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surfinetek.com
Understand electrolytes & non-electrolytes nonUnderstand how to use Hull Cell
Presented by Selvaraj Venkatesan Email: info@essesstrading.com Mobile: 0 9843019701

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Water as a Solvent


Many reactions occur in an aqueous environment, where water is the solvent. Water interacts with the solute, playing an active role about what goes on in solution. Water creates attractions between itself and the substance being dissolved (both ionic & covalent).

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Polar Nature of Water




Water creates a buffer between the two oppositely charged ions such that they do not recombine easily in solution. Water decreases the electrostatic attraction between ions. Two features of water make it unique:


The distribution of its bonding electrons as a polar compound & its overall shape.

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Solubility of Ionic Compounds




Water dissolves ionic compounds into ions. When an ionic compound dissociates in water, it becomes free anions and cations. These ions allow water to carry an electric current. Electrical conductivity is due to the movement of charged particles (anions & cations). Oppositely charged species separate from each other & are solvated by the water. solvated
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Conductivity of solutions


Electrodes are electrical conductors partially immersed in a solution and connected to a source of electricity.
Anode - positive pole of electricity source  Cathode - negative pole of electricity source


An ion is a carrier of electricity through a solution.


Anions are negatively charged particles  Cations are positively charged particles


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Visualization of solution conductivity

ANODE

CATHODE

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What are Electrolytes?




A non-electrolyte is a solute that is present in nonsolution almost exclusively as molecules. This type of solution does not conduct electricity. A strong electrolyte is a solute that is present in solution almost exclusively as ions. This type of solution is a good conductor of electricity. A weak electrolyte is a solute that is only partly ionized in solution. This type of solution is a poor conductor of electricity.
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Ionic Compounds in Water




Cations are attracted to partial negative charge on waters oxygen. Anions in solution are attracted to partial positive charge on waters hydrogens.
H O H O H O H H Na O H O H H O H
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H H H

O H Cl H H O H

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Solubility of ionic compounds




An ionic solid has the choice to dissolve or not to dissolve. Its solubility is dictated by its energy of solvation. solvation. When ionic compound dissociate, water makes several temporary bonds (ATTRACTIONS) with the ions. Alternatively, the electrostatic forces in the ionic solid may be so strong (high lattice energy) that water cannot entice the ionic solid to dissolve. Ionic compounds are described as either soluble, insoluble or sparingly soluble
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Covalent compounds in water




Sugar dissolves in water, but does not create ions since sugar is a molecular compound. Sugar (a covalent compound) stays as an intact molecule in water; no bonds are broken! Molecular compounds in water are considered nonnon-electrolytes since their aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.

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Acids in water


Few molecular compounds do dissociate in water, e.g. acids: HCl (g) H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) H+ does not exit in solution alone, and reacts with water to produce H3O+ H+ (aq) + H2O (l) H3O+(aq) Water can only dissociate molecular compounds that contain a removable H+

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Strong acids vs. weak acids




Strong acids are acids that are completely ionized in water and are good conductors of electricity. Weak acids are acids in which only some of the molecules are ionized in water; the rest remain as intact molecules. The dissociation of a weak acid in solution is written using a double arrow to indicate that the dissociation does not go to completion. Some acids have more than one ionizable hydrogen atom. These acids are usually strong acids for the first ionization and weak acids for the rest of the ionizations.
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Acetic acid vs. HCl


HCl (g) 0% CH3COOH (aq) 99.5 % H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) 100% H+ (aq) + CH3COO- (aq) 0.5%

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Strong bases vs. weak bases




Strong bases are ionic hydroxides that completely ionize in water and are good conductors of electricity. Weak bases are substances that act as bases but remain mostly molecular at equilibrium in water. The dissociation of a weak base in solution is written using a double arrow to indicate that the dissociation does not go to completion. Ammonia (NH3) is an example of a weak base.
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Hull Cell Apparatus and Test Method


Hull Cell is a miniature plating unit designed to produce cathode deposits on a panel that correlates the characteristics of the plating unit being evaluated. Interpretation of the as plated cathode panel give rapid information about brightness levels, irregular plate deposits, uniformity of deposits, coverage, throwing power, impurities, and plating bath chemistry.
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Hull Cell Apparatus

The Hull cell provides a simple and rapid method of visually testing the quality of electroplated deposits over a wide current density range. It also enables the effect of additions to a plating solution, or of a purification treatment, to be readily determined. The Hull cell test is especially suitable for the visual control of bright nickel solutions and for the detection of metallic impurities. It may also be used in other types to plating solution such as dull nickel, chromium, cadmium, zinc and copper
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Hull Cell Apparatus.

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Theory
Within the parameters of recommended operating characteristics of a particular plating solution, the HULL CELL will duplicate what is actually occurring in the plating unit proper. Correlation of the as plated panel and the HULL CELL SCALE allows rapid, nondestructive testing of plating solutions for research, preventative maintenance, troubleshooting, and quality control.
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Test Specimen
Description of Specimen
A representative sample from the plating unit to be evaluated is withdrawn and should be a composite sampling from various areas in the plating tank and from various depths within these areas.

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Specimen Preparation
The representative sample should be analyzed chemically for those critical components recommended by the supplier of the plating bath. Correlation Of Hull Cell panels without the information on the bath chemistry can be very misleading.
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Operating Conditions

Particular attention shall be given to the physical conditions of the plating unit at the time of sampling and these operating conditions should be duplicated during Hull Cell testing. If this is not done, interpretation will be meaningless. Example: temperature, cathode agitation, air agitation
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Hull Cell Apparatus and Description of Equipment




A bench or portable miniature plating cell is employed using the following components. A rectifier (D.C. power source) with variable controls for amperage from 0-10 amps, 0-12 volts. This power source should have less than 5% ripple. Hull Cell Anode + chemistry of the anode the same as is in the plating unit or as recommended by the chemical supplier. Example: zinc anode for zinc plating bath.

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Color coded coated cables capable of carrying the current required with an alligator clip soldered to cell end. Color code recognized universally is as follows: anode + black; cathode red. Hull Cell Cathode Panelstwo most widely used are zinc plated steel and thin plastic protected brass panels. Hull Cellwith scribed solution level line, 267 ml, 524 ml, or 1000 ml size. The most commonly used size is the 267 ml. Hull Cells are available in Lucite, Polypropylene, and Porcelain. Hull Cell Scalea calibrated ruler for interpretation of 1, 2, 3, and 5 amp panels to determine current densities.
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Color Hull Cell Agitatoroptional motor driven arm and panel assembly for duplicating solution and/or cathode agitation.  Agitation Hull Cellspecially designed for introducing air into the miniature plating unit to duplicate air agitation operations.  Timerseparate or built into the DC power unit depending upon the sophistication desired.

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Hull Cell connections

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Hull Cell Rectifier

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Hull Cell Apparatus

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Hull Cell Voltage Distrubition

2 Amps / Sq.Dm

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Hull Cell Voltage Distrubition

The chart gives the variation in current density along the middle horizontal of the plated portion of the test panel when currents of 1, 2, 3 and 5 amperes are applied. The current distribution is based upon the formula i = I (5.1 - 5.24 log 10 ). Where i = current density (amp/dm2). I = total current (ampere). = distance from high current density end of panel in cm.
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Hull Cell Test Procedure




 

Preparation (It is recommended that panels be handled with tweezers and gloves to prevent misleading results.) Pre-clean cathode test panel. For zinc plated steel panels: immerse in 50% by volume C.P. Hydrochloric acid to strip off protective zinc film. Cold water rinse. Wipe surface with Hull Cell sponge that has been soaked in D.I. water.

 

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Procedure
     

Observe panel for water break free condition. Repeat cleaning processes if necessary. For plastic coated brass panels-remove plastic film by peeling it off. Soak in mild soak cleaner. Reverse current clean at 2 amps for one minute. Cold water rinse. Acid dip 10% C.P. Hydrochloric Acid for 5 seconds.
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Procedure



Cold water rinse.


Observe for water break free surface. Repeat cleaning if necessary. Insert cathode test panel along the slanted side of the Hull Cell (it just fits), which has solution to scribed line. Hook red cable to anode (+). Hook black cable to cathode (). Set timer to prescribed time
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Procedure Turn on power source.  Adjust power to described amperage.  Start time.  At prescribed time, shut off power.  Disconnect cathode cable.  Remove cathode panel.  Cold water rinse.

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Procedure


  

Complete desired post plate treatment if any example: dipping panel in 1/4 to 1/2 of 1% by volume. Nitric Acid (C.P. Grade) for 3-5 seconds enhances the ability to interpret the panel on zinc and cadmium plating solutions. Warm Water Rinse. Dry, forced air or even wiping with a water absorbent paper towel. An alternate method of drying the panels is to water rinse followed by an alcohol rinse to drive off the water. Also, a method of preserving samples is to spray them immediately with a clear lacquer to prevent oxidation.
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Evaluation


Depending upon the bath chemistry as analyzed, condition of the panel relative to uniformity, burning, cloud patterns skip plate, etc., modification by controlled additions canbe made to the Hull Cell plating solution and procedures can be repeated. Changes caused by addition to the Hull Cell will duplicate results to be expected by the same proportionate additions to the main plating bath.
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Evaluation..


Correlations of thickness checks in the controlled time, temperature, amperage cathode panel will also tell the optimum plating range to obtain plating thickness desired.

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Current and Duration of Test




For the majority of bright plating solutions including nickel, cadmium zinc and copper, it is usual to use a current of two amperes and a plating time of 10 minutes. When it is wished to emphasize the effect of impurities at low current densities, e.g. in bright nickel solutions, a current of 2 amperes and a plating time of 10 minutes is usual. However depending on the type of solution 1 ampere for 20 minutes may be used.
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Current and Duration of Test

To ascertain if burning occurs at high current density, a current of 3 amperes for 5 minutes is advised.  For chromium solutions a current of 5 amperes with a plating time of 3 minutes is usual but where high current densities are being investigated a current of 10 amperes for 1 minutes is recommended.
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Current and Duration of Test




When using a current of 5 amperes no water bath is needed but it is best to start plating with the temperature 0.5 0 C (10F) below the optimum, when it optimum, will be found that the temperature gradually rises to be about 0.5 0 C (1 0 F) above at the end of the plating test. When using 10 amperes the Hull Cell should be placed in a cold water bath and the solution taken to a temperature of 10C (2 0 F) below the optimum at the commencement of plating. In all cases contact to the cathode should be made before the warm chromium solution is poured into the Hull Cell.

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Questions? Comments? Write to us


Presented by surfinetek.com We welcome your comments and suggestions to us. For more details contact Email: info@essesstrading.com Mobile: 0 9843019701

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Selvaraj Venkatesan

ESS ESS TRADING Email: info@essesstrading.com


Mobile: 0 9843019701
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