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ATOLL LTE FEATURES

Training Programme
1. LTE Planning Overview 2. Modelling a LTE Network 3. LTE Predictions 4. Frequency and PCI Plan Analysis 5. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations

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1. LTE Planning Overview


LTE Features Supported in Atoll

LTE Workflow in Atoll

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LTE Features supported in Atoll


Supports Evolved UTRA (3GPP Release 8 LTE) Networks
Various Frequency Bands Scalable Channel Bandwidths Resource Blocks per Channel and Sampling Frequencies Support of TDD and FDD Frame Structures Half-frame/Full-frame Switching Point Periodicities for TDD Normal and Extended Cyclic Prefixes Downlink and Uplink Control Channels and Overheads
Downlink and uplink reference signals, PSS, SSS, PBCH, PDCCH, PUCCH, etc.

RSRP, RSSI and RSRQ Support in predictions and Simulations

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LTE Features supported in Atoll


Supports Evolved UTRA (3GPP Release 8 LTE) Networks
Physical Cell IDs Implementation Inter-Cell Interference Coordination Support
Fractional Frequency Reuse Modelling

Support of Fractional Power Control (UL) Support of Directional CPE Antennas Signal Level Based Coverage Planning CINR Based Coverage Planning Possibility of Fixed Subscriber Database for Fixed Applications

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LTE Features supported in Atoll


Supports Evolved UTRA (3GPP Release 8 LTE) Networks
Network Capacity Analysis using Monte Carlo Simulations Scheduling and Resource Allocation in Two-dimensional Frames Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Systems
Transmit and Receive Diversity Single-User MIMO or spatial multiplexing Adaptive MIMO Switch (AMS) Modelling of Multi-User MIMO (collaborative MIMO UL only)

Tools for Resource Allocation


Automatic Allocation of Neighbours Automatic Allocation of Physical Cell IDs Automatic Allocation of Frequencies (AFP) Specific Module

Network Verification Possible using Drive Test Data

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LTE Workflow in Atoll


Open an existing project or create a new one Network Configuration - Add network elements - Change parameters Basic Predictions (Best Server, Signal Level) Automatic or Manual Neighbour Allocation Automatic or Manual Frequency Planning Automatic or Manual Physical Cell ID Planning Traffic Maps
And/or

ACP

Monte-Carlo Simulations Cell Load Conditions Signal Quality and Throughput Predictions

User-defined Values

Subscriber Lists

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Frequency Plan Analysis

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Prediction Study Reports

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Training Programme
1. LTE Planning Overview 2. Modelling a LTE Network 3. LTE Predictions 4. Frequency and PCI Plan Analysis 5. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations

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2. Modelling a LTE Network


Global Settings
Frequency Band definition Frame Structure Settings

Radio Parameters
Site Transmitters Cells

Equipment Parameters
User-definable reception characteristics

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Global Settings (1/2)


Frequency Bands
Atoll can model multi-band networks within the same document TDD (Time Division Duplexing) or FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing) One frequency band assigned to each cell

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Global Settings (2/2)


LTE Frame Structure definition
Normal (default) or extended cyclic prefix (No. of SD per slot) e.g.: at 15 kHz, 7 SD/slot (normal) or 6 SD/slot (extended)

Number of SD for PDCCH (0,1,2 or 3) carrying DL and UL Resource allocation information

Average number of resource blocks for PUCCH

System-level constants (Hard-coded)


Width of a resource block (180 kHz) Frame duration (10 ms)

TDD option only : Switch from DL to UL every half frame (default) or every frame

Other control channel overheads defined by 3GPP (calculated based on 3GPP specs)

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Reference signals, PSS, SSS, PBCH, etc.


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Radio Parameters Overview


Site
X (longitude) and Y (latitude)

Transmitters
Activity Antenna configuration (model, height, azimuth, mechanical & electrical tilts...) UL & DL Losses / UL Noise Figure Propagation (Model, Radius and resolution)

Presented in General Features

Cells
Frequency Band & Channel PCI Power definition Min RSRP UL & DL Load Diversity Support Neighbours

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Transmitter Parameters
Antenna Configuration and Losses parameters Cells parameters (see next slide) Propagation settings

DL and UL total losses, UL noise figure

Antenna Configuration

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Cell Parameters
Cells frequency band Cell activity Channel number in the frequency band (and allocation status)

Physical Cell ID + resulting PSS/SSS (and allocation status)

Power and energy offsets from computed reference signal Min RSRP used as cell coverage limit

DL traffic load Load Conditions UL noise rise due to surrounding mobiles

MIMO Configuration

Inputs of the neighbour allocation algorithm Neighbour list

ICIC and Fractional Power Control Parameters (Advanced)

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Equipment Parameters (1/2)


Bearers (Modulation and Coding Schemes) definition
User-definable bearer efficiencies (useful bits per resource element)

Bearer selection thresholds for link adaptation Quality indicator graphs


BLER used to model the effect of errors in data reception

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Equipment Parameters (2/2)


Multiple Input Multiple Output Systems
Diversity and SU-MIMO gains
Definable per bearer and antenna configuration Depend on the clutter class where users are located

MU-MIMO gain
Definable per cell or Calculated during Monte Carlo simulations using intelligent multi-user scheduling on two antenna ports (Layered Space-time Scheduling)
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Training Programme
1. LTE Planning Overview 2. Modelling a LTE Network 3. LTE Predictions 4. Frequency and PCI Plan Analysis 5. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations

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3. LTE Predictions
Introduction

Parameters used in Predictions

Prediction Settings

Fast Link Adaptation Modelling

Coverage Prediction Examples

Point Analysis Studies

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Introduction
Coverage Predictions
General Studies based on Downlink Reference Signal Levels
Best server plot based on downlink reference signal levels Multiple server coverage based on downlink reference signal levels Reference signal level plots Reference signal CNR plots RSRP (Average Reference Signal Level Received Power per Subcarrier) plots

LTE UL and DL Specific Studies


SS, PDSCH, PBCH, PDCCH and PUSCH/PUCCH Signal Level Plots SS, PDSCH, PBCH, PDCCH and PUSCH/PUCCH CNR Plots Quality Studies (RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator, RSRQ Reference Signal Received Quality, Reference Signal, SS, PDSCH, PBCH, PDCCH and PUSCH/PUCCH CINR and interference plots, UL Allocated Bandwidth, UL Transmission Power) Best Bearer and Modulation Plots based on PDSCH and PUSCH CINR Levels Throughput and Cell Capacity per pixel plots based on PDSCH and PUSCH CINR levels Peak RLC, Effective RLC, and Application Channel Throughputs Peak RLC, Effective RLC, and Application Throughputs averaged per User Peak RLC, Effective RLC, and Application Cell Capacities Peak RLC, Effective RLC, and Application Aggregate Cell Throughputs Peak RLC, Effective RLC, and Application Allocated Bandwidth Throughputs (UL)

Point Predictions
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Introduction
Principles of the studies based on traffic
Study calculated for
Given load conditions UL noise rise DL traffic load A non-interfering user with A service A mobility A terminal type (in case of a directive antenna , it is oriented towards the serving cell)

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Load Conditions
Load conditions are defined in the cells table

Values taken into consideration in predictions for each cell

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Service Properties

Parameters used in predictions


Highest bearers in UL and DL Body loss Application throughput parameters

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Mobility Properties

Parameters used in Predictions


Mapping between mobilities and thresholds in bearer and quality indicator determination (as radio conditions depend on user speed).

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Terminal Properties

Min & Max Power + Noise Figure + Losses

Support of MIMO

Parameters used in Predictions


Minimum & Maximum terminal power Gain and losses Noise figure Antenna settings (incl. MIMO support)
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Number of Antenna ports in UL and DL in case of MIMO support

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Prediction Settings
Coverage Prediction Plots
Standard predictions
Best server plot Coverage by signal level Multiple server coverage

Reference signal, SS, PDSCH, PBCH, PDCCH and PUSCH/PUCCH signal level and quality predictions
Selection of a mobility, a service, a terminal (possibly directional antenna oriented towards the serving cell) Reference signal, SS, PDSCH, PBCH, PDCCH and PUSCH CNR plots RSRP (Average Reference Signal Level Received Power per Subcarrier) plots

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Prediction Settings
Coverage Prediction Plots
CINR, Throughput and Quality Indicator predictions
Based on user-defined cell loads or on Monte-Carlo simulation results Selection of a mobility, a service, a terminal (possibly directional antenna oriented towards the serving cell) RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator and RSRQ Reference Signal Received Quality Reference Signal, SS, PDSCH, PBCH, PDCCH and PUSCH/PUCCH CINR and interference plots UL Allocated Bandwidth, UL Transmission Power) Best bearer plots based on PDSCH and PUSCH CINR levels Throughput and cell capacity per pixel plots based on PDSCH and PUSCH CINR levels Peak RLC, effective RLC, and application channel throughputs Peak RLC, effective RLC, and application throughputs averaged per user Peak RLC, effective RLC, and application cell capacities Peak RLC, effective RLC, and application aggregate cell throughputs

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Fast Link Adaptation Modelling


Atoll determines, on each pixel, the highest bearer that each user can obtain
No soft handover Connection to the best server in term of reference signal level (C) Bearer chosen according to the radio conditions (PDSCH and PUSCH CINR levels)

Process : prediction done via look-up tables


Throughput & Quality Indicator (BER and BLER) predictions

Reference Signal Level (C) evaluation

Best Server Area determination (min RSRP)

Radio Conditions estimation (PDSCH and PUSCH CINR calculation)

Bearer Selection

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Interference Estimation
Atoll calculates PDSCH and PUSCH CINR according to:
The victim traffic (PUSCH or PDSCH) power The interfering signals impacted by:
The interferers powers The path loss from the interferers to the victim Antenna gain Losses from interferers (incl. Shadowing effect and indoor losses)

The interference reduction factor applied to interfering base stations transmitting on adjacent channels (adjacent channel suppression factor) The interference reduction factor due to interfering base stations traffic load The interference reduction due to Fractional Frequency Reuse (and consequently the mutual overlap between the channel fractions of the victim and the interfering base stations)

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Prediction Examples (General Studies)

Number of servers (Based on reference signal power)

Coverage by signal level (Based on reference signal power)

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Prediction Examples (Dedicated Studies)

Coverage by PDSCH CINR (Directional receiver antenna)

Coverage by PDSCH CINR (Isotropic receiver antenna)

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Prediction Examples (Dedicated Studies)

Coverage by PUSCH CINR (Directional receiver antenna)

Coverage by PUSCH CINR (Isotropic receiver antenna)

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Point Analysis Tool: Reception


Radio Reception Diagnosis at a Given Point : Reception Analysis
Choice of UL&DL load conditions : if (Cells Table) is selected Analysis based on DL load and UL noise rise from cells table Selection of the value to be displayed (RS, SS, PDSCH, RSRP)

Reference Signals, PDSCH and PUSCH availability (or not) Definition of a userdefinable probe" receiver, indoor or not

Cell bar graphs (best server at the top) Analysis detail on reference signals, PDSCH and PUSCH

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Point Analysis Tool: Interference


Radio Interference Diagnosis at a Given Point : Interference Analysis
Choice of UL&DL load conditions : if (Cells Table) is selected Analysis based on DL load and UL noise rise from cells table

Selection of the value to be displayed (RS, SS, PDSCH, RSRP)

Serving Cell (C)

Total Level of Interference (I + N)

Definition of a userdefinable probe" receiver, indoor or not

List of Interfering Cells

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Training Programme
1. LTE Planning Overview 2. Modelling a LTE Network 3. LTE Predictions 4. Frequency and PCI Plan Analysis 5. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations

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4. Frequency Plan Analysis


Channel and Physical Cell ID Search Tools

Physical Cell ID Allocation Audit

Physical Cell ID Histograms

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Search Tool Overview


Tool to visualise channel and PSS ID reuse on the map
Possibility to find cells which are assigned a given :
Frequency band + channel Physical Cell ID PSS ID SSS ID

Way to use this tool


Create and calculate a coverage by transmitter with a colour display by transmitter Open the Find on Map tool available in the Edit menu (or directly in the toolbar )

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Channel Search Tool


Channel Reuse on the Map
Resource Selection

Frequency band and Channel number

Colours given to transmitters Red: co-channel transmitters Yellow: multi-adjacent channel (-1 and +1) transmitters Green: adjacent channel (-1) transmitters Blue: adjacent channel (+1) transmitters Grey thin line: other transmitters
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Physical Cell ID Search Tool


Physical Cell ID, PSS ID and SSS ID Reuse on the Map
Resource Selection

Resource Type and Value

Colours given to transmitters Red or Grey thin line: if the transmitters carries or not the specified resource value (Physical Cell ID, PSS ID or SSS ID)
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PCI Allocation Audit (1/2)


Verification of the allocation inconsistencies
Respect of a minimum reuse distance Respect of neighbourhood constraints (two neighbour cells must have different PCI) Respect of SSS ID allocation strategy

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PCI Allocation Audit (2/2)


Audit results
Inconsistencies are displayed in the default text editor

The minimum distance constraint is fulfilled

Cells BRU010_L1 & BRU116_L2 are Neighbour cells but have been allocated the same PCI

These 13 sites do not fulfil the SSS ID allocation strategy: on each site, allocated PCI do not have the same SSS ID

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Physical Cell ID Histograms


View of the Physical Cell ID Distribution

Dynamic pointer

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Training Programme
1. LTE Planning Overview 2. Modelling a LTE Network 3. LTE Predictions 4. Frequency and PCI Plan Analysis 5. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations

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5. Monte-Carlo Based Simulations


Traffic modelling Monte Carlo Simulations

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Traffic Modelling (1/2)

Traffic Data
Traffic maps and subscriber lists Various types of traffic maps:
Raster traffic maps Vector traffic maps Live traffic maps Traffic density maps

Subscribers Live Traffic Data Vector Traffic Data Raster Traffic Data

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Traffic Modelling (2/2)


Subscriber Lists
Lists of subscribers with fixed locations and specific parameters Can be created using the mouse or imported from txt and csv files Can be displayed on the map according to different parameters Main parameters:
Location: X and Y coordinates Antenna height Azimuth and tilt (user-defined or calculated) Serving cell (user-defined or calculated) User profile Terminal type

Prediction calculations can be carried out on subscribers (points)


Predicted results include reception levels, CINR, throughputs, etc.

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Monte Carlo Simulations (1/3)


Monte Carlo Simulations
For studying network capacity Network behaviour under given traffic Can be based on traffic data from traffic maps and subscriber lists Distribution of mobile users and services Calculation of user parameters (CINR, power control, noise rise, resource allocation, etc.) Scheduling and radio resource allocation based on service priorities and scheduling methods:
Proportional Fair Proportional Demand Max Aggregate Throughput

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Monte Carlo Simulations (2/3)


Simulation Results
For each cell
UL and DL traffic loads UL noise rise UL and DL aggregate cell throughputs Traffic input and connection statistics

For each mobile


Serving transmitter and cell Azimuth and tilt (towards the serving cell) Reference signal, SCH/PBCH, PDSCH, and PUSCH signal levels Reference signal, SCH/PBCH, PDSCH, and PUSCH CINR and interference levels Best bearers based on PDSCH and PUSCH CINR levels Cell throughputs, cell capacities, and user throughputs PDSCH and PUSCH CINR levels Connection status and rejection cause

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Monte Carlo Simulations (3/3)

Simulation Results Display

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