

r r
1.20. E = n

r 1 1 1
3
,
,
, n =

4 0 a
3 3 3

1.21. E =

z
l
arctg .
2 0 z
h

6
4 0 z
2.

2.1. A =
2.2. =

qq'
4 0

1 1
, , ) A = 0
r1 r2

q 1 1
q
1
... =
ln 2
+
2 0 a 2a 3a
2 0 a

2.3. A = 0 , A =
2.4. ) W = 0,

M = p e E , ,

W = pe E , M = 0 ,
2.5. ) W =

qq'

0 a

p1 p 2

0 r

) W = pe E , M = 0 ; F = 0

, ) W =

p1 p 2
2 0 r 3

, ) W = 0

286

15.

2.6. =

2
l

2 pe E
pe E
, =
m
ml 2

2.7. ) p e r ,

) p e r , ) p e r

2.8. E ( ) =

p e 1 + 3 cos 2
4 0 R 3

.
R
2.9. =
,
2 0

Ez =

4 0

, --

, Oz

4 0 r
= 2 1010 ,
M = mn = 2 10 20
e
r
r
r
r
2
3
1
2.11. E = E x i + E y j + E z k , E x = 4
, Ey = 4
, Ez = 4
a
a
a
qpe
2.12. F =
, ,
2 0 d 3
2.10. n =

,
.
2.13. l = 2 a 2 R 2 .
2.14. , .
R
2.15. =
.

3. .

3.1. q =

2 0 mg tg

287

15.

1
1
(q1 q 2 ) ,
'1 = ' 2 = (q1 + q 2 ) ,
2
2
q q2
q + q2
, E x = E x = 1
Ex = 1
.
2 0
2 0

3.2. 1 = 2 =

3.4.
3.5. ,
. ,

.
1) ,
, .
-
, . 2)

, .
3.6. ,
.
3.7.

R1 (R2 R3 ) Q
R (R R )
2
2 3
1 4 0 r
E = R (R R )
Q
1
3 2
2
(
)
R
R

R
2 3
1 4 0 r

0
.
Ux
3.8. E1 = 2 ,
d

E2 =

3.9. q 3 = q 22 / q1 .
3.10.

r < R1

U (x + d )
d2

R1 < r < R2
R 2 < r < R3
R3 < r

, r -

288

15.

R 2 r
r, r R
r r 2 r 2
0
3.11. E (r ) = r
, r
r , r R
2
0

2d
, ,
3.12. E =
0 4h 2 + d 2

.
3.13. E x =

d x

0 x

E x = x / 0 . 0 x , x = 0
.
3.14. q =
3.15. (r ) =
3.16. F =

Q
.
( R / r + 1)
2 0 E 0
.
r

24 0 E 02 a 6

, .
r4
3.17. ) E1 = E 3 > E 2 ;
) D1 = D 2 = D 3 = q .
, D
.
3.18. ) (x ) =

x x < a ; ( x ) =

1
) ' = 0 E 1 ;

x
x
+ E x a

x
x

) P =

( 1)

0E

x >a;

289

15.
P cos r
r
n,
0
3.19. E =
0,

3.20. ) E =

, D = 0 ; ) E =

2 L
2 L

P , D = 1
P
0 l
l

3.21. E ' = ( 1)E / 3 = P / 3 0 .


3.22. ,
.

4.
q 2 aR

4.1. F =

4 0 R 2 a 2

n , n .

2R
1+ 4
1 8
n , =
, n
2
2
a
4 0 a
1 4

.
4.2. F =

q2

4.3. ) F =

3 p e2
64 0 a 4

; )

F1 = 2 F .

R
q
1 2
1
, = , -
3
/
2
a
4Ra

1 2 cos + 2

,
M .
4.4. (M ) =

290

15.

4.5. 1) A =

4.6. F =

q2R

8 0 a 2 R 2

2) A =

q2 R3

8 0 a 2 a 2 R 2

).

q2

2 , .
2
8 0 d
2

4.7.

,
.15.2,

b = R 2 / a, q ' = qR / a .

( x, y, z ) =

1
4 0

q
x 2 + y 2 + ( z a )2

qR

a 2 x 2 + a 2 y 2 + za + R
.15.2

qR

a 2 x 2 + a 2 y 2 + az R 2

qR
- ,
d
d > R,
dR

4.10. 0 x E = x .
, ,
0 x ,
= 0 .
4.11. F =

2 1 q 2
,
16 0 1 2 + 1 d 2
1

2 > 1 , , 2 < 1 .

x 2 + y 2 + ( z + a )2

.
4.8. q ' =

q
Q
4 R + 4 d
0
0 ,
4.9. =
Q + q)
(

4 0 R

2 2

291

15.

2 1
;
a
4 E ( )
0 = 0 0 2 2 1 = 0,59 / 2 .
a( 1 + 2 )

4.12. = 0E 0 / ( 1 + x )2 , =

4.13. max = ( 1) 0 E = 3,5 / 2 ,


4.14. =

Q+ = max R 2 = 1,1 10 10 .

2 3PE
l

r
4.15. F =

r
2 2 1 v
n , n - ,
4 0 1d 2 + 1


4.16. ( ) =

qL
1 1
2 + 1 2 + L2

3/ 2

, ,
1
. Q =
q ,
+1

F=

1 q2
.
4 0 + 1 4 L2
1

4.17. ) ;

) .

0
4.18. = 3a 0 ,
R 3

r>R
.
r<R

4.19. q = 4 0 a ,
=

3 0 a

R3

292

15.

0
4.20. =

12a 0 r

r>R
, R
r<R

= 3a 0 R 2 .
4.21. q = 4 0 a , R

4.22. q = 4 0 b , -
(r ) =
4.23. E (r ) =

ba 2 0
exp( ar ) .
r

Q
1
, r
11 + 2 2 0 r 2

5. .

5.1. C =

4 0 R1
.
R
1 + 1 ( 1)
R2

5.2. W = 2 0 R1U 2 .

d
5.3. C = C0 1 + = 3C0 .
d1
5.4. C =

0 S ( 1 2 )
.

d ln 1
2

5.5. ) ; )
5.6. C =

4 0 a a
,
ln(b / a )

W =

2 0 a a 2
U .
ln(b / a )

293

15.

5.7. C 0 =

5.8.

C = 0

E=

ar
ln
r

ln (a / r )

0 lr ( 1 1 + 2 2 )

1 1 + 2 2
ln(R 2 / R1 )

r-

l.
U
n 1
=
--
U0
n

5.9. .

5.10. 1) , ), ; 2) C 4 =

C1C 2
,
C1 + C 2

C3 .
5.11. .
5.12. C1 .
5.13. W2 = W1 --

.
5.14.

Q = 2 0

R1 R2 (1 2 )2 + R1 R3 (1 3 )2 + R2 R3 ( 2 3 )2
= 4,5 1014 .
(R1 + R2 + R3 )

5.15. 1) W =
5.16. A =
5.17. x =

S 0 ( 1)U 2
,
2d

A = 2 W ;

2) W = A =

S 0 ( 1)U 2
.
2d

q2
(d 0 d ) , .
2 0 S
d
0 S

2dA

294

15.
q2

5.18. W =

1 1
.
8 0 a b

5.19. W =

q 2 ( + 1)
.
16 R 0

5.20. A =

q2
= 0,9 .
40 0 r

5.21.

A1
d
=
.
A2 d s

5.22. = 1 .

5.23. C = 0 1 1 + 2 2

) RR RR
1 2

5.24. M =

0 ( 1)U 2 R 2
4d

6.
UR2
,
R1 + R2

U2 =

UR1
.
R1 + R2

6.1.

U1 =

6.2.

tg 1 1
=
, 1 , 2 - ,
tg 2 2

.
6.3.

R=

1 1
1 1
.
+
2 2 a b 21 b

6.4.

1 1
1
+
.
2 a1 a 2

295

15.
6.5.

N1 1
=
= 10 .
N 2 2

6.6.

N1 =

R1 =
6.7.
6.8.
6.9.

2
0 R1

(R1 + R2 )2

, N2 =

2
0 R2

(R1 + R2 )2

d1
d
1 , R 2 =
2 .
2S
2S
2 0 0 ( 2 1 12 )
=
.
d (1 + 2 )

R=

.
2r
(C + C 2 )
R= 0 1
.
C1C 2
U 2 R1

N1 =

R1 =

1 1 1
1
, R2 =
41 r1 r2
4 2

6.11.

N1 =

R1 =

r
r
1
1
ln 2 , R2 =
ln 3 .
2l1 r1
2l 2 r2

6.12. U =

(R1 + R2 )2

U 2 R1

(R1 + R2 )2

, N2 =

U 2 R2

6.10.

6.13.

, N2 =

(R1 + R2 )2

R=

D
1 l
+ ln .

D
d

1
1
.
r

2 r3

U 2 R2

(R1 + R2 )2

l
ln1 + = 14,9 .
L r0

296

6.14.

15.



ln tg 0 ln tg
2
2
, ,
=U
0
2 ln tg
2


ln tg 0 .
2

6.15.

R=

6.16.

E (r ) =

6.17.

(r ) ~

6.18.

2U 0 r

R 22

R12

(r ) =

4 0U 0

(R

2
2

).

.
r4
1
~ j~ .
r

6.19. = 0 lj

1 2

[1l + (2 1 )x]2

, x ,

.
6.20.

R12

N=

6.21.

P=

6.22.

I=

6.23.

I=

qk k .
k =1

4U 02
1
1

R1 R2

2lU 0
t
.
exp

ln(R2 R2 )
0

0 Sv

(d 0 + vt )2

297

15.

t.

6.24. I =

2 0
d

6.25. R

2
a
ln( ) .
R r

7.

7.1. B =

r
0 8I a 2 + b 2
. B
4
ab

.
7.2. , ;
r
r i ; er
r
B= 0
, e
- , ,
2
.
:

[ ]

B=2

2
0

0 hidx
h2 + x 2

, h - ,

r
B .

r
r r
7.3. , ; B = 0 i ; e ,
r
r
e - , i ,
.

[ ]

0, 0 R

7.4. B( ) = 0 2 I
.
4 , > R

298
7.5. B =

15.
Id
0 Id
. : I d =
I d ,
2
2
R
4 ar

r 2 R r
B = 0 . :

3
; , +d,
Rsin R2sind.
r
7.7. B 7.7.
I
, - . B = 0 ( 2
7.6.

). B=0.
I
l
7.8. B|| = 0 arctg
( ).
l
2h
I
7.9. B = 0 (1 + cos ) , r .
2r
2I.
7.10. F = 2 IRB .

1
7.11. F = 0 I1 I 2
1

2
2
1 R / a

7.12. , ;
mv sin
2mv cos
2m
R =
; h =
. T =
qB
qB
qB
h . 4R.

qBL

, v0 m

7.13. =
arcsin q BL v0 > qBL
m v

m
0

299

15.
7.14. B0 =

r
I 0 n
tg . B0
2R
n

;. n B0 =

I 0
.
2R

7.15. B0=0.

r
I R2 a2
B0 = 0
+ arcsin
R
R

7.8.
IN ln(R1 / R2 )
7.17. B0 = 0
,
2(R1 R2 )
7.16.

r
a
, B0

r
B0

. R1 / R2 1 B0 =

0 IN
2 R1

R1 NI ).
7.18. =

l
e
D
2
, = lB
.
1 1 +

2mU

1 2

r
r
r
1
7.19. B0 = 0 R 2 r 2 , B0 = 0 .
2
T
7.20. I =
. : dl I
BR
dl
F=IBdl T = ,
R

dl
2T sin . T
= IBdl .
2
R

300

15.
8.

I
2R 2 , 0 R1
1

I
8.1. H ( ) =
, R1 R2 .
2
0 > R2

:. .
r r
r
r
j ,a
8.2. H =
, a .
2
r
r
: "" j j .

[ ]

H.
4IN1 2
8.3. B =
.

c 2d1 2 + d (1 + 2 )
2

8.4.

B=

0 1 2 I
.
r (1 + 2 )

r r
r r
r r
B1 (r ) = B2 (r ) = 2 0 1 2 H 0 (r ) ;
1 + 2
r r
r
r
21
H 2 (r ) =
H 0 (r ) .
1 + 2
r r
1
8.6. B = B0
.

2
R13 ( 1)2
1+ 1 3
9
R2
8.5.

r r
H1 (r ) =

2 2 r r
H (r ) ;
1 + 2 0

15.
8.7. f =

1 ( 1) 2
I .
2h ( + 1)

I / 2R 2 , 0 R
8.8. B( ) = 0
0 I / 2 , > R

r r
r
r
( 1) r 2 .
8.9. B = B 2 B1 = B0 1 2

l 2

r r ( 1) l
.
8.10. B = B0 1 +
2r

8.11. B =

0 Jh

.
2R
1
1
8.12. B = 0 J m R 2 + l 2 R / l 0 J m (1 R / l ) .

2
2

8.13. H =

Q
Q
, B = 0
.
2L
2L

8.14. H = 0 J
1
2R
= I ; ) I
= I .
8.15. ) I

9. . . .

9.1. L =

( 1 + 2 ) 0 N 2 h R 2
ln
= 0,47 .
4
R1

0l d
ln =1,2 .

a
l R
9.3. L = 0 ln 2 = 0,6 .
2
R1
9.2. L =

301

302

15.

L
9.4. 1). L = L1 + L2 ; 2). N = N1 1 + 2 .
L1

9.5. L12 =

0 Nh R2
ln
=6 .
2
R1

9.6. L12 = 0Nns 25 .


9.7. L =

0 N 2 h ( R2 + ( 1))
ln
=1.87 .
2
( R1 + ( 1) )

9.8. L12 = 0Nns os


9.9. L = 0N 2S/(l d).
9.10. W M =
9.11. W =
9.12. k =

0h J 2 R
ln =0,6 .
4
r

0 N 2 hI 2 R2
ln
=0,15 .
4
R1

W
4S 2 n02
=
2700 .
W
ln S 2 S1

9.13. I max = U 0

C
= 0,12 A.
L

9.14. F = 0I1I2n1n2r2 40

1
2
9.15. L = L0 1 + + 2 .

10. .

10.1. U =

1 2
g
0 Bd gl sin 2t
, g .
2
l

303

15.
10.2.

= 0 vB =8,8510-13 /2.

10.3.

L =

10.4. I 2max =

L
.
N
2 0 I 0
[h ln(1 + h d )] =3,4 .
e R

10.5. Q =

0 Ia
ln (1 + b c ) =1 .
R

10.6. Q =

0I b s c + a
ln
=6,6 .
4 (a + b) c a

10.7. Q =

Ba 2
(1 4 ) (<0, .. ,
R

,
0 I a b v
10.8. i =
.
2 (c + vt )(a + c + vt )

10.9. (t ) = B a b sin t .
10.10. (t ) = a b B ( sin t cos t + sin t cos t ) .
1 + ln 2 ln 2
10.11. = B a b
sin
.
2
2
i

10.12. Q = 0InS/R
10.13. Q =
10.14.

L1L2
R1R2

(t ) = I

0R I0R

L t
.
e

B ).

304

15.
11.

11.1. P =

k 2 l R 4 =0,94 .

B02 2 R 4 h R 2
ln
.
4
R1

11.2. P =

r 2k t
r
11.3. B =
1e z (, ,
e

0z.
11.4.

4
d
( x ) = 0U 0
9
x

11.5.

j=

1
, (d / 2) = 25 / 3 .
2
d

4
2e U 03 / 2
0
= 264 / 2 .
9
m d2

11.6. v = 2 2 / 3
11.7.

2/3

= 3d

2eU 0
= 3,7 10 6 / .
m
m
=5 .
2eU 0

U 0r
= 4 10 3 / ; B0 = 0 H 0 = 5 10 9 ,
2d
U r
H 1 = 0 0 = 4 10 2 / ; B1 = 0 H 1 = 5 10 6 .
2d
11.9. .
D
vU
D
11.10. 1) j =
= 0; 2) j =
= 0 2 .
t
t
d
11.8.

H 0 = 0

305

15.

11.12.

R 4 (ne )2
4 0 r 2

2W
,
m

1 2
2W
, r .
r (ne )2
4 0
m
r
.
=

11.13. B =
11.14. F =

2
9c 2

2e U 03 / 2
r 1.4 10 9 .
m d2

4 eU 02
9c 2 md 2

R.

12. . .
12.1. 1) I ; 2) 0,8I .
12.2. =(E1r2+E2r1)/(r1+r2), r=r1r2/(r1+r2).
12.3. R= R2

R3 + R 4
.
R2 + R 4

12.4.

1 = 3 + R13

J 1 R12 + (J 1 + J 2 )R23
J R + ( J 1 + J 2 )R13
= 15B; 2 = 3 + R23 2 12
= 12 B
R12 + R23 + R13
R12 + R23 + R13

.
12.5. R=Rr(3R+r)/(R2+6Rr+r2).
12.6. AB = 0
12.7. I E1 = 10 A, I E 2 = 5 A, I E 3 = 1A, I E 4 = 3 A, I r 5 = 4 A, I r 2 = 2 A .
12.8. I =

r2 E1 + r1 E 2 + (r1 + r2 )E3
= 2A .
r1r2 + r2 r3 + r1 r3 + R(r1 + r2 )

306

15.

12.9.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

+ E1
E1

E 2
E 2
+
+
+
+

R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
1
2
2
3
1
2
1
4

A =
, B = E2 , C =
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+
+
+
+
R1 R2 R3 R4
R1 R2 R3 R4
12.10. r = r` + r2 +
12.11. IAB=

r1 r2
,
r1 + r2

E = E 2

r2
r 2r2
+ E1 1
r1 + r2
r1 + r2

R(E1 E 2 + E3 ) + 3rE1
= 3A .
3r (R + r )

12.12. 2 = 7 , 3 .
E
12.13. I R (t ) =
exp( t )[ sin t cos t ] ,
R

1
, =
2 RC

1
1

.
CL 4 R 2 C 2

12.14. U C = E / 3 .

R2

12.15. Q( ) =

R1 + R2

CE

R
12.16. U L (t ) = (E 2 E1 ) exp t .
L

3 5
5

exp
t exp
t exp
t
2 RC
2 RC 2 RC
5

U 1 (t ) =

U 2 (t ) =

12.17.

12.18. U (t ) =

5 2 RC

3 5 1
5 +1
5

exp
t
exp
t +
exp
t

2 RC
2
2 RC 2
5

1 1
R2
1
E 1 exp
+

R1 + R2
C R1 R2

307

15.

12.19.. =

2 RC

ln

3+ 5
0,86 RC
2

t
12.20. U C (t ) = E exp
.
rC
12.21. U L (t ) =

2
R
E exp t .
3
L

L
.
2C

12.22. R <

12.23. = arctg ( rC )

E
R
4 R
t .
3 2 exp t exp
6R
L

12.24. I (t ) =

12.25. U (t ) = E
12.26. ) U (t ) =
12.27. t =

2 2
E
3
exp
t 2 + 2 exp
RC
4
RC

E
t

exp
,
2
3
RC

2 2
t + 2 2 exp

RC

) U (t ) = 0 .

6
RC ln 6 .
5
E t 3
11
t .
exp
exp
4 R RC 7
7 RC

12.28. I (t ) =
12.29.

I (t ) =

2
2
2r + R 4r + R
exp
t exp
2 L
2L

4r 2 + R 2

E

12.30. I (t ) =

E
R2

R1
R
exp 2 t .
1
R
+
R
L
1
2

4r 2 + R 2
t exp

2L

t .

308

15.
E 0C1

12.31. I R =

I C1 =

1 + 2 R 2 (C1 + C 2 )2

E 0C1 1 + 2 R 2 C 22
1 + 2 R 2 (C1 + C 2 )

12.32. 1) =

1
,
cos t + arctg
R(C1 + C 2 )

RC 2 (C1 + C 2 )
.
cos t + arctg
C1

2) r =

r ,

LC
12.33. V = U 0

R 2 + ( L + 1 / C )2
R 2 + ( L 1 / C )2

L
C

12.34. W = 0
12.35. C =

2L

W =

U 02 2 R 2 + 2 L2

.
2 R R 2 + 2 L2

(
)
(
)
R (1 + LC )
= arctg
(L R C )

12.36. = arctg

L R 2C
R 1 + 2 LC
2

12.37.

12.38. = arctg

2rC
2 2

r C 2 1
12.39. =
12.40. L1 = L0 + L2 ,

L2
L
L3 = (L0 + L2 ) 0 , C 3 = C 2
L2
L0 + L2

309

15.
rt
12.41. I = I 0 exp , I 0 =
L

= arctg
12.42. = arctg

L
r + r0

sin ( ) ,

),
(r C + L )
2

= 2arctg

n 1

r
n
L

2 n

L
r

L +

U 02 C
C
45. W =
1
8L
L
C
12.46. W =

(r0 + r )2 + 2 L2

r 1 2 LC

12.43. max = arctg


12.44.

R =

E 02 R1 + R2 + 2 R12 R2 C 2

2L
1 2 LC

).

(R + R )2 + R R C
2
1 2
1

12.47. tg =

6 2 LC 2 R 2 C 2 3

2RC 2 LC + 1

12.48.

[ (

)]

[ (

E (t ) = I 0 R1 1 2 L2 C + R2 1 2 L1C cos t I 0 C R1 R2 2 L1 L2 + (L1 + L2 ) sin t

12.49. = arctg RC

310

15.
13.

13.1. E (r , , t ) =
13.2. P =
13.3. P =

q x0 2
4 0 c 2 r

sin cos(t kr ) .

0 c 0 H 02 R 2 .
a 2 0 c0 E 02 .

13.4. (1) x(t ) =

E 0
[cos cos(t + )] E0 sin t , =1,761011 /
2

;
E0

(2)
13.5.

<<

c0

(t ) = 4aE
i

~10-3 ()/
sin

c t

sin 2 0 + 0 , 0

.
2

tg ( 2 1 )
n2
4 cos 2 1 sin 2 2
13.6. I R = I 0
,
, IT = I 0
n1 cos 2 ( 1 2 ) sin 2 ( 1 + 2 )
tg( 1 + 2 )
n

2 = arcsin 1 sin 1 .
n2

311

15.
14.
14.1. 2 =
14.2. 2 =

4Qp

0 35 / 2 mR 4
k
2m

0 (1 )R 2V 2

14.3. M =

4d
2Mgd
= 4,75
0l

14.4. V =

14.5. T = 2

0 dm
p 0

14.6. F =

q +
2
16 0 R

14.7. a =

H 1 H 2 h12
, q = a 4 0 mg
H 1 + H 2 2h1

14.8. p = 0 I 2 n 2 .
14.9. B = 0kr 2 .
14.10. L =

2 Fl

( 1)I 2

= 10 3
2

14.11.

F1 1 2
R + 2h + l + 2a

=

F2 2 (R + 2h ) + 1 (2a + l )

14.12. n(r ) =

(1 + q ) B

0 evR

q 1

E (r ) =

1 r
B0 , v =
v R

2eU
m

--

312

15.

R 2 2 l 3
6 0

14.13. W =
14.14. v =

0d

14.15. T =

2 ( + 2)
3( 1)
Q2

14.16 . F =

1
1 R1

, R1 = R .
2
2
R
16 0 R

14.17. p =

2
Q2
=
2 0 32 0 2 R 4

14.18. a =

H 1 H 2 h12
H 1 + H 2 2h1

14.19. I 0 =

L
l
H + J ,
N
L

14.20. B0 =

0 I

B=

0 NI
L

+ I 0 1
L

, .
2R
,
3

B1 = 0

IN r0
.
R R

14.21. L =

0 R 4
16 h 3

= 2,5 10 12

(Bl )2

mgR
14.22. v(t ) =
1 e mR .
2
(Bl )

313

15.
14.23. x(t ) =
14.24. L =

(1 cos t ),

Bl
mL

1
3
0Vn 2
2
+2

14.25. L =

0 R 4
32 h 3

14.26. I (t ) = 0

= 1,2 10 12

p m a 2
2 Rl 3

sin t

314

.
:
rr
r r
rr
(a b ) , (a , b ) , a b ;
rr
r r
a b , a , b .
r r r
a , b , c ,
r
p , , .
r

1. :

( ar,[b , cr]) = (b , [cr, ar ]) = ( cr,[ar, b ]) .

r r r r r r
r r r
: [a ,[b , c ]] = b (a , c ) c (a , b ) .
r r
r r
r r
r r
r r
r r
: d a , b = da , b + a , db ; d [a , b ] = [da , b ] + [a , db ] .

( ) (

) (

r r r r
2. ( ): = i
+ j +k
.
x
y
z
r

( ar, ) a

+ ay
+ az
;
x
y
z

r r
r
div a = , a ;

r r
r
rot a = , a .

r
3. div rot a = 0 ;

r
= grad ;

rot grad = 0 ;

div grad = ;
grad ( ) = grad + grad ;
r
r
r
div ( a ) = ( grad , a ) + div a ;
r
r r
rot ( a ) = rota [ a , ] ;

div ( grad ) = + ( grad , grad ) ;


r
div ( (r ) r ) = (r ) r + 3 (r ) ;

315

r
r
r r
r
r
div[ a , b ] = b , rot a a , rotb ;

(
) (
)
r r r r r r r r r
r r
r
rot[a , b ] = ( b , ) a ( a , ) b + adivb b diva ;
r
r
r r
r
r
r r r r r r
grad ( a , b ) = [b , rot a ] + [a , rotb ] + ( a , ) b + ( b , ) a ;
r
r
r
rot rot a = a + grad div a .
r
r
4. r -, : div r = 3 ;
r
r
r
1
r
grad r = ;
grad = 3 ;
r
r
r
r
r
r 2
r
div = ;
div 3 = 0 ;
r r
r
r r r
r r
div[ p,[r , a ]] = 2 ( p, a ) ;
r r
r r r
( p, r ) pr ( p, r ) r
grad 3 = 3 3
;
r
r
r5
r r

r r

r r r

[ p, r ] = grad ( p, r ) = 3 ( p, r ) r
rot
r

grad

r r
( a, r )
r3

r
p
r3

r r r
( a, r ) r
1
r r
grad
a
,
r

3
;
(
)
r3
r5

r r
r
grad ( p, r ) = p ;

[ grad

r
rot r = 0 ;

r
r
grad f ( r ) = f ( r ) ;
r

r
f (r ), r ] = 0 ;

r
r
r f (r ) r r r
rot [ p, f ( r )r ] = 2 f (r ) p +
[ r ,[ p, r ]] ;
r
r r
r
rot [ p, r ] = 2 p ;

r
r r
rot ( p r n ) = n r n 2 [ r , p ] ;

r r
[r , p] ;
r
rot ( p f ( r ) ) = f (r )
r
r r
[r , p] ;
r
rot ( p r ) =
r

316
r r
r
p [ p, r ]
rot = 3 ;
r
r
r
r
r
rot ( f a ) = f rot a + [ grad f , a ] ;

r
rot ( f (r ) r ) = 0 ;

5.
5.1. -:
r r
r
a dS = diva dV ,
S

S - ,
r
V , a V + S ,
r
r r
rr
n S , adS = ( a n ) dS = an dS .
:

n dS = dV ,
S

n dS = dV + ( , ) dV ,
S

V + S .
r

n dS = dV ; dl = [ n, ] dS .

r
5.2. . a
D , S
- D , L,
r r
r r
(a, dl ) = rot a dS ,
L

r
n S , .. ,
L
.

317

5.3. :
1) :

dl ,

n
n
L

( ) dS =
S

r
n L ,
S ;
2) :

( + )dV =
V

dS ,
n

( )dV = n
V


dS ,
n

r
n S , V ,
V + S .
5.4.

r dV
r dS
r dV
grad r (r ) r r = (r ) r r + grad r ( r ) r r ;
r r
r r V
r r
S
V
r

dS
dV
1 :
r r .
S rr rr = grad
V r r
6. ,
,
, .

r
a :
1)
;
r
2) , a = grad (
r
a );
r
3) rot a = 0 .

318

r
, div a = 0 .
: c ,
r
r
a = rot c .

r
r r r
r
: a = b + c , rot b = 0 div c = 0 ,
r
b ,

c .
= f , = 0 :

(r ) =

1
4

f (r )

rr rr dV .

(r , t ) =
t ' = t

1
4

1 2
= f , = 0 (=const):
c 2 t 2

f (r , t )
dV2 ,
r12

r12
.
c

7. .

dx
x

1
0 x 2 + a 2 = a arctg a = 2a ;
0

dx

(x

+a

2 3/ 2

1
a2

I (n) =

x
2

x +a

dt

(a

+ z 2azt )
2

n/2

dx
2

x a

x dx

(x

+a

2 3/ 2

= ln x + x 2 a 2 ;

1
a z 2 n a + z 2 n .

az ( n 2 )

1
2

x + a2

319

( x, y, z )

r
r
r
r
a = ax ex + a y ey + az ez

(dl ) 2 = (dx) 2 + ( dy ) 2 + (dz ) 2


dV = dx dy dz

r
r
r
r r
r
ex = i , e y = j , ez = k

f r f r f r
grad f =
i+
j+ k
x
y
z

r a a y az
div a = x +
+
x
y
z
f = div grad f

f =

2 f 2 f 2 f
+
+
x 2 y 2 z 2

f = 0 :

f = ek1 x + k2 y + k3 z , k12 + k2 2 + k32 = 0 ;


k2 y + k3 z

f = (a + bx)e
, k 2 2 + k32 = 0 ;
f = ( a + bx)(c + dy )(m + nz )
r
r
r
i
j
k

r
rot a =
x y z
ax a y az
v v
A = a dl

A = ax dx + a y dy + az dz
=

ad S = (a, n)dS =
S

= ax dydz + a y dxdz + az dxdy = ( ax cos +a y cos + az cos )dS


S

320

( , , z )
r
r
r
r
a = a e + a e + az ez ; x = cos , y = sin , z = z
(dl )2 = (d ) 2 + ( d ) 2 + (dz ) 2
dV = d d dz

r
r
r r
r
r r
r
e = cos i + sin j , e = sin i + cos j , ez = k
grad f =

f r
1 f r f r
e +
e + ez

1 a az
r 1
div a =
( a ) +
+

z

1
f
1 2 f 2 f
f =
( ) + 2
+
2 z 2
f = 0 :

ln

( )

1r
e

r
rot a =

1r
ez

r
e

z
az

v v
A = a dl

A = a d + a d + az dz
=

ad S = (a, n)dS =
S

= a d dz + a d dz + az d d
S

321
r
r
r
r
a = ar er + a e + a e ;

( r , , )

x = r sin cos , y = r sin sin , z = r cos


(dl )2 = (dr ) 2 + r 2 (d ) 2 + r 2 sin 2 (d ) 2
dV = r 2 sin dr d d

r
r
r
r
er = cos sin i + sin sin j + cos k ,
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
e = cos cos i + sin cos j sin k , e = sin i + cos j

f r 1 f r
1 f r
er +
e +
e
r
r
r sin

1

1 a
r 1 2
div a = 2
( r ar ) +
(a sin ) +
r r
r sin
r sin

grad f =

f =

1 2 f
1

f
1
2 f
(
r
)
+
(sin

)
+
r 2 r
r r 2 sin
r 2 sin 2 2

f = 0 :
r r
1
( p; r ) p cos
( ); f
( );
=
r
r3
r2
f pr cos = pz ( )

1 r
er
r 2 sin

r
rot a =
r
ar

1 r
e
r sin

r a

1r
e
r

r sin a

v v
A = adl

A = ar dr + a r sin d + ra d
=

ad S = (a, n)dS =
S

= r 2 ar sin d d + ra drd + r sin a drd


S

322

1. .. . . .: , 1985.
2. .. . . .: ",
1986.
3. . . . . II. . .: ,
1964.
4.. . . .: , 1971.
5... . . .: , 1976.
6. .. , .. . . .: , 1973.
7. .. , .. , .. .
. .: - , 1982.
8. .. , .. . . :
, 2002.
9. .. , .. , .. , .. , .. .
. .2. .
. : - , 2000.
10. . .
. .. . : , 1977.
11. .. , .. , .. , .. .
. : , 1990.
12. .. , .. , .. , .. .
. : , 1968.
13. .
. : , 1978.