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. . .

213
: ..., . .

2010
1


I. .....................................................................................................3
II. ......................................................................................4
1. .......................................................................4
2. ...........................................................................................................5
III.

............................................6

1. ....................................................................................6
2. ...............................................................7
a) ...................................................................7
b) ....................................................................7
3. .............................................................8
a) ...................................................................8
b) ...................................................................8
4. ..............................9
IV.

.......................................................................11

1. ..............................................................11
2. .....................................................................................12
3. ...................................................................................14
V.............................................................................................................16
VI.

..............................................................................17

I.

:

.

II.
-
.
. ,
[1].

HNO3 ()

NH3

HNO3 6,

HNO3()

K4[Fe(CN)6]

Ni

KSCN

Fe

Na2S2O8,
Ag+

Mn

NaOH 2,

Zn, Cd, Ni, Fe,


Mn, Al, Pb.
Cu.

Sn,
Sb.

Na[Al(OH)4],
Na[Zn(OH)4],

CuO

Na2[Sn(OH)6], Cd(OH)2,
Na2[Pb(OH)4] Sb2O5xH2O
1

HNO3

Cu,

Cd, Sb

, (NH2)2CS,
HCl

Sb

.


pH 2-3,
pH 6

Cd

HNO3

HNO3

KI


Pb

-S

Al

(NH4)2Hg(SCN)4

(,
)

Zn

Zn

Sn

Al,
Zn. Sn, Pb

: ,
.

III.

1. [2],[3]
,
Cu2+ Zn2+ ,
:
Cu2+ + H2S CuS + 2H+
2.
(II)
(Ks = 1,1*10-12):
2Cu + 4I- 2CuI + I2
:
I2 + 2Na2S2O3 Na2S4O6 + 2NaI
:
Na2S2O3 + 2H+ S + 2Na+ + H2O + SO2
CuI .
.
3. [2]
Cu(II) Cu(I)
:
[Cu(S2O3)2]2-, pH 4.5 9.5. pH<4.5
(I) , pH>9.5
Cu(II).



1. [2]
: ,
, , , , ,
(II).
:
u2+ + 2e- Cu
Cu, Cu
: F = 1,0000
2. 8- [2]
:
u2+ + 2C9H8ON Cu(C9H7ON)2 + 2H+
Cu(C9H7ON)2H2O2,
Cu(C9H7ON)2
140
: F = 0,1808


1. [1]


.
:
CuInd + Y CuY + Ind
: ,
2-(2-)-4-, .
2. [2],[1]

(I)

.
2Cu + 4I- 2CuI + I2
I2 + 2Na2S2O3 Na2S4O6 + 2NaI
. ..-
.
7



1. 8- [1],[4]
:
Zn2+ + 2C9H8ON Zn(C9H7ON)2 + 2H+
Cu(C9H7ON)1,5H2O2,
Cu(C9H7ON)2
pH 4,6-13,4
.
.
140
: F = 0,1849
2. [4]
:
Zn2+ + (NH4)2HPO4 ZnNH4PO4 + NH4+ + H+
ZnNH4PO4, Zn2P2O7
pH 6,6
900
0,4289[3]


1. [4]

.
:
Zn2+ + Ind(n+2)- CuIndn :
CuIndn- + Y4- CuY2- + Ind(n+2) .. - .
2. - [4]
,
, 2 HCl, KBr,
KBrO3, .



, .

. 8-
,
(2,51*10-25 3,16*10-25
[5]).

,

. , ,
.
, ,
, .

,
.

.
, ,
, .

.


.
,
(1,1*10-12)
(6,3*10-36),
(),
(
)
( ).
. ,
, .


9

.
(0,1849 0,4289)

(130 900),
. ,

, .


.
.
-
.

10

IV.
(~10%
~90% ),
.

(HNO3) 2M, 20

100,0

10,00

11

1.
a) .
~90% . , 0,05
100 .
(Cu) = C * V = 0,05 * 0,1 = 0,005
m(Cu) = * M(Cu) = 0,005 * 64 = 0,16
m() = m(Cu) / (Cu) =0.16 / 0.9 = 0,1778
0,1773 .
)
300 , 20 2
HNO3, , .
. 5
5 2.
. ,
, 30
100,0 .
, .
)
.
1/6 K2Cr2O7 0,0500 ,
200,0 .
(K2Cr2O7) = C(K2Cr2O7) * V(K2Cr2O7) = 0,05000 * 0,2 * 1/6 = 0,001667
.
M = (K2Cr2O7) * (K2Cr2O7) = 0,001667 * 294,18 = 0,4904
:
0,4915
0,0002 .
0,4913 .

:
C(K2Cr2O7) = 0,05000 * 0,4913 / 0,4904 = 0,05009
) .
:
12

, 0,0500 (1/6 K2Cr2O7)


, H2SO4, 1M .
, KI, 5%
, 1%
, Na2S2O3, 0,05M .
:
,
.
200-250 10 ,
10 10,00
. 3-5 ,
. 100
- . 5-10

.
.
:
V1 = 12,55
V2 = 12,57
V3 = 12,56
V = 12,56
:
C(Na2S2O3) = C(K2Cr2O7) * V() / V(Na2S2O3) = 0,05009 * 10 / 12,56 =
0,03988
) .
:
, H2SO4, 2M .
, KI, 5%
, 1%
, Na2S2O3, 0,05M .
:

. 100
10,00 , 2 , 30
-
13

. 5
.
.
:
V1 = 6,41
V2 = 6,40
V3 = 6,39
V = 6,40
:
m(Cu) = V(Na2S2O3) * C(Na2S2O3) * M(Cu) * V() / (V() * 1000) =
6,40 * 0,03988 * 63,54 * 100 / (10 * 1000) = 0,1622
(Cu) = 0,1622 / 0,1773 * 100 = 91,47 %.
2.
a) .
~10% .
0,1.
m(Zn) = m() * F = 0,1 * 0,1849 = 0,01849
m() = m(Zn) / (Zn) = 0,5408 / 0,1 = 0,1849
0,1873 .
)
300 , 20 2
HNO3, , .
. 5
5 2.
. ,
, 30 .
)
300 20 5%
.
.
.
, ,
14

.
)
130
m1 = 13,7602
m2 = 13,7609
m3 = 13,7599
m4 = 13,7601
m = 13,7601
)
:
8-, 5% ,
, NH3, 25% ,
Zn, .
:
~10%.
m(Zn) = m() * (Zn) = 0,1873 * 0,1 = 0,01873
m() = m(Zn) / F = 0,01873 / 0,1849 = 0,1013
m(.) = m() m(Zn) = 0,1013 - 0,01873 = 0,08257
m(-) = m(.) / (.) = 0,08257 / 0,05 = 1,6514
, 0,8 /:
V(.) = 1,6514 / 0,8 = 2,1
:
,
8-.
,
.
, ,
130 .
:
m1 = 13,8712
m2 = 13,8717
m3 = 13,8710
m4 = 13,8680
m5 = 13,8682
15

m = 13,8681
:
m(Zn) = (13,8681 13,7601) * 0,1849 = 0,01997
(Zn) = 0,01997 / 0,1873 * 100 = 10,66%

V. :
1. .
2. .
91,47%
10,66%

16

VI.
1. . / . .
. .; . ., 2001. 463.
2. . ., .. . .: ,
1990. 278 .
3. .., .., ..
. .: , 1981
4. . ., . . . .: ,
1975. 198 .
5. . ., . .
. .: - . . 104 .

17

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