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.. , ..

,
.. , ..

2-

-

2007

-
31 2007 ., 8


.
4 / /.

: 010700 (010400) , 010801 (013800)


, 010803 (014100)

1.
1.1. . . . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5. .
. . . . . . . . . . .
1.6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6
6
8
10
13
16
20

2.
2.1. . . . . .
2.2. .
2.3. . . . . . .

23
24
29
32

3.
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34
34
36

4.
4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2. . . . .
4.3. .
4.4. .
. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .

40
40
43
44

. . . . . . . .

46

5.
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

38

50
52

5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
5.6.

.

. . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.

54
56
58
61

6.
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2. . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3. . . . . . . .
6.4. . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73
73
74

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

63
65
67
68
70



, , .
. .
.
.
( )
.
( ), :
} = 1.055 1034 c;
me = 9.11 1031 ;
mp = 1.67 1027 ;
|e| = 1.602 1019 ;
c = 3.00 108 /.

1.


(, ),
.

() , (), ( ). , , , , .
. , (,
) ,
(. . ,
) . ,
,
, (,
), .

1.1.

,
.
hxi hpi , (x, t) V (x) ( ). hxi hpi 6

d
1
hxi = hpi;
dt
m

d
hpi =
dt

dV (x)
dx

(1.1)

1 . (1.1) :


dV (x)
d2 hxi
=
hF i,
(1.2)
m
dt2
dx
dV
F
, dx
.
(1.2) ,
(1.2) . , ,
, hxi, , (1.2)
, , F (hxi). ,
(x, t) x ,
hxi, (1.2) .
x , , V (x)
, dV /dx x hxi:
dV
dV (hxi) d2 V (hxi)
1 d3 V (hxi)
=
+
(x

hxi)
+
(x hxi)2 + . . . , (1.3)
2
3
dx
dhxi
dhxi
2 dhxi


dn V (hxi)
dn V (x)

,
dhxin
dxn x=hxi

(1.3) (1.2).
, x hxi (1.3), :
m

dV (hxi) 1 d3 V (hxi)
d2 hxi
=

h(x)2 i + . . . .
2
3
dt
dhxi
2 dhxi

(1.4)

, (1.2)
:


3

dV (hxi)
d V (hxi) 2




(1.5)
dhxi  dhxi3 x .
1

(1.1) , /dt = F /t +
F : dF
F ].
(i/})[H,

, , . ,

, , . ,
(1.5), :
hp2 i
hpi2
h(p)2 i
hpi2
=
+

.
2m
2m
2m
2m
(1.6),
hpi2  h(p)2 i.

(1.6)

(1.7)

, ,
.

m a ,
/r. V (r) = (m)/r (1.5), :
a2  h(x)2 i,
(1.7)
a2 p2  h(x)2 ih(p2 )i }2 /4.
, ( ap/}  1)
.

1.2.

, m V (r, t) ,




}2 2
i}
(r, t) =
+ V (r, t) (r, t)
(1.8)
t
2m
, . :


i
(r, t) = exp S(r, t) ,
(1.9)
}
8

S(r, t) . (1.9)
(1.8) S(r, t):
S
(S)2
i} 2
+
+ V (r, t)
S = 0.
t
2m
2m

(1.10)

, }, (1.10)
:
(S)2
S
+
+ V (r, t) = 0,
t
2m

(1.11)

S . [V (r, t) = V (r)], (1.10)


(1.11) S(r, t)
:
S(r, t) = S0 (r) Et,

(1.12)

S0 (r) . (1.12)
(1.10), :
(S0 )2
i} 2
+ V (r)
S0 = E,
2m
2m


(S0 )2
+ V (r) = E
2m

(1.13)

(1.14)

, } [
(1.10) (1.11)].
(1.13) (1.14). ,

}|2 S0 |  (S0 )2 .

(1.15)

S0 = p, p , 2
p2 = 2m[E V (r)],
2

(1.16)

, , .

(1.15) :
} | div p|  p2 .

(1.17)

p
, = 2~/p = 2~/ 2m(E V (r)) , (1.17)
-:
| div |  2 ,
(1.18)
F = grad V :
p3  }m| grad V | .

(1.19)

L (
), (, : d/dx /L) (1.18) :
L ,
(1.20)
. .
, - .
(1.17)
, . .
( ). }/S0 . , } 0 [,
c ].

1.3.


, .
(1.9), (1.13) m V (x) :




i
i
i
(x, t) = exp (x) Et = (x) exp Et ,
(1.21)
}
}
}
( 0 )2
i} 00
+ V (x) E
= 0.
2m
2m
10

(1.22)

(1.22)
(x) }:
 2
}
}
(x) = 0 (x) + 1 (x) +
2 (x) + . . .
(1.23)
i
i

(). (1.23) (1.22)
}.
0 :
p
(1.24)
00 = 2m[E V (x)] = p(x)

0 (x) =

p(x0 ) dx0 .

(1.25)

1 :
10 =

1 000
d
1
p
=
ln
2 00
dx
|00 |
1 = ln p

|p(x)|

(1.24)

d
1
ln p
,
dx
|p(x)|

+ const.

(1.26)


. 0 (x) 1 (x) (1.21) (1.23),
(x) :




Z
Z
C1
i x
C2
i x
0
0
0
0
(x) = p
exp
p(x ) dx + p
exp +
p(x ) dx ,
}
}
|p(x)|
|p(x)|
(1.27)
C1 C2 ,
2- (x)
.
(1.27) E V (x). , E > V (x),
(1.27) x.
,
E < V (x). (p(x) = i |p(x)|), , (1.27), :

11

. 1.1.


Z
1
C10
exp
(x) = p
}
|p(x)|

|p(x )| dx +
C20

1
p
exp +
}
|p(x)|

x
0

|p(x )| dx .

(1.28)


, . -
(1.27), (1.28)
. . , , (1.27), (1.28),
p , 1/ |p(x)| , (x) .
. 1.1. ( E V (x)) II (a < x < b) , I
III (x < a, x > b) .
.

V (x) = E.
(), () . . 1.1. a (b)
() .

12

1.4.


,
(1.27) (1.28)
, . . C1 , C2 , C10 , C20 .
V (x)
,
, , (1.19) (p = 0).
.
a
(. 1.2.). [a1 , a2 ], ( ). I (x < a1 ) II (x > a2 )
(1.28) (1.27) .
I (x) II (x).
x0 = a. I (x) I, (1.28) C10 = 0,
C20 C 6= 0:


Z
C
1 a
0
0
I (x) = p
|p(x )| dx .
(1.29)
exp
} x
|p(x)|

(x > a2 ) II (x)
:
 Z x

A
1
II (x) = p
sin
p(x0 ) dx0 + ,
(1.30)
}
p(x)
a

(1.27) C1 C2 A : C1 = (i/2)A exp(i), C2 = (i/2)A exp(i).


[a1 , a2 ] ,
, V (x) x = a:



dV

.
V (x) E F (x a),
F =
(1.31)
dx x=a
F (1.31)
 2 2

} d
+ F (x a) (x) = 0
(1.32)
2m dx2
13

. 1.2.

(.
.):
(x) = B Ai(),

2mF
}2

1/3

(a x).

(1.33)

I II , [a1 , a2 ] I (x), II (x) (1.33).


(1.19), , (1.33) (1.32), (
!):
}
|x a|3/2 
, ||  1.
mF
(1.32) . ,
p ||  1 (. .). x > a p(x) = 2mF (x a), ,
Z x
2 3/2
2p
3
}
=
2mF (x a) =
p(x0 ) dx0 .
3
3
a
p
x < a p(x) = 2mF (a x), ,
Z a
2
2p
3/2
3
} ||
=
2mF (a x) =
|p(x0 )| dx0 .
3
3
x
, [a1 , a2 ],
[a1 , a2 ], (
14

) :



Z a
B
1

0
0

2p|p(x)| exp } x |p(x )| dx ,


 Z x

(x) =

B
1

p(x0 ) dx0 +
,
sin
p
} a
4
p(x)

x . a1 ;
(1.34)
x & a2 .

(1.34) (1.29) (1.30), ,


I (x) II (x),
B = A,

2C = A,

.
4

, :

 Z x


Z
1 a
B
1

B
0
0
0
0
p
exp
|p(x )| dx p
sin
p(x ) dx +
.
} x
} a
4
2 |p(x)|
p(x)
(1.35)
b
(1.35), Ox
b:
" Z
#


Z x
b
1
1
D

D
p
sin
p(x0 ) dx0 +
p
exp
|p(x0 )| dx0 .
}
4
}
p(x)
2 |p(x)|
x
b
(1.36)
, (1.35) (1.36) , . . .

z ( x)
x = a, ( ).
, , [1] . (1.35), (1.36).
, . .
( ).

15

1.5.

,
. 1.1., () E > Vmin .
, .

.
, (I
III . 1.1.)
(., , (1.29)).
(II . 1.1.) ,
(1.35) (1.36)):

 Z x
1

B
0
0
p(x ) dx +
,
(1.37)
II (x) = p
sin
} a
4
p(x)

" Z
#
b

II (x) = pD sin 1

p(x0 ) dx0 +
.
} x
4
p(x)

(1.38)

II (x) ( , II (x)
) III IIIII
(1.35), (1.36), II, ,
, I III.
II (x)
II (x) (

a b) x = xi .
B D (
, ),
:

!

 xi
b
R
R
# " #
sin }1 p(x0 )dx0 + 4 "
sin }1 p(x0 )dx0 + 4

xi
a

! B = 0 .



Rxi
Rb
0

D
1

0
0
0
0
cos } p(x )dx + 4
cos } p(x )dx + 4
a

xi

(1.39)

16

, II (x) , II (x)

p sin(. . .) ( 1/ p(x)

(1.39) ). (1.39)
(1.39). :
b

1
p(x0 )dx0 + = 0,
sin
}
2
a

(,
, . . p(x) 0) :
Z

b
a

1
p(x0 ) dx0 = } n +
2

n = 0, 1, . . . .

(1.40)

(1.40) (1.39) B D: B = (1)n D.


(1.40) E ( ), (1.40) E(n) En .
3 .
(1.40), (1.37) (a, b)
(n + 1/2). , n . ,
n .
(. (1.20)),
(1.40) ,
a b ,
. . n  1.
(1.40) ,
I
1
1
p(x0 ) dx0 = n + , n = 0, 1, . . . ,
(1.41)
2}
2
. ,
3 ,

1/2 (1.40) .

17

(p, x) . 2} , n . n
, En , . ,
,
2}. , , p x ,
p x
.
(2})

s , V
2s-
V
q1 . . . qs p1 . . . ps
=
(2})s
(2})s
. , ( V = L3 ) ,
dp ( p p + dp),
V dp
V dpx dpy dpz
V p2 dp d
=
=
.
(2})3
(2})3
(2})3

(1.42)

, .
E , . . n.
E ( n) E, a b (
(1.41)) E E + E . (1.41)
( n+1 n) :
I
I
I
I
p
2} = p(E+E) dx p(E) dx (p(E+E)p(E)) dx = E
dx.
E
E/p = v = p/m ,
I
I
p
dx
dx =
= T.
E
v

E :
E

2}
= }.
T
18

(1.43)

T
E . , }.
( T ) E,
( n n) . , ,
}.

. (x < a x > b) ,
. , :
Z

|(x)| dx

|II (x)|2 dx = 1.

(1.44)

II (x) (. (1.37)) (1.44) , ( , 1/2), :


#1/2 
" Z
1/2 
1/2
4m
2m
1 b dx
=
=
,
B=
2 a p(x)
T

(1.45)

T
, (1.43).
(1.45)

(1.37)4 . , (1.37), (1.45), dx
( n+1 (a, b))

2 dx
2m dx
dW (x) = |II (x)|2 dx
=
T p(x)
T v(x)
dWcl (x) =
2 dx/(T v(x)) = 2 dt/T, dt , dx.
4

1/
.

19

p(x)

. 1.3.

1.6.

, V (x), V0 (. . 1.3.).
E < V0 ,
, . . .
.
. , } 0
( ) .
.
: I, II III, . 1.3.
, x < a x > b, , I III
( -.) , I, I p0 ( exp[ip0 x/}]), ,
( exp[ip0 x/}]).
,
:
I (x) = A eip0 x/} + B eip0 x/} .

(1.46)

, III , . , x > b
:
III (x) = C eip0 x/} .
(1.47)

20

D ,
:
D = |C/A|2
(1.48)
(. [3] ., . 2, . 1.3). ,
V (x), ( (1.19)),
II (. . 1.3.)
:
II (x) = p

P(x) =

(x)
0

eP(x)/} + p
0

(x ) dx =
a

(x)

eP(x)/} ,

2m[V (x0 ) E] dx0 ,

(1.49)

(1.50)

, ( ) .
V (x) ,
a b.
a b
( p
, . . (x)
):

(A eip0 a/} + B eip0 a/} ) pa = + ,

(A eip0 a/} B eip0 a/} ) i p


=
pa ( ),
0
(1.51)

ip0 b/}

e
+

e
=
C
e
p
,


pb ( e e )
= C eip0 b/} ip0 ,

pa =

2m[V (a) E],

pb =

2m[V (b) E],

= P(b)/}.

(1.19) ,
 1.

(1.52)

(1.51) A C ( ), (1.52) :
C
4eip0 (ba)/}

=

pa
1
A

pa
ip0
pb
21


pb
ip0

D:
D = D0 e2 ,

D0 =

16
pb
pa

pa pb
p20

p20
pa pb

pa
pb

(1.53)

, , e2/} . , :
"

D exp

2
}

2m[V (x) E] dx

(1.54)

(1.54)
(. 50 [1] .).

22

2.



= E,
H
,
, (, ,
, ).
. ,
, . ,
(), , H
:

0 () + V (),
H()
=H
0 , H
H
0 , V H
, . ,
, ().
, H
0.
H
, 0
( ) H
.
.

23

2.1.


(0)

(0)

El l
0 :
H
0 (0) = E (0) (0) .
H
l
l
l

(2.1)


0 + V ) = E
(H

(2.2)

,
(2.1). 0:
H
X
=
an (0)
(2.3)
n ,
|{z}
n

(0)

(2.3) (2.2) (2.1), m () , (2.2)


{an } (. . 1, . 3.4):
X
(0)
[|{z}
E Em
] am =
Vmn an ,
(2.4)
|{z}
|{z}
?

Vmn =

(0)

(0)
m () V ()n () d

(2.5)

V .

E
(0)

an = hn |i ;
|ni n .
(2.6)
Vmn = hm| V |ni ;

E an
(2.4).
V El l H
(0)
(0)
El l ,
(2.4).

24

V 1 :
,
V = W
Vmn = Wmn ,

(2.7)

(2.4) :
(0)

El = E l

(1)

+ El

(2)

+ 2 E l

+ ...;

(1)
2 (2)
am = a(0)
m + a m + am + . . . .

(2.8)
(2.9)

(k)
(k)
{El } {am } (2.8) (2.9) .
(0)
El , El ,
(0)
lim = l .
0

(2.3) (2.9)
a(0)
(2.10)
m = ml .
(2.8)(2.10)
(2.4)
(0)

[El

(1)

(0)
Em
+ El

(2)

+ 2 E l

2 (2)
+ . . .][ml + a(1)
m + am + . . .] =
X
2 (2)
=
Wmn [nl + a(1)
n + an + . . .] (2.11)
n


(2.11). m = l
m 6= l.
1. m = l
(k)
(k)
{El } {an }:

(1)
El = Wll ;

(2)
(1) (1)
(1)
El + E l al =
Wln an ; .
(2.12)

..............................

1 . , ,

V = eEx, e , E
0 . a0
, H
E0 = |e|/a20 5, 1 109
2
/, V : V = E x e ; E (
E0 a0 a0

E  E0 ) E/E0  1 .

25

2. m 6= l , (2.12):

(0)
(0)
a(1)
[E

E
]
=
W
;

ml
m
m
l

(1) (1)
(0)
(0) (2)
(1)
El am + [El Em ]am =
Wmn an ; .

..........................................

(2.13)

k- (2.12) (2.13)
k (2.4).
(2.8), (2.12) ,
(.. )
(0)

E = El

(1) (2.7)

(0)

+ El
= El
|{z}

+ Vll .

(2.14)

Wll

,
V :
Z
(1)
(0)
(0)
El = Vll = l () V l () d .
(2.15)
(2.13) (2.3),
l :
X0
Wml
(1)
(0)
l = (1 + al )l +
(0)
(2.16)
m .
(0)
(0)
|{z}
E

E
m
m
l
?

m = l. .
. (1)
al l .
(0)
l , 2 :
(1)

al

(1)

+ al

(1)

= 0.
(1)

al ( al = il , 1+il
eil ) , (1)
, al = 0. ,
:
X0
Vml
(0)
(0)
(2.17)
l = l +
m .
(0)
(0)
Em
m El
26

(1)

am (2.13) (2)
(2.12), El :
(2)

El

X0 Wlm Wml
m

(0)
El

(0)
Em

, l-
:
El =

(0)
El

(1)
El

(2)
El

(0)
El

+ Vll +

X0
m

|Vlm |2

(0)

El

(0)

Em

(2.18)
(2)

(2.18) , E0 (0)
( E0
).
:
(1)
El = hl| V |li ;
X0 hl| V |mi hm| V |li
(2)
El =
;
(0)
(0)
E

E
m
m
l

E X0 |mi hm| V |li

(1)

=
.

l
(0)
(0)
El E m
m

(2.19)
(2.20)
(2.21)

(2.19)(2.21)
(0)
El . (0)
El f , . .
0 (0) = E (0) (0) ,
H
lk
l
lk
k = 1, . . . , f , k, . .
hl0 k 0 | V |nki = Bk,l0 l k0 k .

(2.22)

, , , . k 6= k 0 ,
l0 = l (2.20), (2.21) 0, . . 00 .
, (2.22) -
27

, k . , k,
.
k ( ).
(2.1)
,
,
. , .
(1)
(0)
(2.19) En n ,
(2)
(1)
(2.21) En n
. .2
(2.8), (2.9) , .
x3 , . . ,
, (2.8), (2.9) . .
(2.19)(2.21) . , ,
(0)
|Vnm |  |En(0) Em
|.

(2.23)

.
(2.19). (1)
, . En = 0 (
V
(0)
n ) , .

(2)
(1)
En n . .
(k)
En , .
.
(k)

2 ,

n , (2k+1)
En
.

28

2.2.

,
. (0)
El .
(2.20), (2.21) , 0 E (0) ( H
l
, (2.23)), l- - ,
0 , E (0) ,
. , , H
l
, ,
.
.
0 E (0)
H
1
(0)
(0)
(0)
E2 , 1 2 ,
. (2.20) (0)
(0)
(0)
, - E1 E2 2
.
, :
(0)

(0)

= a1 + b2 ,

(2.24)

. . |1i |2i.
:
(H11 E)a + H12 b = 0;
(2.25)
H21 a + (H22 E)b = 0,

(0)
Hmn = Em
mn + hm| V |ni ,
m, n = 1, 2.
(2.26)
(2.25)
:
E1,2 =

1
1p
(H11 + H22 )
(H11 + H22 )2 + 4|H12 |2 ,
2
2
29

(2.27)

. 2.1.

E1 , E2 .

|H11 H22 |  |H12 |,

(2.28)

(2.27)
E1 = H11 +

|H12 |2
H11 H22
2

E2 = H22 +

|H12 |
H22 H11

(2.26)

(0)

= E1 + V11 +

(2.26)

(0)
E1

(0)

= E2 + V22 +

(0)

E2 +

|V12 |2

(0)
V11 (E2
|V12 |2
(0)
V22 (E1

+ V22 )
+ V11 )

;
,

V 2
(2.18).
(2.28)
|H11 H22 |  |H12 |
:
E1,2



H11 + H22
(H11 H22 )2
|H12 | +
.
=
2
8|H12 |

(2.29)

(2.30)

. 2.1. (2.27) E1 E2
= H11 H22 H12 . H11 H22 .
. ,
H11 H22
. , ,
30

,
.
(2.25) a b,
(2.24):
a
b

a

= ctg ;
2
= arctg

= tg

,
2

2H12
.
H11 H22

(2.31)

, , E1 E2 , :

(0)
+ 2 sin ;
2
2

(0)
(0)
2 = 1 sin + 2 cos .
2
2
(0)

1 = 1 cos

(2.32)

(2.28), (2.31) , 0
(0)
(0)
1 1 , 2 2 , . . (
(0)
(0)
, E1 E2 ). ,
(0)
(0)
(2.29), = /2, 1 2 (2.32) (
).
E1 ( E2 ) 1 ( 2 )
(0)

E4

(0)

4 ,

E1 ,

E2 ,

E3 ,

1 ,

2 ,

3 ,

(0)


(0)

(2.20), (2.21)
E1 E2 , |2 i ,
h1 | H
1 2 (2.1). ,

.

31

2.3.


, . . (0)
(0)
(E1 = E2 ).
(0)
f - El .
k = 1, 2, . . . , f :
(0)
(0)
l lk .
, (2.22) .
(2.10)

l =

f
X

(0)

ak lk .

(2.33)

k=1

,
, (0)
, El .
(0)
(2.33), lm
(2.1)
f {ak }:
f
X

k=1

m = 1, . . . , f ;

(Hmk El mk )ak = 0,

(2.34)

|lki ;
Hmk = hlm| H

El .
(2.34) :
det kHmk El mk k = 0.

(2.35)

(2.35), f El ( , 3 ).
Hmk f
. , f -
3

32

(0)

El f
Elk ( V ), n-
ln =

f
X

(0)

(2.36)

akn k ,

k=1

{akn }
(2.34) El Eln , (2.35).
(2.36) . , .
(2.36) .
g- (2.35) g
(2.36), .

(2.22). , , Hmk
.
,
(0)
(2.36) El
( ).

(2.20), (2.21) ,
. , (0)
f - El
hlk| V |lmi
(2.35), :
hlk| V |lmi

X hlk| V |ji hj| V |lmi


(0)

(0)

Em E j

j6=l

, (0)
El .

33

3.



(
,
) , , . .
( ).

.

3.1.


, H
E0 ( ).
:
|0 i ,
E0 6 h0 | H

(3.1)

0 ( L2 ) ,
:
h0 |0 i = 1.
(3.2)
, (3.1)
H
|0 i. (3.1) , - 0 1:
{n } H
|0 i =

n=0

c(0)
n

|n i ,

n=0
(0)

1 ,

2
|c(0)
n | = 1,

(3.3)

{cn } 0 .

34

n = E n n ,
H

En>0 E0 .

(3.4)

|0 i (3.4)
(3.3) h0 | H
{n }, (3.1):
|0 i =
hEi = h0 | H

n=0

2
|c(0)
n | En

> E0

n=0

2
|c(0)
n | = E0 .

{z
1

, {0 } |0 i, E0
J(0 , 0 ) = h0 | H
,
0 = 0 .


(3.1) . , (
E1 ) 1 ,
(3.3) n = 0 (
1 0 ):
|1 i =

c(1)
n

n=1

|n i ,

n=1

2
|c(1)
n | = 1.

(3.5)

(3.1),
:
|1 i .
E1 6 h1 | H

(3.6)

, k- k {n } n = 0, . . . , (k 1), k
0 . . . ,k1 . :
|k i .
Ek 6 hk | H
(3.7)
(3.1), (3.6), (3.7) , :
35

2 . ,
:
|i
E = min h| H
(3.8)

h |i = 1

(3.9)

.
(3.8) J(, ).
, ,
. ()
,
( ). (. . ) ,
, , .
,
.
.

3.2.

( ) (; , , . . .)
, , . . . .

R
(; , , . . .) d
(; , , . . .)H
R
J(, , . . .) =
(3.10)
(; , , . . .) (; , , . . .) d

( , (3.10) (3.9), (3.15)).


(3.8), (, , . . .) J(, , . . .)
2

, .

36

. J(, , . . .) , (0 , 0 , . . .)


J
J
=
= . . . = 0.
(3.11)
0 ,0 ,...
0 ,0 ,...

(3.11) (; , , . . .) l . ,
k- k :
Z
(3.12)
l ()(; 0 , 0 , . . .) d = 0,
l = 0, 1, . . . , k 1 .
{z
}
|
k

, (3.12)
.
(0 , 0 , . . .)
Evar = J(0 , 0 , . . .)

var () = (; 0 , 0 , . . .).

(3.8):
Evar > E.

(3.13)

( ,
)3 .
, (3.13) .
,
.
. , ,
3 ,

,
0 (x; , ) = exp(x2 ).

37

( ).
, , [3] (. 3).

.

3.3.

H.
(3.8), (3.9),
Z
d
J = H
(3.14)

Z

d = 1,

(3.15)

(
, ). .
, E, :
Z
Z
Z

d E d = (H
E) d.
J = H
(3.16)
J , :
Z
Z
Z

E) d.
J = (H E) d = (H E) d + (H
J
, ,
Z
Z

E) d = 0.
(H E) d + (H
(3.17)
38

(3.17) ,
:
E) = 0,
(H

E) = 0.
(H

,
.
( )
.

39

4.


V (, t)
0 (). H

i}

0 () + V (, t)](, t)
(, t) = [H
t

(4.1)

,
t) = H
0 () + V (, t)
H(,
(4.2)
t)/t 6= 0).
( H(,
(4.1) ,
.

4.1.

V (, t) (
) t = 0,
t = (. 4.1.).
,
t = 0

0 () Ei .
H
|ii
(-
initial ). 0 6 t 6 ,
. t =
. 4.1.
, t ) = H
0 ()).
: (H(,

V(t)

40

t 0 ()
H
, :
X
(, t > ) =
ak ( )k () eiEk t/} .
(4.3)
k

, , ak ( )
|ki . |ki |ii, , ,
V (, t),
|ii Ei |ki
Ek . (. final) |f i,
Ef . ,
(. . t = ) ,

dH
H

=
=
V (, t) 6= 0,
dt
t
t
Ef i = Ef Ei ( , )
.
i f ,
, , af ( ) af i ( ):
Wf i = |af i ( )|2 .

(4.4)

,

X
X
Wf i =
|af i ( )|2 = 1,
(4.5)
f

,
( f = i).
(4.1)

(, 0) = i (),
(4.6)
i ()
0 k = E k k .
H
41

(, t)
H0 :
X
(, t) =
ak (t)k () eiEk t/} ,
(4.7)
k

ak (t)
t = ,
aki ( ). , ak (t)
X
|ak (t)|2 = 1,
(4.8)
k

.
af (t) (4.7) (4.1),
f ()eiEf t/} .
1- :
i}

X
d
af (t) =
Vf k (t) ei f k t ak (t),
dt

(4.9)

Vk0 k (t) =

k0 ()V (, t)k () d

(4.10)


,
k0 k = (Ek0 Ek )/}
(4.11)

k k 0 .
, (4.9) (4.1). , (4.9)
(4.1), (. .1, . 3.5,
3.8). ,
.
( )
(4.1) (4.9) ( (4.6)):
af (0) = f i .
42

(4.12)

, (4.1), (4.9) V (, t) ( Vk0 k (t)) .


.

4.2.

V (, t)
,
. , V (, t) ( . 2), (4.9)
ak (t) t = 0, . . : ak (t)
(0)
ak (t) = ki . (4.9) af (t)
(0)
(1)
(1)
af (t) af (t) + af (t), af (t) . (1)

af (t) :
(1)
af (t)

1
=
i}

Vf i (t0 ) ei f i t dt0 ,

(4.13)

af (t) V (, t)
1
af (t) f i +
i}

Vf i (t0 ) ei f i t dt0 .

(4.14)

, t >
af (t) t,
af ( ).

Z


1
0
i f i t0 0
1 2
Vf i (t ) e
dt .
(4.15)
}
0
(4.4)
:
Wf i

Z
2

0
1
= 2
Vf i (t0 ) ei f i t dt0 ,
}
0
43

f 6= i .

(4.16)

af (t) ( (1)
, , af (t) |ii
|f i). , 2-
(1)
(2)
(4.9) af (t) af (t) f i + af (t) + af (t), (2)

af (t) ,
(1)

3 . (4.13) af (t), (2)

af (t) (
).

4.3.

,
. |ii |f i (4.16).

() ()
V (, t) . (4.16),
, V (, t) t = 0 t = :
Z
Z

Vf i (t) ei f i t dt = ei f i t Vf i (t)
ei f i t Vf i (t) dt.
i f i
t
0
0
0
|
{z
}
0

Z
2


0
1
i

t
0
fi

,
Wf i =
e
V
(t)
dt
(4.17)
f
i

(}f i )2 0
t

, .
, (4.17)
, . , (4.17)
, (T f1
i )
(E = }f i ) , ,
, V (, t). -

44

, :


T
1
=
Vf i (t)
Vf i (t).
(4.18)
E t
}f2 i t
 1, . .
( E/T ),
; ,
 1, , .


- . t0
:

2

4
Wf i 2 4 Vf i (t) sin2 (f i /2),
(4.19)
} f i t

, ,
, , . ,  1,
Wf i  1. , .
,
(4.17)
t  f1
i ,
.
.
, :
2

Wf i

|Vf i (t0 )|

,
}2 f2 i

(4.20)

t0 ,
.
(4.20)
, .
. ,
. ,

45

. 0 . t = 0 m H
,
( )1 . {n }
H
H.
m n . t = 0
:
X
m =
Anm n ,
(4.21)
n

Anm =

n m d3 r

(4.22)

( ) .

4.4.


, .
,

V (, t) = V+ () ei t + V () ei t ,

(4.23)

V+ () = V (), V (, t).
, V (, t) ,
V (, t), : V (, t) = V () ei t .
V (, t) (4.16) t, :
()
Wf i ( )

2
4
2 sin [(f i ) /2]
.
= 2 |V,f i |
}
(f i )2

(4.24)

(4.24), ,
.
1

, , - , , , .

46


 Ta ( , Ta ~/|f i |). t (t  Ta ) t2 ,
(4.24),
 Ta .  Ta ,

(, , ), , . .
.

Pf i ,
1

Wf i ( )
Pf i = lim
(4.25)


Pf i =

dWf i (t)
.
dt

(4.26)

()

Wf i ( ) (4.24) , :
()

Pf i =

2
2
|V,f i | (Ef Ei }),
}

(4.27)

-
(. .)
1 sin ax
(x) = lim
.
a
x
- (4.27)
: }. ,
}, } (
(+)
Wf i ), }, . . } (()
Wf i ). , ,

47


: = |f i | 2 .
- (4.27) ,
, , Ei Ef .
( ) (. . ), -
, ; ,
; ,
( , -
,
). E = dE
E = Ef , d(E) = (E) dE,
(E) , . . , . (
dE ) Ef (4.27)
(Ef ) dEf :
2
2
|V,f i | (Ef Ei })(Ef ) dEf .
(4.28)
}
-
, ,
. . Ef , :
()

dPf i =

2
|V,f i |2 (Ef ), Ef = Ei }.
(4.29)
}
(4.29)
.
(V (, t) = V () 0 6 t 6 )
, = 0.
:
()

Pf i =

Pf i =

2
|Vf i |2 (Ef ),
}

2 ,

Ef = Ei .

(4.30)


2}, 3}
. .

48

,
: Ei = Ef . (
) E = p2 /(2m)
V (r) (, , ),

, .
(1.42) p p + dp,
E = p2 /(2m),
m dE = p dp p = mv (V ):
V d3 p
V p2 dp d
V m2 v d
=
=
dE.
(2})3
(2})3
(2})3
V
d 3 :
d(E) =

V m2 v
d.
(2})3

(4.31)

: -,
- - .
.
- , , ,
.
, } = |Ei Ef |. -
, . , ,
()
, |Ei |/} (
(Ei + }) > 0). (-)
. , ,
.

d(E) (;
. 5.6),

49

5.



. ,
() ,

}, . ,
,

. , ,
.

5.1.


2
p
}2 2

H0 (r) =
+ U (r) =
+ U (r)
2m
2m

(5.1)

,
A(r, t) (r, t). e ( e < 0 : e = |e|)
(A(r, t), (r, t)), 0 p
(
H
p (e/c)A(r, t))
e(r, t):
i2
1 h
e

A(r, t) + U (r) + e(r, t).


H(r, t) =
p
2m
c
50

(5.2)


A, H(r,
p
t), :

0 (r) + V (r, t),


H(r,
t) = H

(5.3)

e
i}e
e2

V (r, t) =
A(r, t)
p
div A(r, t) +
A2 (r, t).
2
mc
2mc
2mc

(5.4)

,
, (r, t) = 0,
div A(r, t) = 0. V (r, t)
:
e
e2

V (r, t) =
A(r, t)
p+
A2 (r, t).
2
mc
2mc

(5.5)


, A(r, t)
(5.5):
e
A(r, t)
p .
(5.6)
V (r, t) =
mc

E(r, t) = (1/c)A(r, t)/t,
n
o
i(krt)
E(r, t) = E0 Re u e
, (k u) = 0,
(5.7)

E0 , k u : u u = 1. V (r, t)
, :
V (r, t) = V+ (r)eit + V (r)eit ,

(5.8)

eE0 ikr
V+ (r) = i
e (u
p),
2m

eE0 ikr
). (5.9)
V (r) = V+ (r) = i
e
(u p
2m

(4.29),
} ( ) |ii |f i :
2
2

Pf i =
(5.10)
hf | V |ii (Ef ), Ef = Ei },
}
51

+ , hf | V |ii V (r) (5.9), (E)


.

5.2.

(5.9) V (r) ( - exp( i k r))


,
.
, ,
.
,
, , , () , d.
,
hf | V (r) |ii (5.10).

eE0
hf | eikr (u
p) |ii
hf | V+ (r) |ii = i
2m
V+ (r) (5.9), . r, -
- r
, ,
a. a 108 .
,
ka =

2a
103 .

(5.11)

, eikr V+ (r) :
ikr (ikr)2
eikr = 1 +
+
+ ...,
(5.12)
1!
2!
52

, . .
|ii .
hf | eikr (u
p) |ii u hf | p

(5.13)

, , , , , . - (,
|ii , ) hf | p
(5.12) . .1 .

0 ] = i} p
,
[r, H
(5.14)
m
|ii :
hf | p
|ii = i m hf | r |ii
hf | p

(5.15)

( ). , :
eE0
E0
|ii =
u hf | p
(udf i ),
hf | V+ |ii = i
2m
2

(5.16)

df i = e hf | r |ii

d = er.
V (r) (5.9),
, :
eE0
E0
|ii =
hf | V |ii = i
u hf | p
(u df i ).
2m
2

(5.17)

, (5.10)
hf | V |ii (5.16)
(5.17).
1

,
. . .

53

5.3.

(5.16), (5.17) ,
, , |ii |f i
(
). , ,
:
1
Ri,li (r)Yli mi (, ),
r

hr |ii =

hr |f i =

1
Rf,lf (r)Ylf mf (, ),
r

(5.18)

Yli mi (, ), Ylf mf (, ) .
- .
Oz u (ez = u),
(ur) (5.16) :
r
4
(ur) = z = r cos = r
Y1,0 (, ),
3
dr). (5.16) = (u,
:
(udf i ) =

Rf,l
(r)Ri,li (r) r dr
f
Z
Ylf mf (, ) cos Yli mi (, ) d.

(5.19)

.

, ( )


. , ,
:
cos Yli mi (, ) = AYli +1 mi + BYli 1 mi ,

A=

1)2

m2i

(li +

;
(2li + 1)(2li + 3)

B=

54

li2 m2i
.
(2li + 1)(2li 1)

(5.19) ,
. (5.19) :
Z

(udf i ) = (Alf ,li +1 + Blf ,li 1 )mf ,mi


Rf,l
(r)Ri,l
(r) r dr. (5.20)
f
i
0

,
-

lf = li 1,

m f = mi ,

. , ,
: Ylml eiml . ,
l = |lf li | = 1, ,
. , , d = er ( r r), ,
hf | d |ii , |ii |f i
2 . ,
l = |lf li | = 1 (
m).
- Oz (. .
k).
u = (ex iey )/ 2,
, . (ur) (5.16)
:
r
r
1
4
(ur) = (x i y) = sin ei = r
Y1,1 (, ).
(5.21)
3
2
2
(5.21) (5.16),
:
Z

(udf i ) = (Clf ,li +1 + Dlf ,li 1 )mf ,mi 1


Rf,l
(r)Ri,li (r) r dr, (5.22)
f
0

2 ,

l (1) l .

55

C D . , -
:
lf = li 1,

m f = mi 1

(5.23)

( u mf ).
-
-
, (5.23), mf

mi
mf : mf = mi + 1 mf = mi 1 .

5.4.


, c E(r, t) (5.7).
(4.27) V (r) (5.9),
:
(+)
Pf i
()
Pf i
(+)

=
=

2e
}m
2e
}m

2
2

W
| hf | eikr u
p |ii |2 (f i ),
2

(5.24)

W
|ii |2 (f i + ),
| hf | eikr u p
2

(5.25)

()

Pf i Pf i , E0 W = E02 /(8).
- (5.24) (5.25)
, , , W

R
(), W = ()d. ,
, , (5.24), (5.25)
, ..
W
( )

(f i )
f
i
2
2

56

.
( -!), ,
(|f i |)3 :

2
2e
(+)
Pf i =
| hf | eikr u
p |ii |2 (|f i |),
(5.26)
}mf i

2
2e
()
|f i |2 (|f i |).
Pif =
| hi| eikr u p
(5.27)
}mf i
, , |f i | , : (f i = (Ef Ei )/} > 0), (5.26)
() ;
, (, )
(5.27), ,
, () .

, 4 . ,
(5.26) (5.27)
, ,
.
,
(+)

()

Pf i = Pif
B
B=

2e
}mf i

2

= B(|f i |),

(5.28)

| hf | eikr u
p |ii |2

(5.29)

. B
 2
2
B=
|u df i |2 .
(5.30)
}
3

(dI/d)
I = cE02 /(8): () = (1/c)dI/d.
4 .

57

. ( 1916 .)
( ), . (5.29), ,
,
.

5.5.

, |ii .
,
. . , ,
.

,
( ).
,
, , , ( ) ,
.
, , |ii |f i, . ,
,
|ii |f i, |ii ( Ni )
:
dN (i f )
= B(f i )Ni .
dt

(5.31)

B.
, ,
C,
, (,
58

, ). :
dN (f i)
= [C(f i ) + A]Nf ,
dt

(5.32)

A (
).

, , . .
dN (i f )
dN (f i)
=
.
dt
dt
(5.31) (5.32) :


C
A
}f i
Ni
= +
= exp
,
(5.33)
Nf
B B(f i )
kT
5 : Nk
exp[Ek /(kT )]; k , T .
, , :
} 3
1
() = 2 3 }/(kT )
.
c e
1
(5.33) :


2 c3 A }f i /(kT )
}f i
C
[e

1]
=
exp

.
}f3 i B
kT
B

(5.34)

(5.35)

(5.35) ,
, :
2 c3 A
= 1,
}f3 i B

C
= 1,
B

(5.36)

(, (5.36) (5.35)
T ).
(5.36) .

,
5

,
.

59

(5.29) B.
, , . A . ,

, (5.30) B
u ( ,
!),
|udf i |2

1
|df i |2 .
3

(5.37)

:
Af i

4 3
= 3 |df i |2 .
3c }

(5.38)

Af i },
4 4
(5.39)
I = 3 |df i |2 ,
3c
, ,
. , (5.39)
d(t)
df i d(t)
.
P
= 1/( f Af i ) ( )
|ii.
, |ii dt
|f i
X
dNi = (
Af i )Ni dt,
(5.40)
f

t
t

Ni (t) = Ni (0)e .

(5.41)

,
(108 109 ) 1 , ( 1014 1 ), ( 3 ) .
60

5.6.

- .
i Ei U (r) , u. , } > |Ei |,
(. ) . ,
.
Ep = Ei + } (}  |Ei |),
U (r)
,
U (r), p (
V )6 .
5.1., ( )
:
dP + =

2
E0 |(udi,p )|2 (Ep ) d,
2}

(5.42)

di,p = e

p (r)ri (r) d3 r,

1
p (r) = e(i/})pr ;
V

(Ep ) =

V mp
;
(2})3

Ep = p2 /(2m) = Ei + }.

(5.42) V+ (r) (5.16), ( !) 7 .


di,p , :
Z
Z
e(i/})pr ri (r) d3 r = i}p e(i/})pr i (r) d3 r = i}(2})3/2 p i (p),
6


, . . 6.
7 ,
, E l.

61

i (p)
.
p d - ()
:
dP (+) = mp

eE0
4}

2

|up i (p)|2 d.

(5.43)

I = cE02 /8 ( , : N = I/}),
, N
( ):
dP (+)
d =
.
(5.44)
N

1S . - ( ):

Z
8
a3
,
(5.45)
i (p) = e(i/})pr i (r)dr =
(1 + p2 a2 /}2 )2
a . (5.45) (5.43) (5.44), :
9

d = 2

a
x0

2

3
|n u|2 a2 d,
2
6
(1 + )

(5.46)

x20 = }/(m), = e2 /(}c) , =


pa/}, n .
, : , (}  e2 /a) p2 ,
d 1/ 9/2 . n u (5.46) ,
( ,
, ).

62

6.


V (r),
().
.
, d , (. .
).
. ,
, . ., ,
d. , ,
, ,
, .
1
V (r), ,
.

6.1.

, (4.30)
V = V (r) (
).
1 ,

63

pa = }ka pb = }kb , V ( ):
1
|ii pa (r) = eika r ,
V

1
|f i pb (r) = eikb r ,
V

(6.1)

|pa | = |pb | p = mv (m ). (4.31), d


(4.30) :
Z
2

2
m2 v
i(kb ka )r

dP (kb , ka ) =
e
V
(r)dr
V (2})3 d.
}

(6.2)

,
( V ), , ,
,
dP (kb , ka ) ja = |j a |.
j a :
ja =

}
}ka
(p a (r)pa (r) pa (r)p a (r)) =
,
2mi
mV

(6.3)

ja = v/V , V , ( ):
d

dP (kb , ka )
= |A (kb , ka )|2 d,
ja

m
A (kb , ka ) =
2}2

ei(kb ka )r V (r) d3 r

(6.4)

(6.5)


( )2 .
(-
V (r)) ( p = pb pa ), pa pb .
, (V (r) = V (r)) p = 2p sin(/2),
. (6.5) ,
,
2

(6.5) -

64

. ,
.
(6.5) 3 .

6.2.

.
, V (r) , d, ,
() . }k a
.
.
}kb , , , }ka ,
. ( ). kb = ka = k.

k a V (r).
. ,

.

,
}ka . ,
.
, ,
.
,
:
(2 + k 2 )(r) =

2mV (r)
(r),
}2

k2 =

2mE
,
}2

E > 0.

(6.6)

,
,
A (kb , ka ).

65


(, ), . ,
, .
(
; , V ):
a (r) = eika r .

(6.7)

(6.7) ,
:
ja =

}
}ka
(a a a a ) =
.
2mi
m

(6.8)

, r,
:
eikr
. (r) = A(kb , ka )
,
r

(6.9)

r
kb = k .
r
A(kb , ka ) r .
.
(6.6) ,
:
(r) a (r) + . (r) = eika r + A(kb , ka )

eikr
,
r

rd .

(6.10)

,

. (6.10)
(6.6) .

66

,
kb , (, /r):



.
(r)
}
. (r)
}k

(jb )r =
. (r)
. (r)
=
|A(kb , ka )|2 .
2
2mi
r
r
mr
(6.11)
, 1/r . (r)
, 1/r 3
(jb )r . ,
d kb , (6.11)
r 2 d:
dJb = (jb )r r2 d =

}k
|A(kb , ka )|2 d.
m

(6.12)

dJb
ja (6.3) (6.12):
d =

dJb
= |A(kb , ka )|2 d .
ja

(6.13)

,
. .

6.3.

(6.6) (6.10) ,
(6.10). . ,
(6.6) - :
(2 + k 2 )G(r, r 0 ) = (r r 0 ).

(6.14)

a (r) (6.6) . , , (6.6) :


Z
2m
(r) = a (r) + 2
G(r, r 0 )V (r 0 )(r 0 ) d3 r0 .
(6.15)
}
67

2 + k 2 (6.14), ,
(6.6).
, (6.14)
G(r, r 0 ), ,
(6.10) (6.15),
:
G

(+)

exp(ik|r r 0 |)
(r, r ) =
.
4|r r 0 |
0

(6.16)

(6.15) :
(r) = e

ika r

2}2

exp(ik|r r 0 |)
V (r 0 )(r 0 ) d3 r0 .
0
|r r |

(6.17)

,
(6.10).
(r  d)
p
0
0
0
2
k|r r | kr 1 2r r /r kr kb r .
(6.17) (6.10)
m
A(kb , ka ) =
2}2

eikb r V (r 0 )(r 0 ) d3 r0 .

(6.18)

, (6.18) (r)
(6.17) r.

6.4.

(6.14). r 6= r 0 . -
r  r 0 .
(6.14)
G(r, r 0 ) = (2 + k 2 )1 (r r 0 ).

(6.19)

(6.19) - (.6), :
Z
1
exp{ip(r r 0 )} 3
0
0
G(r, r ) = G(|r r |) =
d p.
(6.20)
(2)3
k 2 p2
68

p
G

()

(+)

=
p

()

(-)

=
. 6.1.

(6.20) :
Z
4
eipR dp =
sin pR,
p

R = r r0 .
,
1
G(R) = 2
2 R

p sin pR
dp.
k 2 p2

p
p. , G(R):
Z +
1
p eipR
G(R) =
dp.
(6.21)
4 2 iR k 2 p2

p =
k, .
, G(R).
,
, () . 6.1.
p = +k, 2i:
G

(+)

eikR
(R) =
,
4R

(6.22)

(6.16).
p p,
k: k k+i.
69

+0
(6.22).
,
, () . 6.1
. :
G () (R) =

eikR
.
4R

, k k i ( < 0),
+0.

6.5.

(6.17) :
Z
exp(ik|r r 0 |)
m
(n)
ika r
V (r 0 ) (n1) (r 0 ) d3 r0 , (6.23)
(r) = e

2}2
|r r 0 |
(n) (r) , n- (, (0) (r) eika r ), (6.17)
. , (6.23) (6.18),
:
Z
m
A(kb , ka ) =
eiqr V (r) d3 r +
2
2}
 m 2 Z Z
0
iqr exp(ik|r r |)
+
e
V (r)V (r 0 ) d3 r d3 r0 + . . . , (6.24)
2
0
2}
|r r |

}q = }ka }kb
( ,
).

(6.24), .
:
A (kb , ka ) =

V (q)

m
V (q) ,
2}2

eiqr V (r) d3 r
70

(6.25)

- ( ) . :
 m 2
d =
|V (q)|2 .
2
2}

(6.26)

, 6.1.
(6.24)
. .
. (6.23) , n = 1 , (
ka k):


m Z eik|rr0 |


0
ikr0 3 0
|k (r)| 
V (r ) e
d r .
(6.27)
2}2

|r r 0 |

V (r) r = 0. ,
r = 0 (6.27), :


Z
m

V
(r)
i(kr+kr) 3

e
d
r
(6.28)
2}2
 1.
r

kd  1 ( ), (6.28)
, :
Z
V
1
V (r) 3
}2
 1, V =
d r, E =
.
(6.29)
4d2
r
2md2
E

V , E
d. , (6.29) ,
.
V (r) -, (6.28)
:
Z

2


2ikr

 k} .
V
(r)(e

1)
dr
(6.30)


m
0

, kd  1 ( ), (6.30) .
71

:
Z



k}2


V (r) dr 
(6.31)

m
0

k}
= }v,
(6.32)
V d 
m
R

V = (1/d) 0 V (r) dr .
. ,

(V (r) Ze2 /r) V d Ze2 . (6.32) : Ze2 /(}v)  1 v  (Ze2 )/} = Zvat , vat .
A (kb , ka ) , V (q) (r , r ) r:
Z
2m
A (kb , ka ) = 2
V (r) r sin qr dr.
(6.33)
} q 0

q = 2k sin ,
2
( ka kb ), -
ka .
- V (r) ,
, [3] . (. 3, . 5).

72

-
, :
Z

def

(.1)

(x)f (x) dx = f (0) .

(.1) 3- :
Z
def
(r)f (r) dr = f (0) .

(.2)

-
1- - :
(.3)

(r) = (x)(y)(z) .

-.
1. : (x) = (x).
2. n- - , :

Z +
n

(n)
n d f (x)
(x)f (x) dx = (1)
.
dxn x=0

3. g(x) -:
[g(x)] =

(x xi )


dg(x)
dx

x=xi

xi i- g(x). ,
(x) =

73

(x)
.
||

(.4)

4. -. -.

1
(x) =
2

eixq dq

(.5)

:
 2
x
1
exp 2 ;
(x) = lim
a0
a
a
1
a
(x) = lim
;
a0 x2 + a2
1 sin ax
(x) = lim
.
a
x
(.5) 3- :
1
(r) =
(2)3
(.3)

eirq d3 q .

(.6)

-
:
x2 y 00 + xy 0 + (x2 2 )y = 0.

(.7)

:
J (x) =

 x  X

k=0

(x2 /2)k
.
k!( + k + 1)

Ai(x)
y 00 xy = 0

(.8)

1
:
3
Ai(x) =

1
x [I1/3 () I1/3 ()];
3

Ai(x) =

74

1
x [J1/3 () + J1/3 ()],
3

2
I () = i J (i); = x3/2 .
3
x  1:
Ai(x)

1 1/2 1/4

x
e ;
2


Ai(x) 1/2 x1/4 sin +

75


.
4

1. .. / .. . . : ,
1973. 704 .
2. .. / .. .
. : , 1983. 664 .
3. .. : 3- . / .. , .. . : . . ., 2007.

1. .. : 10- . / .. ,
.. . . : , 2001. . 3. : . . 803 .
2. .. : 2- . / .. ,
.. , .. . . : , 1971. . 2. 936 .
3. .. / .. , .. . : ,
2001. 336 .

76

77

78


,
,
,



2
..

31.08.07. 6084/16. . . . 4,65.


100 . 1787.
-
.
394000, . , . . , 10. . 208-298, 598-026 ()
http://www.ppc.vsu.ru; e-mail: pp_center@typ.vsu.ru
-
.
394000, . , . , 3. . 204-133.