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..

, ,
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http://www.maths.ru/

, 1990 - 2003 .

1.
1.





.


2.

= vn = n v
B. = 1 / v

A.

C.
(v)
D. e
E. ln()
F.
G.
H.
,

3.






4.
.

5.
6. .
7.



(. ).
8.

2. ,

1. Z-
2.

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11
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161

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172

3.

1.
2.
3.
4.

4.

1.
2.
3. .
.
4.

5. .

1.

2.

3.
4.
1.
2. .
3.
5.
. .


. .

. .

. .

6.

.
.
.
1. . .
2.
.
.
.
3. .
4. .
.
5. . .

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3

7.
.
.
1. , .
2. . .
.
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. -
. .
, .
8. .
9. . .

8. .


.
1.
.

.
.
2.
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3. S, C, B, t
. .
4. , , u, d.
5. . .
6. .
7. .
8.

9.
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, ,
. -.

10.
,
.
8.2. ,
, , .
8.3.

9.
1.
2.
.
3.
.

311
311
313
315
316
318
319
322
330
341

345

345
349
361
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366
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375
381
397

415

418
422
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440

10.

457

500



, (1789-1857 .).
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.
( ).
,
.

.
2*10^-5 . . 1, 6*10^-33.
0, 2*10^-13 1, 6*10^-24 .
, , .
- ( ), . . .

mi c 2 = Gmg2 / kompt
,
i
mi - , - , G- ,
mg - , kompt
- i
.

10

1.
(): , , . , ()
, , ,
.

.
, ,
.
,
, , -, ,

.
, , .
, - , .
, , - .
1.1.
1.1.1. .

Z = n

i (arg + 2 )
n
,
e

, 0 , a , arg
, K .
2

z 1 = 0 . , ,
+1.
+1 arg arg = 0 arg = 2i :
Z 0 x ,
.
1

z = 2 1 e

i ( 0 + 2 )

1
2,z

=0

= 1 , z =1 = 1
11

1.

z = 2 1e

i ( 2 + 2 )

1
2,z

=0

= 1 , z =1 = 1

. (Z) +1. .
2

: z ( 1)( 1) = 0 . , (-1)(-1).

z =

( 1) e

( i + 2 i )

1
2

(i + 2 i )

( 1) e
z1 = 1; z 2 = 1.

1
2

=e

( i + 2 i )

1
1
(i + 2 i )
2e
2 ,

= 0,1

, (z)
arg( 1) = i . (z) x 0 . , 1 = 0,1

2 = 0,1

z = e

(i + 2 1i )

1
1
(i + 2 2i )
2e
2

z1 = ( z ) 1 =0, 2 =1 =

i i
+i
e2e2

= +1 ,

i
i
+i
e2 e2

= +1 ,
z2 = ( z ) 1 =1, 2 =0 =
1 = 2 = 1 1
z1 = ( z ) 1 = 2 =0

i
2
=e2

z2 = ( z ) 1 = 2 =1 = e

1 = 2 = 0 ,

= 1,

i
+i ) 2
2

= 1 .

, , +1 Z 1
.

.

1
1
( i + 4 k i ) + ( j + 2 k j )
2
2,
e

= 0,1 , J
I ,

z =

z1 = ( zk ) k =0 =

i j
e2e2

z2 = ( zk ) k =1 = e

= ji

i
j
+ 2i )
+j
2
e2

= ji

12

1.

= Rei + j k = ( 4i + 2j )k , k .

+1,
1 = 1 , :

1 = ji , -

( ji ) = ( j ) (i ) = i j = ( 1)( 1) = +1 ,
ji = ij .
2

2 2

(1.1.)

1.1.2. .
. , .
. . ,
.

2 + 2a + b = 0 , a, b -

2 + 2a + b + a 2 a 2 [( + a ) 2 (a 2 b)]
[( + a ) a 2 b ] [( + a ) + a 2 b ]

+a
+a
+ 1 = 0 .
( a 2 b)
1
2
2
a b a b

a 2 b 0 . XY
:
1) X = 0,Y 0
(1.2.)
2) X 0, Y = 0
3) X 0, Y 0 .
.

1,2 = a a 2 b .
.
. , , .

+a
2

a b

= ji
2

: i = 1, j = 1, ji = ij, ( ji ) = +1 .
,

13

1.

( ji 1)( ji + 1) = ( ji ) 2 ji + ji 1 = 0 .
,

3,4 = a ji a 2 b .
2

, ( ji ) = 1 .
ji

. .
.
:

2 + 4 + 3 = 0

1 = 1, 2 = 3 ,

2 + 4 + 3 = ( + 1)( + 3) = 0

.

3,4 = 2 ji 1 , 3 = 2 + ji, 4 = 2 ji ,

2 + 4 + 3 = ( + 2 ji )( + 2 + ji ) = 0

1 -3
( )

2 + 4 + 3 = ( 1 + 2 ji )( 1 + 2 + ji ) = (1 ji )(1 + ji ) = 0 ,
1 ji 0,1 + ji 0
. .
2

: 1 = 0 :
= 1, = 1 , 3 = ji, 4 = ji .

2 1 = ( + 1)( 1) = ( + ji )( ji ) = 0 .

.

2 1 = (1 + ji )(1 ji ) = 0 .
1.1.3. .
,
14

1.

,
. ,
. , .
,
.
, , .
, , .
n

Q ( ) = cn n + cn 1 n + ... + c1 + c0 ,
cn , cn 1 ,.....c0
. ,
n

Q ( ) = ( a1 )( a 2 ) ... ( a n )

, .

,
, . n
2 , n 2

C n2 =

n(n 1)
2

, , .

( ai )( ak ) = ( i )( i ) , i , i - , .
3
3

Q ( ) = 6 + 11 + 6 = 0 ,
1 = 1, 2 = 2, 3 = 3 ,
Q ( ) = ( 1)( 2)( 3) ,

Q ( ) = ( 2 3 + 2)( 3) = 0 ,

4 =

3
1
3
1
+ ji , 5 = ji
2
2
2
2
15

1.

3 1
3 1
Q ( ) = ( ji )( + ji )( 3) = 0
2 2
2 2

( ) ,
.

Q ( ) = ( 2 4 + 3)( 2) = ( 2 ji )( 2 + ji )( 2) = 0 ,

, . .

5 1
5 1
Q ( ) = ( 2 5 + 6)( 1) = ( ji )( + ji )( 1) = 0
2 2
2 2


,
. , n 2 n >2
.
. .

, .
. Q ( ) = ( 1)( + 1)( 2).
Q ( ) = ( ji )( + ji )( 2).
,

3 ji
3 + ji

Q ( ) =

( + ji )
2
2

Q ( ) = ( 1)( + 1)( 2) = ( ji )( + ji )( 2) =

3 ji
3 + ji

=

( + ji ) = ................
2
2


.
n
.
, .
.

16

1.


i
i
d d = Are Are (1 ji )(1 + ji ) = 0. .
,

1
1
Q ( ) = ( 1)( + 1)( 2) = ( 1)( + 1)( 2) + ( ji )( + ji )( 2).
2
2


. .

.

,
.
.

m ( )
, Qn ( )

m n m ! n ,
A
B + D
, 2
. r
( a ) ( + p + q ) k
p 2 4q

1
=

, 1 , 2 , 2
+ p + q 1 2
p, q

1
=

, 3 , 4 .
2
+ p + q 3 4
. a = 0 a.

= jia a = a ( ji 1) 0 .
1
= a .
a
: 2 + p + q = 0

(1.2.)

( 1 )( 2 ) = ( 3 )( 4 ) = 0 , 1 , 2 ,3 , 4 , ,
.
, 1
1
1
1
1
2
=
+
=
2
2
+ + g 2 + + g 2 + + g
1
1
1
1
=
+
2 ( 1 )( 2 ) 2 ( 3 )( 4 )

17

1.

1 2 .
3 4
. .
.
, ,
, . .
, , .
,

.
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
1
1
=

2
+ p + q 2 (1 2 ) 1 2 2 ( 3 4 ) 3 4

= re i + j (1 ji )

= k + re i + j (1 ji ) -

, k , ,
, . r 0 r .
(1 ji )
.
1.1.4.

= z + j
(1.3.)
z - +i, +i, i, j -
, :

ii=jj=-1
ij=ji=k,
(ij) 2 =(ij) 2 =k 2 =1

, ,

(1.4.)
=z+j=(+i )+j(+i).

z=Re =Re (z+j )


=Im =Im (z+j )

, , , :

=Re Re ,
=Im Re ,

=Re Im
=Im Re

18

1.

= 0, z. z = 0,
, = j.
,
:
z1 + j 1 = z2 + j 2
, z1=z2, 1=2.
1=-2, 2

z + j = z j =

.
1. . 1+2 1=z1+j1 2=z2+j2
=1+2=(z1+z2)+j(1+2).

1-2. =1-2=(z1-z2) + j(1-2)
:

1+2=2+1;
1 +( 2 + 3 )=( 1 + 2 )+ 3

2. . 12 -

1 =z 1 +j 1 , 2 =z 2 +j 2

= 1 2 =(z 1 z 2 - 1 2 )+j(z 1 2 + 1 z 2 ).
1=j, 2=j, jj=-1.

, , ,
z .
, :
12=21;
1(23)=(12)3;

(1+2)3=13+23.
1.1.5.


(), . . , .
, . ,
,
. , ,
.

19

1.


- .
, .
, ,
.

. 1.
.
, . : , , ,
, .
, . ,
,
,
. 0
+ 0 = .
, , , ,
0 , .
()
. ,
. , .
. . . , 0 = 0ei , ,
, . , .
iy

. 2.
, . ,
. 0 = 0ei
,
.
.
, ,
,

20

1.

.
.
, .
C3 . , : R- , r . C3 4 , 2 . C3

. , , .
+1
4 I 2 J. (. 1.1.1.)
,
, : , ,
.

. 3. .
[1], [2], [3], [4].
,
, .
z , (1.3. 1.4.).

z = e i ,

= re i ,
, r - z, :

= z,
r=;

, - .
z, , :

21

1.

z = = x2 + y2 ;

= r = 2 +2 ,
= arg z, = arg , , 2:

y
+ 2 k ;
x

= arg = arctg + 2k .

= arg z = arctg

,
= z + j = ei + jrei .
i j ( ) ij=ji, :

= x + iy + j + ji = ( x + i ) + j ( y + i ) = 1e j1 + ir1e j 1 ,
:

1 = x + j ;
r1 = y + j ;

1 = arg( x + j );
1 = arg( y + j ).
,
.
, ,

= e i + jre i = R1e j .
R1 ,

R1 = z 2 + 2 ;

- ,

= arg = arctg

r i ( )
e
,

, .
.

= R1 = R = 4 4 + r 4 + 2 2 r 2 cos 2( ) ,
-
2 sin 2 + r 2 sin 2
1
= arg R1 = arctg 2
. , 2
cos 2 + r 2 cos 2

= Re ia + j .

(1.5.)

22

1.

R, - ; - .
.

. 4.
.
.
i+j

=Re

iy

x
. 5.
. Y.

23

1.

(. 4) (1.3.)
i
i
z=e j=jre ,
r (z).
i
j=jre

r +

0 arg 2

,
, >0, , (z). , j
, .

i
j
: e , (z), jre , .
. z, .

a)
)
. 6. : - ; .
, ,

= 2 + r 2 ei + ja ,
r
a = arctg
- .

. 5, a
. r, ,
;

= ei + jrei = ei ( + jr ).

24

1.

, jre , ,
, (z). :
i
i
z=e , =jre

. 7. : .

/2

. 8. : .
= R a,

/ 2 a / 2,
0 2 .
j (. 6,
. 7..). () R, , a.
25

1.

(1.5.)
:

x = R cos cos a;
y = iR sin cos a;
z = j Rei sin a.

.( , , ).
1.1.6. . .
a v (1.5.),

r
a = arctg ( ei ( ) ) = S + i ,

(, a - )

= Rei + j = Rei + jS + ji .

(1.6.)

(1.6.) v R, , S, - .
(1.6.).

= ( x + iy ) + j ( + i ),

R = = 4 x 4 + y 4 + 4 + 4 + 2 x 2 y 2 + 2 x 2 2 +
+ 2 y 2 2 + 2 2 2 2 x 2 2 2 y 2 2 + 8 xy
, , = = 0 , S==0,

R = = x2 + y 2 ,

= ei .
, R (1, i)
i, , ;
y==0, =x+j,
= 0, = 0, R = Rz = x 2 + 2 , = Re jS ,
, S R2 R
(1, j) 1;
y==0,
i
jarctg
2
2

= x + ji = x e

(6) =0, S=0,

R = R3 = ,

= R3e ji .

, - R3 R (1, ij)
1. (1.6.) , . ,

26

1.

ei + jrei ei + jrei

(1.7.)

4
4

4 + r + 2 2 r 2 cos 2( ) 2 + r 2 .
, , ,
Z, , ,
=.

C0
C1

C2

K
g
2

. 9. -
() - , (z).
> 0,
, (z), . 4, 6.
arg z = arg , , , 0.
(v) . ,

= z , arg z arg = .
2

(1.8.)

27

1.

. 6, . 8 . . 7
. (1.8.)

= ei jirei = ei (1 ji ) = jei ( j j ) = jei ( j i ) = "


i
je () , -

, , (z) /2. r= (. 8).


- (. . 9, 10, 11).
i
- e (i j ) ,
,
r=, - /2.
, . 9, 10, 11.
.
y1, 1, 2 (1.8.). -
, :

i
i

= e

= ji ( + )e ,

. 10.

i + i
i

= e

+ je .

28

1.

-
0 , .
arc tg i, (1.5.), (1.8.).
(1.9.)
= e i (i j ) = 0 ei e jarctg (i ).

(9) .
ij=ji
(1.10.)
(i + j )(i j ) = ii + ji ji = 1 + ji ij + 1 = 0.
.
, .

i + j 0, i j 0,

(i + j )(i j ) = 0.
C1

C2

C1
C2

. 11. -
(1.9.).
(1.9.)
:

29

1.

= ei (i + j ) = 0 ei e jarctg (i ) 0;

= ei (i j ) = 0 ei e + jarctg (i ) 0.
,

= 0;

arg = arctg (i ).
. , arctg i,
. ,
.
(1.10.)
i, j , .[5]
,
(1.11.)
jarctg (i )
+ jarctg (i )
0

(i + j )(i j ) =

0e

0e

= 0 0e = 0.

, .
,
.
, , .
.
, . - , z, (). z z=, arg z arg = /2
, /2.
.
1

. 12.
,

. 8 . ,
, -

30

1.

/2. ,
, . ( ).
, , , ,
. arctg i.
. (. 12, 2 ). 1
, .
1.1.7.
() , , - . .
,

(1.12.)
a 0 = b0 = 0,
a b . (1.12.) , ,
, , (1.12.)
. , , . .
.
, .
() , (1.12.) . ()
:

= ( x + iy + j + ji )(i + j ) = [( x y ) + i ( y )](i + j );
= ( x + iy + j + ji )(i j ) = [( x + ) i ( y )](i j ).

(1.13.)

(1.13.) . (1.13.) (1.12.).


=ij , . , ,

1
= e jarctg (i ).

a+0=a

+ = + i j

, () ,
(1.11.), .

31

1.

1
~ ,
0

1
= e # jarctg (i ).
i j
,
i + jS + ji

0 ~ 0e

, S, .
, .
:

= a + ib + jc + jid ;
' = a '+ib'+ jc'+ jid ' ;
(1.14.)
= x + iy + j + ji.
,

= ' (1.14)

(1.14.),
:

ax by a + d = a;
bx + ay d c = b' ;
cx dy + a b = c' ;
dx + cy + b + a = d '.

(1.15.)

(1.15.)
v':

Re Re( ) = Re Re ' = a ' ;


Re Im( ) = Re Im ' = b' ;
Im Re( ) = Im Re ' = c' ;
Im Im( ) = Im Im ' = d '.

, .
(1.15.) , . ,

a
b
c
d

a
d
c

c
d
a
b

d
c
4
= .
b
a

, (1.14.) , (1.15.)
. () (1.15.)
:
= 0, a=0, b=0, c=0, d=0;
32

1.

= 0 , .
, , , (1.13.).
,
, , , , .
() , [6] , (z)
. ()
. (1.13.).
, , () , (z) .
:

1 2 = 1 2 .

[5], , , . , -
.
1, i, j, k :

i 2 = j 2 = k 2 = 1;
ij = ji = k ;
jk = kj = i;
ki = ik = j.

.
, , (z) .
.

, .
, ,
.

d = Rei + j ei1 (1 ji ) = Rei + j 0e i1 jarctgi =


= R 0e i +i1 + j jarctgi
arctgz + arctgz1 = arctg

z z1
,
1 z1 z

33

1.

r i ( )
i
e

artgi = arctg
=
r i ( )
i
1 e

r i ( )
i
e

= arctg
= arctgi ,
r i ( )
i (i e
)

(1.16.)

,
.

d = Rei ( +1 ) (1 ji )

(i
(i
(i
(i
(i

j ) 0 = 1 , ,
j )1 = i j
j ) 2 = 2i (i j )
j ) 3 = 4(i j )
j ) 4 = 8i (i j )

(i j ) = (2i ) n 1 (i j )

(1.17.)

(i j ) = 2i (i j ) .
,
, .

(i j ) 2 = 2i (i j ) (i j )(i j 2i ) = 0 .
. i j 0, i j 2i .
, , , .
,

(i j )5 = 8i(i j ) 2 (i j ) 4 = 8i (i j ) .

(i j ) 2 = 2i (i j ) (i j ) = 2i (i j ) (i j ) =

(i j )
.
2i

.

, .

, ,
.

34

1.

0 = 0e

arctgi .

, 0 = 0e

d = Rei + j (i j ) ,
arctgi .

i + j

(1.18.)

,
.
1.1.8.
,
.
i, j
ij=ji
:
(1.19.)
1 = ( x + iy ) + j ( + i );

2 = ( x + j ) + i ( y + j ).

(1.20.)

(1.19.)
, (z),
(1.20.) (i, j).
(. 13.), .
e j arc tg i

j2e

j2ei2

j3

i
jre i

jr1e ji
1e

ji

e j arc tg j
2

1ei1

eii
i
1e 1

. 13.
.
e
e

iactg ( j )

jarctg (i )

, - -

35

1.

(1.6.) (1.19.),
(1.20.) :

1 = R1ei1 + jS1 + ji 1 ;
2 = R2 ei2 + jS2 + ji 2 ;
,
. (1.19.), (1.20.)
. ,
R1=R2, 1=2, S1=S2, 1=2.
. (1.19.), (1.20.):

1 = ( x + iy ) + j ( + i ) = ( x 2 y 2 + 2 2 ) + 2i ( xy + ) ;
R1 = 1 = 4 x 4 + y 4 + 4 + 4 + 2 x 2 y 2 + 2 x 2 2
2 x 2 2 2 y 2 2 + 2 y 2 2 + 2 2 2 + 8 xy;
2 = ( x + j ) + i ( y + j ) ;
R2 = 2 .
, :

1 = 2 ;
R1 = R2 .

1 -

2 xy + 2
.
1 = arg 1 = 12 arctg 2
2
2
2
x y +

S1 1, , 1

1 = 1 e

jarctg

+i
x +iy

+ i
+ i 1
x + iy
= ln
arctg
.
x + iy 2i 1 i + i
x + iy
1+ i

S1, 1. :

S1 =

1
2 x + 2 y
jarctg 2
;
2
x + y2 2 2
2

ln 1
1
1 = ji
.
2 (x + )2 + ( y )2

36

1.


(1.20.), .
, S2 2

1
2 x + 2 y
S2 = arctg 2
.
2
x 2 + y 2 2

, S1, S2=S1 .
,
.

.
. =ij=ji ,
= R = 1 S =/2, =/2, =0.

37

1.2.

: , , ,
,
(z). , [7].
,
,
( ) .
(Y) , (z),
- .
, (),
.
1.2.1.
(Y) ,
G (Y)
(Y).

=f(),

= x + iy + j + ji ,
= U + iV + jP + jiR.

,
:

U = U ( x, y , , ) = Re Re (v );
V = V ( x, y , , ) = Re Im ( v );
P = P ( x, y , , ) = Im Re ( v );
R = R ( x, y , , ) = Im Im (v ).


, [7].

(z). ,

v = e i + jrei = z + j ,

f ( v ) = W ( z, ) + jT ( z, ),

W ( z, ) = Re f (v );
T ( z, ) = Im(v ).

0 ,

f()

38

1.

lim W ( z, ) = W0 ;

z 0
0

lim T ( z, ) = T0 ;

z 0
0
, ,

lim f ( v ) = W0 + jT0 = f ( v 0 ).

v v0
(z)
v v 0 .
, v v 0 f()
f(0). 0,
0.

, -
.
f(), ,
,
(1.21.)
f (v + h ) f (v)

= f ' (v ).

lim

h
h0
, ().
f()
W T :
1. f()=W(z, )+jT(z, )
, , W
(z)

W W T T
,
,
,
,
z z

,
:

W T
=
;
z

T
W
=
.
z

(1.22.)

- .
(1.22.).

f (v + h) f (v)
.
h
h 0

f ' ( v ) = lim

h .
. +h z=x+iy.

39

1.

W ( z + S , ) W ( z , )
+
S
S 0
T
T ( z + S , ) T ( z, ) W
+ j lim
=
+j .
z
z
S
S 0
f ' ( v ) = lim

. , +h
j, t0 h=jt, t = + i .

W ( z, + t ) W ( z, + t )
it
t 0
W T
T ( z, + t ) T ( z, )
+ j lim
=j
+
.

jt
t 0
f ' ( v ) = lim

f ' (v ) =

W
T
W T
+ j
=j
+
.
z
z


. (1.22.).
x, y, ,.
,
).
. :
i
i
) v = e + jre ;
i
i
) v = e + jre .
).
f()
i
i
i
i

f ( v ) = W ( e , re ) + jT ( e , re ).

, +h

i
i
i
i

h = dv = de

+ ie d + jre id + jdre

= dei + jdrei + iei ( + jr )d .


(1.21.) h0:

d 0, dr = d = 0;
dr 0, dr = d = 0;
d 0, dr = d = 0.


j; -
i; - , .
=const, r = const,

40

1.

] [(

)]

W ( + )ei , re i W e i , rei
+
f ' ( v ) = lim
0
e i

] [(

)]

T ( + )e i , re i T ei , re i
+ j lim
=
0
e i
W
T
= e i
+ je i
.

(1.23.)

, =const, =const,

W [e i , ( r + r )e i ] W [(e i , re i )]
+
f ' ( v ) = lim
r 0
jre i

T [e i , ( r + r )e i ] T [(e i , re i )]
+ j lim
=
z 0
jre i
W
T
= je i
+ e i
.
r
r

(1.24.)

, = const, r = const,
W ei + iei , rei + irei W (ei , rei )
+
f ' ( v ) = lim
0
i ( ei + jrei )

+ lim j
0

] [

T ei + iei , rei + T ei , rei


+
ei

T
e i W
+
+j

=

i( + jr )
W
T
W
T

+r

r
.
.

= ie i
+ jie i
.
2
2
+r
2 + r2

(1.25.)

(1.23.), (1.24.), (1.25.)


f()

W
T
W
T
+ je i
= je i
+ e i
=

r
r
W
T
W
T

+r

.
.

i
+ jie
2 + r2
2 + r2

f ' ( v ) = e i

= ie

W T
W + rT
=
= i

r
2 + r 2
T
W
rW T
=
=i
.

r
2 + r 2

(1.26.)
,

(1.27.)

41

1.

f ,
:

e i
e i

W
T
W
1
i T i
= e i
= ie i
=
e ;

r
T
W
i T i i i W
= e i
=
.
e = e

r
r

(1.28.)

W
T
T
W
+ je i
= e i
je i
=

r
r
W
i T i
j
e =!

f ' ( v ) = e i
=

1 i
ie

(1.29.)

(1.28.), (1.29.) .
(1.22.), (1.27.), (1.28.)
,
. (z)
( ).
. , ,
-
.
+h
i

h = e (i j ),


0 . 0 , (i j )
i

. e (i j )
.

f v + ei (i j ) f (v )
lim
.
0
ei (i + j )

(1.30.)

(z)
z=0. h=0
i
e (i j ).
(Y)
.
0
= 0 + z (1 ji ) .
, 0 , .
0 = z (1 ji ) ,
0 .
z ,

lim z 0 ( 0 ) = 0 , lim z ( 0 ) = (1 ji ) .

42

1.

f ( )
,
= (1 ji ) .


f = f [ 0 + (1 ji )] f ( 0 ) ,

f [ 0 + (1 ji )] f ( 0 )
,
(1 ji )

f / ( 0 ) = lim 0
lim 0

f
= f / ( 0 ) .
(1 ji )

f = f [ 0 + (1 ji )] f ( 0 ) =

f
1 2 f 2
(1 ji ) +
(1 ji )2 + ..... + 0( (1 ji ))
2
0
2 0
,
f
(1 + ji )
0
= f ( 0 )

lim 0
(1 + ji )
, " 0

f
f / ( 0 ) # ,
(1 ji )

= ( ) " 0 ,

0 # (1 ji ) #

f = f / ( 0 ) (1 ji ) + 0( (1 ji )) 0 ,

0( (1 ji )) , .

f = A (1 ji ) + 0( (1 ji )) ,

f ( )

0 A = f ( 0 )
/

1.2.2.

.

,
.
-
.

,
.
.
,
.

43

1.

.
:
.) ,
;
) ;
) ;
) .
n
A. = v = n v n - ,
(Y).
n () -
:
iF + j
n in + jn

Re

=r e

(1.31.)

R = r n , F = n , = n ,
.
(1.6),
iF + j + jiS
n in + jn + jin

Re

=r e

:
n

(1.32.)

R = r , F = n , = n , S = n ,

.
(1.31.), (1.32.) , ,
n, , , (n-1) arg
n 1
v = r r
.

= 2
n
= 2
n

= 2
n

. 14.

Re iF + j = r n e in + jn .
R = r n , F = n , = n .

44

1.

(1.31.)
, - .
r ,

2
,
n
2
0 <
,
n

0<

n 1
, r
,
(. 14).
,

.
, n ().
(1.21.)
hv n 1h + h 2 ()
(v + h ) n v n
n 1

lim

= lim

= nv

f ( v ) = v = ( e

+ jre ) = ( r )e

h
h
h 0
h 0
, .
2.

2
i
i 2
2
2 2i
2i
+ j 2re

) ( )
(
R (e i , re i ) = Im(v 2 ) = 2 re 2i .

W e , re i = Re v 2 = 2 e 2i r 2 e 2i ;

(1.26.):

W
R
W + rR
= e i
= 2 e i = ie i
=

r
2 + r 2
2
2 i
2 i
r 2 2ie 2i
i 2ie
i r 2 r 2ie
= ie
+ ie
=
2 + r2
2 + r2
2
= e i 2
2 + r 2 = 2 ei ;
2
+r
R
W
rW R
= e i
= ie i
= 2re i .
e i

r
2 + r 2

e i

( )

W
K
+ e i
= 2 v.
f ' (v ) = v 2 ' = je i
r
r

, .

(1.28.), (1.29.):
2
2 2i
2 2i
i ( + )

f (v) = v = e

r e

+ j 2 re

45

1.

)
(
R (e i , re i ) = Im f (v ) = 2 re i ( + ).

W e i , re i = Re f (v ) = 2 e 2i r 2 e 2i ;
(1.28.), (1.29.) :

e i
e i

W R i
W
1
1 W i
=
= ie i
= i
= 2 e i ;
e
e

r
W i 1 R i 1 W i
R
= 2re +i .
= i e = i
=
e
e

r

f ' (v ) = e i

W
R
+ je i
= 2 e i + 2 jre i = 2v.

, .
n ,

n
n 1

f (v ) = f (i + j ) = (i + j ) = (2i )

(i + j ).

v = e i (i + j ).

v n = n e 2in (2i )n 1 (i + j ).
-
v n = 0 , arg v = arctg (i ).
n v n.

iF + j

= Re

v = re i + j ,

1
i +j
R e iF + j = r n e n n .
, , :
R = n r,

,
n

= .
n
F=


, . .
n v

46

1.

(1.33.)

n v 1 n 1
= v
.
v
n
n v .

1
1
1
i
jarctg (i )
n v = n e i (i + j ) = n e n 0 2 n e n
=

1
i
= n e n n 0 e jarctg (i ) .

.
B. =

1
.
v

1
1
1
=
= e i
=
+ jr
v ei + jrei

r
= e i
je i
.
2 + r2
2 + r2

W e i , re i = Re = e i

+r
r
R e i , re i = Im = e i
.
2
2
+r

(1.27.):
2
2
R
i W
2i r
=
= e i
=e
e
r

2
2 2

+r

W + rR
=
2 + r 2

+ ie i r
ie i
2 + r2
2 + r2
i
=
= ie
2
2 2
+r
= ie i

= e 2i

e i

r2 2

+r

2 2

R
W
= ie i
= e 2i

2 r

( 2 + r 2 )2

= ie i

rW R
=
2 r 2

47

1.

= ie

i ie

ri

r rie i

+r

2 2

) = e2i

2 r
2

+r

2 2

1 i W
R
+ je i
=
=e
v v

=e
=e

2i

2i

r2 2

+r

(r +

2 2

+ je 2i

2 r
2

+r

2 2

2
2i [ j ( jr + )]
=
=e
2 2
2
2 2

j )2

( 2 + r )

+r

2 + r 2 2 jarctg r
e
=
= e 2i
2
2 + r2
1
1
= e 2i 2 j
= .
2 + r2
v2

1
1
= 2.
v v
v

1

v

e i
1
1
re
= =
=
j
.
v e i + jre i 2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i
2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i

:
e i
i
i
= Re =
;
W e , re
2 2i
2 2i

R e , re

)= Im =

+r e

re i

2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i

, W, R
(1.28.), (1.29.).

1 i W
R
+ je i
=
=e
v v

48

1.

=
=

2 e 2i r 2 e 2i

2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i

+j

2 rei +i

2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i

2 e 2i + 2 jrei +i + r 2 e 2i
2 2i

2 2i

+r e

2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i 2 jarctg r ei ( + )
1
e

=
= .
2
v2
2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i
1
, ,
v

,
, (z),

1
1
= 2.
v1 v
v

(1.34.)

1
,
v
.
, .

C. (v).

v = e i + jre i , Re v = e i , Im v = re i .
(1.23.) .

(v ) = e i W + je i R = e i e +i + 0 = 1.
v

(1.35.)


i
i
i
i

v = e

+ jre

, Re v = e , Im v = re

(1.28.), (1.29.).

(v ) = e i W + je i R = e i e +i + j 0 = 1.
v

D. e (),
.

= e i j = e i cos1 jei sin1 = e i cos2 1 + sin 2 1 = 1.


1.

49

1.

e e

i (i + j )

= e e

i i + j e i

= e e

i i

( )

cos ei + je e

i i

( )

sin ei

i
i
cos sin ei i
e e (i + j ) = e e i = ei
= e sin
e

e i (i + j )

= e sin

= e e i ( j + j ) = e ie

+ je i = e e

+ j 2 = e sin = e sin .

,
:

)
(
R (e i , re i ) = Im = e e

W e i , re i = Re = e e

( )
= sin(re i ).

= cos re i ;

(1.27.)
:

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )

i
W
= e e e i cos re i ;

i
W
= e e e i sin re i ;
r
i
i
W
= e e e i i cos re i re i i sin re i e e ;

i
R
= e e e i sin re i ;

i
R
= e e e i cos re i ;
r
i
i
R
= e e e i i sin re i + e e rie i i cos re i .

( )

( )

(1.27.)
. .

i
i
e v
W
R
= e i
+ je i
= e i e e cos(re i ) + je i e e sin(re i ) =
v

= e e

[cos(re )+ j sin(re )]= e


i

ei + jrei

= ev .

e
= e

(1.36.)

.
50

1.

E. ln().
.

i
i

v = e

+ jre ,

ln v = ln R e iF + j = ln R + iF + j ;
Re(ln v ) = ln 2 + r 2 + i ;
r
Im(ln v ) = arctg .

(1.27.):

W
R

= e i
= e i
=

r
2 + r2
i + r 0
rR + W
= je i
= ie i
;
2 + r 2
2 + r2
e i

R
W
r
= e i
= e i
=
2
2

r
+r
W R

r
r

= e i
= ie i
=
2
2
2
2
+r
+r
ri
r
= ie i
= e i
;
2 + r2
2 + r2

e i

(ln v ) = e i W + je i R = e i 2 2 je i 2 r 2 =
v

+r
+r

jr
2 + r2

=e

i j

2 + r2
2 + r2

= e i j

1
= .
2 + r2 v

(ln v ) = 1 .
v
v

(1.37.)


i
i

v = e

+ jre

51

1.

)
(
r
R (e i , re i ) = Im(ln v ) = arctg e i ( ) ;

W e i , re i = Re(ln v ) = ln 2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i ;

,
(1.28.), (1.29.) W R
, r, , :
2i

W 1
2 e
=
;
2 2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i

W
re 2i
=
;
2 2i
2 2i
r
e
+r e
W
i 2 e 2i
=
;
2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i
W
ir 2 e 2i
=
;
2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i
R
=

re i
r 2 e 2i e i
1

1+

2 e 2i

re i e i
=
;
2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i

e i e i
R
=
;
r 2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i
R
ire i e i
=
;
2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i
R
ire i e i
=
;
2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i
,
.

ln v
W
R
= e i
+ je i
=
v

e i

2 2i

2 2i

+r e

rei

2 2i

2 2i

+r e

52

1.

r
jarctg ei i

2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i e
1
= .
v
2 e 2i + r 2 e 2i

(ln v ) = 1 .
v
v

(1.38.)

ln[ ei (i j )] = ln + i + ln(i j ) = ln + i + ln 0 jarctg (i ).

F. . sin()
cos() e:
jv

= cos v + j sin v;

e jv = cos v j sin v.
(z) -
(). ,

e jv e jv
sin v =
;
2j
e jv + e jv
cos v =
.
2


(1.34.), sin() cos():

(sin v )
= cos v;
v
(cos v )
= sin v;
v

(1.39.)

.
:
2
2

sin v + cos v = 1;
sin 2v = 2 sin v cos v,!

G. .
z
sin(z), cos(z),

e iz e iz
e iz + e iz
,
sin z =
, cos z =
2i
2

. j i
. Y
. i.

53

1.

sin z =

e jz e jz
e jz + e jz
, cos z =
.
2j
2

e j e j
e j + e j
sin =
, cos =
.
2j
2

j Y.

e e
e + e
, ch =
sh =
2
2

e e
e + e
th =
, cth =
e e
e + e

sh = j sin j , ch = cos j
th = jtgj , cth = jcthj

,
z, ,
. .

e z + j e z j
=
sh = sh( z + j ) =
2
1 z
(e cos + je z sin e z cos + je z sin ) =
2
1
= [(e z e z )cos + j sin (e z + e z )] = shz cos + j sin chz .
2

ch = chz cos jshz sin . sh


sh = sh 2 z cos2 + sin 2 ch 2 z =
sh 2 z cos2 + ch 2 z cos2 ch 2 z =
= cos2 ( sh 2 z ch 2 z ) + ch 2 z = ch 2 z cos2 ,

ch z sh z = 1

2

arg 2 sh = arctg

sin chz
= arctg (tgcthz )
cos cthz

sh =

ch 2 z cos 2 ,

.
sin cos
. sin(ij)
i j

sin(i j ) = sin i cos j cos i sin j =

54

1.

e 1 e +1 e 1 + e +1 e 1 e +1 e 1 + e +1 e 2 e +2
=

=
(i j ).
2i
2
2i
2
4ij

:

sin(i j ) 0;
sin (i j ) = 0 ;
arg (sin(i j )) = arctg (i ).

sin(ij),

(e
sin (i j ) =
2

e +2
16

) ( 2 + 2ij ),
2

cos(i + j ) = cos i cos j sin i sin j

e 1 + e +1 e 1 + e +1 e 2 + 2 + e +2
=
cos i cos j =
2
2
4
1
+1 1
+1
2
e e e e
e 2 + e +2
=
sin i sin j =
2i
2j
4 ji
cos(i + j ) =

e 2 + 2 + e +2 e 2 2 + e +2

4
4 ji

e 4 + e +4 6 e 4 + e +4 2
+
cos (i + j ) =
8
8
8 ji
2


cos2 (i + j ) + sin 2 (i + j ) = 1
cos(ij):
1
+1 2
1
+1

cos(i j ) =

+e

ij e

) (e

4ij

);

4
2
4
(
e 1 + e +1 ) 2ij (e 2 e + 2 ) + (e 1 e +1 )
cos (i j ) =
.
2

16

, cos, ,
. cos(ij)
1
1
1
+1 4
1
+1 4

cos(i j ) =

e +e
4
arg cos(i j ) arctg (i ).

) + (e

);

, sin cos - ,
, , z .

55

1.

cos2 (i j ) + sin 2 (i j ) =

4
2
4
(
e 1 + e +1 ) 2ij (e 2 e + 2 ) + (e 1 e +1 )
=
+

16

2
(
e 2 e + 2 ) ( 2 + 2ij )
+
=
16
2e 4 + 12 + 2e 4 2ij (e 4 2 + e 4 )
=

16
(
e 4 2 + e + 4 )2 2ij (e 4 2 + e 4 ) 12 + 4

=
= 1.
,
2

16

16

cos (i j ) + sin 2 (i j ) = 1.

sin cos
. ,

tg (i + j ) = 0 ;

arg tg (i + j ) = arctg (i ).

H. arg
,

i
i
= e + jre ,

= Re iF + j ,

R = 4 4 + r 4 + 2 2 r 2 cos 2( ) ,
2 sin 2 + r 2 sin 2
1
,
F = arctg 2
cos 2 + r 2 cos 2
2
r
= arctg e i ( ) .

(1.40.)

R
F , , , r, .

: 0 = 1 0 = 1 , 0 = 1 , r0 = r1 , 0 = 1 .
Ln = LnR + iF + j

= LnR + iF ,
=
= ( z, ), = ( z, )

= Ln z 2 + 2 , = arctg

.
z

56

1.


= z + j ,
z = R cos ,
= R sin .

cos =

, sin =

z2 + 2

z2 + 2

.
dz, d
dz = cos dR R sin d
d = sin dR + R cos d
, Rd = sin dz + cos d ,
d = d arg =

dz + zd
.
z2 + 2

d arg .

arg =

dz + zd
.
z2 + 2

:
1)
z = 0, = 0 ,
= 0, r = 0 , ;

= 0 ,
2) e + r e
,
2

2 i

2 i

= r, =

.
2


. ,


1 ,

dz + Qd = dz + Qd

z
, Q ( z, ) = 2
2
z +
z + 2
d dQ
=

d
dz
, , 1

( z, ) =

arg = 1

arg . , 1

.
57

1.

F , 4i + 2j ,

= Re iF + j + 4ki + 2 kj , =0,1,2,. .

+1
C3 .

z = e i ,

r
, = .

z i ,
.

= arctg

r i ( )
e

r i ( )
e

1
= Ln
.
2i 1 i r e i ( )

1+ i

r = , =
,

2
.
= + is . Ln
Z
2

r
r
1 2 sin +

s = Ln
2
2
r
r
1 + 2 sin +

1
arctg
2

r
cos

r
1

r
r
1 2 sin +

1
i

= + is = arctg
+
Ln
2
2
2
2
r
r
r
1
1 + 2 sin +


r
2 cos

(1.41.)

58

1.

, .
= 0 r.

r dLn

r2
= 0 .
r2

1
= arctg
2

r
cos

1
1
arctg 0 = ( )
2
2
r
1

(1.42.)

r = , =

2 1 1

1
= =
arctg
2
11 2 2
4
1
1$ 2 +1
= $
s = ln
2
1 2 +1

, s :

1)

= 0,

1
r2
s = ln 2 = 0 .
2
r

2 r cos 1
= arctg 0 =
= arctg 2
2
2
2
r

i
i
= = e 2 re 1 = jre 1 .
2
= 0 = 0 , = 0 , = rei1 .

, r,

r
1
i
,
= arctg 0 = , s = Ln
$r
2
2
2

2)

+ is .
2

, = r
2
i
, .
2
, = arctgi .

3) =

.
,

= ji = jiarctg = jarctgi. , ,
2

arctg .
2
59

1.

, = , s = 0 , = .
2
2
2

arctg .
4) = 0 , =

dt
.
2
+
1
t
0

arctgx =

1
1
1
1
1 1 + i
.
d +
d = ln

2
1
i
2
1
i
2
i
1
i
o
0
0
1 1 + i

arctg =
ln
2i 1 i
i.
j. ,
1 1 + j
arctg =
ln
.
2 j 1 j
j.

1+ 2

(1 + 2 )
i

d
arctg =

2
+

1
0
i
1

(1 + 2 )
= i , = j.

1
1 1
1
1
1
=
+
+
+
.
2
1+
4 1 i 1 + i 1 + j 1 j
.
,

.
ji .
arctg

1 1
1
1
1
+
+
+
d =
arctg =
4 0 1 i 1 + i 1 + j 1 j
1 1 + i 1 1 + j
= ln
+ ln
4i 1 i 4 j 1 j

, arctg
.

60

1.

,

(1.29.) (1.35.) . :

v = 1;
v

= v 2 , v 2 = 2 v;
v

= v n , v n = nv n 1;
v
1 1
1
= , = ;
v v v
v2

1
= ln v, (ln v ) = ;
v
v

= ev , ev = ev
v
f (v ) = v,

(1.43.)

( )

.
,
,
, z .

61

1.3.
1.3.1.
, , ,
.
i
jre

, (z)
,
. (z) x y
,
. (z),
(), ,
, :
180 .,
.
.
- , ,
.
j
(z). ,
r, r ~ 0 , (z)
r. (. . 4, 5, 6, 7). j

. (1.5.)
2


= R e i cos + jR e i sin = jR ei .
2
2

, =

v = R e i + j / 2

j arctg(i)
,
.
,
,
. - r,

/2 (1.8.).
(. 8),
-, ,
, .
,

r ~ 0 , /2.
,

: , ,
z - .

62

1.

(1.5.)
:

x = R cos cos ;
y = iR cos sin ;
= jR ei sin .

(R, , )

(x , y , )
= jiR 2ei cos .
(R, , )

, :

R = 0; =

; R = 0.
2

,
. ,
() r ~ 0 ,

,
, arctg i.

. 15. .
z. () -
.

. 16. a,

,
.
.
.

. z- .
63

1.

, ,
, ,
.
(. 15). ""
,
.
. 16, 17
.
,
. ,
z
, . 16, 17,
. .

. 17.
,

0,
,
(.
18). .
L

. 18.
, .
0, 1, 2 (. 19), ,
,
.

64

1.

0 , (.
20).
1, , (z),
0 .
3 ,
,
.

. 19. C0, C1, C2, -

. 20. C0, , 1,
, 3 -
.
z- .
, ,
.
3 ,
, , ,
.
()
z, j C4
.

65

1.

C ,
(. . 21).

C4

.
21.

C4 ,
.
C3 ,
,
(. 17).

C3

.
22.

C3
.
S, . 23.

,

66

1.

. ,
.
C3 (),
.
. (
3 (. 20)
2R0, -,
, , 2R, -, ,
2R0-2R, ,
R0 . ,
C3, -
4, 2.

C3
1, 7

.
23.

3
S.
C0 (. 20),
.
C0, C1, C2 (. 19) , z-,
=const ,
. 2.
C3 (. 20) = 2 ,
= 4 . , i
, , .
1.3.2. .


.

67

1.

lim f ( k )( k +1 k ) = f ( )d ,
n

k =0

0 = a , 1 ! n +1 = b - , n ,

, k - , [ k , k +1 ] .

max k +1 k 0
Z
.
.

f ( ) = Q ( z, ) + jR( z, )
k = zk + j k , z k +1 z k = z k , k +1 k = k
k = k + ik . Q ( k , k ) = Qk , R ( k , k ) = Rk .

k =0

f ( k )( k +1 k ) =

k =0

k =0

[Qk z k Rk k ] + j [Qk k + Rk z k ]

f ( )d = Qdz Rd + j Rdz + Qd

f ( )d = (Q ( z, ) +

jR( z, ))( dz + jd ) = Q ( z, )dz R( z, )d +

+ j Q ( z, )d + R ( z, )dz

Q ( z, ), R ( z , )
.
.

U ( x, y , , ) = Re elQ ( z, ) = Re elQ (( x + iy ), ( + i ))
V ( x, y , , ) = Im Q ( z, ) = Im Q (( x + iy ), ( + i ))
P ( x, y , , ) = Re elR( z, ) = Re elR(( x + iy ), ( + i ))
( x, y , , ) = Im R( z, ) = Im R(( x + iy ), ( + i ))
dz = dx + idy
d = d + id .

f ( )d = Udx Vdy Pd

+ d +

+ i Vdx + Udy d Pd +

+ j Pdx dy + Ud Vd +

68

1.

+ ji dx + Pdy + Vd + Ud .



.
, , .
.
U ( x, y ),V ( x , y )

U V

,
y x

G.

Udx + Vdy = x

U
dxdy ,
y

G .,

.
G. . G
, , ,
G.

:
1. , G,

Udx + Vdy = 0 .

2. , G
Udx + Vdy , .

3. Udx + Vdy
F(x,y), G, , dF = Udx + Vdy .
G

Udx + Vdy = F ( ) F (B )

U V
,
=
y
x

G.

, :
xyz
- G,
U(x,y,z),V(x,y,z),P(x,y,z)
.

69

1.

Udx + Vdy + Pdz =

P V
=

z
y
G

V U

U P

dxdy
dydz +
dxdz +

z
x
x
y

Pdz = 0

. x,y,z
G, ,
, G ,
.
C3 .

, .

:
1) Udx + Vdy + Pdz = 0 ;

2) Udx + Vdy + Pdz = Udx + Vdy + Pdz ;

3) Udx+Vdy+Pdz
F(x,y,z), G
dF = Udx + Vdy + Pdz ,

Udx + Vdy + Pdz = F (A) F ( B )

P V U P V U
=
=
=
,
,
y z z x x y


. (X,Y)
.
.
.

,
( z , ) . Q ( z, ), R ( z , )

Q Q R R
.
,
, ,
z z

G,

. ,
(z, )

Qdz Rd =

R
dzd
z
70

1.

Rdz + Qd =

Q
dzd
z

Q R
R Q
+
= 0,

=0
z
z


. ,

.
,

U V
P
V
U
P
=
=
=
,
=
=
=

x y

x
y

V Q
P
V U
P Q
U
=
=
=
=
=
=
,

x
y

x y

,

. ,
.

dxdy, ddx, dxd , dyd , ddy , dd .
:

Udx Vdy Pd

+ d =

U P
U V
+
+
dxd +
dxdy +

y
x
x
G

V P
U
+

+
dyd +
dxd +

x
y

P
V
+

dd
dyd +
y

Vdx + Udy d Pd =

V
V U
=

+
dxd +
dxdy +
x
G y
x
U
V P
+
+
+
dyd +
dxd +
x
y

P
U P
+
+
+
dd
dyd +
y

71

1.

Pdx dy + Ud

Vd =

P U
P P

=
+
dxd +
dyd +

G y
x
U
P V
+
+

dyd +
dxd +
x
y
U V
V
+

+
d
dyd +

dx + Pdy + Vd + Ud =

P U
P
=

dxd +
dxdy +
x
G y
x
U
P U
+

dxd +
dyd +
x
y
V U
P V

dd
dyd +


24-
,
.
24- ,
,

Z, .



. ,
.


f ( )
f ( )d
C

f ( )d ,

0 , - .

.
Z,
.

F ( ) =

f ( )d ,

,
f ( ) .,

F / ( ) = f ( )

F ( )

72

1.

f ( )d ,

d
F ( ) =
f ( )d = f ( )
d 0
/

,
, ,

F / ( ) = lim " 0
= lim " 0

F ( + ") F ( )
=
"

1 + "
1 +"
f ( )d f ( )d = lim " 0 f ( )d
"
" 0
0

f ( )
( ) 0
f ( ) = f ( ) + ( ) ,

1 +"
1 +"
F ( ) = lim " 0 f ( )d + lim " 0 ( )d
"
"
/

+"
1 +"
1
lim " 0 f ( )d = lim " 0 f ( ) d = f ( )
"
"

" 0 " = "(1 ji ) 0 ,


+ " (1 ji )
+ " (1 ji )
1
1
lim " (1 ji ) 0
f ( )d = lim " (1 ji )
f ( ) d = f ( )
"(1 ji )
"(1 ji )

+"

+ " (1 ji )

d = " ,

d = "(1

ji )

,
+"

( )d

+ " (1 JI )

max ( ) "

( )d

max ( ) "(1 ji ) .

F ( ) = f ( ) , .
, ,
,
/

f ( )d

= F ( ) F ( 0 )

73

1.

f ( ) G ,
G, . f ( )d = 0 .
C


.
[af ( ) + bg ( )]d = a f ( )d + b g ( )d , a, b
C

f ( )d = f ( )d + f ( )d ,

C1 + C 2

C1

C1 + C 2

C2

f ( )d = f ( )d , C

C1 ,C 2 -

. :
M = max f ( ) L , L = L(1 ji )
,

f ( )d

f ( ) d ML , ML(1 ji ) .
C

f ( k ) k

k =0

k =0

k =0

f ( k ) k M k ,

k =0

0 ! n , ,

k 0 L, L(1 ji ) .

.
.
0 = 0
1 = 3 + i + j + ji 3 f ( ) =
,

:

J=

3 + i + j + ji 3

3 + i + j + ji 3

2
d = 2
0

[(
=

) (

3 + i + j 1+ i 3
2

)(

)]

3 + 2 3i 1 1 2 3i + 3
3 + i 1 + 3i
+2j
=
2
2
= 2 + j 3 + i + 3i 3 = 2 + 4 ji

z, .
1

74

1.

z = 3 + i, = 1 + 3i .

J = J 1 + jJ 2 =

f ( )d = ( z +

j )(dz + jd ) =

= zdz d + j dz + zd
1

= 1 + 2 , 1
z z = 3 + i , 2
, , 0
= 1 + i 3. 0---z = 0, d = 0
3 +i

3 +i

z2
J 1 = zdz =
2
0

( 3 + i ) 2 3 + 2i 3 1
=
=
= 1+ i 3
2
2

J 2 = 0 .
z---- z = const, dz = 0 , z =

2
J 1 = d =
2
0
1+ i 3

J2 =

1+ i 3

dz + zd
0

1+ i 3

0
1+ i 3

3+i.

(1 + i 3) 2
=
=1 i 3
2
1+ i 3

zd = z 0

= ( 3 + i )(1 + i 3) = 3 + i + 3i 3 = 4i
2 J = 1 3i + 4 ji

J = 1 + i 3 + 1 i 3 + 4 ji = 2 + 4 ji
, .
.

= ei + jrei
i

z = 3 + i = 2e 6 , : = 2, =
i

= 1 + i 3 = 2e , r = 2, =


J = f ( )d = J 1 + J 2 ,

J 1 = e 2i d + i 2 e 2i d re 2i dr r 2 e 2i d
1

J 2 = re i ( + ) d + ire i ( + ) d + e i ( + ) dr + ire i ( + ) d
2

75

1.


,
24.
01

0 2, = 0, = 0, r = 0 ,

= 2 = const,0
6
2

J 1 = d + i ( ) = 2 e
2

2 i

d = 2 + 2e

2 i 6
0

= 2 + 2e

J2 = 0
13, = 0, = 2, =
2

J = re

2 i

dr + j e dre

= 2 + 4 je

12

2 = 2e

,0 r 2
6

35 ,

. 0 .
3
6

= 2, r = 2, =

J = rei ie i rd + j e i irei d = 2e
2e

2 i
3

+ 2 + 4 je


i +
6 3

4 je

2i
3

+ 2 + j 2e

i 3
6

ire

d =

J = J 0 2 3 + J 1 3 + J 3 5 = 2e
= 2e

2e

2
i
3

2 + 4 je

2e

2
i
3

+ 2 + 4 ji 4 je

+ 4 ji = 2 + 4 ji.

.
,
z,
1
234 (. 24). 134 124
14, ,
1234. 45

= const, r = const, = const, = .


.
= e i ( + jre i ( ) ) . , + jre i ,
, ,

0
76

1.

, , rei ,
r .
.
z Z
0 .
. x, iy,
j . 2 (. 24) 2.
12345.

5
3

(6)
(Z)

0
2'
1

2
=/6

. 24.
.

:
1) Z, = 0 ;
2) , z = const .

1.3.3. .
f ( ) G
,
.

1
0 # z # 2 .

0 # # 2
f ( ) =


= 0 arctgi .

= Re i + j .

77

1.

d
,

Ln =
C 3 .
d = e

i + j

dR + iei + j Rd + jei + j Rd , R = ,

e i + j dR + ie i + j Rd + je i + j Rd
Ln =
=
Rei + j

dR
=
+ i d + j d = ln + i C3 arg1 + j C3 arg 2 ,
C3 R
C3
C3
C3 arg 1 -- C3 ,.
C3 arg 2 -- C3 .

.
Ln = ln + i C3 + j C3 . C3

Ln = ln + 4i + 2j .

J n =

( a )

d ,

C - C 3 a, ( a ) = ,

$ 0 . C a = e i + j ,
a.
d = ie i + j d + je i + j d . n=-1

J=

4
2
1 i j i + j
e
e
(id + jd ) = id + jd = 4i + 2j

0
0

n 1 J =

ie i ( n +1) + j ( n +1) d + n +1 je i ( n +1) + j ( n +1) d .

n +1

,
, i, j
.
.

J = n +1 ( n + 1)ijei ( n +1) + j ( n +1) n +1 (n + 1)ijei ( n +1) + j ( n +1) dd = 0


s

1.3.4. .
.
. f ( )
G C 3 , G
. ,
S, C 3 ,

78

1.

1
f ( )d

4i + 2j C3
f ( )
.
G

f ( ) =

.
G S,

.
,
G .
C3 ,
G S ,
.

0 . = 0

J=
=

1
f ( )d
1
f ( )d
=
=

4i + 2j C3
4i + 2j

1
f ( ) f ( ) + f ( )
d =


4i + 2i

= J1 +
J1 =

f ( )
d
= J 1 + f ( ). ,

4i + 2j

1
f ( ) f ( )
d = 0 .

4i + 2j

.
f ( ) ,

f ( ) f ( ) < , < , = ( ) > 0 , > 0 ,



f ( ) f ( ) < (1 ji ) ,
< (1 ji ) , = ( ) >

0,

> 0 .
f ( ) f ( )
1
1
J1
d <

d .

2 3
2 3
d = 2 3 ,

d = 2 3 (1 ji ) ,

79

1.

< (1 ji ) .

J 1 < .

0 0 , ,
. .
G S , S1 ,

, 1 ,

1
f ( )
1
f ( )
d
d

4i + 2j
4i + 2j 1
, 1 .
f ( ) =

S,
.

1
f ( )
f ( ), G
d =
.

4i + 2j
0
,
G

1.3.5.
1 f() G
(), ,
, f (v )dv .
C
. z.
1 3
, ,
G (),
G
.

v = e i + jrei .


i
i
i

dv = e d + je dr + ie d + jirei d .

f()
i
i
i
i

f (v ) = W e , re

)+ jR(e

l =

f (v )dv .

, re

).

l = l1 + jl2

l1 = Wei d iWei d R ei dr iRrei d ;

(1.44.)

80

1.

l2 = Wei dr + iei Wrd R ei d iRei d .

(1.45.)

l1 l2
. ,
, .
,
.
.
, :

l1 = We i
iWe i

dd +

+ We i
R e i ddr +


+
We i
iR e i r dd +

+ iWe i
R e i drd +


+
iWe i
R e i r dd +


+
R e i + iR e i r drd ;
r

l 2 =
We i Wr drd +

(1.46.)


+ We i R e i ddr +
r

+ We i ie i R ddr +
r


i
+ ie i rW
e R dd +

+ Wie i r
ie i R dd +



i
+
R e i r
ie R dd .

(1.47.)

(1.44.), (1.45.)
(1.28.), (1.29.). ,

81

1.


(), .
.

i
i

v = e

+ jre ,

f (v ) = W ( ei , re i ) + jR( ei , re i ).
l = f (v )dv

Ci
i .
. C0, C1, C2 (. 19) , z,

r = const; = var; = var .


i
i

dv = ie d + e d + jirei d .

l=

(W +

jR )(ie i d + ei d + jirei d ) = l1 + jl2 =

C0

= Wiei d + Wei d Rirei d +


C0

+ j Riei d + R ei d + iWrei d .

C0
l1, l2:
l1 = Wiei d + Wei d Rirei d =
C0
Wei

i
i

We i Rire
dd =

W i
R i
W i
=
e + ie i W
ie We i i +
ire

W i W
R i
=
ie i +
e
ire

l2 =

(Rie

C0

dd =

dd ;

iWrei d + R e i d =

R
R
W i
= e i + ie i R
ie i R e i i i
re

R
R
W i
= e i +
ie i i
re

dd =

dd .

82

1.

W
W R
i
+
ir;


R
R
W
i
+ ir
P2 =
;

P1 =

(1.48.)
(1.49.)

, 0
, .
(1.46.), (1.47.)
, (1.27.),
.
. C5,
= const (. 20).
i
i
i
dv = ie d + jire d + jdre .
.

l=

f (v )dv = (W +

C5

jR )( iei d + jirei d + jdrei ) = l1 + jl2 =

C5

= Wiei d + jrei Rd ei Rdr +


C5

+ j iei Rd + irWei d + Wei Rdr.


C5

=const

C5

. 25. C5 ,
.
:

l1 = ( iei W irei R )d ei Rdr =


C5

83

1.

W
R
R

= e i
ie i R ie i
+ ire i
+ ie i R ddr =

r
r

R
W

R
= e i
ie i
+ ire i
ddr = P3 ddr;

r
r

i
i
i
l2 = (ie R + ire W )d + e Wdr =
C5

W
W
R

= e i
+ ie i W ie i
ire i
ie i W drd =

r
r

W
R

W
= e i
ie i
ire i
ddr = P4 ddr.

r
r

P3 4 :

W
R
R i
i
+ ir
P3 =
e ;

r
r

W
R
W
ire i
ie i
P4 = e i
.

r
r

(1.50.)
(1.51.)


, (1.27.). .
. : C = const .

i
i

dv = de

l=

(W +

+ jdre ;

jR ) de i + jdre i = l1 + jl 2 =

R
R

W
= e i
e i
e i
ddr + j e i
drd .

r
r


(1.28.),
.
. .
C3.

i
i
i
i

dv = de

+ ie d + je dr + ije rd .

l=

(W +

C3

jR ) de i + ie i d + je i dr + jie i rd = l1 + jl 2 =

= (Wei d + iei Wd ei Rdr iei rRd ) +


C

84

1.

+ j e i Rd + ie i Rd + e i Wdr + ie i rWd .

C
l1 l2.

l1 = ei Wd e i Rdr (ie i W irei R )d =


C3

R
W
= e i
e i
ddr +

W
R

R
+ ie i
ire i
ie i R + ie i R + e i
ddr +
r
r

W
W
R

+ ire i
+ ie i W + e i
ie i W ie i
dd ;

l2 =

Rd + ie i Rd + e i Wdr + ie i rWd =

C3

R
= e i
e i
ddr +

R
W
W

+ ie i
+ ie i W + ire i
ie i W e i
drd +

r
r

R
R
W

+ e i
+ ie i R ie i R ie i
ire i
dd .

C3

. 26.

P2, P1,

(1.28) (1.28.). P4, P3,
(1.28.) (1.23.).

85

1.

: 3
r (. 26).
, l1, l2

.

C3. .
, -.


R
W
e i
l1 = e i

r
V

i W
R
R
ire i
+ e i
+
+
ie
r
r

i W
W
R
ie i
+ ire i
=
e
r

2R
R
2W
W
= ei
iei
iei
iei
+

r
r
V
2
2
2
i W
i W
i R
i R
+ ie
+ ie
ire
+e
+
r
r
r

2
2
2
i W
i W
i R
i R
+e
ie
+ ie
+ ire
dddr =
r
r

r
= 0dddr = 0;
+


W
R i R
W
W
e i
+ ire i
e i
l 2 = e i
+
+
ie

r
r
r

V

R
R
W
+ e i
ie i
ire i
dddr =
r


2
2
i W
i W
i R
i R
= ie
+e
ie
e
+

r
rd
V

+ ie

i R

+ ie

2
i R

2
i W

2R
2R
W
2W
+ ei
i
iei
irei
dddr =
r
r

r
= 0 dv = 0;
r

+ ire

2
i W

V
,
.

86

1.

() - a ,
:

a dr = rota d

= divrotadv = 0

C3
V
*

divrot a = 0.

.
:
2. 3 - ( )
() ,
,
, , ,
. f (v )dv .
C3
3. f() G
() 3 G
.
0, ,
, 3

f (v 0 ) =

1
f ( )d

4i + 2j C v 0
3

(1.52.)

. 3

f ( )d = f ( )d

C3

r 3 (. 26)
f() () G , 0.
- ,
0. ,

v0 = e i + j (i j )

.
. -0=0.
r , 3,
. 25. v 0 = R ,
:

1
f ( )d
1
f ( )d
=
=

4i + 2j r v0
4i + 2j C R v0
f ( ) f (v0 ) + f (v0 )
1
d =

v0
4i + 2j C

J=

f (v0 )
f ( ) f (v0 )
1
d
= J 1 + f (v0 )J 2 .
d +

v0
4i + 2j C R
4i + 2j C R v0
87

1.

J2 J1:

1
d
1
R e i + j (id + jd )
=
=
J2 =

4i + 2j C R v0 4i + 2j C R
R e i + j

2
4

1
=
+

i
d
j
d

= 1.
4i + 2j 0
0

f() 0 >0
= ( ) ,

f ( ) f (v0 ) < .

, v0 < . , R < ,

l1 <

f ( ) f (v 0 )
1
1

<
d

d .
v0
2 3 C
2 3 R C
R
R

, J1 R, , J1=0, J=f().
.

f (v 0 ) =

1
f ( )d f (v 0 ),
=

0,
4i + 2j v 0

v0 ,
v0 ,

G
G

(1.53.)

0 = re i + j (i j ) = (i j )
d = d (i j )

f ( 0 ) =
=

f ( 0 + (i j ))d (i j )
1
=

(i j )
4i + 2j

f ( 0 + (i j ))
1
d

4i + 2j

,
.

1
dv (Y)
v
C3
. 0 v R , R -
.

.
1
,
v
.
.
1, 2, 3 , ,
, 3,

88

1.

f (v )dv =

e i + j (id + jd ) = 4i + 2j.

i + j
C3
C3 e
, C3
R (. 20),
- . ,
- , ,
.
, .
=4i+2j
(). (. 21),
2f+2i .
1 (), 4 3,

v v
v = C4 v + 4k1i + 2k 2j,
1
1
v

k1 k2 - , ,
(. 27). C4 - 1
; - , 1 .

C4

C3

. 27. 4 1 ,
3.
,

v
v

dv
dv
=
+ 4ki + 2k1j =
v
v
C
C
1
1 4

Ln v =
v'

= ln v + 4ki + 2k1j = ln v + 2ki + 2k1j,

(1.54.)

1
k = 1, 2, 3, , k1 , , k = k1 + 1 .
0 (),
ln U, V,
W, C0, C01, C03. = 2ki + 2k1j .

89

1.

, U, V, W
.
(. 28). ln
. ,
. .
1.3.6.
, ,
.

d, C*, C*.
, .

dv = const = dei + jdrei

dv =const = ie i d + jire i d
r = const

03
02

03

. 28.

d*

d * = dv * dv .

d * = dve 2i dd ie 2i rddr + jire 2i dd + jie 2i ddr.

90

1.

d * = d 1 d 2 + d 3 + d 4 .
. 28 .

d
d4
d2

id
d2

C*

C*

. 29.
.
d* , d2
,
(. 29) : . d4
d3.

f (v )d * =
S

= (U + jV ) ie 2i dd ire 2i ddr + jire2i dd + jie 2i ddr =


S

)
S
+ j (ie 2i Vdd ire2i Vddr + ire2i Udd + ie 2i Uddr ) =
(

= ie 2i Udd ire 2i Uddr + ire 2i Vdd ie 2i Vddr +

= JJ 1 + jJJ 2 .
JJ1 JJ2:

JJ 1 = ie 2i d (Ud Urdr Vrd Vdr );


S

JJ 2 = ie 2i d (Vd Vrdr + Urd + Udr ).


S

ll1 ll2 C*, C*:

JJ 1 = ie 2i d
C*

(U Vr )d (Ur + V )dr;

C*

91

1.

JJ 2 = ie 2i d
C*

(V + Ur )d (Vr U )dr.

C*

C* ,
:

JJ 1 =

(U Vr )d (Ur + V )dr =

C*

+
+

U
Vr
Ur
V
(
)
(
)
r
ddr =

V
U
V

+ V ddr =
r V +
r+
r

U V V U
=
+

r
drd ;

r
r
*

J 2 = (U + Ur ) +
(Vr U )ddr =

* r

V
V
U

U
=
+
U ddr =
r +U +
r

r
* r

V U U V
=

+
+ r
ddr

r
r

U V V U
+

JJ 1 = f (v )d = ie 2i
r
ddr +

r
r

*
*

V U U V
+ j ie 2i

+
+ r
ddr =

r
r

C*
*

U V
V U
= ie 2i
+

ire 2i
ddrd +

r
r

V U
U V
= j ie 2i

+ ire 2i
ddrd .

r
r

U V
+
J =
+

r
V

V U

j
ddr (ie 2i d + jire2i d ).
r

=
const ,
,

92

1.

JJ = f (v )d = (U + jV )(de i + jdrei )(ie i d + jirei d ) =

S
C* C *

(1.55.)

= f (v )dv1 dv 2 .

C* C *

d *

*, *.
, 3,
,
.
3 (. 26),
r , r ,
0.
1.
g ( ) ,
g ( ) .
S , S 1 ,
,
g ( )d = g ( )d .
S

S 1

.
.
-
g ( )
S
,
g ( )d = 0.
S

= ( a ) d ,

n- ,

a = R 0 .

= a + Rei + j , 0 2 ,
d = i Rei + j d ,

S -

.
2
2

d = j Rei + j d
2 2i + 2 j

d = d d = jiR e

dd .

= jiR n + 2

0
2

ei (n + 2 ) + j (n + 2 ) dd .

.
93

1.

n = 2
n 2,

= ji 2 = 2 2 ji

= jiR n + 2 ei (n + 2 ) d e j (n + 2 ) d =

+
i (n + 2 ) 2
e

R n +2
= ji
(n + 2 )(n + 2 )

j (n + 2 )

R n + 2 i (n + 2 )2
= ji
e0
e
2
(n + 2 )

j (n + 2 )
j (n + 2 )
e
2 e
2 = 0,

ei (n + 2 )2 e0 = 0 n- ,

j (n + 2 )
2
e

j (n + 2 )
2
e

j (n + 2 )
2
e

j (n + 2 )
2
e

= 0 n- n = 0 ,
= 2 j n- .

= 0.
.

d .

e i + j

ji 2 e2 i + 2 j dd = jie 2 dd
S

e , 2
,
, .

4 5
+
+ ...
e = + +
2! 3!
2

= re i + j
r 4 e 4i + 4 j
+ ...
e 2 = r 2 e 2i + 2 j + r 3e 3i + 3 j +
2!
,

d =

2 2

0
2

2 2i + 2 j

r 4 e 4i + 4 j
3 3i + 3 j

+r e
+
+ ... dd = 0
ji r e
2!

,
.

94

1.

4. f() G
() .
0, G, ()
,

f ( )d
1
,

4 2ij ( v0 )2

f (v0 ) =

(1.56.)

d - .
. 0
(
)

v 0 = R,

d = d d = R 2 e 2i + 2 j ijdd ,

v 0 = R e i + j .

2
R ( v0 )

+
2 2

= ij dd = 2 2ij.

(1.57.)

1.57 ,
.


f ( )
f ( )
d =
d , r
2
2

R ( 0 )
r ( 0 )

- .
, 1.57
1
f ( )
1
1
d f (0 ) = 2
( f ( ) f (0 ))d .
2
2

2 ji R ( 0 )
2 ji r ( 0 )2

.

0 = ei + j

d d = ji 2e 2i + 2 j dd ,

f 0 + ei + j f ( 0 ) 2 2i + 2 j
1
= 2
ji e
dd =
2e 2i + 2 j
2 ji r

1
2 2

[ f (

+ ei + j ) f (o ) dd

95

1.

r
( ) . 0
. ,

f (0 + ( )ei + j ) f ( 0 ) =

1
2 2 . .
2
2

r, ,
:

1
f ( )
d = f ( 0 ), 0 , 0 , 0 ,

2 2 ji R ( 0 )2

- R .

= ( )e

0 ,
f
i + j

( )

f
1 2 f
f =
0 +
2 0 + ...0 2 ,
2
0
2 0

, 0 .
r = [ ] 0.

.

0 = ( )e

i + j

( 0 )2 = ( )2 e 2i + 2 j (1 + ji )2 ,

(1 + ji ),

f
2 f
( )ei + j + 2 2 ( )e 2i + 2 j + ...
f = (1 + ji )
0


,
.
i + j

0 = 0e
,
, , .

0 = e
(1 + ji )(1 ji ).

.

i + j

0 2 ,

,
2
2

.


96

1.

0 2 ,0

,
2

0 2 ,

0.
2

1
= 0 .
2

1

2 (1 + ji )(1 ji )

1
1 1
1
=
+
.

2 (1 + ji )(1 ji ) 2 2(1 + ji ) 2(1 ji )


d 1

d 2

2 (1 + ji )2 + 2 (1 ji )2 ,

(1 ji )2 = 2(1 ji ).

1 ,

= 0 (1 + ji ) = re

i + j

(1 + ji ).

d 1 = jir 2 e 2i + 2 j (1 + ji )2 dd ,

0 2 ,0 .
2

2 ,

= 0 (1 ji ) = re

i + j

(1 ji ).

d 2 = jir 2e2i + 2 j (1 ji )2 dd ,

0 2 , 0.
2

97

1.

2 2 2 2 i + 2 j

(1 + ji )2 dd + ji 2
r e
r 2e2i + 2 j (1 + ji )2

0
0

= ji

2 2

2 0

= ji dd + ji

dd

0
2

0 0

r 2e 2i + 2 j (1 ji )2 dd
=
r 2e2i + 2 j (1 ji )2

= 2 2 ji.

= ji

= ji

0
2

0
2
r e
(1 + ji ) (1 ji ) d d + d =

r 2 e 2i + 2 j (1 + ji )2 (1 ji )2 0

2
2 2i + 2 j

dd = 2 2 ji.

,
2

0
2

d

2

1
= 2

0
2

d 1
+
2 2

0 0

d
1 2
+
2 (1 + ji )2 2 0

d
= 2 2 ji.
2
2
(1 ji )

,
.

.
,
.
,

.
,

1
2

0 0

d 1
+
2 2

0 0

d
= 2 ji.
2
2
(1 + ji )

98

1.

1 2
= 2
0

d 1 2
+
2 2 0

d
= 2 ji.
2
(1 ji )

5. ( ).
v 0 < R .

,

f (v0 ) =

1
2 2 ji

+
2 2

f (v0 + R e
0

i + j

)dd .

. = v 0 + R e

f (v0 ) =

1
f ( )d
1
= 2

2
2
2 ij R ( v0 ) 2 ji

+
2 2

i + j

(1.56)

f (v0 + R e
0

i + j

)dd .

.
(1.52.), (1.56) (
) .
n -
f n (v 0 ) , .
.

99

1.4.
1.4.1. . .

Cn ( a ) n

, a , 0 ,
( a ) k ( 0 a ) , 0 ! k 1 , .
C 3 ; R C 3 . G
, S R , -

R ,
0 <

0 < ( a ) < R -

, a. 0 G n
n

a
0
C n ( a ) = C n ( 0 a )

a
0

n
C n ( a ) C n ( 0 a ) n M .
n

( a )
k
( 0 a )

Cn ( a ) n Mk n ,0 < k < 1 .
( a ) k ( 0 a ) . , K 1,
( a ) < ( 0 a ) . , ,

Cn ( a ) n 0

a R, .

1
= lim n n C n . R
( a ) < R

. .

( a ) = 0 .

100

1.

( a )(1 ji ) R (1 ji ) .
. ( a ) =

0.
( a ) , -

a . G

0 < lim z

z (1
0

ji ) < ( a ) < lim z

z R (1

ji ) < R

:
f ( ) G a

f ( ) = C n ( 0 ) n , Cn 0

1 n
f ( 0 )
n!
f ( )
1
d ,
Cn =

4i + 2j ( 0 ) n +1
Cn =

R1 ! R , a
. 0 f ( ) ,
, .
= 0 .

n
,
0 n!

( 1) n 2 n +1
,
sin =
( 2n + 1)!
0

( 1) n 2 n
,
cos =
2n!
0

2 n +1
sh =
0 ( 2n + 1)!

2n
ch =
0 2n!

e =

(1.58.)


.
0 = 0
n
2 3
n 1
+
+ " + ( 1)
Ln(1 + ) =
n
2
3

101

1.

( 1) 2
( 1) " ( + n 1) n
+"+

(1.59.)
n!
2!
, n = 1 ,
1
= 1 + 3 " + ( 1) n n . 1+
0 = 1 .

1.

e , sin , cos , sh , ch .,
(1 + ) n = 1 + +

, .
, .
.

. e

n
n! , .
0

= e

).

i + j

(1 ji )
n
n 1
n, (1 ji ) = ( 2i ) (1 ji )

n (1 ji ) n
(1 ji ) 2 (1 ji ) 2
n (1 ji ) n
=
= 1+
+
+"+
=
e
n!
n!
1!
2!
0

( 2i ) n 1
( 2i ) n 1 n
= 1 + (1 ji )
. C n =
n!
n!
n =1
(1 ji )

R = lim n

( 2i ) n 1 (n + 1)!
n

(2i ) n!

n +1
=
= .

n n

, ,
. f ( 0) = C 0 = 1 ,

lim 0 e (1 ji ) = C 0 = 1 ,

(2i ) n 1 n
0 , ,
lim = 0 (1 ji )
n!
1

.
(1+ ji )
= e cos i + je sin i
e

e (1 ji ) = e cos i je sin i

1 e 2
e (1+ ji ) + e (1 ji )

e +e
= e cos i = e

= +
2
2
2 2

e
e (1+ ji ) e (1 ji )

e
= e sin i = e
2j
2i

e2
1
i+
i
2
2

102

1.

e 2 =

2n n
n!

1 2n n
2 n 1 n
= 1+
e cos i = +
n!
2 0 n!
1

(1+ ji )

2 n 1 n
2 n 1 n
2 n 1 n
= 1 + (1 + ji )
=1+
+ ji

n!
n!
n!
1
1
1

1 2n n
2 n 1 n
1
= ji
je sin i = ij + ji
n!
2 0 n!
1
2

Z f (z )
a f ( z ) =

C n ( z a ) n 0

R ( ).
a .
f (z ) , a . Cn
C n =

f ( z )dz
f n (a )
1
=
, n =0,1,2, .

n!
2i ( z a ) n +1

R R,
f ( ) =

Cn ( a ) n 0

, a ,
= a + e i + j (1 ji ) , , , , . a .

f ( ) = C n (1 ji ) = (1 ji ) C n ( 2i ) n 1 n
n

Rd = lim n

Cn
2 n 1 C n
=
.
lim
n

2 n C n +1
2C n +1

.
.
i + j
= a + e
(1 ji )

= a + Rd e i + j (1 ji ) .

f ( ) ,
.

103

1.

f ( ) = Re elf ( d ) + jJmf ( d ) . .
.
. (1.59)
n
2 3 4 5
+

+
" = ( 1) n 1
Ln(1 + ) =
2
3
4
5
1 n
, < 1 ,

. .
= d = (1 ji ) .

Ln(1 + ji ) = Ln (1 + z ) 2 z 2 + jarctg

zi
=
1+ z

zi
1
. z ln(1 + 2 z ) + jarctg
2
1+ z
. d = z (1 ji ) =

z2
z 3 (1 ji ) 3
2
+ "" =
ln(1 + z jiz ) = z (1 ji ) (1 ji ) +
2
3

22 z 3 23 z 4
= (1 + ji ) z z 2 +

+ "" z 0 ,
3
4

2 n 1 ( n + 1) 1
= .
R = lim n
2n n
2

z 2 2 z 3 23
1
+
"
ln(1 + 2 z ) = z
2
2
3

iz
z 2 2 z 3 23
= iz
+
"
arctg
1+ z
2
3

,
,
,

iz
iz
1
1 + z = 1 ln 1 = 1 ln(1 + 2 z ) = i 1 ln(1 + 2 z ) ,
= ln
arctg
1 + z 2i 1 i iz
2i 1 + 2 z
2i
2
1+ z
1+ i

ln(1 + z (1 + ji ) ) =
.

1
(1 + ji ) ln(1 + 2 z )
2

104

1.

sin =
0

2 n +1
( 1) n , . ( 2n + 1)!

.
= z (1 + ji )
sin( z + zji) = sin z cos jiz + cos z sin jiz = sin z cos z + cos z sin jiz ,
cos z cos jiz = cos z .

Re el sin( z + jiz ) = sin z cos z .

e iz e iz
e iz + e iz
,
sin z =
, cos z =
2i
2
e iz e iz e iz + e iz e 2iz e 2iz
=
Re el sin( z + zji) =
2i
2
4i

2 n 2 n +1

z
4 3 8 5 16 7
n 2
,
Re el sin( z + jiz) = z z + z z + " = ( 1)
3!
5!
7!
( 2n + 1)!
0

R = lim n

2 2 n ( 2n + 2)!
= n + 1 = . 2 2 n +1 ( 2n + 1)!

.
.

1
= 1 + 2 3 + "" + ( 1) n n = ( 1) n n 1+
0

R = 1 .

1
= 1 + (1 ji ) ( 1) n n 2 n 1 , 1 + (1 ji )
1
1
Rd = .
2

1.4.2. .

n = +

C n ( a ) n ,

a - , -

n =

, Cn -
,
.

.
,

n = +

C n ( a ) n ,

n =0

105

1.

Cn ( a ) n . , .
1


( a ) R . .
R=0, a, R ,
Y.

( a ) > r . r<R,
r < ( a ) R . . S r , S R ,

r , R ,

C 3 . G, ,
,
d = (1 ji ) .
, ,
. Y
.
,
. Y,
. , .

. .
r r1 ( a ) R1 ! R ,
,
f ( ) . .
, .
f ( ) , G : r < ( a ) < R ,

f ( ) =

n = +

C n ( a ) n ,

n =

Cn =

1
2 2 ji

(1.60.)

f ( )
d ,
n+2

a
(
)
( a ) < R0

r < R0 < R, n = 0,1,2,# d - -

106

1.

( a ) n 2

+
f ( )
=
Ck ( a ) k n 2 ,
n +2
( a )

S R0 . n

( a )

d s = {0, n 2;2 2 ji , n = 2 .

.
.

1
, :
2 3
1 = 3, 2 = 1
3 = 1 + 2 ji, 3 = 1 2 ji ,
f ( ) =

1
1
1
1
=
=

2 2 3 ( 3)( + 1) 4( 3) 4( + 1)
1
1
=
=
f ( ) = 2
2 3 ( 1 2 ji )( 1 + 2 ji )
1
1
=

4 ji ( 1 2 ji ) 4 ji ( 1 + 2 ji )
f ( ) =

g1 ( ), g 2 ( ), g 3 ( ), g 4 ( ) , .

1
1
1
=
=
g1 ( ) =
4( 3)
12 1

3
n
1 1 2 3 4
= 1 + + 2 + 3 + 4 + " + n ,
12
3 3
3
3
3
R 3.

g 2 ( ) =

1
1
= (1 + 2 3 + 4 " + ) , 4 ( + 1)
4

R 1 .

1 21
7 1
20 3
2 2 +
"
f ( ) = g1 ( ) + g 2 ( ) = +
3 33
33
3 33
R 1 .

g 3 ( ) =

1
1
1
1
=
=
4 ji ( 1)
4 ji (1 + 2 ji )
4 ji (1 + 2 ji )

1
=

(1
)
1 + 2 ji
107

1.

2
3
1
1
=
+
+
+"
1 +
4 ji 1 + 2 ji 1 + 2 ji (1 + 2 ji ) 2 (1 + 2 ji ) 3
R (1 + 2 ji ) =

3.

1
1
1
1
=
=
4 ji ( 1 + 2 ji )
4 ji ( 1 + 2 ji + )

1
1
1
=
)=

4 ji ( 1 + 2 ji ) 1 +
1 + 2 ji
g 4 ( ) =

2
3
1
1
+

+"
1
4 ji ( 1 + 2 ji ) 1 + 2 ji ( 1 + 2 ji ) 2 ( 1 + 2 ji ) 3
R ( 1 + 2 ji ) = 3 .

1 + 2 ji + 1 + 2 ji
1
1
1
1
+
=
C 0 =
=
4 ji (4 1)
3
4 ji (1 + 2 ji ) 4 ji ( 1 + 2 ji )
1
1
1
1
1
1
+
=
C1 =
4 ji 1 + 2 ji 1 + 2 ji 4 ji 1 + 2 ji 1 + 2 ji
(1 + 2 ji ) 2 + ( 1 + 2 ji ) 2
=
=
4 ji 3 3
1 + 4 ji 4 + 1 + 4 ji + 4 2 1
=
=
4 ji 32
33

g 3 ( ), g 4 ( ) f ( ) .
.
.
.

1
11 1
1 3 3 2 33
=
=
g1 ( ) =
1 + + 2 + 3 + "

4( 3) 4 (1 3 ) 4

R 3 .

1 1
1 1
1
1 1
1
= 1 + 2 3 + "
=
g 2 ( ) =

4 1+
4 1 + 1
4

R 1 .
,

108

1.

1 1
=0
4 4
3 1
C1 = + = 1
4 4
32 1 8
C2 = = = 2
4 4 4
33 1
C3 = + = 7
4 4
C0 =

f ( ) =

1
2
7
+ 3 + 4 + " 3 .
2

1
1
1
=
=
4 ji ( 1 2 ji ) 4 ji 1 + 2 ji
1

1 1 + 2 ji (1 + 2 ji ) 2 (1 + 2 ji ) 3
=
+
+
+ "
1 +
2
3

4 ji

1
1
=
g 4 ( ) =
4 ji 1 + 1 + 2 ji

1 1 + 2 ji ( 1 + 2 ji ) 2 ( 1 + 2 ji ) 3
=
+

+ "
1
2
3

4 ji

g 3 ( ) =

3 .

1
1

=0
4 ji 4 ji
1
C1 =
(1 + 2 ji 1 + 2 ji ) = 1
4 ji
1
1
C2 =
((1 + 2 ji ) 2 ( 1 + 2 ji ) 2 ) =
(1 + 4 ji + 4 1 + 4 ji 4) = 2
4 ji
4 ji
C0 =

.
.

,
.
.
2
3

f ( ) =

1
1
1 1
1
+
+ " 1 +

+ "
1+ +
4 2 3
12 3 32 33

109

1.

1 < < 3 .
.

f ( ) =

2
3
1
1
+
+
+
+"
1

4 ji 1 + 2 ji 1 + 2 ji (1 + 2 ji ) 2 (1 + 2 ji ) 3

1 1 + 2 ji ( 1 + 2 ji ) 2 ( 1 + 2 ji ) 3

+ "
1
2
3

4 ji

= 3 . .
= 1, = 3 .
. f ( )
, ,
. .

f ( ) =

1
1
1
1
1
=

.
2 2 3 8( 3) 8( + 1) 8 ji ( 1 2 ji ) 8 ji ( 1 + 2 ji )

,
g1 ( ), g 2 ( ), g 3 ( ), g 4 ( ).

g1 ( ), g 2 ( )

r 3, r 1.
g1 ( ) g 2 ( ) r 1.
g 3 ( ) g 4 ( ) r 3, 3 > 1, f ( ) r 1.
g1 ( ) g 2 ( )
r 3.
g 3 ( ) g 4 ( )

r 3.
, , .
,

f ( ) = g +1 ( ) g 2 ( ) + g 3+ ( ) g 4 ( ) ,

, ,
r =
f ( ) =

g1+

( )

g 2

3.
( ) + g 3+ ( ) g 4+ ( )

1 3.
.
110

1.

,
,
.
, . , , .

.
,
.
. -

1
.
( 1)( + 2 )
G1 : < 1, G2 : 1 < < 2, G3 :> 2.

f ( ) =

.
, ,
. :

1 3
1 3
1 = +1, 2 = 2, 3 = + ji, 4 = ji. 2 2
2 2

1 1 1
1 1 1
1
1

+
f ( ) =

1 3
1 3
2 3 1 3 + 2 2

3 ji + ji 3 ji + + ji

2 2
2 2

g1 ( ), g 2 ( )g 3 ( )g 4 ( ) .
< 1,
g1+

( )n n
1
1
1
1
+
n
=
=
= , g 2 ( ) =
( ) =
n +1
+2
1 n =0

2 1 + n = 0 2
2

g1+

( ) +

g 2+

1 ( 1)n n
( ) = 1 + n 1
2
n =0 6

< 1. < 2
g 3+ ( ) g 4+ ( ) =

111

1.

n
1 3
3 ji ji n =0 1 3 ji
2 2 2 2

n
1 3
3 ji + ji n =0 1 + 3 ji
2 2 2 2

, -

: <

2 > 1.
< 1.
, .

(1 )( + 2 ) = +

1 3
1 3
ji + + ji ,
2 2
2 2

g1+ ( ) + g 2+ ( ) = g 3+ ( ) + g 4+ ( ). -

Cn n .

n = 0 : C0 g1 + g 2 =

1
1
+
+
. C0 g 3 g 4 = .
2
2

,
.
G : 1 2. g1 ( ) .

1
1
1
=
= n .
( ) =
1
1
n =1
1

1 1 1 ( 1)n n

+

g1 ( ) + g 2 = n +
3 n =1
3 n =0 2 n +1

g1

g 3

( ) +

g 4+

1 (1 3 ji )n
1 2 n +1 n

( ) =
.

3 ji n = 0 2 n n
3 ji n = 0 (1 + 3 ji )n + 1

= 2 .
, f ( ) G : 1 2

f ( ) = g1 ( ) + g 2+ ( ) + g 3 ( ) + g 4+ ( ), = 2 .
.

f ( ) =

k =4

k =1

g k

1 ( 1)n 1 2 n 1 1
+
( ) =
2 n =1
3 n

112

1.

1 1 (1 3 ji )n 1 1 (1 + 3 ji )n 1
+

,
2 3 ji n =1 2 n 1 n
3 ji n =1 2 n n

> 2. Cn


. , n = 0 :

C0 g1 + g 2 = 0, C0 g 3 + g 4 =

1
1

= 0.
3 ji 3 ji

,
.

. f1 ( ), f 2 ( ),
= a ,

f1 ( ) =

n =0

n =0

C n ( a )n , f 2 ( ) =

d n ( a )n ,

a r1 , a r2 , r2 r1 ,
:

f ( ) = f1 ( ) f 2 ( ) =
f ( ) = f1 ( ) f 2 ( ) =

a r2 .

(Cn + d n )( a )n ,

n =0

n = 0 k = 0

(Cn d n k )( a )n .

1.5. .
0 -

f ( ) , 0 ! 0 ! ( 0 ) !
, f ( ) , = 0 . -

Z . f ( ) 0 , .

,
. 0 f ( ) , lim 0 f ( ) = . -

(1 ji ) .

lim (1 ji ) 0 (1 ji ) f ( ) = = e jarktgi e jarktgi . ,


0 f ( ) ,
1
( ) =
. f ( )
0 = (1 + ji )(1 ji ) , 113

1.

( )
.
jarktgi

= e
.
e
0 n , n 1 f ( ) ,
jarktgi

n ( ) =

1
. n=1
f ( )

.
n ,

f ( ) =

( 0 ) 0 .

( )
, ( ) 0
( 0 ) n

, .
-, . , ,
.
.

Ck
C 1
+
+
+
"
C n ( 0 ) n .

k
( 0 )
( 0 ) n = 0
0 ,

f ( ) =


.
,
.
,
.
.
Y.

f ( ) G . R
.

2 2 R 2 .
n!
f ( )d
n! M 2 2 R 2
n

f ( ) =

2 2 ( ) n + 2
2 2 R n + 2
Mn!
n
f ( ) n , n = 0,1,2," 0 - G.
R
.
. f ( ) , .

114

1.

f / ( )

M
.
R

M , R
f ( ) 0 . ,
/

f ( ) 0 .

f / ( ) =

f ( )d
2!

2
2 ji ( ) 3

: 1 ,0
1 = + $,0 = , $ -,

f ( )
f ( )
f ( ) 1
=

,
( ) 3 ( $) 2 ( ) 2 $

f / ( ) =
=

f ( )d 1 2!
f ( )d
f ( )d
2!
2!
= 2
2
=

2
3
2
$ 2 ji ( $ )
2 ji ( )
2 ji ( ) 2

f ( + $) f ( )
.
$


$ 0 , , f ( ) = const . .
1.6. . .
: . .
f ( )
a C 1
a , , res a f ( ) .

C1 = res =a f ( ) =

1
4i + 2j

f ( )d

(1.61.)

r C3

. r C3 , r ,
( a) = r > .

f ( )d

= ( 4i + 2j )res a f ( )

(1.62.)

, a , , . n = 1 , 0.
115

1.

f ( ) a

ress =a f ( ) =

1
f ( )d ,
2 2 ji

(1.63.)

- , r C3 , a = r .
ress = a f ( ) = C 2 .

f ( )d

= 2 2 jiress = a f ( )

( a ) 2

(1.64.)

n =

f ( ) = C2 ( a ) + C1 ( a ) + Cn ( a ) n ,
2

n =0

C 1 = lim a (( a ) f ( ) ) ,
2
res = a f ( ) = lim a (( a ) f ( ) ), C 2 = lim a (( a ) f ( ) ),
2
ress = a f ( ) = lim a (( a ) f ( ) ).

f ( ) =

Cn
C 1
+
+
+ C0 + C1 ( a ) + " "
( a ) n
( a )

a n.
( a) n , n-1 a

resf ( a ) =

d n 1
1
[
lim a
( a ) n f ( )]
n 1
d
( n 1)!

(1.65.)

ressf ( a ) =

d n2
1
[
lim a
( a ) n f ( )]
n2
d
( n 2)!

(1.66.)

e = 1 +

. e = 0 .
= 0

1
1
1
+ 2 + " , C1 = 1, C 2 =
2
2

=1

res = 0 e = 1, ress = 0 e =

1
.
2

d = (4i + 2j ) res = 0 e = 4i + 2j ,

116

1.

2
2
e d = 2 jiress =0 e = ji .

sin
. sin
5
3 5
1
+
+"
f ( ) f ( ) = 5 (

3! 5!
sin
1
sin
= 0, C 2 = , ress = 0 5 .
C 1 = 0, res = 0
5

3!
. f ( ) =

sin
2 2 ji
1 2
5 d = 6 = 3 ji

. f ( ) =
.
( 1)( + 3)
= 1 = 3 .
1
3
=
=
res =1
. res = 3
C
1

+ 3 4
1 = 4 .

, .
( 1)( + 3) = 0 2 + 2 3 = 0 . 3 = 1 + 2 ji, 4 = 1 2 ji .

f ( ) =

( ( 1 + 2 ji ))( ( 1 2 ji ))

1 + 2 ji

= ji +
res = 1+ 2 ji f ( ) =
=
4
2
( 1 2 ji ) 1 + 2 ji + 1 + 2 ji

1 2 ji

1
1
=
= ji + .
res = 1 2 ji f ( ) =

2
( 1 + 2 ji ) 1 2 ji + 1 2 ji 4

. f ( ) =
. 2
( 1) ( + 3) 2
1 = 1 , 2 = 3 , -

. (1.65) .
/


=
res =1 f ( ) =
2
+

(
3
)

[( + 3)

2 ( + 3) 3 ] =1 =

1
2
1

=
16 64 32


res = 3 f ( ) =
= 3 =
2

(
1
)

117

1.

= [( 1) 2 2 ( 1) 3 ] = 3 =

1
6
1

=
16 64
32


(. )

3 = 1 + 2 ji, 4 = 1 2 ji

res = 1+ 2 ji f ( ) =
= 1+ 2 ji =
2
( + 1 + 2 ji )
= [( + 1 + 2 ji ) 2 2 ( + 1 + 2 ji ) 3 ] = 1+ 2 ji =

= [( 1 + 2 ji + 1 + 2 ji ) 2 2( 1 + 2 ji )( 1 + 2 ji + 1 + 2 ji ) 3 ] =

1 2( 1 + 2 ji ) 4 ji + 2 4 ji 1

=
=
ji
16
64 ji
64 ji
32

res = 1 2 ji f ( ) = [ ( + 1 2 ji ) 2 ] = 1 2 ji =
/

= [( + 1 2 ji ) 2 2 ( + 1 2 ji ) 3 ] = 1 2 ji =

[( 1 2 ji + 1 2 ji)

2( 1 2 ji )( 1 2 ji + 1 2 ji ) 3 ] =
1 2 + 4 ji 4 ji 2 4 ji
1
=
=
=
ji .
16 64 ji
64 ji
32
2

(1.63)

=
ress = 1+ 2 ji f ( ) =
2
( + 1 + 2 ji ) = 1+ 2 ji
1 + 2 ji
1 + 2 ji
=
=
( 1 + 2 ji 1 + 2 ji ) 2
16

=
ress = 1 2 ji f ( ) =
2
+

ji
(
1
2
)

= 1 2 ji
1 2 ji
1 2 ji
=
=
16
( 1 2 ji + 1 2 ji ) 2

1
ress =1 f ( ) =
=

2
( + 3) =1 16

3
ress = 3 f ( ) =
=

2
( 1) = 3 16
. f ( ) =

e
. ( 1) 2 ( + 3) 2

, .

118

1.

e
e
=
=
ress =1
2
( + 3) =1 16
e
e 3
=
ress = 3 =
2
( 1) = 3 16
ress = 1+ 2 ji

e
e 1+ 2 ji
=
=
2
16
( + 1 + 2 ji ) = 1+ 2 ji

ress = 1 2 ji

e
e 1 2 ji
=
=
2
16
( + 1 2 ji ) = 1 2 ji

. f ( ) =

e
. ( 1) 2 ( + 3)

f ( ) =

e ( + 3)
.
( 1) 2 ( + 3) 2

ress =1 =

f ( ) =

e
4

e ( + 1 + 2 ji )
.
( + 1 2 ji ) 2 ( + 1 + 2 ji ) 2

e 1+ 2 ji
ress = 1+ 2 ji f ( ) =

4 ji
e 1 2 ji ( 1 2 ji + 1 + 2 ji )
= 0 . ress = 1 2 ji f ( ) =
( 1 2 ji + 1 2 ji ) 2
, = 1 2 ji
.
.
i + j

= Re
,
= R = .

= 0 = Re i + j (1 + ji )(1 ji ) ,

R% 0.
1
=

R, , ,

1
f ( ) = f ( ) = ( ) , ( )

, ,

119

1.

= f ( ) . ; lim f ( ) = lim 0 ( ).

1
Re

1
=

1
1
=
jarktgi
0
0e

= lim 0

1
0e jarktgi

i + j

. f ( ) G
,
C3 , 1 , 2 ,# , n ,
n

f ( )d = ( 4i + 2j ) resf ( k )

f ( )d = 2 2 ji ressf ( k )

C3

k =1

k =1

k , G = ,
n

resf ( k ) + resf ( ) = = 0 ,

k =1

ressf ( k ) = ressf ( ) =

k =1

C3 20
C4 F . 2-
, .

f ( ) =

f ( )d
1
, = 1,2,3,.... - ,

2ik + 2j C
k

F Z Ck . ,
F Ck
.

C 1 = res = a f ( ) =

1
2ik + 2j

f ( )d

k = Ck

f ( )d = [2ires = a f ( )]k + 2jres = a (1 ji ) f ( )

Ck

k = 1,2,...... -
Z.
: Z
j .

Ck

f ( )d = Re elf ( ) = z dz +
cz

Jmmf
j
d
i

(
)
2
=
= j
C
res = n f ( )k + .
1

120

1.

+ 2j res = k f ( ) .
1

Re elf ( ) = z dz =

Cz

Cz

Jmmf ( ) = j jd =

C j

f (z )dz = k 2i res
1

C j

z = zn

f (z )

f ( j )jd = 2j res
1

j = j k

f ( j ) -

,
Z , j . C1 .
resf (z ) = resf ( j ) .

e d
e z dz
e j jd
2 2 3 = z 2 2 z 3 + ( j )2 2( j ) 3 .
C j
Cz
Ck

Cz

k = 2 .

C j

e z dz
= i e3 e 1 k . 2
z 2z 3 2

e j jd
e d
=
( j )2 2( j ) 3 C 2 2 3

= j -

e d
1
3
2 2 3 = 2 j e e C

( j )3 = 1 + 2 ji,( j )4 = 1 2 ji .
- = ( j )1 = 3, = ( j )2 = 1 . ,
.
G k , = ,

=
+

(
)
f
d
i
j
(
)
4
2
resf ( k ) + resf ( )

k =1

C3

f ( )d = 2 2 ji ressf ( k ) + ressf ( )
k =1

121

1.

(Z)

ri

. 30. .

resf ( ) =

1
f ( )d ,
4i + 2j C
3

1
f ( )d ,
2 2 ji
= R , ressf ( ) =

C 3
.

resf ( ) = C 1 , ressf ( ) = C 2 , C 1 , C 2

1 , 2 .
Z . 30,
G R , R ,
- r , r 0.

. 31. .
,
R .
r

0 . 122

1.

, . (. 31.)
.

e d

( )2 ( + )2 , 1
3

= 4. . R 4
, .

:1 = 1, 2 = 3, 3 = 1 + 2 ji , 4 = 1 2 ji.
. . .
2

( 1)2 ( + 3)2
=

1 1
1
=

=
16 1 + 3

1 1
2
1

.
16 ( 1)2 ( 1)( + 3) ( + 3)2


,
= 1, = 3 .

( 1)2 ( + 3)2 ( + 1 2 ji )2 ( + 1 + 2 ji )2

1
1
1
+

.
16 ( + 1 2 ji )2 ( + 1 + 2 ji )2

,
.

e d

( 1)2 ( + 3)2

e d
e d
1
1
+
+

32 ( 1)2 32 ( + 3)2

e d
e d
1
1
+
+
32 ( + 1 2 ji )2 32 ( + 1 + 2 ji )2

. = 2 ji

)]

1
e + e 3 + e 1 e 2 ji + e 2 ji =
32

2
ji e + e 3 + e 1 2 cos 2i =
16
e2 + e+2 2
2
=
ji e + e 3 + e 1 2
e + e 3 ji.
=
16
2
8

. 1, 2 , 3 , 4

123

1.

1 = 1, 2 = 3, 3 = 1 + 2 ji, 4 = 1 2 ji ,

1 , 2 , 3 , 4 . - , = 4, k
. f ( )d =

f ( )d .

k =1 k

, .

e d

( )2 ( + )2
1
3

e
1 ( + 3)2
=
d +
2 ( 1)2
1

e
e
e
1 ( + 1 2 ji )2
1 ( + 1 + 2 ji )2
1 ( 1)2
+
d +
d +
d =
2 ( + 1 + 2 ji )2
2 ( + 1 2 ji )2
2 ( + 3)2
2
3
4

1 e 1 e 3 1 e 1+ 2 ji 1 e 1 2 ji 2
3
=
+
+
+
+
e
e
ji.
2 ji
8
2
16
2
16
2
16
2
16

f ( )d

= 2 ji ressf ( k ), k
2

k =1

f ( ).

2
=
e + e 3 ji.
8


, ,

f ( )d

( )2 ( )2

= 2 2 ji[ressg1 ( ) + ressg 2 ( )], -

= r > , = r > , , ,

g1 ( ) =

f ( )

, g 2 ( ) =
2

( )

f ( )

( )

2
e d
3
2
( 1)2 ( + 3)2 = 2 ji[ressg1 (1) + ressg2 ( 3)] = 8 e + e ji.
r =4
r ,

124

1.

f ( )d

2
2
( r ) ( ) ( )

1
( + ) + ji ( )
= 2 2 ji ressg2 ( ) + ressg3
+
2
2

1
( + ) ji ( )
+ 2 2 ji ressg 4
. ,
2
2

1
[( + ) ji ( )] 2
3 , 4 . 3 = 4 =

> , > > .


f ( )
f ( )

=
(
)
g 3 ( ) =
g
4
( 4 )2
( 3 )2

,

1 < (r = 2 ) < 3,

e d

( )2 ( + )2
1
3

= 2 ji[ressg1 (1) + ressg 3 (1 + 2 ji ) + ressg 4 (1 2 ji )] =

2
2
2 3
1+ 2 ji
1 2 ji
=
+e
= e +
ji e + e
e ji.
16
8
16

3
< r < 4,
2

e d

( )2 ( + )2
1
3

2 3 2
=
e +
8
16

e ji .

, :



.

f ( )
g ( )d = ( )2 ( )d .

= r > , r > ,

f ( )
g ( )d = ( )2 ( )d

= 2 2 jiressg( ) = 2 2 ji

f ( )
.
( )

. .

g ( )d =

= 2 2 ji

f ( )( )

= 2 2 ji[ressg1 ( ) + ressg2 ( )] =

( ) ( )
f ( )( )
f ( )( )
f ( )
+ 2 2 ji
= 2 2 ji
.
2
( )
( )
( )


< r > ,

125

1.

g ( )d =

f ( )( )

d =

2
2

( ) ( )
f ( )( )
= 2 2 jiressg( ) = 2 2 ji
= 0.
( )2

, .

e d

= ( 1)2 ( + 3),

= r = 2. = 2 ji

e
e
= 2 ji.
4
2

(cos cos , cos sin , sin cos , sin sin )dd ,

= 1 , , 0 2 ,

.
2
2

= cos cos , = sin sin , = sin cos , = cos sin . ,

( , , , )dd .

= e

, = e
i + j

i j

1
1
1
1
, + ji = + . d

2
2
d d
i + j =

d = d d = ije 2i + 2 j dd ,

dd = jide 2i 2 j = 1 dd = ji

d
. 2

JJ =

1 ( )d ,

1 =

, =1

1
2

1 1
1
1
( ), ( + ) -
2
2
2

.
n

JJ = 2 2 ji ress = k 1 ( ) , 1 , 2 , #, k - k

1 ( ) , = 1 .

JJ =

dd

=1 [a + 2(cos cos +

ji sin sin )]

126

1.

2(cos cos + ji sin sin ) = e i + j + e i j =

1
+

dd = ji

JJ =

d
.
2

jid

=
2
1

a + ( + )

2
jid
jid
=
=
2
2 2
2
2
( a + + 1)
( a + + 1)

1 =

a + a2 4
a a2 4
.
, 2 =
2
2

a > 2
.

a + ji a 2 4
3, 4 =
. a > 2
2
3,4 > 1 .
(2 + ) + 4 + 2 + 2 4
=
a > 2, a = 2 + , 1 =
2
2 + 2 + 2 2 + + 2 +
=
=
=
< 1,
2
2
2
1 > > 0 .

3,4 =

1
1
1
( 2 + ) 2 2 2 =
4 + 4 + 2 2 2 =
4 + 2 > 1 .
2
2
2

1
1
= 2
.
ressf ( ) =1 =
2
( 2 ) =1 a 4
1
JJ = 2 2 ji 2
a 4


. cos cos = , sin sin =

[(a + 2 ) 2 ji ] . 1
=
f ( ) =
2
[(a + 2 ) + 2 ji ] [(a + 2 ) 2 4 2 ]2
( a + 2 ) 2 + 4 2
Re elf ( ) =
, 2
2 2
[(a + 2 ) 4 ]
2

127

1.

Jmf ( ) =

JJ 1 =

=1

JJ 2 =

=1

4 ji (a + 2 )

[(a + 2 )

, -

4 2 ]

(a + 2 cos cos ) 2 + 4 sin 2 sin 2

[(a + 2 cos cos )

4 sin 2 sin 2 ]
4 sin sin ( a + 2 cos cos )
2

[(a + 2 cos cos )

4 sin 2 sin 2 ]

dd = 0
dd =

2
a2 4

128

1.7. .
1.7.1.
(Z), g(z)
D D, g(z)
, D
:

g (z )dz = 0

U 1 V V
1 U
=
=
,
,


g ( z ) = U ( , ) + iV ( , )
z = e i

( )
, i
,

g ( z )dz = (U + iV )(de

+ ie i d ) =

= (U + iV )de i + ie i (U + iV )d =

(U + iV )e i (U + iV )ie i
=

dd


.
,
.

g ( z ) dde

=0

,
, , ,
.
i

d = d z = ie dd

.
0 < < 2
d . (z)
d.
()

d d = d ,

129

1.

= R e

i + j

d = jiR 2 e 2i + 2 j dd = jiR 2 e 2i cos 2dd iR 2e 2i sin 2dd =


= jiR 2 e 2i cos2 sin 2 dd 2iR 2 e 2i sin cosdd =
= ji Rei cos Rei cosdd
jiR 2 e 2i sin 2 dd 2iR 2 e 2i sin cosdd .
R cos = , R cosd = d . d Z

,

. lim d 0 = d Z . , R
Z

2 i

d . Z

2i

d d .

d z = jide

( ) d (e ) = ie

d z = d ei


Z
d z = j lim d 0 .
dS Z
dS z = jLim 0, r 0dS . dS
,
, , dS = Limm
ds.

, 0
2

dS = jiR 2 e 2i cos2 sin 2 d

2iR 2 e 2i sin cosdd = jirdre2i d .

R sin = r , R sind = dr.

Z,
= R cos 1 R cos 2 , R, 1 , 2 .

2.
2 = 1 + ,

= R cos 1 R cos( 1 + ) =
= R cos 1 R cos 1 cos + R sin 1 sin

, r.
= cos + r sin .

2
3
.... 1 ( ) + r r
+ ... 2 ( ) .
. = +
2!
3!
2

.

r 0
2
= + ids

130

1.

1.41, .

.
r = R sin( + ) R sin =

= R sin cos + R sin cos R sin =

2
3
= r cos + sin r = r
+
. 0
2
3!
2
dr = r

.
2

dS = R 2e 2i cos 2 = R 2e 2i cos2 R 2e2i sin2


i 2
2i
Z, . dS z = dde , dS = rddre .

( ) ,

JJ = ( )d

(z ) ,

lim 0 ( )d = j ( z )d z

Gz

1.7.2. .
( ) =

Pn ( )
, Pn ( ) Q m ( ) n m
Qm ( )

( )
m n 3 .
Q m ( )
,
, : (z)
( ) .

,
.

. ,
, .

.
, ,
. Z,
.
,
, .
2
Qm ( ) = 2 3 = 0

1 = 3

131

1.

2 = 1
3 = 1 + 2 ji
4 = 1 2 ji
1 2 (z), 3 4 ( )
32.

2 2 3 = ( + 1)( 3) = 0

2 2 3 = ( + 1)( 3) = ( 1 2 ji )( 1 + 2 ji ) = 0

( 1 2 ji )( 1 + 2 ji ) = ( 1) + 4e
2

jarctg

2i
1

( 1) + 4e
2

+ jarctg

2i
1


.
. arctg
. =1,
, 2,

. =-1
2
2

=3 .
,
= 1 .

3 4, 1 2.

2ji

-1

Z
+1
+3
-2ji 4

. 32.

( ) =

1
( 2 3) 2
2

( )

132

1.

( ) =

1
1
1
=

2
2
( 2 3)
8 ji ( 1 2 ji ) 8 ji ( 1 + 2 ji ) 2
2


.
1 2
.
( ) .
= 3 = 4 . = 1 = 2
,
.
.
( ) 3 4 ,

.
3 = 1 + 2 ji 4 = 1 2 ji
Re

i + j

0
lim( 1 2 ji ) = lim R 0 Re
lim( 1 + 2 ji ) = lim R 0 Re i + j 0
i + j

j
2ji

-1

(Z)

. 33.
Z Y.

( 1 2 ji ) = Re i + j (1 + ji )
( 1 + 2 ji ) = Re i + j (1 ji )
R 0 ,
arctgi
.

133

1.

3 ,
.
2 Z,

1 , Z
= .

4
:
1 , 2
= .
3
R 2 , 0 , 0
1 = 3 .

1 2 ji 2 2 ji = 3
1 + 2 ji 2 + 2 ji = 3
, R 0 , , 0 :
1 2 ji = 2 ji 2 = 1
1 + 2 ji = 2 + 2 ji = 1


,
R = 0
Z . ( 33)

( ) =

1
1
i + j
= Re
. d .

C3

d = i Re
4

J = id +

jd

i + j

d + j Re i + j d .

= 4i + 2j.

C3 .

1
JJ = ( )d
2.

2 2 i + 2 j
d = d d = jiR e
dd .

( ) =

JI =

1
ji 2 dd = ji d d = 2 2 ji .
2

,

C3 .

134

1.

= R , .
JJ
2

JJ = ji d d = 2 2 ji
0

,

(1.42)
1.7.3.
.


.

. ,
Z , .

.
Z

. Z
, .
,

.

. ( )

( ) = Re el ( ) + jJm ( ) = g1 ( ) + jg 2 ( ).

dS = jiR 2 e 2i cos 2d iR 2 e 2i sin 2dd .

2 2i
2 2i
= [g1 ( ) + jg 2 ( )]( jiR e cos 2dd iR e sin 2dd ) =
SR

= ji g1 ( )R 2 e 2i cos 2dd g 2 ( )R 2 e 2i sin 2dd


SR

ig1 ( )R

2 2 i

sin 2dd + ig 2 ( )R 2 e 2i cos 2dd .

SR

, ,
,
Z .

135

1.

= Lim 0,r o = j g1 (z )ie

SR

0 0

2 i

dd + g 2 (z )ie2i dd ,

0 0

g1 (z ) = Re el ( ) =o ,z , g 2 (z ) = Im ( ) = 0, = k (1+ ji ) .

,
. .
, Z.
2

= (z )ide

Sz

2i

d ,

0 0

Z .
,
. Z S R

= ( )d ,

( ) = Re el ( ) + Jm ( ) .

SR

( ) = e i + jrei ,
Re el ( ) 0 . , z = ei ,

= Re
(1 ji ),

i + j

Re el (1 ji ) = Rei + j (1 + ji ).

Z . ,
.
, , = LimR ( )dS = 0 ,
Sz

SR

SR = R, Jm > 0 ,
.

n

k =1

k =1

2
2
= ji ress ( k )Im >0, =k + ji ress ( k )Im >0, =k (1+ ji ) ,

Sz

, Z,
,
. ,

, (
).
2.
. , S R ,
R, .

( )dS = + ( )dS Rn
S

Sz

SR
n

136

1.

k =1

k =1

2 ji ress ( ) = k + 2 ji ress ( ) =k (1+ ji ) .


,
.

( )dSRn

LimR

SR

= 0

= lim jig1 (z )e

Sz

0 0

jig1 (z )e

2i

0 0

2i

dd + lim ig 2 (z )e2i dd =
0 0

dd + ig 2 (z )e 2i dd
0 0

1. Z

( ) =

2 3
= ( )dS z

Sz

.,

Sz

.
, :
1 = 3, 2 = 1, 3 = 1 + 2 ji, 4 = 1 2 ji.

Jm 0 .
, .

e
e
1
1
+
= 1 ( ) + 2 ( ) .
( ) =
2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 3
1 , 2 ,
3 , 4 .

e
e 1 1
1
1
=

=
1 ( ) =

2 ( 3)( + 1)
2 16 ( 3) ( 1)

e 1
1
2
=
+

.
32 ( 3)2 ( + 1)2 ( 3)( + 1)

,
. ,

e 1
1
+
1 ( ) =

32 ( 3)2 ( + 1)2

2 ( ) =

e
1
1
+

.
32 ( 1 2 ji )2 ( 1 + 2 ji )2

137

1.

( )

e 4
1
, ( ) = k ( ) =
.

2
32
(

)
k =1
k =1
k
4

= 2

jiress ( ) =1+ 2 ji .

S R 0 , = 1S 0 , = 3 S R

Sz

. 1 , 2
.
,

.
.

k , =1,2,3,

(
e
z 3 j )2
1 e z cos + e sin
1 ( ) =
=
,
32 (z 3 + j )2 (z 3 j )2 32 (z 3)2 + 2 2

Re el1 ( ) = 0 =
Jm1 ( ) = 0 = 0 .

3 ( ). 3 ( ) =

32(z 3)4

ez

32(z 3)2

(e

e
32(z + 1)2

2 ( )

Re el 2 ( ) =0 =

e z (z 3)2

, Im 2 ( ) =0 = 0.
z

cos + je sin

)[(z 1) j( 2i )]

[(z 1 )+ ( 2i ) ] 32
2 2

Re el 3 ( ) =0
Im 3 ( ) = 0 =

(
(

)
)

e z z 2 2z + 5
ez
ez
1
1
=
+
=
.
2
2
32 z 2 2 z 3
32 z 2 z 3 4 z 2 2 z 3 2
4e (z 1)i
z

32 z 2 z 3

( ) Z ,
(1.8.1), (z ) = g1 (z ) + jg 2 (z ) =

k =1

k =1

Re el k ( ) + j Im k ( ).
138

1.

ez 1
1
1
8
+
+
+
(z ) =
+
2
2
32 (z 3)2 (z + 1)2 z 2 2 z 3
z 2 z 3

e z 4i (z 1)
+j
32 z 2 2 z 3 2

) (

e z 3 z 2 2z + 5
e z 4i (z 1)
( ) =
+j
32 z 2 2 z 3 2
32 z 2 2 z 3 2

= ji g1 (z )de

Sz

2i

0 0

d + ig 2 (z )de 2i d ,
0 0

= 0

SR

e1+ 2 ji
=
ress ( ) =1+ 2 ji ji = ji
32
2
= ji
e(cos 2i + j sin 2i ) =
32
2 e 2 + e 2
2 e 2 e 2

= ji
=
e
+ ji 32 ej 2i
32
2

2 1 3 2 1 3
= ji
e +e
e e
64
64

S R 0 , = 1 S R 0 , = 3

e = e 1

( + 1)2

+ ( ), e = e 3

( 3)2

+ ( ).

S R 0 , = 1

S R 0 , =3

2 2

e 1 2
( + )2 ds = 32 ji ,
1
0 32

2 2

e 1

e3

e3 2
( )2 ds = 32 ji.
3
0 32

,
,
. ,

2 1 3
e 1 2
e3 2
e 1 2
e3 2
= 32 ji + 32 ji + 32 ji + 64 ji 64 e e =

Sz

139

1.

2 1 3 2 3 2 1 3
= ji
e +
e
e e .
16
64
64

(z 2 z + 5) e de

(z 2 z 3)

0 0

(z 1)

0 0

(z

2 i

2
1
1
2
d = 2 e 1 + e3 2 = 2 e 1 + e3 .
3
2
2
3

e z de 2i d =
2

2z 3

2 1 3
i e e .
8

,

. ,

, .
2.

SR =4

e
2

2 3

dS .

. S ,
= 4 ,
.
.

2 2

0
2

e
2

2 3

dS =

= ji ress k ( ) = k + ji ress k ( ) = k (1 ji ) ,
2

k =1
k =3
k , k .

1
= 2
1
=
32

1
32

2 2

0
2

2 2

0
2

2 2

0
2

1
dS +
2
2
2 2 3

1
+
dS
32
( 3)2

2 2

2 2

0
2

e
2

2 3

dS =

( + )2 dS +
1
0
2

dS +
2

( 1 2 ji )

1
32

2 2

0
2

( 1 + 2 ji )

dS =

140

1.

1
1
2 2 ji e 3 + e 1 + 2 2 ji e1+ 2 ji + e12 ji =
32
32
2

2 2 ji
1
3
= ji
e + e + ji
e e + e 2 ji =
16
16
2

2
= ji
e 3 + e 1 + ji
e(cos 2i ) =
16
8
2 3 1
2 e 2 + e 2
2 3 1

= ji
+
+
=
e e
ji
e
ji 8 e + e .
16
8
2

,
( , 2)
,
. 1.40, 1.41
iF + j + jis

= Re
.
,

e s + e+ s
e s e+ s
=
= ReiF + j (cos is + j sin is ) = ReiF + j
ji

2
2

1 ji
1 + ji
= ReiF + j s
+ ReiF + j + s
.
2
2

.
R, F , , s .
1
d .

C3
1
= 0 , = (1 + ji )(1 ji ) .

1 11 1
1
=
+
.
2 2 (1 + ji )(1 ji )
.

R = 4 4 + r 4 + 2 2 r 2 cos 2( )
= 0, r = 0 . .
.

1
1
1 1 1
1 1 1
=
+
.
2 (1 + ji )(1 ji ) 2 2 1 + ji 2 2 1 ji
,
,

(1 + ji ) = ReiF + j + s (1 + ji ), (1 ji ) = ReiF + j s (1 ji )

141

1.

d =

C3

C3

C3

4 Re

ReiF + j + s (1 +

ReiF + j + s

ReiF + j s (1 ji )(idF + jd ds )
ReiF + j s

C3

=
(1 + ji ) C3 4 ReiF + j s (1 ji )
ji )(idF + j + ds )
+

iF + j + s

1
(idF + jd ). F ,
2 C3

C3 0 F 4 ,0 2 .
,

C3

1 d 1 ReiF + j (idF + jd )
=
=
2
2C
ReiF + j
3

1
idF + jd . F , , S
2C
3


1.41.
.

C3

d
= idF + jd = 4i + 2j.
C
3



R.
C3 .

, s = 0
2
i
(1.40), (1.41). = jre

i
. = + = jre .
2

= 0 R = r , F = , = , s = 0
2

= r , =

F
.
R = r 0 , = , S = i = arctgi .
2
1
sin 2 + sin 2 1
2 sin( + )cos( ) +
= arctg
=
F = arctg
2
cos 2 + cos 2 2
2 cos( + )cos( )
2
= 0 , R = r , F = , =

142

1.

= r 0e

jarctgi

+
j
2
2

= jre

+
2

(1 ji ).


(1.40, 1.41)

= ei + jrei = rei (1 ji ). (1.16),


i + j
= re
(1 ji ) .

f ( )d
k = 2 k 2 3 ,

C3

f k ( ) e , e , e j , e j .
1


2 2 3

1
1
1
1
1
=

,
2 2 3 8( 3) 8( + 1) 8 ji ( 1 2 ji ) 8 ji (1 1 + 2 ji )

,
.
1 = 3, 2 = 1, 3 = 1 + 2 ji, 4 = 1 2 ji ,

C3
, ,
. f k ( )

e d
e d
e d
e d
1 e d
=

+ ji
ji
=
2
3 C + 1
1 2 ji
1 + 2 ji
C3 2 3 8
C
C
C
3

3
3
3

e 3 e 1 e1+ 2 ji e12 ji
= (4i + 2j )
+
=
ji
8
8

e 3 e 1 e e 2ij e 2ij

= (4i + 2j )
+
=

i
j
8
4
2

e 3 e 1 1

= (4i + 2j )
+ e sin 2i =
4i
8

3
1
2
2
e e e e
= (4i + 2j )

e =
8
8

e 3 e 1 e 3 e 1 4i + 2j 3
= (4i + 2j )
+
e e 1 .
=
8
4
8

143

1.

e d
e .
=
2

2
3
C3
2

9
1
1 (1+ 2 ji )2
(1 2 ji )2 = ( + ) e e
= (4i + 2j ) e9 e +

e
e
i
j
4
2
.

ji

8
8
4

j
e d
4i + 2j 3 j
=
e j 2
e e j . .
4
C3 2 3

e j .
2

e j d
4i + 2j 9 j
e e j .
2 2 3 = 4
C3

,

,
. ,
, C3 ,
. G
S1 , S2 , 1 , 2 ,

f ( )d
f ( )d

= (4i + 2j ) f ( ).

2

.
, 3 = 2,
4 =

3
. G
2

= 3 , = 4 ,
. C3
3 4 . C3 .
= = (4i + 2j )(resf (3 ) + resf ( 4 )) ,

C3

e
e
1
1 1 1+ 2 ji 1 2 ji
+ res ji
= e
e
=
resji
1 2 ji 8
1 + 2 ji 8 8

e 2 ji e 2 ji
1
1
2 ji
2 ji
= jie
jie e e
2j=
8
8
2j
1
1 e 2 e 2
1
= ei 2 sin 2i = 2i
e = e 3 e 1 .
8
8
2i
8

144

1.

e d
4i + 2j 3
=
,
e e 1 .
2
8
3 4 2 3
G S1 , S2 ,

5 , 6 , = 2, = 4 ,
= 3 .
e d
4i + 2j 3
2 2 3 = 8 e .

5


.
2

. 2 3 = + j ,

= z 2 2 z 2 3, = 2 (z 1) .
e d = + j ,
= e z cosdz e z sin d , = e z sin dz + e z cos d .

( + j )( j ) = + + j .
e d
=
2 2 3 ( + j )( j ) 2 + 2
2 + 2

(e z cos + e z sin )dz e z ( sin cos )d = i (e 3 e 1 ).


Re el =
2 + 2
2
3 4
3 4
Jmm

3 4

e z ( sin cos )dz + e z ( cos sin )d 3


= (e e 1 ).
2
2

+
2
3 4

3 4 Z .

=0 = z 2 2 z 3,

= 0 .

=0

Cz

(
(z

)
2 z 3)

e z z 2 2 z 3 dz
2

Cz

e z dz
.
z2 2z 3


. Z
. .

Cz

i 3 1
e z dz
=
e e .
z 2 2z 3 2

,
.

145

1.

Jmm C3 =

je j d

z =0 ( )2 .
j
2j
3
C

j ( j )1 = 3, ( j )2 = 1 .
,

z =0 = 2 (e

e 1 .

. .
Z, ,
,
.
= 1 .

e d
1
= ie 1 + i e 3 ,
Re el =0 2
2
2 3
C3

1
e d
e z dz
Re el 2 2 3 = z 2 2 z 3 = 2 ie .
Cz
Cz

e d
= e 1 ,
Jmm z =0 2
2
2 3
C3
1
e d
je j d
Jmm 2 2 3 = ( )2 = 2 e .
2j
3
C
C j

1 = 1, 3 = 1 + 2 ji, 4 = 1 2 ji ,

Cz

= ie 1, = 0 = ie 1 + ie3
2
2
C
3

= e 1, z = 0 = e 1 + e3.
2
2
4
C
3

Cz

= e 1 + e3 , z = 0 = e 1 + e3
2
2 C
2
2
3

= e 1 + e3 , = 0 = ie 1 + ie3
2
2 C
3

1.7.2
32 33. 3 , 4
1 , 2 . ,
, .

146

1.

, .
Z
,
.

Z .
,
.
.
( )
n m,

Pn ( z )
, Z ,
Qm ( z )

( ) =



m n = 2 ( )

( )

A
C
, , 3 , -. ( ) 3

R.

LimR

( )d

< CR 3 R 2 2 0

Rn


+ +

JJ =

( z )dxdy = 2

SZ

jiq1 ( z )e
0 0

2i

ress ( ) + 2 2 ji

Im > 0 , =

ji

ress ( )

Im > 0 , = (1 ji )

dd + iq2 ( z )e 2i dd ,
0 0

q1 ( z ) = q2 ( z ) .
1.7.4. .
> 0 :

1) g [ ] Im > 0, R0 >
2) M (R ) = max g ( )

= R, Im > 0.

0 R , R -

= lim R g ( )sin id

= 0.

e ji e ji
.
sin i =
2j

147

1.

e ji e ji
e ji
d = 1 + 2 = g ( )
d +
= g ( )
j
j
2
2
R
R
+

g ( )

,
1

e ji
d . ,
2j

. .

e ji
= g ( )
d .
j
2

e ji
.
2j
i + j

e ji
e ji Re
=
2j
2j

1 ji Rei cos i Rei sin


=
e
2

1 i Rei sin 1 iR cos sin + R sin sin 1 R sin sin


= e
= e
e
.
2
2
2
i + j
= Re
Jm > 0 .
=

1 R sin sin
1.
, e
2
2
e ji
1
= e R sin sin

2j
2
2 ,0

0 ,0

.
2

= Rei + j (1 + ji ).

. ,

2
,

0 .
2

sin <

1
= R 2 max R g ( )
2

2 2 R sin 2
dd .
e

R .

148

1.

2
R sin 2
2
e

2 R sin
1
e
1 2
1 2
d = R M (R )
d =
1 = 2 R M (R ) 2
2
2

R sin
R sin

0
2 R sin
2
1
e
= R M (R )
d .

R
4
sin

eR sin 1

R sin

(
e

1
R cose R sin
=
= 1.
R sin
R cos

lim , 2

R sin


.
< < 2 . sin = , < 1.

e R 1
A =
. R < 1 ,
R

. A =

1 R 1 + O (R )
= 1 + o(R )R 0 0 .
R

e R 1
< 1,
R > 1, A =
R
e

1 < 1, R > 1.

1
g ( ) 3 , lim 1
R
,

1 =

2 2
=
R M (R ).
4

2
=
0.
4R

e ji
2 j g ( )d = 0.

0 ,0

.
2

149

1.

2 =

e ji
g ( )d = 0.
2j

= 1 2 = g ( )sin id

= 0.


. 1 , 2 :

e(1+ ji )
e (1 ji )
1 = g ( ) 2 j d , 2 = g ( ) 2 j d .

3
,
2
2

e (1+ ji )
= e R cos cos < 1 ,
2j

e (1+ ji )

3
= e R cos cos < 1.
,
2
2
2j
0

cos 0.

3
2 2

,
1

1
= R 2 M (R ) e R cos cos dd ,
2
0

2

2 2

1 2
R M (R ) e R cos cos dd .
2
3 0
2

, cos = sin 1 . ,

2
2


3
2
2 2 R cos 1
dd ,
e

11 =

0
2


2
2 2 R 1 cos
e
dd .

22 =

3 0
2

150

1.

3
2

11 =

2 R 2 cos
R cos
e
d e
d

(1 e

R cos

3
2

3
2

eR cos d

2
R cos 2
e

2
R cos

) d .

2
cos

22

1 e R cos
=
d .
2
3 R cos

lim

lim

3
,
2 2

3
,
2 2

(1 e

R cos

,
2

R cos

1 e R cos
= .
2
2

R cos

2 2
1 = 2 = 4 R M (R ).
2
1
= 0, R . ,
g ( )
, 1 = 2 =
4R
R3

.
. .

= 1 + 2 =

g ( )sin id

= 0.

R , Jm 0

= j g (z )sin izd z . g ( ),
z

j sin izg (z )d z +

sin(i )g ( )d

151

1.

= 2 2 ji

ress[sin(i k )g ( k )]

k =1, Jm k 0

= 0,

g (z )sin(iz )d z

= 2 2 i

ress[g ( k )sin(i k )].

k =1, Jm k ! 0
2

g ( ) =

0 0

sin i
,
3

sin iz
d z .
z3

Z,

.
: R ,

0 , , , 0 ,0 2 .


+ + = 0.
,

. ,

= 0

f ( ) =

(i )3 + (i )5 ...
3!

P ( )

5!

i 2 d

=i

1
+ P ( ),
2

2 2

i 2
0 0

jidd = j 2 + 0( ) 0 0 = j 2 .

Z
2

= Lim 0 = j

0 0

sin iz
d z .
z3

sin iz 2i
e dd = 2 .
3
z
0

z = ei .
sin i

e 2 i
1
1
= sin iei 3 e i = sin (i cos sin ) 3 (cos i sin ) =
3 3i
e

152

1.

1
(cos i sin ) cos(i cos )sin( sin ) 13 (cos i sin )
3

cos
+ cos
cos
+ cos
e
e
e
1
e
1
=
cos( sin ) 3 cos
cos( sin ) 3 sin

2i
2
cos
cos
cos
cos
e + e
e + e
1
1
+
sin ( sin ) 3 i sin
sin ( sin ) cos =

2
2
3

= sin (i cos )cos( sin )

1
i e cos (cos( sin + )) + e cos cos( sin ) +
3
2
1
3 e cos sin( sin + ) e cos sin( sin ) .
2

:
2

Jm
=

0 0
2 cos

0 0

Re el
=

sin iz 2i
e dd =
z3

cos( sin + ) + e cos cos( sin )


dd = 0
3

sin iz 2i
e dd =
z3

0 0
cos

0 0

sin( sin ) + e cos sin( sin + )


dd = 2 2
3

3. 1,2 1.7.1.
2 .

e
e
1
1
ds +
ds =
= 2 2
2
2
2
2
S
2 3
2 3

,
.
( 1 )( 2 ) = ( 3 )( 3 )

=
S

e
e
1
1
+
ds
ds =
2 ( + 1)2 ( 3)2
2 ( 1 2 ji )2 ( 1 + 2 ji )2

S , ,

1
1+ 2 ji
1 2 ji
e3
2 e
2 e
2 e
= 2 ji + 2 ji
+ 2 ji
+ 2 ji
=
32
32
32
32
2 3 1
2 2
1
3
=
ji e + e 2 =
e + e ji.
32
8
2

2 1.7.1.

153

1.

.

.

e
dS +
1
2( + 1)( 3)( 1 2 ji )( 1 + 2 ji )

e
dS =
2( + 1)( 3)( 1 2 ji )( 1 + 2 ji )

.
.

.

1 = 2
S

e
dS
1
(
3)
=
+

+
(
)(
)(
)
ji
ji
2
1
1
2
1
2
S
1

e
dS
1
+ 1)
(
+
+

+
(

)(

)(

)
ji
ji
2
3
1
2
1
2
S
2

e
1
( 1 2 ji )
+
dS
S 2 ( + 1)( 3)( 1 + 2 ji )
3

e
1
( 1 + 2 ji )
+
dS =
+

)(

)(

)
ji
2
1
3
1
2
S
4

+ 1 = Rei + j , = 1 + Rei + j ,

= 3 + Rei + j ,

= 1 2 ji + Re

i + j

= 1 + 2 ji + Rei + j . dS = jiR 2e 2i + 2 j dd .

154

1.

i + j

lim R 0
S1

2 Rei + j

e 1+ Re
4 + Rei + j
jiR 2 ei 2 + 2 j dd +
i + j
i + j
2 2 ji Re
2 + 2 ji
Re

)(

3+ Rei + j

+ limR0

i + j
S2 2 Re

e
2 2i +2 j
4 + Rei + j
jiR
e
dd +
i + j
i + j
+ 2 2 ji Re
+ 2 + 2 ji
Re

)(

i + j

e12 ji + Re
4 ji + Re i + j
+ lim R0
jiR 2 e 2i + 2 j dd +
i + j
i + j
i + j
+ 2 2 ji Re
2 2 ji Re
S3 2 Re

)(

i + j

e1+2 ji + Re
4 ji + Re i + j
+ lim R0
jiR 2 e 2i + 2 j =
i + j
i + j
i + j
+ 2 + 2 ji Re
2 + 2 ji Re
S4 2 Re

)(

e 1
e3
e1 2 ji
e1+ 2 ji
= 2 ji
+
+
+
=
2( 4 )( 4 ) 2 4 4 2( 4 ji )( 4 ji ) 2 4 ji 4 ji
1
3
2
2 e +e
= 2 ji
ji e 1 + e 3 .
2=
32
8
2
= 2
ji e 3 + e 1 ,
8
S
2

, ,

(
S

2
e
dS =
ji e 3 + e 1 .
2
8
2 3

.
, [ ]
.

sin i

= ( )2 ( )2 dS ,

SR

SR -

SR

R > > . , - .
, ,
.
.
155

1.

, .

( )( ) = 2 ( + ) + = 0 .

3,4 = jis , =

. ,
, =
2
2

( )2 ( )2 = ( )( )(

sin i

( )( )(

SR

ji )( + ji ) .

dS .
ji )( + ji )

,
.

.
,
.
S R , R > > ,
, 3,4 ,

( + )2 ( )2
ji = =

= > >
4
4

S1 , S 2 , S 3 , S 4
= , = , = + ji , = ji ,
S R .
, S1 , S 2 , S 3 , S 4 S R
2

.
= + + + .
SR

S1

S2

S3

S4

. .

= + re i + j .
. = 2 , = .
sin i + re i + j jir 2 e 2i + 2 j dd
re i + j 2 + re i + j ji + re i + j + ji + re i + j =
S1

=
S1

=
S1

)(

re i + j 2 + re i + j

)(

sin i + re i + j jir 2 e 2i +2 j dd
=
re i + j + jire i + j + re i + j jire i + j + r 2 e 2i + 2 j

)(

(2 + re )

sin i + re i + j jir 2 e 2i + 2 j dd
2 2 i + 2 j

r e

i +j

156

1.

= lim r0
S1

sin i + re

i + j

(2 + re

)jidd = 2

r 0,

i +j

S1

ji

sin i
.
2
4

= + rei + j
= 2 , = ,

S2

sin i + re i + j jir 2 e 2i +2 j dd
=
2 + re i + j re i + j ji + re i + j + ji + re i + j

)(

sin i + re i + j jir 2 e 2i + 2 j dd

( 2 + re )
r e

sin i ( + re ) jidd
sin i
= 2 ji
.
= Lim
4
( 2 + re )
2 2i + 2 j

S2

i +j

i +j

r 0

S2

= + ji + re

i + j

sin i + ji + re i + j jir 2 e 2i + 2 j dd
=
+ ji + re i + j + ji + re i + j re i + j 2 ji + re i + j

S3

r 0.

i +j

S2

)(

sin i + ji + re i + j jidd

= Limr0

S3

i +j

i +j

S3

. r 0.

(2 ji + re
sin i ( + ji + re ) jidd
= 2


(2 ji + re )
i + j

S3

ji

sin i ( + ji )
.
4 2

= ji + rei + j

S4

S4

)(

sin i ji + re i + j jidd

)(

i + j 2

i +j

S4

i +j

. r 0.

( 2 ji + re )
sin i ( ji + re ) jidd
= 2


( 2 ji + re )

= Limr0

S4

sin i ji + re i + j jir 2 e 2i + 2 j dd
=
ji + re i + j ji + re i + j 2 ji + re i + j re i + j

ji

sin i ( ji )
.
4 2

2
( )2 ( )2 ds = 2 2 ji[sin i + sin i + sin i ( + ji ) + sin i ( ji )]
SR
sin i

. .

157

1.

2
= 2 2
SR
= 8 2 ji

+ 2 sin i cos j =
ji 2 sin i
cos i
2
2

sin i

cos i
2
2
2
( )

sin i

( )2 ( )2 dS = 8

sin i
ji

SR

cos i
2
2 .
2
( )
sin iz

= ( )2 ( )2 dS z .
z
Sz SZ z

,
. f ( ) =

sin i

( )2 ( )2

:
R > > , , ,
, Z. ,

, = + re i + j ,

0 2 ,0 .
2
+

+ ji
3 =
.
2
2

r 0 ., = + re

= +

SZ

SR

i + j

= Re 2 jiress =3 f ( ) jiress = f ( ) jiress = .

lim R

= 0 .

SR

2 ji (ress = f ( ) + ress = f ( )) =

1
1
+ .

2 S 2S

, , Z.

.
f ( )

f ( ) =

sin(i i + i )

( ) ( )
2

sin i ( )cos i + sin i cos i ( )

( )2 ( )2

158

1.

( )2 ( )4

+ ... .
sin i cos i ( ) = sin i 1 +
2!
4!

sin i 1
+

(
)
P

, P ( )
( )2 ( )2

f ( ) =

sin i

sin i

= ( )2 ( )2 ds + ( )2 P( )dS =

2 2

sin i

( )2 ( )2 ds + 0 =
0 0

ji

sin i

( )2

ji

sin i

( )2


.
3 =

+ ji
,
2
2

+
+
i
ji
sin

2
sin iz
2
2

=
(z )2 (z )2 ds z = Re2 ji
2

Sz

i
j
j
sin
cos
sin
cos

2
2
2
2 =
= Re 2 2 ji

( )2

2i


e 2

( )

cos

+
2

SZ

sin iz

dS z = 2 i
2

(z )2 (z )


e 2

( )2

cos

+
.
2

159

1.

JJ =

e d
( 2 2 3) 2

, - -

= 5 .
. G , ,
.
.

e
f ( ) = 2
.
( 2 3) 2

(1.2)

1.1.2.

1 = 1, 2 = 3, 3 = 1 + 2 ji, 4 = 1 2 ji

2 2 3 = ( + 1)( 3) = ( 1 2 ji )( 1 + 2 ji ) = 0
1.6 1.64 JJ

JJ = 2 ji ress =1 f ( ) + ress = 2 f ( ) + ress = 3 f ( ) + ress = 4 f ( )

(
1.4.1,1.4.2)

1 , 2 ,
3 , 4 .
2
JJ = 2 ji ress = f ( ) + ress = f ( )
3
4

e 1 + e 3
ress =1 f ( ) + ress = 2 f ( ) =
16
e1+ 2 ji
e1 2 ji
+
=
ress =3 f ( ) + ress =3 f ( ) =
(1 + 2 ji 1 + 2 ji ) 2 (1 2 ji 1 2 ji ) 2
e1+ 2 ji + e1 2 ji e(e 2 ji + e 2 ji ) e(cos 2i + j sin 2i + cos(2i ) sin(2i ) )
=
=
=
=
16
16
16
2e cos 2i 2e(e 2 + e 2 ) e 1 + e 3
=
=
=
16
16
16

,
1
3
1
3
e d
2 e +e
2 e +e
= 2 ji
= ji
JJ =
2
2
16
8

(
2
3
)

E
,

160

1.

2 2

e d
JJ = 2
2
0 0 ( 2 3)
(.) 1.7.3.

= 3 .

1 , 2
3 , 4 ,

JJ = 2 2 2 ji (ress =3 f ( ) + ress = 4 f ( ) ) 2 2 jiress = 4 f ( ) =

= 4 2 jiress =3 f ( ) + 2 2 jiress =4 f ( )

2 2

e d
e1+ 2 ji
e1 2 ji
2
2
= 4 ji
+ 2 ji
.
JJ = 2
2

(
2
3
)
16
16
0 0
1.8.
1.8.1.
7. W=f() 0 f(0),
, jf ' (v 0 ) 0, i j .
. ,
() (W)
0
.
. ()

r
v = ( + jr )ei = R ei + ja ; a = arctg ; R = 2 + r 2

W = f (v ), 0 f ' ( v 0 ) 0
( ).
=S(t), t , ,
v 0 = R0 e i0 + j 0 . 0.
(
) 0, 0.
, W = f (v ),
W = W () = f (S (t )).

W ' (t 0 ) = f ' (v 0 )S ' (t 0 )

S ' (t 0 ) 0, i j, f ' (v 0 ) 0, i j,

W ' (t 0 ) 0, i j.
161

1.

arg v = i + ja. .
arg W ' (t 0 ) = i '+ j , arg S ' (t 0 ) = i + j .

(1.67.)
i '+ j ' = arg f ' (v0 ) + i + j .
i1 + j1 = i ( ' ) + j ( ' ).
0 W = f (v ) .
(1.64.) , f (v0 ) 0, i j , 0

arg f ' (v0 ) , ,


0
, .
3 1.
.
2. ,
, .
3.
z-. f ' (v0 ) .
, ,
.
.
. -

(v ) =

av + b
,
cv + a

(1.68.)

a, b, c, a -

d
aa bc 0 v = , ( v ) = .
c
d
v = A(i j ) , ( v ) = (i j );
c
d ad bc
=
dv (v + d )2
v

d
d
v + A(i j ).
c
c

v=

b d
.
c a

().
=

d
a
, , = , v = .
c
c

, -
.
(1.65.)

= B + / v c.

,
162

1.

v2 =

1
; v1 = e i + j , v 2 = R e iF + j ,
v1

, , - .

R=

1
, F = , = .

- ,
v1 = v e i + j ,

i
i

v = e

, .

+ jre

2
v 2 = R e iF + jPe i .

i

e i + jre i

jre i

= R e iF + jPe i .

(ei )2 + (jrei )2

R0

. 34.
.
2 i
2 2i
2 2i

4
4 4

+r e

= v e

*'

v = + r + 2 2 r 2 cos( );

= arctg

2 sin 2 + r 2 sin 2
2

cos + r cos 2

163

1.

v2 = R e

iF

+ jPe

- .
, v 2 = R e

R=

e i e i jre i

iF + j

) = e i j ,
v

1
; F = ; = .
v

(), , ,
-, -.
(. 34.)
(v v0 ) v * v 0 = R02 .
=const
(z).
. . -
:
i + j
a
va
ia + j re
(1.69.)
= e ia + j
=
e
.
"
" i + j
1 av

1 a re

a, - .
a=z+j,

"
a = z j = z + j , a = a1 + ja 2 .

"":
a) =0, =0, a=a1,
i
ia re a1
=e
;
" i ,
1 a1re
) a=0, =0, a=a2,
i
a2
i re
=e
" i ,
1 a 2 re
.
. , [7] ,
, -
,
(
).
, , :

va
, v = R e i + j = e i + j , R = 1;
1 a v
i0 + j 0
a = re
, a = r e i0 j0 ,0 < r < 1;

= e ia + j

e i + j re i0 + j 0

e i + j re i0 + j 0 i0 + j 0
=
=
=
e
i ( 0 )+ j ( 0 )
i0 + j 0
i + j
re
e
1 re
164

1.

=e

i0 + j 0 e

i ( 0 )+ j ( 0 )

1 re i ( 0 )+ j ( 0 )

= e i0 + j 0

A
.
B


e i ( 0 ) cos( 0 ) + je i ( 0 ) sin( 0 ) r =

(e i( ) cos( 0 ) r )2 + (e i( ) sin( 0 ))2 =


0

= e 2i ( 0 ) 2re i ( 0 ) cos( 0 ) + r 2 ,
B
i ( 0 )+ j ( 0 )

1 re

(1 rei( ) cos( 0 ))2 + (re i( ) sin( 0 ))2 =


0

= 1 2re i ( 0 ) cos( 0 ) + r 2 e 2i ( 0 ) ;
1
= 1.
=
B

C. . (.
35)

v a0
,
v a 0

i
i
a 0 = jr0 e 0 , r0 > 0, a 0 = jr0 e 0
,
,

0, a 0 .

. 35.

. , (z)
.
e i jr0 e i0
= 1.
=
e i + jr0 e i0

165

1.

= e ia + j

v a0
,
v a 0

a, - .
. .

1
1
(v ) = v +
v
2

(1.70.)

.
,
v = e i + j , , ; - .
, 1 2 ()

v1 +

1
1
1
= 0.
= v2 +
, (v1 v 2 )1
v1
v2
v
v

1 2

, ()
,
v1v 2 = 1, v1v 2 = e i (i j ).
() - , v = 1
.

(v ) = W + jR =

1
1
1
= ei cos + jei sin + e i cos j e i sin =

1
1
1
= e i + e i cos + j e i e i sin .

W=

i
1
1
cos cos + i sin + cos sin =

1
1
1
cos + cos + i sin .

i
1
1
R = sin cos + i sin + cos + sin =

1
1
1
sin cos + i + sin .

W =

1
1
+ 2 cos 2 e iF1 cos = R1e iF1 cos ;
2 +
2
2

166

1.

R=

1
1
2 cos 2 e iF2 sin = R2 e iF2 sin .
2 +
2
2

,
(z). =const. =0,

(v ) =

1
1
1
+ cos + i sin .

C3

C1
C4

C2
0
-1

+1

. 36.
,
.
(z). .36
, .
, .
, C1, C2, C3, Ci
R=
2
2
2
2

(v ) = cos cos sin sin .


2
2
2
2

(v ) = cos cos sin sin e j arctg i (tg tg ) = Rm e iFm .


167

1.

R2=R1, :

2 2 = 1 + 1 ; 2 2 = 1 1 ,

. .
, , F1=F2
. , , ,
.
j. ,
4 (. 36).

W+jQ

i
C'1
u
C1

C'1

C'
iy
x

. 37. ,
,
""
. .
() x=a (.
37).
,
2

v=

a
1
+

2

Q=0 z - ,
C11 1, z -.

168

1.

, =0, =,
. (. 37).

169

2. ,

.. , , , , z- (Y). ,
.

. , .
1. Z-
C.A. (1910 ) , . , i- ,

P=

i
[ f ' ( )]2 d .

2C

, , -

P = A

2
V .
2

(2.1.)

, , R, [7]

ln z
2i
V
X (z ) = V z + R 2 ,
z
i
- .
V = V e

(z ) = f (z ) = V z + R 2 +
ln z.
z
2i

, z > R
, .
z < R . T ,
. . .
,

170

2. ,

, , ,
,
. .
, , ..
.

.
,
, .
.. .. ,
.
.

f ' (z )

, R e

f ' (z ) = V (e i ei 2i )

, . -

i i
e ,
2R

=0

V (1 e 2i )

i i
=0
e
2R

( )
= 4R sin ( ) .



.
, . arctg i ,
.
,

arctg i = arctg

Im f ' (z )
.
Re f ' (z )

arg f ' (z ) = arctg i.


= 0 ,

f ' (z ) = e 2i

cos
sin ;
2R
2R

171

2. ,

cos

2
R
arctg i = arctg
;

cos 2
sin
2R

sin 2

= 2R e i i i e 2i = 2R

e +i e i
= 4R sin .
i

, , .

.
: (
arctg i ), .
2.
(Y) . (Y), , .
,
.
.
, r = const , = const .
d , , , (2.1.)

ijPd = Aijd ij

2
d .
2



V = f ' ( ) = ei + j ,
, - .
(. 29)

= f ' ( )e i j ,

, ,

2
2
ij [ f ' ( )] e 2i 2 j d = ij [ f ' ( )] d ,
2
2
2 i 2 j
= e i j d = d .
de
P=

i j.

172

2. ,

,
.

r = const, = const.
2 , .
, - ,

P = ij

[ f ' ( )]2 d .

(2.2.)

.. , , .
(Y) , (.
38).

V=Uei +j

C3

i
V=U
z
e cos
V6 =U ei sin

. 38. ,
.
, , , , z.
,
(. 38).
(z) -

f (z ) =

1 f ( )d
,

2i C z

res f (a ) =

1
f (z )dz = C1 ,
2i
173

2. ,

C C

= f (z ) = + 1 + 22 + ! .
z
z z

( ).
(Y)
(1.52),
P = j .
, 3, . -

= e i + j .


.
, .
i j
, , V = e
.
,

X ( ) = V +

V R 2
.

ln ,
4i + 2j

V R 2

+
( ) = f ( ) = V +
ln .

4i + 2j

(2.3.)

V = e i j ,

, - .
, ,
V = 1 ei1 + j 2 ei 2 , 1 2 , 1 2 .
.

,
' ( ) = 0 .
.

2 +

R 2 e 2i + 2 j = 0 ,
(4i + 2j )

,
174

2. ,

2 + 4 2 (4i + 2j ) R 2
=
,
(4i + 2i )2
2

,
. ,

= 4 (4i + 2 j ) R

( ).
, (. 36).
arctg

1
.
2i

.
.
i + j
,
= R e

f ' (v ) = v e i j e i j +i + j e i + j i j +
(4i + 2j )v R

e i j + i + j e i + j i j =
= 2i sin( )cos( ) 2 j cos( )sin( ).
:
A = 2i sin( )cos( ) ;
B = 2 cos( )cos( ) .
,

2 1
= i + j
,
(4i + 2j ) R 3 3 2R

= X.
2R

2 1

f ' ( ) = e i j A X i + X + B .
3 3

f ' ( ) = A X + X + B .
3

,
2
2

X = 2 A + B A + 4 AB + 2 B


= 2 R 2 A + B A2 + 4 AB + 2 B 2 .

175

2. ,

.
z .. :
= 0 , A = 0, = 2 sin( )
= 4R sin ( );
= 0 , B = 0, A = 2 sin( )

= 4R sin ( )

( ).
, :
= 6R sin ( );

= 6R sin ( ) .

,
.

, . :
f ' (z ) = 0 ,

arg f ' (z ) = arctg i

,
f ' ( ) = R e i (i j ) .
.
, , , , .
.
.

.
.
,

2 1


f ' ( ) = e i j A X i + X + B j
3 3


2
2
2
1

A X = B + X ,

, ia + j a
, arctg i

(ai )2 + ( j )2

= 2 ,

= 0 0;

arg = arctg i .

176

2. ,

f ' ( )

A B =

1
2
1
+
=
.
6 R 6 R 2 R

2 sin( )cos( ) + 2 cos( )sin( ) =


1
= cos( )sin( ) sin( )cos( ) =
4 R

= 4R [cos( )sin ( ) sin ( )cos( )] .

:
= 0 , =
1 = 4R sin ( ) ;
= 0 , =

2 = 4R sin ( ).

.
(2.4.) (2.3.)

V R 2

1
=V 2 +
,
(4i + 2j ) v
dv
v
i j
V = V e

2

2
V V R 2
V 1
V2 R 2
2
1

=

+
V
2
2

(4i + 2j ) v
v2
v4
(4i + 2j )2 v 2
dv
V R 2
2
(4i + 2j )v 3

(2.2.)
2

1
2

2V V R 2

= 2
2
v (4i + 2j )
dv

ji 2
2
2V V R 2 =
2 ji
2
2
(4i + 2j )

P=

2
=
2V V R 2
2
(4i + 2j )

P = i V
.. ,
,
, .

177

2. ,

, - , .
, , 1,
= 4i + 2j .
,
. .
, ..
. , , , .
, ,
3

f ( 0 ) =

f ( )d

8 3ijK ( 0 )3

res f (a ) =

1
3

f ( )d

8 ijK

= C 3 ,

> C . . .

178

3.


3.1.

.

, 10

c = 2.988 10 / c

""

, , ct.

1, 2 = c 2 (t2 t1 )2 (x2 x1 )2 ( y 2 y1 )2 ( 2 1 )2

1/ 2

1 2.
: "
".

.
[8].

, :

x = x ' ch + ct ' sh
ct = y = x ' sh + ct ' ch

- .

2 2
2
2 2
2

c t x = c t ' x'

,
,
.
ij

ct + jix = x ' ch + jix' ch + ct ' ch + jict ' sh =


x ' (sh + jich ) + ct ' (ch + jish ) = (x '+ jict' )(sh + jich )


:
x
jarctgi
2 2
2
ct ;
ct + jix = c t x e

x '+ jict ' = ji c 2t ' 2 x ' 2 e

jarctgi

sh + jich = jiearctgi (th ).

x'
ct ' ;

179

3.

c 2t 2 x 2 e

jarctgi

x
ct =

x'
jarctgi + jarctgi (th )
ct '
c 2t ' 2 x' 2 e

, K', x' = 0
.

x = ct ' sh , ct = ct ' ch .

x
= th = ,
ct
c


x
jarctgi
ct =
c 2t 2 x 2 e
x'

jarctgi
jarctgi
ct ' e
c
c 2t ' 2 x ' 2 e

(3.1.)

, .

c 2t 2 x 2 = c 2t ' 2 x ' 2 .


x
x'

jarctgi = jarctgi + jarctgi


ct
ct '
c,
x
=
ct c K,
x' '
=
ct ' c K',
arctg
'
i +i
x'

arctgi + arctgi = arctg c c


'
ct '
c
1+
c2

'+
'
1+ 2
c

(3.2.)


. , , , t
:

180

3.

x=

x'+ ct '
2

, y = y ' , = ' , .


1
v
V
t '+ x'
c2
t=
.
2

1
c

,
(. 39)
, < c .
t

V=C

. 39. ,
,
.
,

V ' = c, (3.2.) = c . , V ' = c,
2


1 = 0 0
c
x, t .
, , ,
.
= c
- - .
- - , (. 40).

181

3.

=ei +jre i

/2

. 40. -
.

-

( = c (3.1.)

0e jarctgi = 0e jarctgi .
: -
, ' . .
, < c ,

> c ,
, /2. > c
, .
k
0 , .
x ict , t ix '

. k
, /2
k'.
, c - ,
.
, ,
.
(3.2.) , = c , ' = c . ,
.

182

3.

3.2.
- , ,
.
,
.

x =

dx
dy
dz
, y = , z = ,
dt
dt
dt

, ,
2


1
c

, [9]

U =
,
2
2

1
1

c
c

, .
,
.

U =

c

1
c

+ ji


1
c

jarctgi
c
U = ce

(3.3.)

, U
,
, , arctgi

, -
c

. ,
,
= c ,

U = ce jarctgi =

c
c
i+
j = (i + j ) .
0
0

, ,
, ,
.

183

3.

,

.

-. ci ,
.

c -.
. ,
/2 (. 41),
.
= c ,

U = ce jarctgi
C3

jC

K3

C 3'
1

2'

n
2

. 41. ,


.
:
m0 c 2
2
E = mc =
;
2

p = mV =


1
c
m0V


1
c

m0 - ',
; m - .

184

3.

(Y)

pc
2
jarctgi
jarctgi
E
E

c.
E = m ce
p = jip = p 2 e
0

, K' , ,
m0 c .

m0 , p :
E2
p 2 = m02 c 2 ;
2


2
E
m0 c = p 2

E
pc
= ,p=
.
2
E c
c

m0 c .

E
= p , = c ,
c
(3.4.)
v = 0e jarctgi = m0ce jarctgi 0
(3.4) -

.
-

(3.5.)
v = 0 = m0
, ,
,
-.
arctgi ,
m0 . , -
,
,
.
< c > c .

p ,U .

185

3.

m0 c
m0
+ ji
E = p U =
2
2



1
1 c

+ ji
=
2
2

1
1

c
c

m0c 2 + m0c 2

1
c

+ 2 ji

m0c + m0c 2

1
c

= m0c 2 e

2
c
jarctgi
2

1
c

c
jarctgi
2

1
c
2

E = m0 c 2 e


, 0
.

E = m0 c 2
E .
:
2

1+
2
c ;E = m c
c .
E1 = m0c 2
2
0
2
2


1
1
c
c

0 ,
c
E1 = m0c 2 , E2 = 0 .

c
E1 = m0c 2 , E2 = 0

186

3.

1 ,
c
E1 = m0 c 2 e jarctgi .

,
E1 /2 2.
.
3.3.
x , y , z , K ' x , ' y , ' z
', X,
:
2
2

' y 1
' z 1
'x V
c
c
x =
; y =
; z =
.
'x V
'x V
'x V
1+
1+
1+
2
2
c
c2
c

' x +

jarcti
' x
c 1+ 2
c

U = ce

(3.6.)

: '
c, -
' x = c , (3.3.);
U ' = ce jarcti
'

U = ce jarcti .

.
,
.
,
. ,

1

1
c

187

3.

-
.
, , -
.
.
- ,
.
3.4.
3.4.1.
,
, .
.
.
.
dS . dS > 0 ,
dS < 0 , dS = 0 .
, ,
() .

. ,

(X ,Y , Z , cT )

X , Y , Z , cT .

(3.4.1.)
UX
/

T =

c 2 ; X / = X UT ; Y / = Y ; Z / = Z .
U2
U2
1 2
1 2
c
c

T=

UX /
/
c 2 ; X = X + UT ; Y = Y / ; Z = Z /
U2
U2
1 2
1 2
c
c

T/ +

,
.. ( 8).
, U.

1)

(3.4.2.)
dS 2 = c 2T 2 dX 2 dY 2 dZ 2
2

dS 2 = c 2T / dX / dY / dZ /

(3.4.3.)

2) .
188

3.

3) U X .
.

(X 1 , Y1 , Z1 , T1 ), (X 2 , Y2 , Z 2 , T2 ) ,

X 2 > X 1 , T2 > T1 ,
X X 1 U (T2 T1 )
X 2 / X 1/ = 2
U2
1 2
c
U
T2 T1 2 (X 2 X 1 )
c
T2/ T1/ =
U2

1
c2

(3.4.4.)

(3.4.5.)

X 2 X1
0
T2 T1

(3.4.6.)

(3.4.4.) (3.4.5.)
(3.4.7.)

X / 2 X 1/ = (X 2 X 1 )
U2
1 2
c
U
1 2
c
T2/ T1/ = (T2 T1 )
U2
1 2
c
1

(3.4.8.)


2
S12
= c 2 (T2 T1 )2 (X 2 X 1 )2

(3.4.9.)

3.4.2.

. (3.4.7) (3.4.8)

(3.4.10.)
dS = c T / T / + ji X / X /
12

) (

(3.4.10)

dS12 = c 2 T2/ T1/



/

) (X
2

= arg dS12 = arctgi

/
2

X 1/

X 2/ X 1/

c T2/ T1/

(3.4.11.)

(3.4.12.)

(3.4.11.) , (3.4.10.)

189

3.

(3.4.13.)

dS 21, 2 = dS12
(3.4.7.) (3.4.8.)

dS12 = c(T2 T1 )

U
U

c 2 + ji (X X )
2
1
U2
U2
1 2
1 2
c
c

(3.4.14.)

(3.4.15.)

U
U
1 2
1

2
2
c

2
(X 2 X 1 )
dS12 = c (T2 T1 )
2
2
U
U
1
1
c
c
dS1,2 ,
2

dS 1,2 = dS12 .

U
X X1

= arctgi 2
c(T2 T1 ) 1 U
c2
1

(3.4.16.)

,
.
(3.4.17.)
j /
j
/

dS

= dS12e

12 e

dS , , dS12 , (3.4.11.), (3.4.12.), (3.4.15.),


(3.4.16.).

(3.4.18.)
dS / = dS , / = .
12

12

.

U , , c , .
.


.
.

=

,
2

.

.
,

190

3.

. ,
/

. = + i , = + i .
1.41, 1.4
(3.4.19.)
X/ X/

cos
c
1
= arctg
2
2
X 2/ X 1/

1
/
/
c
T

T
2
1
2

T2/

1
T1/

,
= 0 .
(3.4.20.)
X/ X/

/ = arctg

2
T2/

1
T1/

c
= 0,
X 2/ X 1/
X / X 1/

+
1 2 2/
sin
/
c T / T /

c
T
T
1
2
1
2
1
/
1.41 = ln
2
X 2/ X 1/
X / X 2/

+
1 + 2 2/
sin
c T / T /
c T2 T1/
2
1

= 0 ,
2

= 0.

2
c U
1
1
c2
= = arctg
2

U
2 1

1
c 1 U

c2

U
1

= arctg
U
c 1
c2
1

(3.4.21.)

, .

(3.4.22.)
/ =
S12/ , S12

/
= c 2 T2/ T1/
dS12

) (X
2

/
2

X 1/ e j =

= c 2 (T2 T1 )2 (X 2 X 1 )2 e j

(3.4.23.)

191

3.

X 2/ X 1/
, = arctg
,
c T2/ T1/
U
1

= arctg
c 1 U
c2
/

c2
U =

U
U2
1
= 1 2 . = .

2
c

.
/
2
/
/
. c T2 T1 = 0 .

(3.4.8.)

X 2/ X 1/

) j=
2

c 2 (T2 T1 )2 (X 2 X 1 )2 j .

ji

X 2/

X 1/

) = ji(X

X1 )

c2
1 2

c2
U =
,

X 2/

X 1/

U2
= ( X 2 X1) 1 2
c

(3.4.24.)

c2
, U =
.

/2

S12 = l , l / - .

(3.4.7.) ,

c2
U =

= cos

+ j sin = j .
2
2
192

3.

, ,
U = (3.4.7.)
/

X 2 X 1 = 0 .
(3.4.8.)

U
U2
1 2 = 1 2 . (3.4.8.)
c
c
T2/

T1/

= (T2 T1 )

U2
1 2
c

(3.4.25.)

.
.
U = = arctg 0 = 0 .

X 2/ X 1/ = 0.

c 2 T2/ T1/ e j 0 = c 2 (T2 T1 )2 (X 2 X 1 )2 e j 0 .


T2/

T1/

X 2 X 1 )2
(
) = c(T2 T1 ) 1 c 2 (T T ) .
2
1

= U (3.4.25.)
,
, ,
,
, .
3.4.3.

C
U . , -
dS1, 2 ,

dS 21,2 = [c (T2 T1 ) + ji (X 2 X 1 )][c (T2 T1 ) ji (X 2 X 1 )] =


2

= dS12 e j dS12 e j = dS12 .


,
c (T2 T1 ) = (X 2 X 1 )

2
dS12,2 = c 2 (T2 T1 ) (1 + ji )(1 ji ) = 0 . , ,
,

,

/ = = arctgi , dS1,2 = c (T2 T1 ) 0 .

,
193

3.

dS12 = c(T2 T1 ) 0e

jarctgi

= c(T2 T1 )(1 ji ) 0

(3.4.26.)


. .

= .
2
.

(3.4.20.) (3.4.21.). ,

.

)(
) (

2 X 2/ X 1/ c T2/ T1/
1
= arctg
2
2
c2 T / T / X / X /
/

U U
1 1 2
c
c

1
arctg
2
2
2
2
U U
1 2 1
c c

: U = , = 0, (X 2/ X 1/ ) = 0, / = 0 ,
.
c2
U = , = 0, (T2/ T1/ ) = 0, / = 0.

.
. ,

= arctgi , = ,
2
. (3.4.16.)

= 1 , arctg
U
c 1
c2
2
2
2
U
U
1
= 1 .
c
c2

,
i
, .

U
U
U U
= 1 2 1 + = 1 + .
c c
c c
c

U
= 1

.
c
c

194

3.

U
= 1 . ,
c c
c
U

= 1 .
c
c
dS12

1 +

. .
,

U=

T2/ T1/ = 0

c2
,

U
= 1, = 1. U = ,
c
c

dS12 ,

X 2/ X 1/ = 0 ,

U
= 1.
c


U = c .

c2
. U =

(3.4.7.),

X 2/

X 1/

= (X 2 X 1 )

U
1
c

U
1
c

= (X 2 X 1 )

U
1 .
c

(3.4.7.) (3.4.8.)
U ,

U = ,U =

c2

, cos , sin .
(3.4.26.),

X ,
2

dS1/,2 (1 + ji ) = c 2 (T2 T1 )2 (1 + ji ) = (X 2 X 1 )2 (1 + ji ).
,
:

c 2 T2/ T1/

) = c (T
2

2
/
/
2 T1 ) , X 2 X 1

) = (X
2

X 1 )2 .


.
,
-,
/

, = = arctgi .

195

3.

0 . jix

-,
0 , 40
, 3.1 (3.4.)
(3.5.)
3.4.4.
.., .. [14]
. .
dt , ,
,
(3.4.27.)
dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2
, dt /
. .. dx / = dy / = dz / = 0 ,
, ,
(3.4.28.)
12
2 2
2
2
2
2 /2

dS

= c t dx dy dz = c dt


(3.4.29.)

dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2
dt = dt 1
c 2 dt 2
dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2
= U 2 , U ,

2
dt
/

ds
U2
(3.4.29.) dt =
= dt 1 2 .
c
c
/

, t2 t1 .
(3.4.30.)
t2
2

t / 2 t /1 = dt 1
t1

U
c2

.

.
(3.4.27.)
, .

. . , .
,
.
. ,
.

dS1,2 = dS12 = cdt + jidX = c 2 dt 2 dX 2 , dX


(3.4.27.)
/

dS12 ,dS12

196

3.

dS12 =

dX
jarctgi
cdt , dS /
dS12 e
12

/
= dS12
e

jarctgi

dX /
dt /

.
/

. dX = 0 ,
, dX = 0 .
.

dt = dt / . .
dX dX /
=
,

cdt cdt /
/
. , dX = 0 ,
dX = 0. dX 0 .

U = 0. dX / = 0 .
/

dT = dT .

dX dX / U
=
= .

cdt cdt / c

U2
U2
/
cdt 1 2 = cdt 1 2 ,
c
c

U
. U = c ,
c
cdt 0 = cdt / 0 0 , = arctgi .
/
cdt (1 + ji ) = cdt (1 + ji ). ,
/
dt = dt . .
U
dt 2 dx
dx Udt
c
dX / =
.
, dt =
2
2
U
U
1 2
1 2
c
c

= arctgi

dX / .

B
/

dX = dx + Udt . dx = 0, dX = 0, U = 0
U = 0.
.

dX

dx / = 0

Udt /
U2
1 2
c

, dt

dx / = 0

dt /
U2
1 2
c

cdt + jidX = c dt dX e

jarctgi

dX
cdt

197

3.

= cdt 1

dX 2
2

c dt

jarctgi

dX
cdt

= cdt 1

U2
c2

jarctgi

(3.4.31.)

U
c

cdt /
1
=

U
c2

c 2 dt /

+ ji

Udt /
1

U2
1 2
c

U
c2

U 2 dt /

U2
1 2
c

jarctgi

U
c

= cdt e

jarctgi

(3.4.32.)

U
c

(3.4.33.)

jarctgi
U 2 jarctgi c
c
= cdt / e
cdt 1 2 e
c

U2
, cdt = cdt 1
,
c2
/

.
/

U = 0. dt = dt.
.

. .. [8] ,

(3.4.34.)
ds 2 = c 2 dT 2 dX 2 dY 2 dZ 2

x = X UT ; t = T ; y = Y ; z = Z
(3.4.35.)

X = x + Ut; T = t; Y = y; Z = z
(3.4.36.)
X , Y , Z , T - .
3.4.36, , (3.4.34.)
(3.4.37.)
U2
ds 2 = c 2 dt 2 1 2 2Udxdt dx 2 dy 2 dz 2
c

(3.4.37.)
2
(3.4.38.)

U2 U
dx
2
2
ds = c dt 1 2 2

c
c
U2

1 2

2
dx dy 2 dz 2

U2
1

c2

198

3.

U2 U
T = t 1 2 2
c
c
x

X/ =

U2
c2

(3.4.39.)

U2
1 2
c
(3.4.40.)

; Y / = y; Z / = z

ds 2 = c 2dT / dX / dY / dZ /

(3.4.41.)

(3.4.35.) (3.4.39.) (3.4.40.),



(3.4.42.)
UX

c 2 ; X / = X UT ; Y / = y; Z / = z.
U2
U2
1 2
1 2
c
c
/
X
/

T =

(3.4.35.),
x = X UT = 0 , X = UT .
2

2 2

(3.4.41.) ds = c dt U t dy dz ,

U2
U2
T = T 1
= t 1 2 ; X / = 0; Y / = y; Z / = z. T / = T ,
2
c
c
/

(3.4.41.) (3.4.34.).
U = 0 .
3.4.5.
.
-
. ,
. ,
. :
, , .
L .
, .
.
.
U ,
.

. t1
. t 2 .
Ut1 ,

L + Ut1 , ct1 . ,
199

3.

L
,
c U
. L Ut 2 .
L
.
ct 2 = L Ut 2 t 2 =
c +U
L
2
2 Lc
c .
=
t1 + t 2 =
2
2
c U
U2

1
c2
ct1 = L + Ut1 . t1 =


.
,
( ct3 ) = (L ) + (Ut3 ) , L = c t3 U t3 ,
2

2 2

2 2

L
c
t 3 =
.
2
U
1 2
c
L
2
c .
2t3 =
U2
1 2
c

. . .
1892 .
.. - ..
.
L0 ,
U

L = L0 1

U2
.
c2

U2
L
2 1 2
1
c
c =2L
t1 + t 2 =
. t1 + t2 = 2t3 .
2
c
U2
U
1 2
1 2
c
c
, ,
.
,

-. ,
.
200

3.

U c C U .
U c = c jiU ,U c = c + jiU .

U2
= c 1 2 .
c

U c

L
c
t1 =
.
2
U
1 2
c
t 2 , . ,

2L
c
.
t1 + t 2 =
2
U
1 2
c
.

(ct3 )2

2L
c
.
= L2 + ( jiU )2 . 2t3 =
2
U
1 2
c


.
/

x, t , x , t
.
/

x =

x Ut
U2
1 2
c

; ct / =

U
x
c
.
2
U
1 2
c

ct

ct / + jix / =

(3.4.43.)

U
x
x Ut
c
+ ji
U2
U2
1 2
1 2
c
c

ct

,
2

/2

/2

c t x = c t x ,

201

3.

x /
x Ut
.
arctgi
= arctgi
/
U
ct
ct x
c

. x Ut = 0 ,

x / = 0

x = 0, U = 0 .
/

ct = ct .

U
x U
= 0 , 1 , x = Ut .
c
ct c
U2
ct 1 2
c
U2

/
ct =
= ct 1 2 .
c
U2
1 2
c

ct

.
,
jix. :

c t

U2
U
U x
1
,
=

x = ct 1
c
t

c
c c t
c

x = Ut . t = 0 , ct = 0, x = 0.

U
= 1 , ct / = 0, x / = 0 .
c
x U
U
, x 0, t 0, 1

c t c
c
U
/
t = 0 ct = x.
c
2
U
1 2
2
x Ut
c = jix 1 U
jix / = ji
= jix
c2
U2
U2
1 2
1 2
c
c
t 0,

U2
x = x 1
.
c2
/

.
/

: ct = x

(3.4.44.)
ct / (1 + ji ) = x (1 + ji ) = ct / 0e jarctgi = x 0e jarctgi

202

3.

ct

U
x = x Ut
c

U
x
x Ut
c
(
(1 + ji ) =
1 + ji ) =
2
2
U
U
1 2
1 2
c
c
U
ct x
x Ut
c
=
0e jarctgi =
0e jarctgi
U2
U2
1 2
1 2
c
c
c t

(3.4.45.)


.
.

U
.
c

, (3.4.43.)

x = ct , S12 = c 2 t 2 x 2 = ct 0 ,
U
c t 1
x Ut
c

= arctgi .
arctgi
x = ct = arctgi
U
U

ct x
c t 1
c
c

ct / 0e jarctgi = ct 0e jarctgi ,
ct / = ct . x / = x .

.
.
.
.
x = ct

x U
= = 1 . ,
c t c


.
. ,
.
, ,

. ,

.
,
.

203

3.

.
- .
.

.
,
,
, i- ,
U = c

dS12 = ct (1 + ji ) = ct 0e jarctgi , dS12 = x (1 + ji ) = x 0e jarctgi

ct 0 = x 0 0 .
, 0 ,

.
,

.

204

4.

4.1.
.
.
, . ,

2 f
1 2 f
(4.1.)
=
x 2 c s2 t 2
- () c s -
, x ,
E y,
2E
1 2E
(4.2.)
=
2
2
2

c - .
(4.2) . (4.1.), (4.2.)
,
. .
. ,
.
,
2
2


x 2

c 2 t 2


= f (x ct ) + g (x + ct ) ,
f (x ct ), g (x + ct ) x (. 42, . 43).

t=0

Cs t
t

Cs
x

. 42.

= ix + jy , y = ct ,

f ( )

f ( ) = iU (x, ct ) + jV (x, ct )

205

4.

jCs t

iu

ix

. 43.
-
f ' (1.26.)

f ' ( ) =

1 U 1
ji
= ji
+
.
x
x
c t c t

(4.3.)

, .
ix + jy , -.
, (.
43).
(4.3) , .
2U
1 2U
=
= 0.
2
2
2

(. 44),
E H)
- .

Cs t

.44.

, f (ix + jy )
, ,
.
, (ix + jy ) ,
.
,
. ,
.
2E 2E 2E 1 2E
(4.4.)
= 0.

+
+
2
2
2
2
2

206

4.


. , x, ,
, , .
, .

, (4.4), x, ,
r
r = x2 + y2 + 2 .
(4.4)
, .
2
2

(r )
2

c 2 t 2

(r ) = 0.

r
r
f t + g t
c
c,
=
r

(4.5.)

(. 45).
(4.5) . ,

C1 C2
V1
V1
1
C2
C
C'
1

K
V2

V2

. 45.
, ,
, .
.
.
,

= ir + jct ,
r.
207

4.

r -,

1
f (ir + jct )
r

. ,
- .
-, -
,
, - .
, f ( ) , ,
,
. ,
, (. 46)

iy
x

ict

. 46.
, ,
.
,
.

f ( ) = U + iV + jP + jiQ ,
U, V, P, Q x, y , ,
:
2U 2U
2U 2U
2U 2U
2U 2U
+
= 0;
+
= 0;
+
= 0;
+
=0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2U 2U
2U 2U

= 0;

= 0.
x 2 2
y 2 2

2U 2U 2U 2U
.
+
+
+
U =
2
2
2
2

ct
2U 2U 2U 1 2U
+
+

= 0.
2
2
2
2
2

208

4.

f ,

= x + iy + j ( ct ) = ( j jct + x ) + iy .
ij
ict , /2
j (. . 46).

i jct + x

iy, .
1.
x + iy + j ( ct )

U =e

= U + iV + jP + jiQ ;

U = e x cos y cos( ct );
V = e x sin y cos( ct );
P = e x cos y sin( ct );
Q = e x sin y sin( ct );
U, V, P, Q .
2.

ln = W + jR = ln x + iy + j ( ct ) + jarctg

ct
.
x + iy

W, R .
, - ,
, C3,
.
.
4.2. .
,

U = c s i + j
c s .

c s ,V .
,
2 jarctgi

cs
,
U = c s 1 e
c
s


2

U = c s i + j = c s 1
cs

209

4.

arg U = jarctgi

cs

:
a)

< 1 ; b)
= 1 ; c)
> 1;
cs
cs
cs

) , .
) 0 , arctg i. , , .
, - . )
,
/2.
, ,
, 90 .
,
, , .
(,

).
, , ,
. ,
,
.
, , ,
.

f ( ) .

f ' ( ) = 0 ,
.
.

f ' ( ) = 0 , arg f ' ( ) = arctgi ,
.
" "
.
. - .
4.3. .
.
, (1.52, 1.56)
, ,
, ,
, .
.
,
210

4.

, . ,
n-

f ( 0 ) =

(2 )n

!
n 1

f ( )d n 1

( 0 )n 1

n 1 - n-1 - ; 0 , , n 1 - ;
n- , C-n
n - . -
( 1.56)
n- , 3,
,
, ,
. .

. -,

.

C'3
C3

r 1
r 2

. 47. .

-
,
.

211

4.


. 3
- .

j arctg i

C'3
C''3

K1arctg j
K2arctg j K1

C3

D2
D1

D3

. 48.

"" 3,

.
, , ,
. n-
212

4.

,

,
. ,
.
. 47 ,
, "" .
,
, ,
, , ,
, . 48,
. .
3 ( 3) '3
, , ,
'3 "3:
; '3,
'3 .
.
4.4.
,
1, 2 (. 49) . ,
.
, . . , , -
. .

= (x + iy ) + j (x1 + iy1 ) = z + i ,
,
(1, i, j), .
, .
1- i j ,
.
.
f , 1, 2, ,
,
(1,i, j).
-
:
= z + j i = (z i ) + (i + j ) = z + 0e jarctgi .
.
, z,
0 , .
, , (. . 44)
,
k = (z1 + j 1 ) + k 1 (z 2 + j 2 ) .
(1, i, j)k1.
213

4.


k = z + 0iz1e jarctgi + 0e karctgi 0e jarctgi z 2 ,
z, z1, z2 - .

r2

r1
C3
-S
j

C'3

+S
2

C3

. 49.
, ,
, -
, k . ,
jarctgi (
k . k -,

z1 + j 1 = z 2 + j 2 0 .
:
k = z 0e karctgj e j .

z1 + j 1 = z 2 + j 2 = 0
-

k = ze j + ky 0 0e karctgj

jarktgi

, , y -
214

4.

(1, i, j)k1 (i, j) (1, i, j)


, ,
, - .
- . -,
.
: ,
, , .
, -,
( ).
,
(. 50).
. ,
3 - -
.
, .
- ,
- (. 51).
, -
. -,
, ,
. .
- .
3,'3, "3
- .
. , -
.
E
kj
ki
j

. 50. ,

, 3,
, , ,

E = m0 c s2 e jarctgi = m0 c s2 ,
215

4.

2
=

cs

1 +
cs

E = m0 c s2 .

E1
1

C'3

E2
r1

C3

r2
E'1
2

C3

E'2

.
51.

,
,

E
.
:

g1 =

< 1; g 2 = > 1;
cs
cs

216

4.

E g1 = E g 2 ;

g=

= 1.
cs

.

t ~ E / m0 c s2 .
t1 > t c s
c s1
m0 c s2 m1c s21 e jarctgi .
,
e njarctgi + jarctgi ,
n , -
.
2
. = , E = m0 c s .
= ,
.
E
E = E m0 c s2
,

=2
s

m0 c s2

1
cs

jarcti

cs

=0 , = c s

E = m0 c s2
,
- ,
.
.
,
E = E 0 + E1 (1 ji ),

m0 c s2

cs


1
cs

217

4.

2
cs
cs
+ m0 c s2
E = m0 c s2
0e jarctgi .
2


1+
1
cs
cs
1

,
, .
.
:

E = m0 c s2

cs

1
cs

lim

2
cs

cs

jarctgi

cs

= m0 c s2

cs

1
cs

e jarctgi

,
.
.
- , .
, : ( )
.
, ,
, . ,
.
.
.
-
.

, ,
C 3

-.
1, 2, 3
n- -
,

.

218

5. .

5.1.

,

,
.
,
.. ,
, , ,
z .
:
.
,
, .

.
,
. (
)
- n- .
, ,
..
,
.

4-, , n-
, 2 n .
2
=
Pi = C N

N (N 1)
.
2

2
N C N z
:
N=1
C=0
Z=0

N=2
C=1
Z=1

N=3
C=3
Z=3

N=4
C=6
Z=6

N=5
C=10
Z=10

Ne10
.

219

5. .

. 1,3,6
,

.
. 1
.
.. . 52.

. 53.
:
N=6
C=15
Z=15
P15
14 ,
15 :
N=7
C=21
Z=21
P21
,
20 - 21 .
18, .
, 9
.
A18 ,
10 11 :
N=8
=28
Z=28
Ni23
.
:
N=9
=36
Z=36
Kr36
4- . ,
36 - 9 :
N=10
=45
Z=45
Rh45
5- .
. , ,
,
, .
Rh45
:
N=1
=55
Z=55
z55
5- e54.
,
:
N=12
C=66
Z=66
Du66
N=13
C=78
Z=78
Pt78
,
. , .
:
N=14
C=91
Z=91
Pa91
N=15
C=105
Z=105
EKA-TA
220

,,




,,

,,,

,9

9

9,

9,,

9,,,

,;

,,;

 

4
3
2
1
0
/
.
4
3
2
1
0
/
.
4
3
2
1
0
/
.
4
3
2
1
0
/
.
4
3
2
1
0
/
.
4
3
2
1
0
/
.
4
3
2
1
0
/
.
4
3
2
1
0
/
.
4
3
2
1
0
/
.
4
3
2
1
0
/
.

52


52

5 2 5+

,9

,,,


52

5+

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5. .

Z=105 (. . 52, . 53).


-
9-10 .
- ,
9 . ,
,

105
~ 11.666!
9

-.
, .
n
, c = 3 10 / ,
3 2
G = 6.67 10 /
h = 1 0.5 10 2 / c , c g = (he )1 / 2 , G

137 = 11.704698 .

re
e2
1
=
=
,
a=
e
hc
137

e
e- ; re ; .
, e, ,

. -
- .
, ,
.
:
N=16
C=120
Z=120
N= 17
C=136
Z=136
N=18
C=153
Z=153
N=19
C=171
Z=171
:
120, 136. 153, 171
.
[10].
N-
,
. . ,
.

225

5. .

, ,
9-10 .
,
, .
Ne10, Ar18, Ni28, Kr36, Xe54
. (. 53) e54 .
, -;
Du66. 8 . -
.

6 .
. Nd60
Du66 a- . a-
Hf72. ,
8 9 : 6 2
.
(. 52). ,
7-8- -
.
(. 53). U92 11
.
.
, .
4:6 = 2:3
e54, Sr38 -, - .
.
,
.
. 53
.
.
.
,
,
, :
N- .
,
.
.
. . [8].

226

5. .

5.2.

,
,

E =

Z
P

(5.1)

Z - ; - ; P-
- - .

9-10 .

, , ,
Z
- .
24
Ne10
191,1.
- : =191,1.
. 2
(5.1)
.
10 .
.
9,5-10 .
,
.
,
.
5.3.
:
( ct ),
[7].

,
.
. . [8] ,

.
[11],

. ,
, -
.

227

5. .

, -
,
- .
, ,
, 1/2.

:

.
[10],
.

.
2
f = g N / hc ,.

a = e 2 / hc = 1 / 137 ,
gN=1, ,
.

,
, .
.. [8] ,

.
( )
.

E = (Zm p + Nm N ) (Zm p + Nm N ) ji (Z + N )mV ,

(5.2.)
Z - ; Z- ; mV -
, m p , m N -
.
.

(5.3.)
m Z , N = Zm p + Nm N ji (Z + N )mV ,

() .

.

2
2
(5.4.)

mZ , N =

(Zm

+ Nm N ) (AmV )

228

5. .

E = (Zm p + NmN )

(Zm

+ NmN ) (AmV )
2

(5.5.)

m = 134.9626 .
,
20 200 ,
. ,
,
.
.

.
5.4.

,

m Z , N = (Zm p + Nm N ) jiAmV = (Zm p + Nm N ) AmV " AmV AmV ji =


= (Zm p + Nm N AmV ) AmV 0e jarctgi

,
m R = Zm p + NmN AmV ,

m = AmV (1 ij ) .

. - .
,
3, -.
,
, 3
r


, .
,
, .
.

, (
.
3,
, - . ,
, ,
.

229

5. .


,
.
s. 1.
, ,
,
.
.
. 54 ,
3 r .

C'3

C3

r1

r2

2
1
. 54. "
"

S k = 12 22 .
- 2
, 1, -
, ,
.
SK ,
.

230

5. .

h
,
(5.6.)
mV c
mV - .
H=

( 3 . 2 )
.
, ,

4
3
Vnn = (R H ) ,
3

(5.7.)

R, - .

V =

4
R 3
3

4
V = V Vnn = H (3R 2 3R H + H 2 ).
3

(5.8.)

mV A
31
.

(5.9.)
4 H 3R 2 3R H + H 2
S k -
. ( .54) S k ,
P =

, , .
.
,

S k = rN2 ,
rN - .

-
,

S k , .
AmV S k H
3

.
E = P S k H =
4 3R 2 3R H + H 2 H

(5.10.)

.
rN
rp = (0.8 0.82 ) 10 13 .
231

5. .

,
10-13 .

0.5 mV A
.
3R 2 3R H + H 2

(5.11.)

Z E = E

E=

0.5mV A
Z
3R 2 3R H + H 2 P

Z
P
(5.12.)

H r H = r =

#
m c

rp .

rN rp 0.8 10 13 cm
rp = 0.218 10
r = 1.46 10

13

13

cm ,

cm ,

m = 134.9626 M

m N = 939.7825M
r = rp
1
3

mN
= 5.36 10 13 .
m

13

R = r A 10 , r - 1.25
(5.12)

67 A

E=

2
3

1
3

4.68 A 20.2 A + 28.8

Z
P

(5.13.)


, Z
. 1.

.

.

H = 0.8

mp
mV

232

5. .

, ,
,

.

E =

0.5 mV A

mp
m

+ 0.64 p
3R 2 3R 0.8
mV
mV

, , .

E=

0.5 mV A

Z
.
2 P
mp

m
+ 0.64 p
3R 2 3R 0.8
mV

mV

(5.14.)

E
= 0.
mV


2
1.6m p
mp
2
= 0 ,
+ 0.64
R R
mV
m
V

mp
mV

= 1.25R .

mV = 0.8

mp
R

, ,
.
2E
= 0 ,

2
mV
mV .

R = r0 A1 / 3 ,
13
r0 = (1.2 1.4 ) 10
.
r=1.4 -1.2, 10-13, .
r0 .
233

5. .

R = r0 A1 / 3 .
,

mV = 0.8m p

1
1/ 3

A
r0 P
Z

(5.15.)

0.5 0.8m p

1
1/ 3

A
r0 P
Z
=
E=
1/ 3
A
mp P
1/ 3
2/3
0.64 A
Z
A
2 A 2

+
r02
3r0 P 3r0 P 0.8
P
0.8m p
0.64 Z
Z 3
Z
= 0.4m p

1
= 0.4m p
3P
r0
Z

1 Z
.
3 P
r0

E = 0.4m p

1 Z
r03 P

mN =

E=

m p + mN
2

= 938.7825 .

375.5133 Z
.
3
P
r0

(5.16.)

r0 = 1.25 , ,
r03 = 1.9531249

E = 192.2682

Z
P

(5.17.)


E .=192.2682
0.36282 ,
, ; me =0,511 .
234

5. .

,
-.
, .
, , 180 - 200 .
.
.
(5.17) ,
. . 2
.
. 2 (5.17.)
. :

9.2 - 9.9
,
r0 =1,25.

. 3.
203 mV 214 .

m 139,5669 , m =134.9626 , ,
.
,
, .
.
2
H1
Ne10 , .
(5.14) .
2
2 [12], H1
, , , 2,2
P
10
15
21
28
36
45
54
66
78
2.57
2.25
2.0
1.83
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
r0

mV

107.49

108.12

108.15

.
.
P
10
15
21
1.64
1.43
1.28
r0

mV

147.37 147.39 147.5

.
.

H12
H13
He26 Li38
Be11
B5
C6
N7
O8
F9
Ne10
4
235

5. .

108
147.5 176.6 180
189
194
198
201
206
207
193
,


.

,
-.
.
.

,
2 jarctgi

E = mc e

,
E = E = mV 200
1

1S
1H
1
2 He
2
3 Li
2
4 Be
2
5B
2
6C
2
7N
2
8O
2
9F
2
10 Ne
2
11 Na
2
12 Mg
2
13 Al
2
14 Si
2
15 P
2
16 S
2
17 Cl
2
18 Ar
2
19 K
2
20 Ca
2
21 Sc
2
22 Ti
2
23 V
2

2S

2P

3S

3P

1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

1
2
3
4
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

1
2
3
4
5
6
6
6
6
6
6

3d

4S

1
2
3

1
2
2
2
2

O
4P

4d

4f

5S

5P

236

5. .

24 Cr
25 Mn
26 Fe
27 Co
28 Ni
29 Cu
30 Zn
31 Ga
32 Ge
33 As
34 Se
35 Br
36 Kr
37 Rb
38 Sr
39 Y
40 Zr
41 Nb
42 Mo
43
44 Ru
45 Rh
46 Pd
47 Ag
48 Cd
49 In
50 Sn
51 Sb
52
53 I
54 Xe
55 s

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

5
5
6
7
8
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

1
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

1
2
3
4
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

6
6
0
6
6
6
6
6
6

1
2
4
5
5
7
8
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

1
2
3
4
5
6
6

4d, N(4f), O, P,
Q
N
O
P
Q

4f
5S 5P 5d 5f
5g 6S 6P 6d 6f
6g 6h 7
S
66 Dy
10 2
6
2
78 Pt
14 2
6
9
1
91 Pa
14 2
6
10 2
2
6
1
2
105
.
,

237

5. .

.
. ,
, .
,

.
5.4. 2. .

N
Na
Mg

Z
10
11
12

Al

13
14

30

Ca

31

Ge

32

s
Se

33
34

Se

34

35

36

A
24
23
24
28
26
27
28
29
30
64
67
68
70
69
71
70
72
73
74
76
75
74
76
77
78
80
82

79
81
78
80
82
83
84
86

m,
208.3
209.14
210.7
211.24
211,23

212.6

214.8
214.39

214.3
214,3

214.2

214,3

214,3

P
10
11,34
11,6
11,2
10.62
11,08
11,35
10,97
1053

,
191.9
186,6
198.3
205,6
216,7
225
236,5
245
255

9.84
9,67
9,42
9.88
9,61
10,1
9,76
9.66
9.51
9.28
9.7
10,15
9.86
9.75
9.6
9.4
9.15

585,1
595,4
611
601,9
618,8
610.5
329
635,6
345,7
661.6
652.6
642 9
662
669.5
679,9
696.9
712.9

9,78
9,54
10,23
9,93
8,67
9,57
9,44
9,22

686.3
704,3
675,6
695,4
714,3
721,7
732.2
749,2

238

5. .

37

Sr

38

Y
Zr

39
40

Nb
Mo

41
42

Tc

43

Ru

Rh
Pd

Ag
Cd

44

45
46

47
48

85
87
84
86
87
88
88
90
91
92
94
96
93
92
94
95
96
97
98
100


98
96
98
99
100
101
102
103
103
102
104
105
106
108
1.10
107
109
106
108

214,3

214,5
214,38

213,7
213.9

213.6

213.34
213,34

213,04

213

9,6
9,37
10,6
9,74
9.63
9.48
9,65
9,79
8.7
9,6
9.42
9,26
9,77
10.12
9,9
9.81
9.7
9.62
9,63
9.37

739,4
757,9
728.9
748,9
757,3
768.4
775.5
783,8
791.1
799.9
814,7
828,9
805.6
796.5
814,2
821.2
830.8
837.6
846.1
860.4

9.77
10.21
9.99
9,9
9.79
8,72
9,61
9.45
9,76
10.1
9.88
9,8
9,7
9.64
9,38

844.4
826.7
845.3
852.5
862
869,1
878,4
893,4
884.6
875.7
893,1
900,3
909,7
925,2
940,8

9,85
8,68
10,2
9,97

915,4
931,8
905,6
923,6

239

5. .

In
Sn

48
80

Sb

51

52

In
Xe

63
54

Ba

55
56

110
111
112
113
114
116
113
115
112
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
122
124
121
123
120
122
124
125
126
128
130
127
124
126
128
129
130
13
132
134
136
133
130
132
134
135

212,7
212.7

212.3
212,3

211.96

211.7
211,87

9,79
9.72
9,63
9,56
9.47
9,33
9,76
9.6
10,1
9,88
9.8
8.71
9,64
8.54
8.49
9,4
9,26
9,14
9,53
9.4
9,81
9,65
9,49
9,44
9,36
9,23
9,11
9,48
9.91
9,74
9.6
9,53
9,45
9,39
9,32
9,19
9,08
9.43
9.83
9,68
9.54
9,48

940,7
947,8
956,8
963,3
972.2
987.2
962,9
979.4
953.3
971.4
979,1
938,6
995.6
1000
1011,5
1020,6
1035,8
1050,1
1026,5
1042,3
1016,8
1034.5
1050,7
1057,3
1066,4
1081.2
1095,5
1072,7
1046
1064
1080,7
1087.6
1096,9
1103,5
1112.4
1127.4
1141,8
1118,8
1092,8
1110
1126,8
1133.8
240

5. .

Za
Ge

Pr

57
58

59
60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Cd
b
Du

64
65
66

o
Er

67
68

Tm
Yb

69
70

Zn
Hf

71
72

74

136
137
138
139
138
140
142
141
142
143
144
145
146
148
150


148
144
147
148
149
150
152
154
151
153
152
160
189
156
164
165
162
170
169
168
176
175
174
180
180

211.52
211.58

211.3
211,44

210.5

210,7

210,21
210,3
209,9
209.9
209.7
209,1
209.31
209,3
208,8
208.8
208,7

9.4
9,35
9,3
6.39
9,63
9.49
9.39
9,6
9.71
9,66
9,6
9,55
9,49
9,4
9.3

1143
1149.9
1158.5
1164,8
1156.3
1172.9
1185.5
1178.1
1185.4
1191,4
1199,2
1205,2
1212,4
1225,4
1237.6

9,56
9.95
9,77
9,71
0,66
9,6
9,49
9,4
9.72
9,6
9,82
9.38
9.58
9.91
9,46
9,64
9.88
9.46
9,66
9,86
9,47
9,65
9,84
9.55
9,83

1223,9
1196
1217,5
1225.6
1231,3
1239,5
1253,3.
1267,1
1244.3
1259.3
1251.7
1309,2
1302,4
1278,5
1338.3
1334,3
1320,7
1379
1371.2
1362,8
419.1
1412
1403,7
1446
1444,3

241

5. .

Re

75
76

Os
Ir
t
u
g
l
Pb

77
78
79
80
81
82

t
Rn
Fr
Ra
Ac
h
a
U

83

84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92

Np
Pu
Am
m
Bk
Cf
Ea
fm

93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100

186
185
187
184
192
191
193
190
198
197
196
204
204
208
204
206
207
208
209

214
216
216
220
223
226
232
232
232
235
238
238
238
244
244
247
250
254
254

208.2
208,1
207,9
207,86
207,59
207.59
207.38
207.29

207.1
209

206,4
206,41
206,41
205,8
205,6
205,3
204,9
204,9
204,6

204,6
204,6
204.4
204,4
204,4
204
203.4
203,4

9,56
9,74
9,68
9,92
9,56
9,74
9,65
9,91
9.53
9.72
9,89
9.54
9.71
9.62
9.79
9,7
9,66
9,62
9,71

1485.9
1478.3
1491.7
1469,8
1526,2
1517.8
1531,7
1509,8
1567.3
1559,4
1551,2
1608.6
1600,9
1615
1607,5
1622.3
1629
1636.4
1640,2

9,68
9,74
9,85
9,84
9,85
987
9.78
9,89
9,99
9,89
9,79
9.9
10
9,93
10
10
10
10
10

1666
1674,6
1675,9
1696,6
1713.8
1730.1
1766.5
1765.4
1765.9
1783,8
1810
1800.8
1801,3
1835,
1835,7
1852,3
1869,8
1890,6
1890,8

242

5. .

3.

Li3

e4

B5

C6

r0

E,

mV

21

1,32

176,6

15

1,21

28.3

15

1.22

27,3

15

1,196

29,3

21

1,268

15

1,33

32

15

1,24

39.2

15

1,22

41.3

21

1,39

13

1,37

37.6

15

1.21

56,5

15

1,19

58,2

10

15

1,16

65

11

15

1.15

65.5

21

1.33

37,7

15

1.31

56.3

10

15

1.25

64.7

11

15

1,18

76.2

12

15

1.16

79.6

13

15

1.14

84,5

10

21

1.21

60.3

11

15

1,26

73.4

12

15

1.17

92,2

280

189,1

7,7

26.3

26,9

243

5. .

N7

O8

F9

Ne10

13

15

1,15

97.1

14

15

1.26

105.3

15

15

1.21

106,5

16

15

1,06

110,8

12

15

1.33

73.8

13

15

1,23

94,4

14

15

1,18

104.7

15
16
17
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
17
18
19
20
21
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

15
15
15
15
15
18
15
15
15
15
15

1,15
1.14
1.13
1.266
1,214
1,16
1,15
1,13
1,12
1.09
1.21
1.18
1 1.5
1,13
1.11
1,36
1,31
1,25
1.23
1,21
1,20
1,18

115.5
118
123
98.7
111.9
127,6
131,8
139,8
143,8
151,4
128.2
137,4
147.8
154,4
163,5
98,7
111,9
127,6
131.8
139,8
143,8
151,4

18

5.5.
. . .
5.5.1. .
,
,
.

244

5. .

- n,
- Z, ..
n 3, 4 4.

n / / 2,

Pi = Cn2 =

n (n 1)
2

(5.18.)
2

Cn
- .
-

.
,
,
Cn2 = Z i , ni2 ni = zi

ni =

1 + 1 + 4Z i
2

9- - 10 - .
Pi P0 .

n0 =

Zi
P0

(5.19.)

- c n
(5.18) Pi
- 0 (5.19).
,
- (Y)
, -
.

.

Pi=105, Pi=1.
- ,
.
,
Pi
,
.
,
.

245

5. .

, ,
- ,
. ,
-
.
,
/ /
mVi
3,
1.
.

.
, - ,
mVi , , - i,
,
R, - E, ,
.

,
mVi , i -
.

(5.6).
-
- ,
.
- 53,



R.
53
54
1
H 1 Xe . /
/
R A -
- . 53.
238
. 53 - U 92 .
,
,
. ,
.

246

5. .

H = r =

h
,
mVi c

(5.20.)

mVi -
.
,
(5.21.)
E = Ai mVi
(5.7)

E 3 1
AmVi
=
2
V
4 H (3R 3R H + H 2 )

(5.22.)

-
, - S H

E = Sk H M =

AmVi HS k
3
=
4 (3R 2 3R H M + H M2 )H
2

h
AmVi c 2
3

0.8 2

=
2
2
4 3R 3R H M + H M m N c


rN = 0.8 0.82 10 13 ,

2
(5.23.)
S = (0.82 ) 2
k

, 10-26 .

E=

(0.48 0.5043)mVi A

(5.24.)

3R 2 3R H M + H M2

, HM

H =

0.8m p

(5.25.)

mVi

0.5 mVi A

E=

3R 3R
2

0.8m p

+
mVi
mVi

0.8m p

(5.26.)

247

5. .

, .
ni -
, Pi
[24], [25], [26].
:

E =

0.5 mVi A Z i

1
0.8m p 0.8m p Pi

3R 2 3R
+
mVi
mVi
2

(5.27.)

(5.27)
:
10+13 R
Zi
Ai ,
mVi ,
Pi ,
.
5.5.2.
.. .
(5.27) :

E = E vi (mVi Ri )

Z i Ai
Pi

(5.28.)

Evi R, , Evi - Zi
Ai Pi.
mVi - Ri E ,
-
mVi.
(5.27) - Ri.

R=

mV Z A
375.304
46951.03
+
+ 0.16666 i i i
2
mVi
mVi
E 0 Pi

(5.29.)

Ei=E0, Pi=P0
, :

mVi Z i A
46951,03
+
=0
0
.
16666
mVi 2
E0 P0

mVi = 65.5512683

E 0 P0
ZA

(5.30.)

248

5. .

Ri =

375.304
. ( Ri = r0 )
mVi

(5.31.)

(5.30), (5.31) ,
.
,
Pi. E0,
mVi Ri.
Pi 5.28-5.31 E0, Z,
A mVi - Ri /. 55, 56, 57/
Pi-Var.
207

He 42

He3-6
2
Zi 62

183

Zi 73
163

Be

155

Zi 53

Zi 83

Zi 6-11
4

Be
C

140 18 10

-13

2.04

2.2

2.3

H 21(P0=9)
0B
N0
N

N 12-27
3
O

F9
Ne

123
2.5

C 10-16
6

Ne18-24
10
Ne -13
30 10

55.
.

.
(5.30), (5.31) Pi
P0:

249

5. .

) Pi > P0 mVi > mV0 , Ri < R0 ,

) Pi +1 < P0 mVi +1 < mV0 , Ri +1 > R0 .

Pi P0 .

Zi Ai Pi P0 .
,
.
. 55,56,57
,. , Pi P0 .
207

He 42

He3-6
2
Zi 62

183

Zi 73
163

Be

155

Zi 53

Zi 83

Zi 6-11
4

Be
C

140 18 10

-13

2.04

2.2

2.3

H 21(P0=9)
0B
N0
N

N 12-27
3
O

F9
Ne

123
2.5

C 10-16
6

18-24

Ne10
Ne -13
30 10

56.
.. .

.
:
)

He24
mVi = 207
13
R 1.8 10 .
250

5. .

) He2 , - Li3 , - H 1 , -

H 13 .
Pi
12

He 42

C'

P
P i i 10
12

4
e

He 42 9
11

b'
3

11

d
10

10

H 319

He 52

C
He 62 9

H 31

10

11

9
12

15

11

14
P i 15

P i 13

14

12

13

11

12

10

12

17

10

6
Be84 9 Zi 3 14

13 8
Be 4

16

11

12

15

He 84

11

10

k
g
e0

10

11
10

Zi63

He 32 9

c0

p
b0
H 21

H 21 P i 9

a0

57.
, .
2

/ H 1

Li3 /.

251

5. .

) / He2

Ne10/ / ,
:
mVi 120 207 , Ri (1.8 3.0)10 13 .

.
) / /
, .
.
Kr36

mVi 82
mVi 57 / 25 /, :
Ri (4.1 6.3)10 13 . 55, 56

, .
) 207
57 3.2
.
.
.
(5.29), mVi
, E0 (5.30),
. . 55, 56, 57

Ne10 , Kr36 , Rh45 , Xe54 , Dy 66 , Pt78 , Pa 91 ,U 92 .


.
( ) .
:
, mVi - Ri
.

: Ei=E0, Pi=P0 mV0
.
,

R,
.
Z
/ 55,56, 57 /. ,
- Zi
Z.

252

5. .

,
.
5.5.3.
.. .
, 55,56,57
:

=81

83 79
80
+,

Br 35

85
4.38

4.39

-13

+
+

77

85

76

75

+
-

74
87

85

4.40

~0.01745810

58. .

.

mVi - Ri .
,
55,56,57.
A,
- .

253

5. .

57, 58 As33
Br35 ,
.
mVi Ri
. -
.

87.2835

75
77
73
76

74 +
79 +
78 71

~86

72 +

81 80

69 + 70 +
+0.0148885 10-13

4.30 10-13

. 59. .

.
57, 58 ,
. ,

. ,
. (5.27 - 5.31),
,
:

E = E1

E2
A1
A2

(5.32.)

254

5. .

/ A1, E1 /
/ A2, E2 /.
,
E 13 .

Kr36

400

p
Ne10
300

469
He 42

Xe54
250
Dy

66

Rk 45

200
U 238
92

150
Pt 78
mVi=100

0.

2.0

4.0

50

-13
6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 10

. 60.
.

.

.

255

5. .

5.5.4.
.. .
50.
55- 59
.
.
.
.

mVi 469

E 41

H 12 ,
- He2 , - Li3 , - Be4 , - B5 ,
- C6 .
-

mVi 140

, - .
56 Pi=3, Pi=1.

.
Z
mVi - Ri,
. 57

, .
. 55- 60
.
, .
.

.
,
: - ,
, .
, ,
.

. ,
, .
,
. ,
256

5. .

,
,
.
.
,
.
.
mv R mv .
.
469
, A = 1, Z = 1
.
.
,
.

R 1,25( Ai1 / 3 + A1j / 3 ) , Ai , A j -

Zi , Z j .

A = Ai + A j , Z = Zi + Z j .

Ai , A j , Zi , Z j

257

6.


. .
.
6.1. .
.

5.

, , .
.

. , ,
.
:
.
,
.

-, .
. ,
, -

. [10].

.
.
1012 cm , ,
1

3
V 3 4R 3
=
= 2 *1013 cm .
A 3A
.

( 1013 cm ) 102 103 .

.

.
,

Z.

258

6.
.
. .

,
, .
, . .
r 2 + 2 + 2 .

. .
(1935. )
.
, A0 , g (x ) ,

1 2 A0
2 A0 2
= g .
c t 2
,
2 A0 = 4g .
A0 = d 3 x /

g ( x / )
.
x x/

,

g
A0 ( r ) =
r
,

g2
E = A0 ( r ) =
.
r
.
. ,
, .
,
.
r r0 * 0 = r0 * , .
. ,

.
. ,
- .

.
,
.

.

259

6.
.
. .

, ( m 0 ),


2
2 2
1 0 m c
2 0 2
2 0 = 4g n , g N
c t 2
h
0
.
=0
t
, x / = 0 ,
e kr
mc
.
( r ) = g N
, r =
r
h
, .

e kr
E NN = ( r ) * g N = g N2
.
r
r r0 * 0 r0 ,
. r 0 .
.

,
, .
g2
f = N , g N
!c
2
1
e
.
=
=
!c 137
.
, f , f = 1
, ,
.
- , -
!
.
. " =
mc
m = 273me " kompt
= 1.4 * 1013 cm .

[g N ] = r 2 * cm 2 * c 1 ,

.

. ,
, --
.
,
,
.
, ,
,

260

6.
.
. .

r ,
.
.

.

,
A

mv = mvi , mv ,
1

.
m = [N * mN + Z * m p ]+ jimv .
m =

[N * m

+ Z * m p ] m 2 v .
2

W = [N * mN + Z * m p ]

[N * m

+ Z * m p ] mv2
2

.

.
. mv
. n
( )
.
Z
.

- n .
67 A
.
W = En * n , En =
2
1
4.68 A 3 20.2 A3 + 28.8
.
1
3

m = 134.963MeB , R = 1.25 A ..
.

0.5mv A
.
En =
2
m
m

3R 2 3R 0.8 p + 0.64 p
mv
mv

.
En
.
.
,

.

261

6.
.
. .

,
. ,
,
.
.
, ,

.
.

.
,
. ,
.
, .

.
.

, .

2 * 1012 cm .
n ,
,
,
. ,
, .
, .

: .
.
.
. , . . . .

.
2
A

2
2
Z2
2
+ A 3 [10].
W = aA A 3 1
A
A3

M = Zm p + (A Z )mN W ,
a, , ,
.
a = 15.75, = 17.8, = 0.71, = 94.8 . . = {+

262

6.
.
. .

, = 0 , = - .

= 34 .

,
- p , - n , -a .
p = W (A, Z ) W (A 1, Z 1) ,

n = W (A, Z ) W (A 1, Z ) ,
a = W (A, Z ) W (A 4, Z 2 ) W (A = 4, Z = 2 )
.

.

.
.
.
:
, ,
.
,
.

.
.
.
, -.
1013 cm .

.
, . ,
, .

,
, ,
.
n ( )
L n
L .
. n

.
. .

.

263

6.
.
. .

,
.
.

(2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126).
,
. (2,
10, 18, 28, 36, 54, 86), ,
( ).
, .

,
.
.
20 O820 , F920 , Ne1020 , Na1120 , Mg1220 .
Ne1020 .
.
.
. ,
20 .
.

50

50
50
50
50
50
50
Ca20 , Se21 , Ti22 ,V23 , Cr24 , Mg 25 . .
50
Ti22
,V2350 , Cr2450 . 2 .

, 50.
60 62
28,
Ni28
,
.

82

.
82
82
82
82
82
82
As33 , Se34 , Br35 , Kr36 , Rb37 . Se34
, Kr3682 .
4- -.
.

126.
123
126
126
126
126
126
126
Sn50 , Sb51 , Te52 , Jr53 , Xe54 , Cs55 , Ba56
.

6 -. Xe54
. Ba56 ,
7- 8- .
.

.

264

6.
.
. .

6.2.

.

.
-
.

, n - .

.
,
.
. ,
.
,
( ) .
,
.
.
,
.
.
,
A 25 , 150 A 190 () A 190
(). .
-. ,
, ,
, .
.
,
.

1

W = 31.2 * A 3 + 20.6 * A 6

W = 63 * A 3 14 A 208 . .

- 96 14 A 208 .
(
)

W = 130 A 3 .
66 A 200

265

6.
.
. .

W = 30 * A 3 . ,

W = 110 * A 3 .
[].
, ,

-.
.

.

; -,
-, .
.

W ( A, Z ) , 10-20.
1-2,
n , p ,
W .


1013 cm .
:
1. - ,
2. 1- -,
E
3. n =
,
E1
,
4. mv = 2mE E 2 - ,
m = Zm p + NmN - .
mv
- ,
A
E
6. - .
A
.
[].
E m
n , , v .
A A

E
mv
n
A
A
4
0,9
7,09
115,2
2
5.

Li36 7

0,44-0,6

3,89-5,48

85,58-101,84
266

6.
.
. .

Be48 9 10

0,66-0,75

6,29-7,03

108,53-114,71

10 11
5

0,63-0,72

6,06-6,82

106,5-113,0

C612 13

0, 77-0, 79

7,20-7,48

116,08-118,31

N 714 15

0,76-0,83

7,00-7,49

116,81-114,42

O816 17 18

0,89-0,95

7,71-7,92

120,05-120,96

F (100%)

0,97

7,88

121,39

Ne1020 21 22

1,02-1,09

8,02-8,2

122,45-123,84

19
9

n 1.02
20
10

Ne , 10.
, .

. .
Z
E m
n , , V .
A A

E m
. n , , V
A A
.
C615 N 715
n (C615 ) = 0.58 n ( N 715 ) = 0.83
mV 15
m
(C6 ) = 91.87 V ( N 715 ) = 118.33
A
A
F918 + O818
n ( F918 ) = 0.9 n (O818 ) = 0.95
mV 18
m
( F9 ) = 118.62 # V (O818 ) = 121.69
A
A

n .

.
E m
, V .
A A
.
E
mV
n = 1.12
Na1123 (100%)
= 8.13
= 123.31
A
A
0,91
7,19
115,99
Na1120
37
1,17
5,82
104,36
Na11

267

6.
.
. .

Na1123
E m
37
, V Na1120 , Na11
,
A A
.
,
n .
1,16-1,26
8,23-8,39
124,01-125,22
Mg1224 26
Al1327

1,28

8,3

124,59

Si1428 30

1,32-1,43

8,35-8,51

124,95-126,14

1,45

8,42

125,45

S1632 36

1,49-1,6

8,43-8,59

125,56-126,75

Cl1735,37

1,62-1,72

8,5-8,59

126,03-126,7

1,66-1,87

8,49-8,68

125,97-127,38

31
15

36 , 40
18

Ar

.

.
1,8-1,91
8,55-8,65
126,4-127,14
K1939 41
K1943

40 46
Ca20

K1943 , n = 2 .
2,00
8,65
127,14
1,84-2,00-2,14

8,52-8,73

127,37-127,74


E m
, V , n = 2.00 ,
A A
.
n(n 1)
n = 7 Z = Cn2 = 21 . Z = 21
Cn2 =
2
-.
.
E m
n , , V .
A A
30
30

Al13 Si14
n ( Al1330 ) = 1.38 # n ( Si1430 ) = 1.43
mV
m
( Al1330 ) = 124.01 # V ( Si1430 ) = 126.14
A
A
Al1324 + Mg1224

268

6.
.
. .

n ( Al1324 ) = 1.07 # n ( Mg1224 ) = 1.14


m
mV
( Al1324 ) = 118.83 # V ( Mg1224 ) = 124.06
A
A
, +
n .
.
E
m
45
Cs21
n = 2.09
= 8.68 V = 127.41
A
A
46 50
Ti22 2, 34 8, 75 127, 87
50
E m
, V , .
A A
50 51
2,38
8,74
127,79
V23
2,372,56

8,71-8,73

127,56-128,08

2,57

8,75

127,9

Fe

2,62-2,72

8,77-8,79

127,92-128,16

59
Co27

2,76

8,75-

127,92

Cr2450,52 54
55
Mn25
56 58
26

58, 60 62, 64
2,68-3,00
8,67-8,78
127,32-128,10
Ni28

n = 3.00 28. 50
,
.
.
- ,

.
, + .

55
Cr2455 Mn25
55
) = 2.57
n (Cr2455 ) = 2.56 # n ( Mn25
mV
m
55
(Cr2455 ) = 127.25 < V ( Mn25
) = 127.9
A
A
.
50
Mn25
+ Cr2455
50
) = 2.26 < n (Cr2450 ) = 2.32
n ( Mn25
mV
m
50
( Mn25
) = 8.47 < V (Cr2450 ) = 8.7 .
A
A
,

269

6.
.
. .

.
.
.
63, 65
mV
E
n = 2.94 3.04
Cu29
= 127.78 127.99
= 8.75 8.76
A
A
64, 66 68
2,98-3,19
8,73-8,78
127,78-128,11
Zn30
3,23-3,33

8,74-8,75

127,79-127,89

Ge

3,27-3,54

8,76-8,72

127,94-127,64

75
As33

3,5

8,74

127,84

74 , 76 77, 80,82
Se34

3,45-3,8

8,73-8,67

127,75-127,33

Br3579,81

3,69-3,77

8,73-8,72

127,73-127,65

Kr3678,80,82 ,83,84 ,86

3,63-3,99

8,66-8,68

127,21-127,38

69 , 71
Ca31

70, 72 74, 76
32

Kr36 ,
4- n = 4.00 . 82
. 82
.
,
.
, , -
.
70
70
As33
+ Ge32
70
70
) = 3.23 < n (Ge32
) = 3.27
n ( As33
mV
m
70
70
( As33
) = 127.18 < V (Ge32
) = 127.94 .
A
A
79
79
As33
Se34
Br3579
79
79
) = 3.66 < n ( Se34
) = 3.68 < n ( Br3579 ) = 3.69
n ( As33
mV
m
m
79
79
( As33
) = 127.37 < V ( Se34
) = 127.68 < V ( Br3579 ) = 127.73
A
A
A
.
6 5- .
85,87
E
mV
n = 3.96 4.04
Rb37
= 8.7 8.68
= 127.55 127.4
A
A
3,91-4,1
8,7-8,7
127,51-127,54
Sr3884 ,88
4,13
8,68
127,4
Y3989

Zr4090, 92 , 94 , 98

4,18-4,5

8,6-8,68

127,39-127,79

93
Nb41

4,31

8,66

127,21

Mo

4,35-4,53

8,65-8,64

127,15-127,12

Te

4,32-4,38

8,58-8,61

126,64-126,85

94 98
42
94, 95
43

270

6.
.
. .

4,41-4,71

8,58-8,62

126,66-126,94

Rh

4,74

8,6

126,77

102 106
Pd 46

4,68-4,88

8,57-8,59

126,58-126,72

96 102
Ru44
103
45

109
Pd 46
,

n = 5.00 .
50.
.
.
N- Z=45,
n=10.
7- 5- Z=55 n=11.
107,109
mV
E
n = 4.91 5.00
Ag 47
= 126.52 126.52
= 8.56 8.56
A
A
106,108 113
4,84-5,16
8,53-8,54
126,25-126,33
Cd 48
5,25
8,52
126,23
In115
49
114 120
5,25-5,45
8,52-8,49
Sn50
50
.
121,123
5,49-5,57
8,48-8,46
Sb51
120 128
5,45-5,76
8,48-8,42
Te52

126,2-126

125,92-125,77
125,94-125,44

127
In53

5,73

8,44

125,59

126
In53

5,69

8,44

125,6

126 ,
.
124.126,128129,130,131,134
5,6-5,99
8,45-8,37
125,65-125,07
Xe54
Xe54
. Z=55.
133
5,96
8,39
125,25
Cs55

mV
A

.
, + .
117
117
117
Te52
+ Sb51
+ Sn50

117
117
117
) = 5.3 < n ( Sb51
) = 5.32 < n ( Sn50
) = 5.33
n (Te52
mV
m
m
117
117
117
(Te52
) = 125.78 < V ( Sb51
) = 126.01 < V ( Sn50
) = 126.12
A
A
A
132
132
132
Te52
J 53
Xe54
132
132
132
) = 5.88 < n ( J 53
) = 5.9 < n ( Xe54
) = 5.92
n (Te52

271

6.
.
. .

m
m
mV
132
132
132
(Te52
) = 124.86 < V ( J 53
) = 125.03 < V ( Xe54
) = 125.3
A
A
A
Pt78 .
n = 13 .
,
24 .
n = 12 .
n(n 1)
Z = Cn2=12 =
= 66 . .
2
,
-
.
132 138
mV
E
n = 5,93-6,15
Ba56
= 8,4-8,35
= 125,35A
A
124,93
138 ,139
6,15-6,19
8,35-8,34
124,93-124,9
La57
140
Ge58

6,24

8,35

124,92

Pr59141

6,27

8,33

124,81

142146
Nd 60

6,31-6,47

8,32-8,3

124,76-124,57

Pm145
61

6,42

8,3

124,55

154
Sm144
62

6,37-6,75

8,29-8,23

124,47-124,04

Er63151153

6,64-6,72

8,25-8,24

124,22-124,13

154 160
Gd 64

6,76-6,97

8,24-8,18

124,09-123,67

6,94

8,19

123,79

159
65

Tb

164
7,01-7,11
8,18-8,16
123,66-123,49
Du160
66
-
-
.
.
161
161
Gd 64
Tb65
Du161
66
161
161
) = 6.99 < n (Tb65
) = 7.00 < n ( Du161
n (Gd 64
66 ) = 7.01
mV
m
M
161
161
(Gd 64
) = 123.54 < V (Tb65
) = 123.63 < V ( Du161
66 ) .
A
A
A
145
145
145
Gd 64
+ Er63145 + Sm62
+ Pm145
61 , Nd 60
n = 6.36 < 6. 39 < 6. 41 < 6. 42 < 6. 42
mV
= 123.96 < 124. 24 < 124. 44 < 124. 55 < 124. 59
A
.
-.

272

6.
.
. .
,159
Ho17
67

n = 6,84-6,92

Er68166170

7,19-7,32

E
= 8,18
A
8,14-8,11

mV
= 123,66
A
123,4-123,12

Tm169
69

7,29

8,12

123,19

172176
Yb70

7,40-7,53

8,10-8,06

123,04-122,76

Lu175
71

7,49

8,07

122,83

7,53-7,67

8,06-8,03

122,79-122,55

Ta181
73

7,7

8,02

122,48

W74182 ,184 ,186

7,73

8,02

122,44

,187
Re185
75

7,83-7,89

7,99-7,97

122,23-122,12

186 192
76

7,86-8,06

7,98-7,94

122,17-121,83

Jr77191,193

8,02-8,09

7,94-7,93

121,88-121,76

192 198
Pt78

8,06-8,25

7,93-7,89

121,82-121,47

Hf

Os

176,177,178,179,180
72

, + .
198
Jr77198 Pt78
n = 8, 23 < 8. 25
mV
= 121. 36 < 121. 47 .
A
Jr77187 + Os187
76
n = 7.88 < 7.89
mV
= 122.03 < 122.10 .
A
.
Z=91.
14 * 13
Cn2=14 =
= 91 .
2
197
mV
E
n = 8.22
Au79
= 7.9
= 121.52
A
A
196204
8,18
7,9-7,84
121,54-121,11
Hg 80

8,4-8,7

7,85-7,83

121,17-121,05

Pb

8,47-8,56

7,83-7,81

121,01-120,89

Bi83209

8,59

7,8

120,81

Po84209

8,58

7,8

120,78

Tl81203, 205
206 208
82


.
.

273

6.
.
. .

mV
mV
mV
n
C6
n
N7
n
A
A
A
9
105. 0.62 >
77.37 0.34
5
10
106. 0.63 >
105.6 0.62
52.63 0.15
5
11
113 0.72 >
110.3 0.68
92.43 0.48
12
108 0.66 Const 118.3 0.79
102.5 0.59
13
108. 0.68 Const 116.1 0.77
113.6 0.74
9
14
102. 0.61 Const 118.1 0.81
114.4 0.76
1
15
100. 0.6
113.6 0.77
<
118.3 0.83
7
16
93.3 0.53
113.1 0.78
<
115.9 0.82
14
C6 5730 .
37, 1 [].
N
mV
Na11 mV
n
Mg12
n
n
Al13 mV
A
A
A
20
115.99
0.91
>
110.63
0.83
93.51
0.59
21
120.47
1.01
>
114.84
0.91
104.94 0.76
22
121.17
1.05
>
119.96
1.03
110.41 0.87
23
123.31
1.12
>
121.41
1.08
116.47 1.00
24
122.63
1.14
Const 124.06
1.16
118.83 1.07
25
123.42
1.19
Const 124.01
1.2
122.17 1.16
26
121.94
1.19
Const 125.22
1.26
122.84 1.21
27
121.88
1.22
<
124.29
1.27
<
124.59 1.28
28
119.93
1.22
<
124.59
1.32
>
124.24 1.31
. Mg1228
.

n .
N
mV
Ca20 mV
n
Sc21
n
Ti22 mV
n
A
A
A
37
121.91
1.6
>
117.93
1.49
112.56 1.36
38
124.01
1.69
>
119.87
1.58
116.31 1.49
39
124.85
1.76
>
122.25
1.68
118.54 1.58
40
126.22
1.84
>
123.39
1.76
121.15 1.69
41
126.53
1.89
>
125.01
1.85
122.53 1.77
42
127.37
1.96
>
125.57
1.91
124.35 1.87
43
127.29
2.00
>
126.63
1.98
125.13 1.93
44
127.74
2.06
>
126.78
2.03
126.35 2.02
45
127.37
2.09
Const 127.41
2.09
126.69 2.07
B5

274

6.
.
. .

46
47
48
49
50
51

127.51
2.14
>
127.24
2.13
126.92
2.17
127.55
2.19
<
126.83
2.21
127.15
2.22
<
126.08
2.23
127.2
2.27
<
125.8
2.26
126.62
2.29
<
124.92
2.27
126.48
2.33
<
45
C Cs21 .
.
N
mV
Cu29 mV
n
Zn30
n
Ga31
A
A
58
125.79 2.62 >
124.6
2.57
>
59
126.58 2.7
>
125.23 2.64
>
60
126.85 2.76 >
126.12 2.72
>
61
127.41 2.83 >
126.5
2.79
>
62
127.49 2.88 >
127.15 2.86
>
63
127.85 2.94 >
127.33 2.92
>
64
127.78 2.98 =const 127.78 2.98
>
+
65
127.99 3.04 >
127.8
3.03
>

127.48 2.14
127.49 2.19
127.93 2.25
127.69 2.28
127.87 2.34
127.43 2.37

mV
A
122.09
123.41
124.16
125.17
125.66
126.41
126.7
127.24

2.47
2.56
2.64
2.73
2.79
2.87
2.93
3.00

66
67
68
69
70
71

127.36
127.73
127.71
127.93
127.79
127.89

3.06
3.12
3.17
3.23
3.26
3.32

72
73
74
75
76
77
78

127.79
127.86
127.56
127.51
127.12
126.99

3.08
3.13
3.16
3.2
3.23
3.27

<const
<const
<const
<ip
<const
<

>
>
>
>
>
<
127.52 3.34
<
127.12 3.37
<
126.97 3.41
<
126.51 3.43
<
126.28 3.46
<
125.77 3.48
<
125.48 3.51
<

126.52 3.29 <


126.31 3.33 <
125.78 3.34 <
125.5
3.38 <
124.92 3.39 <
124.58 3.42 <
123.96 3.43 <

.
N
Cd 48 mV
n
In49
A
103
125.72 4.66 > +
104
125.98 4.73 >
105
126.06 4.78 >
106
126.25 4.84 >
107
126.28 4.89 >
108
126.41 4.94 >
109
126.39 4.99 >

128.8
127.97
128.11
127.88
127.91
127.59

mV
A
125.06
125.24
125.54
125.66
125.89
125.95
126.12

3.09
3.13
3.19
3.22
3.27
3.3

127.65
3.35
127.65
3.4
127.33
3.43
127.23
3.47
126.84
3.49
126.68
3.53
126.23
3.55

4.61

mV
A
124.24

4.55

4.67
4.74
4.79
4.86
4.91
4.96

124.65
124.87
125.2
125.35
125.61
125.71

4.63
4.69
4.76
4.81
4.88
4.93

Sn50

275

6.
.
. .

110
111

126.47
126.4

5.04
5.08

>
>

126.13
126.25

5.01
5.07

112

126.44

5.13

126.21

5.11

113
114
115
116
117
118
119

126.33
126.33
126.19
126.15
125.97
125.9
125.7

5.16
5.21
5.24
5.29
5.32
5.35
5.38

>+
4.23%>
>
<const
>
<
<
<

126.28
126.2
126.23
126.12
126.11
126.96
125.92

5.16
5.2
5.25
5.28
5.33
5.36
5.4

120
121
122

125.6
125.37
125.24

5.42
5.44
5.48

<
<
<

125.74
125.66
125.46

5.43
5.47
5.5

123
124
125
126
127

124.98
124.83
124.55
124.38
124.08

5.5
5.53
5.55
5.58
5.59

125.91
125.95

>

4.99
5.04

126.1

5.1

126.1
126.2
126.15
126.21
126.12
126.14
126.02

5.14
5.2
5.24
5.29
5.33
5.37
5.41

>
<
<=
><

<
<
126
<
125.85
<
125.8

5.45
5.48
5.53

<
125.36
5.53
<
125.62
5.55
<
125.13
5.56
<
125.54
5.59
<
125.00
5.59
<
125.34
5.62
<
124.75
5.61
<
125.23
5.65

124.6
5.64
<
125.00
5.68
<
128
123.89 5.62 <
124.33
5.66
<
124.87
5.71
129
123.58 5.63 <
124.15
5.69
<<
124.62
5.73
130
123.36 5.66 <
123.86
5.7
<
124.47
5.76
27 In115
49 (95,77%).
.
N
mV
Xe54 mV
n
Cs55
n
Ba56 mV
n
A
A
A
123
125.57 5.55 >
125.28
5.52
>
124.88
5.49
124
125.65 5.6
>
125.3
5.57
>
125.06
5.55
125
125.61 5.64 >
125.41
5.62
>
125.10
5.6
126
125.65 5.69 >
125.39
5.67
>
125.24
5.65
127
125.58 5.73 >
125.46
5.72
>
125.24
5.7
128
125.59 5.78 >
125.41
5.76
>
125.34
5.75
129
125.49 5.81 >=
125.45
5.81
>
125.31
5.79
130
125.47 5.85 >
125.37
5.84
==
125.37
5.84
131
125.34 5.88 <
125.38
5.89
>
125.32
5.88
132
125.3
5.92 >=
125.27
5.92
<
125.35
5.93
133
125.14 5.95 <
125.25
5.96
<
125.26
5.97
134
125.07 5.99 <
125.12
6.00
<
125.26
6.01
135
124.89 6.02 <
125.07
6.04
<
125.15
6.04

276

6.
.
. .

136
137
138
139
140
141
142

124.8
6.05 <
124.91
6.06
<
125.12
6.08
124.6
6.08 <
124.84
6.10
<
124.99
6.12
124.49 6.11 <
124.67
6.13
<
124.93
6.15
124.27 6.13 <
124.57
6.16
<
124.78
6.18
124.14 6.16 <
124.38
6.19
<
124.7
6.22
123.91 6.18 <
124.26
6.22
<
124.53
6.24
123.76 6.21 <
124.05
6.24
<
124.43
6.28
130
+

Cs55 , ,
.
132
,
Cs55
132
132
Xe54
, Ba56
.
131
Cs55
.

133
Cs55
. .
.
N
mV
n
n
Du66N mV
Ho67N
Er68N
A
A
162
123.63 7.05 >k.
123.55
7.04 >=
163
123.53 7.08 <=i.p
123.54
7.08 >
164
123.49 7.11 >=k
123.45
7.11 <=
165
123.37 7.14 <const 123.42
7.15 >=
166
123.31 7.18 <=
123.32
7.18 <
167
123.18 7.20 <
123.27
7.22 < =

mV
n
A
123.53 7.04
123.48 7.07
123.48 7.11
123.41 7.15
123.4 7.19
123.31 7.22

168
169
170
171
172

123.10 7.24 <=


123.15
7.24 <
123.28
122.96 7.26 <
123.09
7.28 <
123.17
122.87 7.29 <
122.96
7.3
<
123.12
122.71 7.31 <
122.89
7.34 <
123.01
122.61 7.34 <
122.74
7.36 <
122.94

,
Ho165
67
.
N
mV
mV
n
n
Pb82N mV
Bi83N
Po84N
A
A
A
203
121.13 8.4
>k
121.04
8.39 >
120.92
204
121.11 8.44 >k
121.00
8.42 >
120.93
205
121.04 8.47 >k
120.99
8.46 >
120.89
206
121.01 8.5
>k
120.93
8.49 >
120.9
207
120.93 8.53 >=k
120.91
8.53 >
120.85
208
120.89 8.56 >k
120.84
8.55 =>
120.84
209
120.8
8.59 <=const 120.81
8.59 >
120.78

210
120.75 8.62 >=
120.73
8.62 <=
120.76

7.26
7.29
7.32
7.35
7.38
.

211

8.65

120.66

8.64

<

120.69

8.65

==

120.69

n
8.37
8.41
8.44
8.48
8.52
8.53
8.58
8.62

277

6.
.
. .

212
213
214

120.6
8.68 ==
120.6
8.68 <=
120.66
8.68
120.49 8.7
<
120.55
8.71 <=
120.58
8.71
120.42 8.73 <=
120.46
8.73 <
120.54
8.74
209
Bi83
.
, ,
.
n
Z.
, n
N. ,
n
.
N
N
mV
mV
mV
n
n
n
Pt78N
Au79
Hg 80N
A
A
A
193
121.75 8.09 >
121.68
8.08 >
121.57
8.06
194
121.73 8.12 >
121.63
8.11 >=
121.58
8.11
195
121.64 8.15 >=
121.61
8.15 >
121.54
8.14
196
121.61 8.19 >
121.55
8.18 >=
121.54
8.18
197
121.52 8.22 ==
121.52
8.22 >
121.48
8.21
198
121.47 8.25 >
121.44
8.24 <
121.46
8.25
199
121.37 8.27 <
121.41
8.28 >=
121.39
8.28
200
121.31 8.31 ==
121.31
8.31 <=
121.37
8.31
201
121.2
8.33 <
121.27
8.34 <=
121.29
8.34
202
121.14 8.36 <
121.17
8.37 <
121.25
8.38
203
121.02 8.38 <
121.11
8.4
<=
121.16
8.4
197
199
Au79 Au79 ,
.
N
mV
mV
mV
n
n
n
Yb70N
Lu71N
Hf 72N
A
A
A
171
123.06 7.36 >
123
7.35 >
122.88
7.33
172
123.04 7.4
>
122.94
7.38 >=
122.9
7.38
173
122.95 7.43 >
122.93
7.42 >
122.85
7.41
174
122.92 7.46 >=
122.86
7.46 ==
122.86
7.46
175
122.81 7.49 <=const 122.83
7.49 >=
122.8
7.49
176
122.76 7.53 >
122.74
7.52 <
122.79
7.53
177
122.64 7.55 <
122.71
7.56 ==
122.71
7.56
178
122.58 7.59 <=
122.6
7.59 <
122.69
7.6
179
122.45 7.61 <
122.55
7.62 <
122.59
7.63
180
122.37 7.64 <
122.43
7.65 <
122.55
7.67
175
Lu71
37.1.

278

6.
.
. .

Lu176
71 -

.

Lu174
71
37.1
173
, Lu 178
+ , Lu71
71 .

.
177
106 ,
Lu71
Hf 72177 , 105 .
n =7,56.
.
N
mV
mV
n
n
n
Eu63N mV
Gd 64N
Tb65N
A
A
A
145
124.24 6.39 >>K, + 123.96 6.36
>>
123.6
6.32
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159

124.23
124.28
124.25
124.28
124.22
124.22
124.14
124.13
124.03
123.99
123.87
123.82
123.69
123.62

6.43
6.48
6.52
6.56
6.6
6.64
6.68
6.72
6.75
6.79
6.82
6.86
6.88
6.92

>>K
>>K
>>K
>>K
>=K
>>K
<=0.2
>=K
<<2.15
<=14.7
<<20.47
<15.68=
<<24.9
<<

124.06
124.07
124.14
124.12
124.17
124.13
124.15
124.09
124.09
124.01
123.99
123.89
123.85
123.73

6.41
6.46
6.51
6.55
6.6
6.63
6.68
6.72
6.76
6.79
6.83
6.86
6.9
6.93

160
161

123.47
123.38

6.94
6.98

<<21.9
<<

123.67 6.97
123.54 6.99

>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>=
>>
>=
>=
<<
==
<<

123.65
123.78
123.8
123.89
123.89
123.96
123.94
123.98
123.93
123.95
123.89
123.88
123.8
123.78

6.37
6.43
6.47
6.52
6.57
6.62
6.66
6.7
6.74
6.79
6.82
6.86
6.9
6.94

123.67
123.63

6.97
7.00

<= 123.51 7.03

37.1.
.
N
mV
mV
n
n
n
Ge58N mV
Pr59N
Nd 60N
A
A
A
136
125.08 6.08 >>K, + 124.82 6.06
>>
124.66 6.04
137
125.01 6.12 >>K
124.89 6.11
>>
124.67 6.08
138
125.02 6.16 >>K
124.84 6.15
>>
124.75 6.14
139
124.93 6.2
>>K
124.87 6.19
>>
124.73 6.18
162

123.22

7.00

<<

123.47 7.03

279

6.
.
. .

140

124.92

6.24

141

124.8

6.27

142

124.76

143
144

124.80 6.23

>=

124.78

6.23

124.81 6.27

>=

124.73

6.27

6.31

>>K, +
<=const
100%
>=

124.72 6.31

124.76

6.31

124.63
124.57

6.34
6.38

<<
<=

124.70 6.35
124.58 6.38

<=

>=

124.69
124.69

6.35
6.39

S16N

Cl17N

>>p
>>p
>> +

1.17
1.25
1.35

>>
>>
>>

mV
A
108.46
114.01
116.93

1.23
1.33
1.38

mV
A
117.38
119.71
122.72

28
29
30

mV
A
120.68
123.33
123.96

1.00
1.13
1.22

31

125.45

1.45

123.76

1.41

>>

120.42

1.33

32

125.31

1.48

125.56

1.49

>>

121.94

1.41

33
34
35
36
37

126.02
125.36
125.54
124.52
124.31

1.54
1.57
1.61
1.62
1.66

>> +
<<const
95%
>=
<c4.2%
<<
<.014%
<<

125.77
126.75
126.4
126.81
126.07

1.54
1.6
1.63
1.69
1.71

48
49
50
51
52

124,03
125,32
125,85
126,75
126,98

2,11
2,2
2,26
2,34
2,4

>> +

122,11
123,21
124,65
125,34
126,36

2,05
2,13
2,22
2,29
2,37

53

127,57

2,46

>>

126,73

54

127,56

2,51

>> +

127,44

<<
145
124.41 6.41 <<
124.54 6.42
<=
124.59 6.42
146
124.33 6.44 <<
124.41 6.45
<<
124.57 6.47
147
124.16 6.47 <<
124.35 6.49
<<
124.45 6.5
148
124.06 6.5
<<
124.19 6.51
<<
124.4
6.53
149
123.87 6.52 <<
124.11 6.55
<<
124.27 6.56
37.1
143
.
Pr59
N

38

P15N

>>
124.12 1.5
>>
124.73 1.55
>>
126.03 1.62
>>
126.02 1.66
126.7
1.72
<<

126.27 1.75
123.04 1.67 <<
126.06 1.75
<=

.
Mn25N
Fe26N
Co27N

>>

118,24
120,4
121,7
123,3
124,16

1,92
2,03
2,12
2,22
2,29

2,43

>>

125,33

2,38

2,5

>>

125,85

2,44
280

6.
.
. .

55
56
57
58
59

127,9
127,7
127,85
127,5
127.48

2,57
2,61
2,66
2,69
2.74

>>K
<91.7%
<2.17%
<0.31%
<<

127,55
128,00
127,92
128,16
127.92

2,55
2,62
2,66
2,72
2.76

>>
126,69 2,52
>>
126,95 2,58
>>
127,52 2,65
>>
127,56 2,69
127.92 2.76
==

60
127.01 2.76 <<Const 128.00 2.81
>>
127.79 2.8
127.97 2.85
61
126.87 2.8
<<
127.62 2.84
<<


.
Br35N
Kr36N
Rb37N
74
126.96 3.41 >> +
126.4 3.38
>>
125.04 3.31
2
75
127.33 3.48 >>
126.6 3.44
>>
125.7
3.39
6
76
127.38 3.52 >>
127.0 3.51
>>
126.01 3.45
9
77
127.63 3.59 >>
127.2 3.56
>>
126.52 3.52
1
78
127.58 3.63 >=
127.5 3.63
>>
126.71 3.58
2
79
127.73 3.69 >K, +
127.5 3.67
>>
127.08 3.65
3
80
127.6
3.72 <c2.27% 127.7 3.73
>>
127.16 3.7
3
81
127.65 3.77 <<
127.6 3.78
>>
127.42 3.76
6
82
127.44 3.81 <11.56% 127.7 3.83
>>
127.4
3.81
6
83
127.42 3.85 <11.55% 127.6 3.87
>>
127.57 3.86
1
84
127.15 3.88 <56.9%
127.6 3.91
>>
127.47 3.9
4
85
127.06 3.93 <<
127.4 3.95
127.55 3.96
<
2
86
126.74 3.95 <17.4%
127.3 3.99
<=
127.39 3.99
8
87
126.59 3.99 <<
127.1 4.02
127.4
4.04
<
88
126.22 4.01 <<
127.0 4.06
<<
127.17 4.07
0
89
126.02 4.04 <<
126.6 4.09
<<
127.12 4.12
7

281

6.
.
. .

90

125.61

4.06

<<

126.5 4.12
<<
126.84 4.14
1
91
125.36 4.09 <<
126.1 4.14
<<
126.73 4.18
5

37.1.

.
N
N
Tc43N
Nb41N
Mo42
88

126.61

4.04

89
90
91
92
93
94

126.89
126.93
127.12
127.09
127.21
127.12

4.10
4.15
4.21
4.25
4.31
4.35

95
96

127.17
127.03

4.4
4.44

97
98

127.02
126.83

4.48
4.51

99

126.78

4.56

>+
>
>>
>>
>=i.p.
>>
<=9.12
%
>>
<<16.5
%
<9.45%
<23.75
%
<<

100
101

126.54
126.44

4.59
4.62

102

126.17

103
104

126.15

4.01

>>

125.08

3.94

126.32
126.65
126.74
126.97
126.99
127.15

4.06
4.13
4.18
4.25
4.29
4.35

>>
>
>>
>>
>>
>>

125.55
125.78
126.16
126.3
126.58
126.64

4.02
4.08
4.15
4.2
4.27
4.32

127.10
127.19

4.39
4.45

>>
>>

126.85
126.85

4.38
4.42

127.09
127.12

4.49
4.53

>>
>>

126.98
126.92

4.48
4.52

126.97

4.57

126.99

4.57

<9.62%
<<

126.95
126.75

4.62
4.65

<=
>>
<<

126.88
126.9

4.61
4.66

4.65

<<

126.68

4.69

<=

126.74

4.69

126.03

4.68

<<

126.45

4.72

<<

126.71

4.74

125.72

4.71

<<

126.34

4.75

<<

126.51

4.77

126.43 4.81
<<

37.1.
N
Ru 44N
Rh45N
Pd 46N
105

125.55

4.74

<<

126.07

4.78

94
95
96
97

126.31
126.42
126.66
126.70

4.29
4.35
4.41
4.46

>>K
>>K
>>K
>> +

125.44
125.81
125.96
126.25

4.23
4.3
4.36
4.43

>>
>>
>>
>>

124.73
125.01
125.43
125.63

4.19
4.25
4.32
4.38

98

126.88

4.52

126.34

4.48

>>

125.95

4.45

99

126.85

4.56

>> +
>>K,

126.55

4.54

>>

126.08

4.51

282

6.
.
. .

100

126.96

4.62

101
102

126.89
126.94

4.66
4.71

126.82

4.74

126.82

4.79

+
>>K,
+
>>K
>> +
>=100
%,i.p.
>>

126.65

4.82

<<

103

104
105

126.57

4.59

>>

126.33

4.57

126.72
126.68

4.64
4.69

>>
>>

126.39
126.58

4.62
4.68

126.77

4.74

126.58

4.73

126.69

4.78

126.7

4.78

126.73

4.83

<=i.p.

>>

126.65

4.82

<< 126.72 4.88


107
126.41 4.9
<<
126.59
4.91
<=
126.63 4.91
108
126.33 4.94 <=
126.42
4.94
<<
126.65 4.96
109
126.09 4.96 <<
126.37
4.98
<<
126.51 5.00
110
125.97 5.00 <<
126.17
5.01
<<
126.49 5.04
111
125.71 5.02 <<
126.08
5.05
<<
126.32 5.07
112
125.56 5.06 <<
125.85
5.08
<<
126.26 5.11
113
125.26 5.08 <<
125.73
5.11
<<
126.06 5.14
114
125.08 5.11 <<
124.46
5.14
<<
125.96 5.18
115
124.77 5.12 <<
125.31
5.17
<< 125.73 5.2
H N=105 ,
2 . N=103.
, .
N
Te52N
I 53N
Xe54N
125.48
5.32
>>
125.18 5.29
118
125.9
5.35 >>
+

119
125.87 5.4
125.62
5.38
>>
125.25 5.34
>> +
106

126.61

4.87

>=

126.6

4.87

120
121
122
123
124
125
126

125.94
125.88
125.91
125.81
125.81
125.68
125.65

5.45
5.49
5.54
5.57
5.62
5.65
5.69

>>
>>
>>
>=K
>>
>=K
>=
+

125.62
125.72
125.69
125.75
125.68
125.7
125.6

5.42
5.47
5.52
5.57
5.6
5.65
5.69

>>
>>
>>
>>
>=
>>
<=

125.42
125.45
125.58
125.57
125.65
125.61
125.65

5.4
5.45
5.51
5.55
5.6
5.64
5.69

127

125.5

5.72

125.59

5.73

>=

125.58

5.73

128

125.44

5.76

<<100
%
<=K

125.46

5.76

<<

125.59

5.78

283

6.
.
. .

129
130
131
132

125.26 5.79 <<


125.42
5.8
<<
125.49 5.81
125.17 5.82 <<
125.27
5.83
<<
125.47 5.85
124.97 5.85 <<
125.2
5.87
<<
125.34 5.88
124.86 5.88 <<
125.03
5.9
<<
125.3
5.92

37.1.
.

: n - , (
) ,
mV
-
A
.

n .
.
,
n .
.
.
,
n .
.
,

,
.

Z .
.
, .

.
.
+ -
m
Z Z-1 n , V ,
A
Z Z+1.

mV
m
m
( z 1), n ( z 1) >> V ( z ), n ( z ) >> V ( z + 1), n ( z + 1)
A
A
A
+ -

284

6.
.
. .

Z
Z+1 ,
Z 1 .

mV
m
m
( z 1), n ( z 1) << V ( z ), n ( z ) << V ( z + 1), n ( z + 1)
A
A
A
- .

mV
m
m
( z 1), n ( z 1) << V ( z ), n ( z ) >> V ( z + 1), n ( z + 1)
A
A
A

n .

+ , k , + , ip -

mV
m
m
( z 1), n ( z 1) >> V ( z ), n ( z ) << V ( z + 1), n ( z + 1)
A
A
A
,
, 37.1 [20]
. 37. . .
. 1976 .
600 3 2
. 99,5%.

m
n , V .
A

.
N
Li3N
Be4N
B5N
6
85.38
0.44
83.9
0.42
+
7
101.34 0.6
97.85
0.56
>>
0.08 37.92

8
87.4
0.43 <<const 114.71 0.75
>>
0.36 79.42
9
88.91
0.44 <<100% 108.53 0.66
>>
0.62 105.55
9
10
111.28 0.69
>>
0.63 106.5
10 let
11
101.66 0.58
<<
0.72 113.00


12

100.27

0.57

<<
0.66

108.00

13

89.79

0.46

<<

108.91

0.68

285

6.
.
. .


Be4N
114.71

0.75

9
10

108.53
111.28

0.66
0.69

B5N
>>
+
>>2a
nst

11
12

101.66
100.27

0.58
0.57

<<80.4%
<<

13

C6N

0.36

C6N
>>

0.02

20.36

105.55
106.5

0.62
0.63

>>
>>

0.34
0.62

77.37
105.6

113.00
108.00

0.72
0.66

>>
<<

0.68
0.79

110.33
118.31

108.91

0.68

<<
0.77

116.08

79.42

N 7N

9
10
11
12

77.37
105.6
110.33
118.31

0.34
0.62
0.68
0.79

13

116.08

0.77

14

118.12

0.81

>> +
>>
+
const

15
16

113.57
113.11

0.77
0.78

<<Const
<<

o8N

102.49

0.59

113.63

0.74

>>

0.58

100.83

114.42

0.76

>>

0.75

113.36

118.33
115.96

0.83
0.82

>>
0.8
<<
0.89

116.04
120.96

17

116.81

0.85

<<
0.9

120.05

18

113.09

0.82

<<
0.95

121.69

0.93
0.96

119.17
119.13

0.3
0.48

72.35
90.68

19
20
N 7N
13
14

113.63
114.42

0.74
0.76

O8N
>>P
>>
+

100.83
113.36

0.58
0.75

F9N
>>
>>

286

6.
.
. .

15

118.33

0.83

16
17
18
19

115.96
116.81
113.09

0.82
0.85
0.82

>>
+
<<99.8%
<<0.04%
<<0.2%

20

F9N
17
18

117.88
118.62

0.87
0.9

19

121.39

0.97

20
21
22
23

120.13
120.95
118.67
118.38

0.97
1.01
1.00
1.03

Ne10N
>>p
>>
+
>>
+
<<91%
<<0.3%
<<8.8%
<<

24

115.55

1.01

<<

116.04

0.8

>>

0.67

106.23

120.96
120.05
121.69
119.17

0.89
0.9
0.95
0.93

>>
>>
>>
<<

0.75
0.87
0.9
0.97

111.32
117.88
118.62
121.39

119.13

0.96

<<
0.97

120.13

Na11N
109.99
117.46

0.75
0.88

119.32

0.93

122.79
122.45
123.84
122.33

1.02
1.04
1.09
1.1

>>
>>
>>
<<

0.91
1.01
1.05
1.12

115.99
120.47
121.17
123.31

122.51

1.13

<<
1.14

122.63

1.19
1.19

123.42
121.94

0.83

110.63

25
26
Ne10N
20

122.79

1.02

21

122.45

1.04

22

123.84

1.09

23
24

122.33
122.51

1.1
1.13

25

Na11N
>>
+
>>
+
>>
+
<<100%
<<

115.99

0.91

Mg12N
>>

120.47

1.01

>>

0.91

114.84

121.17

1.05

>>

1.03

119.96

123.31
122.63

1.12
1.14

>>
1.08
<<
1.16

121.41
124.06

123.42

1.19

<<

124.01

1.2

287

6.
.
. .


26

121.94

Mg12N

1.19

Al13N

<<
1.26

125.22

Si14N
118.83

1.07

>>

1.00

114.76

122.17

1.16

>>

1.08

117.78

122.84

1.21

>>

1.18

121.6

124.59
124.24

1.28
1.31

29

124.99

1.36

>>
1.24
><
1.32

<=
1.36

30

124.01

1.38

24

124.06

1.16

25

124.01

1.2

26

125.22

1.26

27
28

124.29
124.59

1.27
1.32

Al13N
25
26

122.17
122.84

1.16
1.21

27

124.59

1.28

28
29
30
31

124.24
124.99
124.01

1.31
1.36
1.38

32
N
14

Si
28

124.95

1.32

29

125.06

1.36

>>
+
>>
+
>>
+
<<100%
>>
+

Si14N
>>P
>>
+
>>
+
<<92.2%
<=4.7%
<<3.12%

650let
P15N
>>
+
>>
+

<<
1.43

122.81
124.95
125.06

126.14

117.78
121.6

1.08
1.18

P15N
>>
>>

122.81

1.24

>>

1.16

118.84

124.95
125.06
126.14
125.56

1.32
1.36
1.43
1.45

>>
>>
>>
=>

1.23
1.33
1.38
1.45

120.68
123.33
123.96
125.45

125.93

1.5

1.48

125.31

120.68

1.23

>>
S16N
>>

1.17

117.38

123.33

1.33

>>

1.25

119.71

0.95
1.05

110.53
114.37

288

6.
.
. .

123.96

1.38

>>

1.35

122.72

1.45

>>
+
100%

125.45

1.45

>>

1.41

123.76

1.5

>>

125.31

1.48

<<
1.49

125.56

126.02
125.36

1.54
1.57

>=
1.54
<<
1.6

125.77
126.75

30

126.14

1.43

31

125.56

32

125.93

33
34

S16N

121.94

1.41

Ar18N
>>

124.12

1.5

>>

1.42

121.01

124.73
126.03

1.55
1.62

>>
>>

1.52
1.58

123.48
124.41

126.02

1.66

>=

1.66

125.97

126.7
126.27

1.72
1.75

>>
1.71
<<
1.78

126.24
127.14

39

126.5

1.8

<<
1.82

126.95

40

125.75

1.82

<<
1.87

127.38

32

125.56

1.49

33

125.77

1.54

34
35

126.75
126.4

1.6
1.63

126.81

1.69

126.07
126.06

1.71
1.75

36

Con
st
cons
t

37
38

Cl17N
33

124.12

1.5

34

124.73

1.55

35

126.03

1.62

36

126.02

1.66

Cl17N
>>
+
>>
+
>> +
75.53%
>>k,
+
<<const
<=i.p.

Ar18N
>>
+
>>
+
>>
+

1.34

119.12

121.01

1.42

K19N
>>

123.48

1.52

>>

1.4

118.66

124.41

1.58

>>

1.51

121.5

125.97

1.66

>>

1.58

122.8

1.31

116.33

289

6.
.
. .

37
38
39
40
41

42
H
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

126.7
126.27
126.5
125.75
125.66

1.72
1.75
1.8
1.82
1.86

>>K
<<0.06%
<<269let
<<99.6%
<<

126.24
127.14
126.95
127.38
126.85

1.71
1.78
1.82
1.87
1.9

>>
>>
>>
>>
<<

1.67
1.73
1.8
1.85
1.91

124.66
125.24
126.4
126.49
127.14

124.69

1.88

<<33god
He2N

126.93

1.95

>>
Li3N

1.94

126.86

33.86

0.09

14.91
115.2
87.23
92.22

0.02
0.9
0.48
0.51

N
1

100%
Net

0.44 85.38
0.6
101.34
55.5
0.17
>>
0.43 87.4
0.44 88.91
B ,
.
.

.
>>

.
2- -.
mV


A
.
.
.
6.3. .
-. -
() ( A, Z )
He24 ( -). E
- ( A 4, Z 2). 4 T 9 M .

6.



. , + - , - , Z

290

6.
.
. .

mV

A
, .

.
n - (
) , Z 82 . .
T , Z. n ,

190
, Sm146
62 , Pt 78 .
, -
,
n 6.00 .
-
. , -
,
.
Bi83212 , Po84212 , Po84214
-.
%
- T

T
%

6,086
27,2
5,622
0,15
0
3
6,047
69,9
5,603
1,1
1
4
5,765
1,7
5,481
0,016
2
5

8,78

100

10,422

0,002

9,492

0,0035

10,543

0,018

10

7,680

100

17

9,779

1.1 * 10 4

11

8,277

4 * 10 5

18

9,905

12

8,938

4 * 10 5

19

10,074

4 * 10 5
4 * 10 5
1.7 * 10 4

13 13

9,065

2.2 *10 3

20

10,146

4 * 10 5

14
15

9,313
9,489

4 * 10 5
1.4 * 10 4

21
22

10,326
10,526

1.1 * 10 4
2 * 10 5

16

9,657

23
4 * 10 5
- .
. .
,
L, , . -
T .
291

6.
.
. .

-
.
- - ,
- , 2 .

212
214
, Po84
.
Po84
Pb82208 , Pb82210 .
.
,
, Z > 73 .
Z, T , E .
E = = W ( A, Z ) W ( A 4, Z 2) W (4,2).
-
. ,
- . []
E .
A 145, A 212 .
, 82 , ,
82 . T . Z=82
- .
-
T , R, Z, A,
. - .
- 4-9,
10 7 cek , 5 * 1015 .
-

.
--
-.
-, .
,
. - 4-9
, 2, 3 .
.
Z *z
B = 1 . U 92238 30
A3
.
. ,

. ,
292

6.
.
. .

, 1,3.
1,3 . .

- .

-.
.

-. -
.
.
- .
,
, .

, .
6.4. . .
.
.

.
,
.

.
.
. .
.

, .
,
.

, .

n - . n -
.
n - .

.. , .

.

293

6.
.
. .

.
.
n -
,
, 10 100 .

.

n -
.
, .
n -
.
,
n -
.

.

. .
,
.


.

,
.
.
-
n 6.00 . Sn50 Xe54 Ge58 .
n 5.33 6.74 .
n < 6.00 .

, .
(, Z) .
,
, .

.

.

294

6.
.
. .

( Z,A) ( Z1, A1) + ( Z 2, A2)


.
:
Z = Z1 + Z 2, A = A1 + A2 .

201
140
61
Pt78
Sb51
+ Co27
140
Pt78201 n = 8.33 . Sb51

61
n = 6.00 , Co27

,
.
(,Z)

n = 2.85 .
,

, E0 ,

mV . mV ( Pt78201 ), M ( Pt78201 ), E0 ( Pt78201 ) .


140
140
61
61
M 1( Sb51
), E01( Sb51
), M 2(Co27
), E0 2(Co27
).
, E0

E01 + E0 2 ,
.
EB = E01 + E0 2 E0 < 0
.

140
140
61
61
mV 1( Sb51
), E1( Sb51
), mV 2(Co27
), E 2(Co27
) .
m
m
mV 1 = V * M 1, mV 2 = V * M 2 .
M
M
.
,
mV = mV 1 + mV 2 .

, . .
(, Z).
140
140
140
140
E1( Sb51
) = M 1( Sb51
) M 12 ( Sb51
) mV 12 ( Sb51
)
61
61
61
61
E 2(Co27
) = M 2(Co27
) M 2 2 (Co27
) mV 2 2 (Co27
)

E1 + E 2 = E .
.
,
( Z1, A1), ( Z 2, A2) .
,

EB = ( E01 E1) + ( E0 2 E 2)

EB = E01 + E0 2 E . EB 0 , - -.

295

6.
.
. .

.
-
140
.
Sb51

140
140
Sb51
Te52
+

140
Te52

140
M 3(Te52
), E0 3, M ( ) = 0.511M , E ( ) = 0 .
.
140
140
Sb51

Te52
m 1
140
140
mV 1( Sb51
mV 3(Te52
) = V * M 3,
).
M1
m
1
mV ( ) = V * 0.511
M1

140
140
140
140
E 3(Te52
) = M 3(Te52
) M 32 (Te52
) mV 32 (Te52
)

E ( ) = 0.511 0.5112 mV ( ) 2

E 1 = E 3 E1 E ( ) .

-
.
140
4
Sb51
In136
49 + 2
136
140
In136
49 M 4( In49 ) Sb51
mV 1

mV 4( In136
*M4
49 ) =
M1
140

Sb51

E 4( In136
M 4 2 mV 4 2 .
49 ) = M 4
140

- Sb51
m 1
mV ( ) = V * M ( ) ,
M1
E = M ( ) M ( ) 2 mV ( ) 2

-

gg = E + E ( 0 ) , E ( 0 ) - - .
-
140

E 1 = E0 4( In136

49 ) + E ( 0 ) + gg E1( Sb51 ) ,
E0 4( In136
49 ) .
,
.
296

6.
.
. .
61
61
Co27
Ni28
+

, .

mV 2
61
* M 5( Ni28
)
M2
61
61
61
E 5( Ni28
) = M 5( Ni28
) M 52 mV 52 , M 5, M 5( Ni28
) .

61
mV 5( Ni28
)=

2
,

, gg - .
gg ,
.

Ee2 = E 5 + gg E 2.
61
57
Mn25
+ 24 .
Co27
57
Mn25
.

m 2
57
57
mV 6( Mn25
) = V * M 6( Mn25
)
M2
57
57
E 6( Mn25
) = M 6 M 6 2 mv 6 2 , M 6, M 6( Mn25
)

.
-
,
.
gg1 = gg 2.
E 2 = E0 6 + E ( 0) + gg E 2 ,
.

.
201
. : Pt78201 Au79
+ . ,

,
201
140
61
E ( Au79
) = E 3(Te52
) + E 2(Co27
).
.
201
140
61
E ( Au79
) = E1( Sb51
) + E 3( Ni28
). .
,
.
, .
201
4
Pt78
Os197
76 + He2 .

297

6.
.
. .

, ,
.
197
140
57
E (Os76
) = E1( Sb51
) + E 6( Mn25
). .

197
61
) = E 4( In136
E (Os76
49 ) + E 2(Co27 ). .

, , ,

.
,

.
,
.

,
,
.

:
( z1 2) * z
. - ,
Bq 1 =
1
3
A1
( Z 2 2) * Z
Bq 2 =
- ,
1
A2 3
( Z 2) * Z
- .
Bq 3 =
1
3
A
,

( Z 2) * Z
Bq 4 =
1
1
k * ( A13 + A2 3 )
>1 .
k = 1. Bq 4.
. .
1,3
. ,
( ) .
Bq 4. ,
1

R = (1.1 1.45) * ( A13 + A2 3 ) *10 13 cm


Bq 3. , .

.
298

6.
.
. .


.

.
E 1 < 0, E 2 < 0 . E < 0
.
140
61
57
E 1 = E1(Te51
) + E 2(Co27
) E0 4( In136
49 ) E0 6( Mn25 ) 2 * E ( 0 ) + Bq 1.
140
61
57
E 2 = E1(Te51
) + E 2(Co27
) E0 4( In136
49 ) E0 6( Mn25 ) 2 * E ( 0 ) + Bq 2
140
61
57
E 3 = E1(Te51
) + E 2(Co27
) E0 4( In136
49 ) E0 6( Mn25 ) 2 * E ( 0 ) + Bq 3

61. .
E 4
Bq 1, Bq 2 < Bq 4 < Bq 3.
,
.

, .
:
140
61
140
57
E 1 = E1( Sb51
) + E 2(Co27
) E0 3(Te52
) E0 6( Mn25
) + gg E ( 0) + Bq 1.
140
61
140
57
E 2 = E1( Sb51
) + E 2(Co27
) E0 3(Te52
) E0 6( Mn25
) + gg E ( 0) + Bq 2.
140
61
140
57
E 3 = E1( Sb51
) + E 2(Co27
) E0 3(Te52
) E0 6( Mn25
) + gg E ( 0 ) + Bq 3
140
61
140
57
E 4 = E1( Sb51
) + E 2(Co27
) E0 3(Te52
) E0 6( Mn25
) + gg E ( 0) + Bq 4


E 3 < 0, E 4 < 0 ,
.

E 1 < 0, E 2 < 0
299

6.
.
. .

.

, ,
.
,
140
61
61

E 3 = E1( Sb51
) + E 2(Co27
) E0 5( Ni28
) E0 4( In136
49 ) + gg E ( 0 ) + Bq 3

.

62. -
.
.
140
61
140
61
E = E1( Sb51
) + E 2(Co27
) E0 3(Te52
) E0 5( Ni28
) + 2 * gg
E < 0 .
,
m
( n , V ).
A

, ,
(
).
. ,
,
.
,
,
. :
) ,

300

6.
.
. .

,
) ,
,
) ,
) ,
,
)
.

.

. 63. .
6.5. .
.

.
.

,
.
.
. ,
.


. ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
,
301

6.
.
. .

.
.
.
:
,
,
, . 7- . .
( 6.1). ,
;
, .
,
.
. .
,


.


, .
:
1.
37.1 [20].
2. -
+ -, + + -.
3. + .
4. ,
.
5.
.
.
.
183
11,27
Pt78

+ - -.
178
0,4 Pt78

+ -.
17,911 +
-.
174
2,79 Pt78
+ -.
-
23,53.

302

6.
.
. .

,
,
.
Tl81210 - , + -
. , ,
7,201 21,314, -.
Tl81210 ,
3,928, 4,369 ,6,325, 11,674 .
12,59 + - -. 15,297
,17,8677 -. ,
, + - 12,59.
-.
11,674 -, , + - .
20,267 -, + -.
194
10,756
Pb82

+ -. Pb82201 7,28 ,8,343


+ -. 20,67

-. Pb82214 10,756
+ -.
198
1,496
Bi83
+ -. 15,02
+ -, .
Bi83201 : 4,08

+ -, 18,15 -.
Pt78 , Tl81 , Pb82 , Bi83 17-21
-. .
.
214

Po84
+ , .
7,071
16,224 -. ,

, , , .
218
Po84

3,329,3,349,14,697,
22,032

-. -
37,1 T = 2.434 .

303

6.
.
. .

At85218 18,731
50 35
At85218
+ -, -.
149 69
51 34
10,99 At85218

+
152 66
.

4,316

50 35
At85218
+ -.
150 68
:
.

-.
Rn86218
:6.567 -,
11,47 ,
20,131 -.
51 35
216
Rn86216 Rn86
,

+
150 66
0,562 .
51 35
216
Rn86

+
149 67
16,073.
, + - .
237

Pa91
:
7.555 -,

7,555 + -,
9,827 -,
9,835 -,
16,507 -,
21,227 -.
U 92238

10,367
,
10,439
.

22,66,26,426, -.
-
37,1[20].
,
,
37,1[20].
, -.
304

6.
.
. .


174
Pt78


23,53

3
27,23

-
5,71

Tl81210

13,35

26,586

5,53

26,586

Tl

21,314
17,867

5,53
3.55

Bi83201

11,674
4.369
20.267
15.297
16.216

201
81

28.343

3.55
3.55
3.55
3.55
6.956

27.66

Bi

18.15
15.02

4.99
5.52

Po84214

7.071

27.42

3.26

16.224
18.731

27.42
27.587

3.26
3.215

218
Rn86

6.567

27.919

3.955

Rn81216

16.073

28.005

4.331

Fr87204

28.88

7.093

237
Pa91

21.227

28.77

4.003

16.507
21.054

29.696

5.938

22.66

29.05

5.8

198
83

At

218
85

Pu

238
94

U 92238

26.426
6-7
-.


.
-
.
- .
-
: - ,
-;
.
4
E > 8.8 .
-
, .

305

6.
.
. .

- .
.
, ,
, .
.
.
-
.


- ( ).
-.

.

, ,

.
.
,
,
+ , -. ,

.
, ,
Z- N-
.

.
,
.
,
.
.
,
( ).
m n=

( A * mV ) 2

-
A

E = mn m n

1

.
.
306

6.
.
. .

. ,
. ,
.
.

.
.
.
. ,
.

.
.

.
.
.
- ,
U 92234 .

162
U 92234 Xe54
+ Sr3872

U 92234

10,754 ,

.
, - .
161
Xe54 + Sr3873 25,764 .



, . + , .

.
.
Sr3873 Kr3669 + 24 .
.
18,085 ,
-
65
Kr3669 Se34
+ 24 ,
.
161

Xe54
,
.
10,637

161
Th90230 Xe54
+ Kr3669

226
161
65
Ra88
Xe54
+ Se34

307

6.
.
. .

161
65
R88226 Cs55
+ As33

.

:
161
161
65
65
.
Xe54
+ As33
Cs55
+ , Se34

39,026 .



.
,

65
61
. As33
Ga31
+ 24 .

222
161
61
Rn86
31,379 .
Cs55
+ Ga31

61
57
Ga31 Cu 29
+ 24
218
161
57
Po84
23,917 .,
Cs55
+ Cu 29
-
. .

57
53
Cu29 Co27
+ 24
161
53
16,633 .
Pb82214 Cs55
+ Co27

, -


Co Ni +

53
27

53
28

161
53
Bi83214 Cs55
1,749 .
+ Ni28

.


161
161
Cs55 Ba56 +

161
53
c 15,246 ,
Po84214 Ba56
+ Ni28

.
,

308

6.
.
. .
53
49
Ni28
Fe26
+ 24

Po84214

161
165

Ba56
+ 24 Ge58
.
165
49
Ge58 + Fe26 c 18,445 .
,

.
165
Ge58
Pr59165 +

49
49
Fe26
Mn25
+

49
30,139 .
Po84214 Pr59165 + Mn25

-.

210
161
49
Pb82 La57 + Mn25 33,39 .

- .
157
53
Cs55 + Co27 30,482

Pb82210

Cs

157
55

+ 24

Jr

153
53

53
57
Co27
Cu 29

57
26,009
Pb82210 Jr53153 + Cu 29

153
53

Jr

+ 24

Sb

149
51
57
29

61
Cu Ga31
+ 24

149
61
Pb82210 Sb51
19,921 . + Ga31

61
57
Ga31 Cu 29
+ 24

206
149
57
Hg 80
13,101 .
Sb51
+ Cu 29

149
149
Sb51
Te52

-.
.
+

149
57
Tl81206 Te52

+ Cu 29

149
57
Pb82206 Te52
+ Zn30

[
[Sb

57
Pb82206 Jr53149 + Cu 29
206
82

Pb

145
51

+ Ga

29,371. -

13,601 . -

61
31

. Pb82206 .


40,956 13,601.

]
] 20,57 .

309

6.
.
. .

[
[Sn

]
] 7,379<13,6 .

153
53
18,2>13,6
Pb82206 Xe54
+ Ni28
206
82

Pb

145
50

+ Ge

61
32


.

Pb82206

Pb82210 , - -.
Pb82210 Hg 80206 , Bi83210 ,

Hg 80206 Tl81206 Pb82206 ,
210
Bi83210 Po84
Pb82206 .
, .
U 92234

Th90230

226
Ra88

222
Rn86

218
Po84

214
Pb82214 Bi83214 Po84
Pb82210 Bi83210 z

310

7.

.
7.1. , .
:
- =3*10^10 /, h- h=6.626*10^-27 *,
G- G=6.67*10^-8 cm 3cek 2 g 1 .[18, 20].
-

.
.
.

- .
,
.
.
, ,
..,

.
; q- , p, ,

q * p h / 4 , q, p - .

,
.
.

r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ,
.

h2 2

( x, t ) + V ( x, t ) * ( x, t ) = ih ( x, t )
2m
t

.
( x, t ), V ( x, t ) - .

311

7.
.
.

( x, t )
.
x t

2
( x, t ) d 3 ( x) , d 3 ( x) - x.
,
.[17].
, ,
,
.
( )
.
, ,
.

.
,
,
m 2p * G / r 2 m 2p * G
=
= 8.1 *10^ 37
e2 / r 2
e2

.

.
.
,
. ,
.[18].

.
, .
1
2

!, G, C g = (! * c )
G
137 11.6 .

1
! *c 2
mg = (
) = 2 *10^ 5 g ()
G
. , m p = 1.6 * 10^ 24 g ,
me = 0.9 * 10^ 27 g .
1

Lg = (

! *G 2
) = 1.6 *10^ 33cm .
c3

312

7.
.
.
1

! *G 2
) = 5 *10^ 44cek
c5
,
10 20 .
, ,
.
t g = (

7.2. . .

.
3,4 , .
.
,

.

, .. .
: , ,
.
Gm1m2

F =
r2
ee
F = 1 22 .
r
,

. ,

.
()
-

ds 2 = c 2 dt 2 dx 2 dy 2 dz 2 ,
- , t-, x,y,z- .

,
. - .
. ,
, ,
. , , -.
-
.

[8,15]
ds 2 = g ik dx i dx k , 0,1,2,3.
313

7.
.
.

x1 , x 2 , x 3 - , x 0 = ct - ,
g ik - . g ik = g ki .
6 ,

. g ik . g 00 = 1, g11 = g 22 = g 33 = 1, g ik = 0(i k ) ,
, .

,
.
C
.

.
4-
, ,
.
( X , Y , Z , T )
( x, y, z , t )
T = a0t + a1 x + a2 y + a3 z
X = a 4 t + a5 x + a 6 y + a7 z
Y = a8t + a9 x + a10 y + a11 z
Z = a12t + a13 x + a14 y + a15 z

ai .
, ai .

[8]
ds 4 = g ijkn dx i dx j dx k dx n
11 11 g ijkn .
i + j + k + n = 4 , i, j , k , n 1,2,3,4.
,
,
.
N -
. , . .
.
.
.
. [8]

314

7.
.
.
2

g dx a
a
b
ds = c g 00 dt + 2 g 0 a cdtdx + g ab dx dx = c g 00 dt + 0 a
ab dx dx
c g 00

ab = g ab + g 0 a g 0b / g 00 .
2

d = g 00 dt +

g 0 a dx a
.
c g 00

dR 2 = ab dx a dx b -- .
( ),
, .

ds 2 = c 2 d 2 dR 2

.
d = cdt + jidR
ds 2 = d

cdt = dR d = dR * 0 * e jarktgi = dR(1 + ji ) .


d = (cdt + dR) + dR(1 + ji ) .
, .

= dR .
-


. ,
.
,
, ,
.

.
C3 ( ).
,
( )
,
. .
7.3. .
4- [18]
2GM
2GM
ds 2 = (1 2 ) 1 dr 2 r 2 (d 2 + sin 2 d 2 ) + (1 2 )c 2 dt 2
c r
c r

.

315

7.
.
.

, dz = rd, dy = r sin d ,
dx = dr , (ds 2 )
1

2GM 2
dx = (1
) dr
rc 2
dr ,
.

2GM
d = 1
dt
rc 2
r , = t . ,
, . r 2GM / c 2 , = 0.
.
rg = 2GM / c 2 ,
rg . r > rg

= GM / r ,
2
a = GM / r ., .
, .
, ,
.
.
.
.
7.4. .

= e i = ei + jze i + kjctei + j
= 2 + z 2 e i + j + kjctei + j = 2 + z 2 c 2t 2 e i + j +k ,
= x 2 + y 2 ,

= arktgy / x , = arktgz / , = arktgjct / x 2 + y 2 + z 2 .

2
2
2
2
2 2
= x + y + z c t .

e i , ze i
cte i + j . ct 2 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2
= arktgj .
,
= ct (1 + kj )e i + j = ct 0e karktgj+i + j .

316

7.
.
.


.
:
= arktgr sin d1 / dr ,

= arktgrd / dr 2 / + r 2 sin 2 d 2
cdt
= arktgj
dr 2 / + r 2 (d 2 + sin 2 d12 )
= ds , = 1 2GM / c 2 r
,

d = dsei + j + k

Kjct ei+j

=arc tg

ei+jZei
+Kjct ei+j
=arctg j ct
2+z2

jZei

ei

ei+jzei

.64. .
( , ) ,
( ) ,
. ds
. .
g - .
= arktgj .
317

7.
.
.


, ds 2 = 0 .
ds 2 = c 2 dt 2 (dr 2 / c 2 dt 2 2 2 / c 2 dt 2 2 + 1) ,

2 = r 2 (d 2 + sin 2 d1 ) , = arktgj ,
,

d = cdt 0e karktgj = cdt (1 + kj ) = cdt + kj cdt


, 90 .
.
,
. .

g 00 . = 1 2GM / c 2 r .

,
rg .
rg = 2GM / c 2 , = 1 rg / r .
arktgj ,

rg .

, .
rg / r > 1
. rg / r = 1
.
M 1 / M 2 = r2 g / r1 g
.
7.5. .
R = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 .
-
s = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 c 2t 2 .
,
s = R s .

N

= ( mi ) ( mi ) 2 mv2

318

7.
.
.
N

( mi ) - N ( R),
1

mv - ( ,
) ,
- ( ).
.
(
)

= ( zm p + nmN ) ( zm p + nmN ) 2 mv2


mv - ,
mv = ( z + n)m .
( )

J = (m p + me ) (m p + me ) 2 mv2

, , ,
. .,
( ).

,
, .
.
mv ,

.
7.6. .

Gm1m2
,
F =
r2
m1 , m2 (
) r.
Gm1m2
=

r
( ). ,
Gm1m2
2

= (m1 + m2 ) (m1 + m2 ) 2 mv12


r

mv12 = 2(m1 + m2 )Gm1m2 / r (Gm1m2 / r ) 2

319

7.
.
.


e*e
F= 2 .

r
e*e
e =

r

e*e
2
= (m1 + m2 ) (m1 + m2 ) 2 mVe
r
m1 , m2 ,

e*e e*e 2
mve = 2(m1 + m2 )
(
)
r
r

.
.

.
mvg , mve .

e 2 Gm12
=
re , rg -
re
rg

mve = mvg


rg 1
m1 = e
re G

e = 4.80298 * 10^ 10cgc, G = 6.67 * 10^ 8dincm 2 g 2


rg

= 137 ,
re
m1 = 4.80298 *10^ 10 * 137 *

1
= 2.1767 *10 5 g
6.67 *10^ 8

,

m1 = mg

rg
re

=1

m1 = m g / 137

B
,

320

7.
.
.

.

.
ri mi = rg m g
.

m g mg
mg
mg
mi ,
G kompt = mi c 2 , (2G 2 ) kompt = mi , rg m g = 2" komp
i
c 2" i
"i
,
.
rg = 2" kompt
i
" kompt
0.2 *10^ 13cm
p

2 kompt
m p = Gmg m g / c " p = 6.67 *10^ 8 * 2.1767^ 2 *10^ 10 / 9 * 10^ 20 * 0.2 * 10^ 13 =
m p = 1.67 * 10^ 24 gr.
,


mg = 2.1767 *10^ 5 gr .
.
= 3.86144 *10^ 11cm
" kompt
e
re = 2.81777 * 10^ 13cm .
g

me = Gmg / c 2 " komp


= 9.09 *10^ 28 gr
e
= 6.67 * 10 ^ 8 * 2.1767 ^ 2 * 10 ^ 10 / 9 * 10^ 20 * 3.86144 * 10 ^ 11 =
= 9.09 *10^ 28 gr.

mee = meg *
,
mg

" kompt .
.

mvp 2 * 2.17 * 10 5 *1.67 *10 24 = 8.3 * 10 15 gr
, ,
.
, 10 ^9 .

,
mg
g - , l g .

321

7.
.
.

.
,
. ,

.

.
mg2
G kompt = mi c 2
"i
7.7 -
. .
, .

mg2 e 2
=

G
rg
re
.
:
mg2
e2
ji

U =G
re
rg
2
mg2

e 2 rg

jarktgi
2
e2
Gm g2 re

e
U = G
r
g re

e 2 rg

jarktgi
2
mg2
Gm g2 re
e 4 1 rg
U =G
e
1
rg
mg4 G 2 rt2
2
2
e = Gmg , rg = re

,

mg2
mg2
jarktgi

U =G

rg

0e

=G

rg

(1 ji )

322

7.
.
.

, -
,
,
.

e jarktgi .
e jarktgi , e jarktgi .

.
.

m g2
2

0e jarktgi i j
(me c ) = G
" kompt
e
e

S .

(1, ji ) 65.
2

mg

G kompt
"e

0 e

+ jarctg (i )
mg C

mg

G kompt (1 + ji )
"e

kompt

"e

lg

mg C

mg

m(e + ) C = G kompt
"e
2

Gm g = e /
.65. .
m g2
m g2
(
(me c 2 ) + = G
1 + ji )ei + j = G
e
" kompt
" kompt
e
e

0e jarktgi i j .

323

7.
.
.


(1, ji ) ,
l g .
. 66.
2

mg

G kompt
"e

0 e

jarctg (i )

mg

me C = G kompt
"e

lg
mg C

kompt

"e

mg C

Gm g = e /

mg

G kompt (1 ji )
"e
. 66. .
m g2

(1 ji )e
(me c ) = G
e
" kompt
e
2

i + j

=G

m g2
" kompt
e

0e jarktgi i j .



(i, j ) ( i, j ) .
.
, . C
.

324

7.
.
.


.
,

e + jarktgi ,

(1, ji ),

( i, j ) e jarktgi . 67.

mg

G kompt
"n

0 e

+ jarctg (i )
mg C

G kompt (1 + ji )
"n

lg
mg C

mg

kompt

"n

mg C

mg

mnC = G kompt
"n

lg
2

2
mg
G kompt (1 ji )
"n

Gm g = e /

. 67. .


, ,
.
,
(
.. ).
,

325

7.
.
.

mg2

kompt
, mi - , i
U = mi c = G
ikompt
2

mg 2.17 * 105 .
, .
kompt
p

kompt
Gmg2
e 2 i
= arktgi ,
= mi ,
arktgi
Gmg2 re
ikompt c 2

e2
mi c 2 re
re =

= 1 ,

e2
mi c 2

re

rikompt

e 2 mi c 2

mi c 2 Gmg2


re = ikompt .
.
0,511006 , 9,10908*10^-28 .

1/ 2
mg = (Ghc)
= 2.17705*10^-1/2 .
2
2

G = 6.67 * 10^ 8 * *

, h = 1.05449 * 10^ 27 * ,

c = 2.997925 * 10^10 * 1.
mg = ((6.67 * 1.05449 * 2.997925)^1 / 2) * (10^ 8 * 10^ 27 * 10^10)1 / 2

10
2
mg2
1
8 ( 2.17705) * 10
kompt
e
=G
= (6.67 * 10 ) *
=
9.10908 * 10 28 2.9979252 * 1020
mec 2
810 + 28 20
2
2

= (6.67 * 2.17705 / 9.10908 * 2.997925 ) * (10

)=

= 0.386144996 * 1010 = 3.86144996 * 1011


326

7.
.
.

!
kompt
e
=
mec


, 105,659 0,188346 * 10 24 ,1,867517 * 1013
- 938,256
24
13
1.67252 * 10

gr ,0.2103050947 * 10

cm

n- 939,55
24

1.674827 * 10
gr ,0.210015 * 1013 cm
- 1115,58

1.9886515 * 10 24 gr ,0.176877 * 1013 cm


- 1189,47
2.12033 * 10 24 gr ,0.165889 * 1013 cm
- 1314,7
2.343563 * 10 24 gr ,0.150087 * 1013 cm
- 1674
2.984045 * 10 24 gr ,0.117873 * 1013 cm

- 139,58
0.248813 *10 24 gr ,1.41367 *1013 cm
0 - 134,98
0.240613 * 10 24 gr ,1.46184 * 1013 cm
K - 493,8
0.88024 * 10 24 gr ,0.39959 * 1013 cm

K 0 - 497,9
0.887549 * 10 24 gr ,0.3963 * 1013 cm
- 548,6
0.977926 * 10 24 gr ,0.359679 * 1013 cm
( ),


mg2
2
= 2mg 4mg2 mvg
G
kompt 2
i
c
327

7.
.
.


2
mg2
mg2
mvg
=
, mvg = G
G
4mg
kompt 2
2 4m
kompt

c
c
g
i
i
mvg =

(1.67252 * 10^ 24) * 4 * 2.17705 * 10^ 0.5

mvgp = 1.20684 * 10

14

gr , mvgp = 6.77 * 1012 M


mvge = 2.8164 * 1016 gr ,

mvge = 1.579 * 1011 M


16
mvgv = 0.0557 * 10
gr ,
mvgv = 3.125 *109 M .
,

.
.
.

4 (48). mi c 2

" kompt
i
m g c 2 . 49
C3 . C3
C3/ ,
.

-,
2
l g .
mvi c 2 .
- , .

..
..
mg2 c 2 / ! = c3 / G

328

7.
.
.

e
2 !c
=
mg =
G

. ,


, !, c, G
mg = !1 / 2c1 / 2G 1 / 2 .
.
, e

2 rg

re

= Gmg2 ,

rg
re

1
.


.
.
,
, .
,
.

, .
,

. ,
,
.
( ),
,
.
. ,
.
.
(

).

.

.
,
1

!G 2
l g =
1.6 *10 33 cm .
3
c

329

7.
.
.

7.8 .
,

" e =
a0 =

!2
me

ae =

!
= 3.86144 * 1011
mc

= 1" e = 5.29167 * 109


e2
mc 2

= " e = 2.81777 * 10 13

1
R = 2 mc 2 = 13.060535
2

e2
= 7.29720 * 103
!c

1
= 137.0388

,
. ,

2
2
Gmg
! c
2 e
Gmg2 =

= 1
Gmg =

!c

e2
= .

!c

,


Gmg2 rg 1
=
= .
2
r
e
e
.
.
Gmg2
e2
=


kompt

" kompt
"
e
e
e2
,
mc 2 =
kompt
" e
330

7.
.
.

e2
kompt
" e
=
..
2
mc

.
ae = " kompt
e

mg

kompt
" e

1 .
( , ..).
, 1913
.
,
a0 .

V 2 e2
h
J = mVa0 =
, V-
=
m
a0 a02
2
, J- ,

h
.
2

,
2
2 e
mV =
.
a0
mg2 V 2 e 2
=
,
G
" e c 2 a0
V2
= 2.

mg2
"e

2 =

mg2

e2
1
e2
.
G

=
=
"e
" e a0
a0
a0

a0 = " e 1 .
.

mg

kompt
" e
,
, .

331

7.
.
.


.

2
2
e 2
e2
2 e
2V
2 2
mc
=
mc =

mV =
kompt
a0
"
c 2 " kompt
e
e
1
1
e2
kompt
2
Gmg / " e
=

=
.
kompt
kompt

" kompt
"
"
e
e
e

" kompt
V
= , e
= a0 ,

1/2,

1 2 2 1 e2
1
mc 2 2 = R
mc =
2
2 a0
2
.
R .

.
mg , G, , " kompt
e
mg2
1 2 2
1 2
R = mc = G
2
2
" kompt
e
- .
( )
.
.

. ,

= a0ei + j + k (1 + kj )
,

. ei + j
2

332

7.
.
.

1 2 me c

2
2
n
2 e
Gm g =

2 a0 n

rn = a0 n

mv C

kompt

"e

me C

kompt

"v

= a0 n

kompt

"p

mp C

. 68. .
= a0ei + j + k (1 ji )(1 kj ) , ,
,

333

7.
.
.

(
,
kompt
.
). = " e
9,10,11 1.
, ,
, ,

68.
, , .

,
.
" kompt
p

mg2
" kompt
p

= m pc2 .

,
(
).
,
.


.
. 4 ( 48)
).
, .
, .
.

, ,
,
J n = meVr = n!, (n = 1,2,3,......) , - .
n = 1 ,

me a0Vc / c = !

r = a0 .

!
V
a0 = " kompt
.
a0 =
e
c
mc

1 kompt
a0 = " e
.

.

334

7.
.
.

me =

Gmg2
" kompt
c2
e

Gmg2 V
a0 = !c ,
c
" kompt
e

Gmg2

e2
.
a0 =
e = !c

" kompt
e
2

2 e
Gmg =

a0 =

1 kompt
.
"e

,
- . ,
,
.
n 1 .

meVr = n! mec

V
V
r = n! r = n" kompt
e
c
c

e2
e2
2V
mec =
meV =
r
r
c
2

,
2 kompt 2
e2
)
2 n (" e
=

mec
2
r

r=

mec 2 n 2 (" kompt


)2
e
e2

=G

mg2
" kompt
e

n 2 (" kompt
)2
e

1
e2

r=

1 2 kompt
= n 2 a0
n "e

, ,
.

rn = n 2! 2 /(mee2 ) Z=1. ,
.
2
1
1
2 2 2
2 2
2 e
= n 2" kompt
= n 2a0 .
rn = n ! c /( mec e ) = n
e
2 2

mec

( , , ).
( )

335

7.
.
.

. 0 .
, ,
,
90 ..
.

( )
( ).
.


. .

. E =

m xV 2
,
2

Gm g2 2
m xV 2
,
=
2
" kompt
x
" kompt
=
x

Gm g2
2

2 2 .

m xV

2
1
2 e
,
E = meV
2
r

r = a0

meV 2 e 2
.
=
a0
a02

1
E = 2 me c 2 .
2
.

.
2
2

1
e 2 1 Gm g 2
e 2 1 Gm g 2
e2
.
ji
1 ji 2" kompt
=
=
E = meV 2 ji
e
kompt
kompt
2

2
a0 2 " e
a0 2 " e
Gm ga0

e2
= Gm g2 , ,

" kompt
= a0 ,
e

E=

2
1 Gm g 2
1
(1 ji ) = 2 me c 2 (1 ji ) = R 0e jarktgi
2
2 " kompt
e

,
0 .

336

7.
.
.

, 90 ..
.
,
.
, .
.

.
En En =1 = ! (1 ji ) , - .
, ,
, ,
, (
- ).
meV 2 e 2

= me + m p c 2 ( me + m p c 2 ) 2 (mv c 2 ) 2
2
r

,
mv c 2 ,

meV 2 e 2
1 mv2 c 2

=
.
2
r
2 (me + m p )

mV c 2 =

(me + m p )c 2me 2

mV = me m p


E = mV c 2 (1 ji ) = mV c 2 0e jarktgi .
.
( ), .

,
" kompt
= " kompt
" kompt
.
v
p
e

E = mV c 2 (1 ji ) + ! (1 ji ) = (mV c 2 + ! )(1 ji ) (,
, )

,
.
.
337

7.
.
.


,
.
, ,
,
. n-1

Wn 1 = me c 2 (me c 2 ) 2 (mv ( n 1) c 2 ) 2 ,
.
n

mv ( n 1) c 2 -

Wn = me c 2 (me c 2 ) 2 (mv ( n) c 2 ) 2 .

W = Wn 1 Wn = (me c 2 ) 2 (mv ( n 1) c 2 ) 2 (me c 2 ) 2 (mv ( n) c 2 ) 2
.
.
.

2 2
2 2
1 (mv ( n 1) c ) (mv ( n) c )
W =
2
me c 2
,
.
1
1
2R
= R(
.
)
2
2
(n 1)
n
n3

W =

2 Rh

, R =

me e 4

-
n3
(8h3 02 )

. ( 0 ).
me e 4

1
= 2 me c 2 .
2
2! 2
n
.
1 2
1
me c 2
= me c 2 (me c 2 ) 2 (mv ( n) c 2 ) 2 .
2
2
n
.
1
1
( 2 me c 2
me c 2 ) 2 = (me c 2 ) 2 (mv ( n) c 2 ) 2 .
2
2
n
R =

338

7.
.
.

1 2 me c 2
1 2
me c 2 1
=
(1
) ,
n
n
4 n2
8 n2

mv ( n) c 2 = me c 2 . .
n
. n n-.
n n=1
mv ( n) c 2 =

mv (1) c 2 = me c 2 . ,
,
, .
-
G

m g2
" kompt
v(n)

= G

mg2

1
.
n
" kompt
e


kompt 1
n = a0 n .
" kompt
v( n) = " e

,
. n = 1
" kompt
v (1) = a0 .
12
=

a
n
" kompt
(
1
) .
0
v(n)
8 n2
,
c

a0 n 2
. ,

2 me c 2

h. n = (
c
n
n
n
V mcc
) n e a0 n 2 = h
c n2 c
n-
3

n , rn = n 2 a0 .
V
0 me a0 n 2 = h.
n2
Vn rn me = nh . ,
, ,

339

7.
.
.

, ,
,
Vrm = nh, (n = 1,2,3,......)
ds
R

ds = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 (ct ) 2 .
2

jarktgi

ct
R.

ds = R jict = R (ct ) e

. ct = R
,


00

e jarktgi . ds = R R 2 (ct ) 2 .

. -
R = me c 2 , ct = mv c 2 , ds = WR , WR .
mv c 2 ,
.
.
Gm g2

mv c =

" kompt
v

,
" kompt
p
" kompt
.
v

WR = me c 2 (me c 2 ) 2 (mv c 2 ) 2 .

1
kompt
"W

1
" kompt
e

1
" kompt
e

)2 (

1
" kompt
v

)2 .

" kompt
" =
1 ( e
) 2 .
kompt
kompt
"e
"v
,
1

1
1 2
1
1 4
1
kompt 1

n
" kompt
"

=
.
"

v
e
kompt 2 2 kompt 4 4 kompt
"e
n "e
n "e

340

7.
.
.

m g2

m g2
m g2
m g2
1 2
1 4
1 2
1 2
=
+

G
G
G
G
(1 +
).
2
kompt
4
kompt
2
kompt
2
2
4
2
2
n
n
n
n
" kompt
"
"
"
w
e
e
e

1 2
me c 2 ,,
2 n2
. ,
W=

2.
mec 2 2 Z 2
2Z 2
3
n

1+

2
n2
n 2 l + 1 / 2 4
68 . .
, ,
Wn =

" kompt
v
,
Wn . -
( )
" kompt
.
p

2a0 n 2 / . ,
,
.
.
, .
68 ,
.
.

, .

,
.
1n" kompt
" kompt
v
e
7.9 . .
. 1900
, , :
,
0 :
0 ,2 0 ,3 0 ........, n 0

341

7.
.
.


, . [21] .


.
, .
.
. [17]
, , ,
.
E = ! .
, . .
E
= X , E , , ,

.
e2
, : .
c

,
e2 h
e2
=
.
X = h

c 860
c

. ,
. ,
, .
.
.
.
X = h
[17 ]. ,
100
.
7,7 7.8
. .
.
. .
, -
. Gm g2 =

q2
.

,
" kompt
i

342

7.
.
.

Gmg2

1
q 2
.
, q = e = 4.8 *10 10 CGCEq , =
137
c

" kompt
i
,

e2
.
, Ei =
c

e 2 = !c e 1 ,
!c
Ei =
= ! .
c
. ,
e2
h
h

=
. ,
=
c 137 * 2 860

E
2 * 1 860 i = h .

.
-

rg
1
e2
, =
= -
Gm g2 =

137 re
rg re

mg .

e 2 = !c . ,

mg

1 1
1

= ! 2c 2G 2 .

. ,
" kompt
,
i
c
" kompt
= .
i


Gmg2
" kompt
i

!c
. , Ei ,
c

E
= ! . . .

Ei = !

343

7.
.
.

e 2 !c
h
h
=
=
=
. ,
c c 2 *137 860

. 4. . .
[17].
,
, ,
, Ln = meVr = n! , (n = 1,2,3,........
,
.
Wn , Wm , Wn Wm = h nm .
, .


-.
-
.
meV 2 =

me c 2 =

Gm g2

e2
,
a0

Gm g2 V 2

e2
a0

Gm g2

e2
.
a0

c2
" kompt
c2
" kompt
" kompt
e
e
e

1
. ,
=
kompt
a0
"e
.
.
a0 = 1" kompt
e

344

8. .
.
8.1
.

. .

,

( ).
, () . .
,

. , ,
(, ,
..) .
, . .
, : , , .. , , . , - ,
. ,
. . , . , .

, , . .
, . . , , .
, ..
, .
, -

345

8. .
.

, . ,
, .
.
,
( ). , , ,
. , ,
.

(). ,
, .
. ,
, , . ,
. :
; : , , ; : ; : , , , .

.
4-
(8.1.1.)
n = 4 = e i + jre j + kcte i + j
.
1, 3, 5, 7
, ,
. 8 . . , , , , .
1-1-3, 1-1-4, 1-1-5.
, , . , -

346

8. .
.

-
e jarktgi .
. C karktgj
, e
.
( 4.3, 4.4, 47,48,49, 50,51).
jarktgi karktgj
( e
)
,e
karktgj
. e
( e jarktgi ) ,
jarktgi
, e
karktgj
. ,
e
, . .
, 5.
3 ( )
. , . .
, .
, ( ) ,
. -
, ( 7.7),

e + karktgj , e + jarktgi , e karktgj , e jarktgi .

e karktgj ,e jarktgi .


.
e i
. 180 .
(8.1.1)
karktgi
e
, (1 ki ).
.
i
e .
:
.

347

8. .
.

(8.1.1)

n = 4 = ( ei irei ) + rei ( j ! i) + kctei + j
n = 4 = ( ei irei jctei + j ) + rei ( j ! i) + ctei + j (k ! j )
( j + i )
i
i
i
i

( e

ire

! cte sin ) jcte cos


i
i
i

n = 4 = ( e

ire

! cte sin )

+ rei ( j ! i ) + kctei + j (k ! j ) ctei ( j + i)

, , , , , ,
(8.1.2)
n = 4 = a + b( j i ) + c (k j ) + d ( j + i )

.
, . . , . .
. .
,
.
: ,
, , , . , , , , .
. , , - , ,
-. ,
.
,

karktgj
jarktgi
( e
( e
) . - . 64. , 1, 2 , -.
. (-

348

8. .
.

) - - . .
, ,
...
8.2. .
, , - (
e ,~e , ,~ , ,~ ) -

= ( + i ) + j ( + ic) .
1.
jarktgi
e
, jarktgi
L = e
.
:
L = + e jarktgi , - L = e jarktgi .
e
.
e = (1 ji ) = 0e jarktgi , -
(
kompt
). . 69, 70
=
+1 , -1 . : ( )

= / 2 . 69, 70 .
. ,
, , .
~e 71, 72.

1 . jarktgi
.
~e = (1 ji ) = 0e

~
+ """ = (1 + ji ) + (1 ji ) = 2 .
+ ~ = (1 ji ) (1 ji ) = 2 ji . . ji,1
.

349

8. .
.

ji

(+e

+ jarctg (i )

69 .
.

-1

( e

+ jarctg (i )

)
-ji

70. .. .
L - ,
e

350

8. .
.

.
:
46 > e ,~e > 14 ,

0.52 > ,~ ,
250 > ,~ .

+ ~ (+e

jarctg (i )

71 . .

-i

~ (e

-j
jarctg (i )

72 . .

351

8. .
.



.
~ -

e ~e
(
).
ji

+ ~ (+e

jarctg (i )

(+e

+ jarctg (i )

=2
1

(+e

+ jarctg (i )

. 73 .
= 2.

, , S. 73, 74 .
,
. . 75, 76
73, 74.
77, 78 69, 70.

352

8. .
.

+ ~ (+ e

jarctg (i )

=2
1

(+e

+ jarctg (i )

)
-ji

jarctg (i )
~ (+ e
)

. 74 .
= 2.

~e

~e

75. ,
.

353

8. .
.

~e
. 76 , .

77. ,
.

~e

78. ,
.

354

8. .
.


. ~ ~ -

L -.
e
B, t.
, 79, 80.

~e

~e

~e

79 - = 2

~e

~e

~ 80. -
= 2
355

8. .
.

- .

. - ( ) .
. karktgj
e
, .
: , , -. ,
e , e , e , ,
, e + e + e , .
L , L , L .
e
e
e
, , .
, .
, . . - 81. 81

L = 1 , .
e

k
j

81. .. 356

8. .
.


, .
, , ,
,
. , .

0
0
-. 2 .
- 0
+

+ .
. e ~
+
+
+
e
e
e
~

, , .
- q
q
u , u , d , d
- .
Q(u ) = + = e~+ + e
e
q

Q u = + c = e e + e~+

Q(d ) = + = ee + e
Q d q = + c = e~+ + e~+
e


. , q
q
uu , dd .
.

+
- e , e ~ .
.
, ,
,

( )

( )

357

8. .
.

= 1 + ji
~ = 1 ji
= 1 + ji + 1 ji + 1 + ji = 3 + ji
~ = 1 + ji + 1 ji + 1 ji = 3 ji

(8.2.1.)

e = 1 kj
e + = 1 + kj

e"+"" = (1 + kj )(1 ji ) = 1 + kj ji + ki

(8.2.2.)

e
ee = (1 kj )(1 + ji ) = 1 kj + ji + ki
e~+ = (1 + kj )(3 ji ) = 3 + 3kj ji + ki

e = (1 kj )(3 + ji ) = 3 3kj + ji + ki
, (8,2,2)
0
q
q

= uu = dd = 8 + 4ki

karktgi
e
1 ki . .
karktgi
0
= 4 + 4e
.


(8.2.3.)
= e + e~+

= e~+ + ee
e
.
karktgi

= 6 + 2ki = 4 + 2(1 + ki) = 4 + 2e


karktgi

= 2 + 2ki = 2e


0
= 6 + 2ki + 2 + 2ki = 8 + 4ki = 4 + 4(1 + ki ) = 2 1
.
( 4 ), .
. u d-
358

8. .
.

+
(u+u+d), u d- (u+d+d), - q
q
0
u- d - ( u + d ), -

q
q
( u + u , d + d ).
- .

+ + + c = 0
+ + + c = +1
2 + 3 + = +1
+ 3 + 2 = 0

0. ,
,
.

+ c = 1 / 3
+ c = 2 / 3
+ = +1 / 3
+ = +2 / 3

+
e

e~

e~

e e

82 -.
, .
Q(u ) = Q e~+ + e = 2 / 3
e

( )

Q u q = Q ee + e~+ = 2 / 3

Q(d ) = Q ee + e = 1 / 3

Q d q = Q e~+ + e~+ = 1 / 3

( )

359

8. .
.

0
- 82. q
q
uu , dd .

= k ,

2 k
2 1
1 2 1
1 2 1
, =
, =
,c = +
3 k +1
3 k +1
3 3 k +1
3 3 k +1

, .
K=2
K=0
k=1/3
0
1/3
= 4/9
2/3
1/3
= 2/9

= 5 / 9

-1

-2/3

C=-1/9
1/3
0
,
. .
,
.
. , : r (red), y (yellow),v
(violet).
..
- .
+ = ur d rq + u y d yq + uv dvq
. (
).
,
. , , , c ,
.
. .
0

B( ) = + + + c = 0

B ( + ) = 2 + + c = 0
B( p + ) = 2 + 3 + = 1
B (n 0 ) = + 3 + 2 = 1

, = .
+ =

1
.
3

360

8. .
.

1
+ = .
3
1
1
+c = . +c = .
3
3
- , .

1
+ = B(u ) = e~+ + e = +
e
3
1
+ = B(u q ) = ee + e~+ =

3
1
+ = B(d ) = ee + e = +
3
1
+ c = B(d q ) = e~+ + e~+ =
e

3
, . , , , c ,
,
8.3. S,C,B, t . .

. q
q
. u , u d , d
s, c, b, t .
: s-, c - , b - bottomness, t - topness. Q = T +

B + s +cb+t
, T 2

. . , (
), .
. q
q
u + u , d + d . , .
, u + 2d , u q + 2d q .

d .
q

s = (u + u ) + d

u
q
q

c = (u + u ) + ( d + d ) + u

b d
361

8. .
.

b = 2(u + u q ) + (d + d q ) + d
t u
t = 2(u + u q ) + 2(d + d q ) + u ,
u + u q = d + d q , c = 2(u + u q ) + u
q

b = 3(u + u ) + d
t = 4(u + u q ) + u

, . .

L e , L , L .
.
5
m g = 2.17 *10 gr .
.
- ,

.
8.4. , ,
u, d.
, ,
.
,
.
, uds .
q
= u + d + s = u + d + u + u + d .

;
= (u + u + d ) + (u q + d )
= (d + d + u ) + (u + u q )

, , -

u+u+d = p

d + d + u = n0
q

u +d =

u + uq = 0


= p+ +
.
0
0

= n +


q
+

K = u + s = u + u + u q + d q = (u + d q ) + (u + u q ) = + + 0 .
362

8. .
.

.
0
q
q
q

K = d + s = d + u + u + d = (u + d ) + (d + u q ) = + + .

.
D .
D+ = c + d q = u + uq + d + d q + u + d q =
.
0
q
q
q
+

[(u + u ) + d ]+ u + (d + d ) = +

D + = [(u + u q + d q ) + d ]+ u + d q = K 0 + + .

D + - .
.
+ = p + + 0 = u + u + d + u + u q = (u + u q ) + d + u + u = suu .
.
= n 0 + = u + d + d + u q + d = (u + u q ) + d + d + d = sdd .
.
0
q

[
[

]
]

= + = s +u + d +u + d =

s + (u + d + u q ) + d = s + s + d = dss
= 0 + K = s + u + d + s + u q = s + s + (u + d + u q ) = sss
, , s, c, b, t
.
, k , .
. , . .
:
.
,
. S, C, b, t
U,d .
0
. - S = 1 ,

+ . , -

, ,
0
+

p +

S = 2 , -

363

8. .
.

0 + p + + +
- - S = 3 ,

0
0
0
0

+ + + p + + +

,
.
F + , F - S
. .

, 4
47, 48, 49, 50, 51, .. .
.

1
= u q d q = ee e"+"" """ = ee e +
e
e
= d u = ee e"+"" ~ = ee e +
e
e

, .
.

+ = d q u q = e"+"" ee e = e~+ e
e
e
+ = u d = e~+ ee e = e~+ e
e
e
. .

+ + = ee e + + e~+ e =
e

= (1 kj )(1 + ji ) 1 kj + (1 + kj )(1 ji ) 1 + kj =
= 1 kj + ji + ki 1 kj + 1 + kj ji + ki 1 + kj = 2ki
83

0
+

2 2( + )


2ki . 2
e + ~e = 1 + ji + 1 ji = 2 .
, -

364

8. .
.

4 + 4ki ,
( ).
0 8 + 4ki , 4
.

e e

ji

-1

+
-kj

. 83 .
.

.
= d + u q = ~e +
, ,
= e + e + ~e
,
= u q d q ~e + e + ~e = u q d q + e
.
= d + u q ~e
.
-

365

8. .
.

= ee + e~+ e~+ e~+ + e =


e

= (ee e~+ ) + (e~+ e~+ ) + e


e

= e + e + e + e + ~

e
~

~ = ( e + ~e ) + ~e
,
= ( + ~ ) +

e
e
e


, .
u q d q + e = d + u q ~e d q + e = d ~e . .

= e + e + ~e
= + ~e
,
K = + ~e
n0 = p + + ee + ~e
. ,
.
, , .
= e ~e = 1 + ji i j = (1 i )(1 j ) ,

= 2 ,
= / 4, = / 4 .

8.5. . .
.
, ,
.
s, c, b, t .
. u, d, s, t
. .
.
.

366

8. .
.

, ( ).

U = e~+ + e
e
(8.1)
U q = ee + e~+

d = ee + e

d q = e~+ + e~+

. , ,
.

(8.2)
2
Gmg = e 2
e m g

,
(8.3)
m x c 2 = kmg c 2 (kmg c 2 ) 2 ( ggXc 2 ) 2
,
ggXc 2 - .

(8.4)
ggXc 2 = 2 Kmg c 2 mx c 2

, .
.

(8,5)
2 2
2 ( ggXc )
mx c =
2 Kmg c 2
.
2
m x c 2
mg c
. kompt
x
,
.
(
).

367

8. .
.

- ,
dds = dl dl 2 (ct ) 2 .
- , , .
,

,
. .
, .
.

, . , .
, - .
8.6 .
, .

(8.6)
+
e~ = (1 + kj )(1 ji ) = 1 + kj ji + ki
e
e = (1 kj )(3 + ji ) = 3 3kj + ji + ki

ee = (1 kj )(1 + ji ) = 1 kj + ji + ki
e~+ = (1 + kj )(3 ji ) = 3 + 3kj ji + ki

,

.
. , .
u, d

(8.7)
u = 4 2kj + 2ki

u q = 4 + 2kj + 2ki
d = 4 4kj + 2 ji + 2ki
d q = 4 + 4kj 2 ji + 2ki

368

8. .
.

0

(8.8)
q
+

= ud = 8 + 2kj 2 ji + 4ki
= du q = 8 2kj + 2 ji + 4ki
0 = uu q = 8 + 4ki
0 = dd q = 8 + 4ki

0
0
(8.8) , = Z = (8 + 4ki )
,
Z = 2kj ! 2 ji .
Z

= 48 .

= 0 , . -

. , ,
.

Z0 .
(8.9)
0
0

K = sd = 2(8 + 4ki ) = 2Z ,

= ss q = 3(8 + 4ki) = 3Z 0 ,
D 0 = cu q = 3(8 + 4ki) = 3Z 0 ,
J / = cc q = 5(8 + 4ki ) = 5Z 0 ,
Y = bb q = 8(8 + 4ki ) = 8Z 0
(8.9) .
,
D + = dc q = 3Z 0 + Z + ,
(8.10)
Ds = sc q = 3Z 0 + Z ,
q
0

B = bu = 3Z + Z

(8,10) .

0
Z , Z .

0 = uds = (u + u q ) + d + u + d = 0 + n0 ,

369

8. .
.

0 = uds = u + u + d + d + u q = p + + .
, . , S 0
- .
.
q
0
+
+

=u +u + s =u +u +u +u + d = + p ,

+ = d + d q + d + u + u = (d + d + u ) + u + d q = n0 + +
S
S = d + dq + d .

q
0

= d + d + s = d + d +u + u + d = n + ,

= d + s + s = d + s + u + u q + d = uds + du q = 0 + ,
= sss = u + u q + d + s + u + u q + d =
= uds + uu q + du q = 0 + 0 +

.
: S, C, b, t ,
u, d.
p + u d .
p + = u + u + d = 12 8kj + 2 ji + 6ki ,

n = d + d + u = 12 10kj + 2 ji + 6ki.


Z .
n 0 = (12 + 6ki 8kj + 2 ji ) 2kj + 2 ji = p + + Z .
,
.

.

, , ( ). , .
. ( ) , -

370

8. .
.

, .

(8.11)
1

ji
kj
ki
.
+

ggp = 12 8 + 2 + 6

+
ggp (8.4).

, .
. , , .

gg = 2 + 1 + 1

- .
0
- (
).
0

gg = gg (uds) = 20 10 + 4 + 10

gg + = gg (ud q ) = 8 + 2 2 + 4

m( ) = 139.27 M .

gg = 2 * 2 * 1.22112 * 1022 *139.27 = 26.12 * 1011 .


+ 0
p , , e
0
+

ggp = 67.69757, gg = 104.41, gge = 1.5798

, .
(8.12)
12 8 + 2 + 6 = 67.69757

20 10 + 4 + 10 = 104.41
8 + 2 2 + 4 = 26.12
2 + + = 1.5798
11
10 ,
. N.
. - .
371

p+

n0

n0

ddu

e
+
p

-2

-2

10

1,580

26,110

104,410

-192

694,540

-20,056

488,907

-192

-192

-192

5,735

5,735

5,735

-2,546

-2,546

-2,546

0,1

0,1

0,1

-3,617

-3,617

-3,617

1,579

26,112

104,406

1,221

1,221

1,221

938,270

0,511

139,567

1116,000

67,698

1,580

26,110

104,413

5,74

-2,546

0,104

-2

-3,617

26,11

1,221

1,221

. ud,du,uu,dd
5,74
8
-2,546
2
0,104
-2
-3,617
4
26,11

1,221

-3,617

1,579


5,74
0
-2,546
-2
0,104
1

139,592

139,592

0,510

139,567

139,567

0,511

1,000

0,999

.
.
1
kj
ji
ki
ggm
mg

mx
- %

5,74
12
-2,546
-10
0,104
4
-3,617
6
72,99
1,221
4
1090,827
939,57
1,161
5,74
12
-2,546
-9
0,104
13
-3,617
7
67,77
1,221
4
940,196
939,57
1,001

1,221

: , - , , , . (8,4),(8,5)
mg

m
ggm
1,221
4
939,570
67,744

-10

20

,,, .
4*4
1 kj
ji
ki
ggm
1 kj
ji
ki
ggm
12
-8
2
6
67,697
-1101,146
-192
5,74
-2,546
0,1
-3,617
67,696

8.1. .

uud(3/2)(3/2)

uud(3/2)-(1/2) N

uud(1/2)(1/2) N

p+

(uud)

udc(1/2)(0)

uss(3/2(1/2)

uss (1/2(1/2))
uss (3/2)1)

0
8

-2,546
-2,546

4
2

0,104
0,104

-4
-7

-3,617
-3,617

0
4

-10,6
25,59

1,221
1,221

4
4

23,003
134,088
134,963

0,994

1,221

113,5
-22,32
122,4

13

1
16
4
18
6

5,74

5,74
5,74
5,74
5,74
5,74

-2,546
-2,546
-2,546
-2,546
-2,546

-2,546
0
-8
0
-8
0

-8
0,104
0,104
0,104
0,104
0,104

0,104

6
8
0
-12
-10

-3,617
-3,617
-3,617
-3,617
-3,617

-3,617

-1
8
2
10
4

9,976
84,02
15,71
86,18
18,9

77,67

5,74
30
-2,546
-8
0,104
2
-3,617
12
149,2
uud
5,74
12
-2,546
-8
0,104
2
-3,617
6
67,69

17
3
17

1,221
1,221
1,221
1,221

4
4
4
4

1,221
1,221

1,221

20,375
1445,401
50,502
1520,529

1235,061

938,171

2279,383

1318,622
51,001
1534,135

1743,783

-3,617
-3,617
-3,617

4
0
4

17,249

0,104
0,104
0,104

-10
0
-9

5,74
0
-2,546
1
0,104
4
-3,617
3 -12,98
1,221
udc
5,74
28
-2,546
-8
0,104
2
-3,617
14
130,5
1,221

-2,546
-2,546
-2,546

1888,280

14,491

1,321
1384,653

1193,964

8
8
8

26
-2
28

8
8

1,221
1,221
1,221

5,74
5,74
5,74

2
9

108

-3,617
-3,617

12

1,221

0
4

-3,617

0,104
0,104

1,221

-2
-11

0,104

5,74
1
-2,546
-1
0,104
0
-3,617
-1
11,9
uss.
5,74
28
-2,546
-10
0,104
4
-3,617
14
135,8

-2,546
-2,546

-12
1,221
1,221

1
21

5,74
5,74

-2,546
3,593
116,3

21

5,74

1520

1440

1234

938,27

2285

1,000

1,004

1,001

1,000

0,998

0,763

1,001

1532

2285

1,003

1,436

1,000

1,001

1315

1315

1384

1193

5,74
0
-2,546
2
0,104
-7
-3,617
0
-5,82
1,221
4
6,935
uds
,
.
5,74
20
-2,546
-10
0,104
4
-3,617
10
104,4
1,221
8
1115,842
1116
1,000

5,74
5,74

0c

Ddc

Udb

Udb

Ub

Bb Y

Cc

Cd, dc- 0

(1 / 2)

uu+dd 0-(0) '


uu+dd1-(0)

ud,du
uu+dd 0-(0)

uu+dd 0-(0) '

0
ds,sd K
uu+dd 0-(0)

K ,K

us,su 0-(1/2)
+

Uuc

Udc c

28
28

5,74
5,74

4
4

0
4

2
0

5,74
5,74

64
24

40

16
24

5,74
5,74

5,74

16
16

5,74

5,74
5,74

16
16

16

5,74
5,74

5,74

-2,546
-2,546

-2,546

-2,546
-2,546

-2,546
-2,546

-2,546

-2,546
-2,546

-2,546

32
-2

20

-12
12

-12
-12

-6

-12
-12

0,104
0,104

0,104

0,104
0,104

0,104
0,104

0,104

0,104
0,104

0,104

0
2

4
0

4
0

4
4

-2

0,104
0,104

0,104
0,104

0,104
0,104


5,74
16
-2,546
2
0,104

19

-5
18

-6
-10

-7
-6

-2,546

-2,546
-2,546

-2,546
-2,546

-2,546
-2,546

0,104

28

24
28

5,74
5,74

5,74

24
28

5,74
5,74

-3,617
-3,617

-3,617

-3,617
-3,617

-3,617
-3,617

-3,617

-3,617
-3,617

-3,617

-3,617

-3,617

-3,617
-3,617

-3,617
-3,617

-3,617
-3,617

0
0

10
0

14
7

8
8

-14

17
-12

12
14

14
-14

285,6
142,9

178,5

86,56
107,1

72,09
96,99

46,9

93,79
93,79

62,82

64,76

163,3

112,2
158,6

109,5
135,8

105
226,5

udc,uuc,ddc,udb.
1
kj
ji
ki
5,74
28
-2,546
-8
0,104
2
-3,617
14
130,5

1,221
1,221

1,221

1,221
1,221

1,221
1,221

1,221

1,221
1,221

1,221

1,221

1,221

1,221
1,221

1,221
1,221

1,221
1,221

1,221

8
4

8
4

8
8

12
8

4
4

4
4

4
4

8347,775
4183,013

3260,850

766,948
2347,812

531,988
963,014

450,250

600,333
900,499

404,020

429,278

5456,840

2579,014
5147,954

2455,303
3776,559

2258,525
10502,557

3487,566

9460
5279

3097

782
1865

547
958

770

547
958

498

494

5425

2452
5425

2453
2452

2285
2453

2285

0,882
0,792

1,053

0,981
1,259

0,973
1,005

0,585

1,098
0,940

0,811

0,869

1,006

1,052
0,949

0,988

8. .
.

= 5.735
= 2.546
= 0.104
= 3.617

. , .
, , , ,

.
(
) ,
,
, . .
: , , ,

.
8.7.
.
.
.
,
,
. :
uud :
+
p (938.27), + (1234), N + (1430), N + (1530) . , , ,
. ,
. .
, .

uds

0 (1116), 0 (1193), 0 (1384) . ,


.

uss

:
0 (1315) = 28 10 + 4 + 14 , -

375

8. .
.

2 . 0
(1383) gg = 2 + 2 ,
0 (1532) gg = 2 + 2 4 + 4 .
+
c ( 2285) udc = 28 8 + 2 + 14 (
3%).
+
c ( 2452) gg = 10 + 10 .
kwark. 3% .
++
, c (uuc) 28 6 14 .
gg c+ + = 4 4 3%.
0c (ddc) = 28 10 + 4 + 14 , gg =
= 7 + 7 , 0c (2452) < 0.006%.

. N. 8.1.

q
q
q
b (5425+175
75 ) = udb = u + d + (u + u + d + d + u + u + d ) = .

= 28 + 18 + 4 12

5148,
4%.
b
.
, .
.
. , , .

-. . .
. , ,
..
. , -

376

8. .
.

.
2 2
2 ( ggXc )
m x c =
.
kmg c 2
,
2
mg c ,

.
.

,
, . , .

dss, uss, = 3,.k = 12


sss, = 4, k = 16
uds, = 2, k = 8
uuc, = 2, k = 8
ddc, = 2, k = 8


(J=1/2)

Le

<7*10^-6

+1

<0.17

+1

<18

+1

0,511

>4.3*10^23

+1

105,66

2,2*10^-6

+1

e~

1777

2,9*10^-13c

+1

: (B=0,L=0)


()

+ ,
~
""", ~
e~

0 (1)

+ ,~

J (I )

+ ,

ud , du

139,7

2,6*10^-8

377

8. .
.

0
K +, K
K 0, K 0

uu , dd
us , su

ds , sd

134.98

8.4*10^-17

0 (1)

494

1.2*10^-8

0 (1 / 2)

+ ,~ ,

0 (1 / 2)

0
+ , 0 0

498

0
0.8*10^-10 K s

5.2 * 10^ 8K L0 0 (1 / 2)

e , ,3 0
3 0 , 0 +

uu + dd

547

uu + dd , ss 958

1,2

0,20

0 ( 0)

2 ,3 0 ,

0 ( 0)

0 +
0 , 0 0

ud , du
uu dd

770

151

1 (1)

+ + ,

uu + dd

782

8,4

1 (0)

+ 0

ss

1020

4,4

1 (0)

K +K

+ 0

cd , dc
cu , uc

1869

1.1 *1012

0 (1 / 2)

1865

4.2 *1013

0 (1 / 2)

Ds

cs,sc

1969

4.7 *1013

0 ( 0)

e + ,
+
K +

ub , bu
db , bd

5279

1.6 *1012

0 (1 / 2)

D 0 + , +

cc

3097

87

1 (0)

+ +
, e e ,

bb

9460

53

1 (0)

+ , e + e ,

D0 , D 0

B0 , B 0
J /

+
: (=1,L=0)


,
-

p

J (I )

uud

938.27

>1031

1 / 2+ (1 / 2)
378

8. .
.

ddu

939.57

887 2

1 / 2+ (1 / 2)

pe~

uds

1116

2.6*10^-10

1 / 2 + ( 0)

p , n 0

uus

1189

0.80*10^-10

1 / 2+ (1)

uds

1193

7.4*10^-20

1 / 2+ (1)

p 0 , n +

dds

1197

1.5*10^-10

1 / 2+ (1)

uss

1315

2.9*10^-10

1 / 2+ (1 / 2)

dss

1321

1.6*10^-10

1 / 2+ (1 / 2)

SSS

1672

0.82*10^-10

3 / 2+ (0)

+ +

uuu

12301234

115-125

+
0

+ (1385)

uud

uus

1384

36

0 (1385)

uds

1384

(1385)

dds

1387

39

0 (1530)

uss

1532

9.1

3 / 2+ (1 / 2)

(1530)
N (1440)

dss

1535

N +uud

14301470

250-450

1 / 2+ (1 / 2)

15151530

110-135

3 / 2 (1 / 2)

2.0*10^-13

1 / 2 + ( 0)

(n, p) +

1 / 2+ (1)

N (1520)

, 0
3 / 2+ (3 / 2) (n, p) +

udd
ddd

3 / 2+ (1)

n( p) + (2 )

N 0udd
N +uud
N 0udd

+c

udc

2285

+ +

uuc

2453

udc

2454

0
b

ddc

2452

udb

5425+175
75

379

8. .
.

d
Q
-1/3
B
1/3
J
1/2
P
+1
I
1/2
-1/2
I

u
+2/3
1/3
1/2
+1
1/2
+1/2


s
c
-1/3
+2/3
1/3
1/3
1/2
1/2
+1
+1
0
0
0
0

b
-1/3
1/3
1/2
+1
0
0

T
+2/3
1/3
1/2
+1
0
0

S
0
0
-1
0
0
0
Chfrm c
0
0
0
+1
0
0
Bjnnjmnes b
0
0
0
0
-1
0
Topnes t
0
0
0
0
0
+1
, 0,33
0,33
0,51
1,8
5
180

0,007
0,005
0,15
1,3
4,1-4,4 174


.
,

q

S = (u + u ) + d

c = (u + u q ) + (d + d q ) + u
b = (u + u q ) + (d + d q ) + (u + u q ) + d
t = (u + u q ) + (d + d q ) + (u + u q ) + (d + d q ) + u
q
q
(u + u ) = ( d + d ) ,
q

s = (u + u ) + d

c = 2(u + u q ) + u
b = 3(u + u q ) + d
t = 4(u + u q ) + u

bn = (2n + 1)(u + u q ) + d
tn = 2n(u + u q ) + u
n = 0,1,2,3,...
0
q
= u + u = 8 + 4ki

bn = (2n + 1) 0 + d
t n = 2 n 0 + u
380

8. .
.


+ = 2tn + bn = (6n + 1) 0 + p +
N 0 = bn + 2tn = (6n + 2) 0 + n0
n=0
+
n+= 0 = 0 + p + =
.
N n0= 0 = 2 0 + n0 = 0 = 0 + 0
.
n=1
N n0=1 = 8 0 + n0 = bb q + n0 = + n0 .

8.8 .
. 4 , ( 48). (
) , ,
3,
. -, ,
, ( 1) C3 ( 3). . jarktgi
.
0e
,
, ( 3). ,
. , -, - . 7 (64) . (
8) a,b,c,d
8.8.1
ggn = 4 = a + b(k j ) + c( j i ) + d (k + i )

b(k j ) = b 0e karktgj - ,
c( j i) = c 0e jarktgi - ,
d (k + i ) = d 0e+ karktgi - .

381

8. .
.



8.8.2
ggn = 4 = a + be kj + ce ji + de ki
,
(8.8.2) : , , , .


. 8. 0
.
: .
.
,
5, ,
. ,
-, 9-10
. , 6*(9-10),
Xe54 . , , 3/2 .
-
.
0
2,3, ., . 7 .

q
q
. u , u , d , d ( 8)
5
+
=
+
u e~
e2n +1
1
1
5
q

u = e1 + e~+
2n +1
1
5
8.8.3
d = e2n +1
0
5
q
d = e~+
2n +1
0

382

8. .
.

1, 3 ,... 2n +1 , ~1,~3,....~
.
2 n +1

1 = e , 3 = ~1,~3
.

( 8).

e = 1 + ji = e jarktgi . e = e ji .
~e = 1 ji = e jarktgi . ~e = e ji
8.8.3 8.8.2.
u.
e~+ = (1 + kj )(1 + ji ) = 1 + kj ji + ki
1
e3 = (1 kj )(3 + ji ) = 3 3kj + ji + ki
e5 = (1 kj )(5 + ji ) = 5 5kj + ji + ki
e7 = (1 kj )(7 + ji ) = 7 7 kj + ji + ki
e9 = (1 kj )(9 + ji ) = 9 9kj + ji + ki
e11 = (1 kj )(11 + ji ) = 11 9kj + ji + ki
C 8.8.3 u. . :

u = 36 34kj + 4 ji + 6ki

u q = 36 + 34kj 4 ji + 6ki
d = 36 37kj + 6 ji + 6ki

8.8.4.

d q = 36 + 37kj 6 ji + 6ki

, 8.8.2. ,
u.

u = 36 34kj + 4 ji + 6ki =
= 36 + 34 34 34kj + 4 4 + 4 ji + 6 6 + 6ki =
= 36 34 4 6 + 34e kj + 4e + ji + 6eki =
= 8 + 34e kj + 4e + ji + 6e+ ki

.
:
ji
ki
kj

u = 8 + 34e

+ 4e + 6e

383

8. .
.

u q = 68 34e kj 4e + ji + 6e ki
d = 13 + 37e

kj

+ 6e

+ ji

+ 6e

8.8.5

ki

d q = 73 37e kj 6e+ ji + 6e ki


,
. , . .
.

0
q
q

uu dd

0 = uu q = 60 + 12e ki
0 = dd q = 60 + 12e ki

, . q
. u, u . , :
8.8.6
ki
+ kj
ji

u = 68 34e

4e

+ 6e

u q = 8 + 34e + kj + 4e ji + 6e ki

0
q
ki
= uu = 60 + 12e .
8.8.4 8.8.5, 8.8.6 :
u
q
u
. , .

q
u, u .
ji
ki
kj

u = 8 + 34e

+ 4e + 6e


q
+ kj
ji

u = 8 + 34e

+ 4e

+ 6e ki


q
ki

= uu = 8 + 34 34kj + 4 + 4 ji + 6e 8 + 34 34kj + 4 4 ji + 6e ki =
= 60 + 12eki

, .
.
q
d, d . , -

384

8. .
.

. . ( 8).
q
+
= ud .

.
q
ji
ki
ji
ki
+
kj
kj

= ud = 8 + 34e

+ 4e + 6e + 73 37e

6e + 6e =

= 65 3e ki 2e ji + 12eki

+
+1, T
= +1
+ = 55 + 3ekj + 2e ji + 12eki ,
,
, .
q

= du
q
ji
ki
ji
ki

kj
kj

= du = 13 + 37e

+ 6e + 6e + 68 34e

4e + 6e

= 55 + 3e kj + 2e ji + 12e ki

- 1
= 65 3e kj 2e ji + 12eki ,

, .
.
.
ki

C ( ) = 55 + 3 3 + 3 3kj + 2 2 + 2 + 2 ji + 12e

= 55 + 6 + 4 3e kj 2e ji + 12eki = 65 3e kj 2e ji + 12eki

CP (
) .
C ( + ) = CP( + ) = +
,

C ( ) = CP( ) =
- T = 1

+
T
= 1, T = 1, T = 0

, . +1.

385

8. .
.

. -1.

. +1.

.
-1.
, , . .
,
.
,
. . , , , .
.
. , ,
.
:
T
.
, (
j + i
). , ke

j + i
ke
.
.
.
,
.
8.
. +
p = uud . :
8.8.7
ji
ki
+
kj

p = 29 + 105e + 14e + 18e


~
p + = 209 105e kj 14e ji + 18e ki

386

8. .
.

. .
~
p + = u qu q d q .
.
ji
ki
kj
~+

p = 209 105e 14e + 18e


C( ~
p + ) = p + = 29 + 105ekj + 14e ji + 18

8.8.7 ,
8.8.7 .
, +1.
, (
)
, +1 .
,

p + = uud = 29 + 105e kj + 14e ji + 18eki


+
, , 1 / 2 (1 / 2)
,

q
q
q
kj
ji
ki
+

~
p = u u d = 209 105e 14e + 18e
( )
C( ~
p + ) = 29 + 105e kj + 14e ji + 18e ki , 1/2
, ,
.

n0 = ddu = 34 + 108e kj + 16e ji + 18eki ,
+
1 / 2 (1 / 2)
C (n~ 0 ) = C (d q d qu q ) = 34 + 108e + kj + 16e ji + 18e ki ,
, .
0
n = ddu . 0
kj
n = 34 + 108e
+ 16e ji + 18e ki . .

0
ji
+
kj

n p = 5 + 3e

+ 2e

387

8. .
.

E = 5 + 3e kj + 2 + 2 ji 1 + ji =
= 4 + 3e kj 3 + 3 + 3 ji =
= 7 + 3e kj + 3e ji

n0 = p + + E + ~e
d u ,

E = d u (1 ji ) = ee e~+ ~ = (1 kj )(1 + ji ) (1 + kj ) =
e
e
ji
ki
kj

= 1 kj + ji + ki 1 kj = 2kj + ji + ki = 4 + 2e

+e +e


ji
ki

kj

E = 4 + 2e

+e +e

,
ji
ki
kj

Q = 3 + e

+ 2e e

. Q = 0.959M
0,762 .
23%.
,
+ 0 +

p , n , , E


.
g ( p + ) = 29 + 105e kj + 14e ji + 18eki

g (n0 ) = 34 + 108e kj + 16e ji + 18eki

8.8.8

g ( ) = 65 3e kj 2e ji + 12eki
g ( E ) = 4 + 2e kj + e ji + e ki
,
.

388

8. .
.

g ( p + ) = 29 + 105e kj + 14e ji + 18e ki


g (n0 ) = 34 + 108e kj + 16e ji + 18e ki
g ( ) = 65 3e kj 2e ji + 12eki

8.8.9

g ( E ) = 4 + 2ekj + e ji + e ki

.
8.8.10
g (e + kj ) = g (e kj ), g (e+ ji ) = g (e ji )
,

. .

8.8.9 . mg .
.
8.8.11
mx c 2 = kmg c 2 (kmg c 2 ) 2 (m(gx )c 2 ) 2
- ,
m(gx )c 2 - ,
mx c 2 - .
. ( 7). ( 5), ( 6).
.
, 8.8.11, ,

8.8.12
m(gx )c 2 = 2kmg c 2mx c 2
,
, 8.8.9,
.
,

389

8. .
.

mx c =

8.8.13

(m(gx )c 2 ) 2
2kmg c 2

, ,
, 8.8.13 .
8.8.12 :
+
0
m(gp )c 2 = 67.527 *1011 M, m(gn )c 2 = 67.713 *1011 M,

m(g )c 2 = 26.11*1011 M, m(gE )c 2 = 1.58 *1011 M


8.8.9
11
kj
ji

67.527 *10

= 29 + 105e

8.8.14

+ 14e + 18eki

67.713 *1011 = 34 + 108e kj + 16e ji + 18eki


26.11*1011 = 65 3e kj 2e ji + 12eki
1.58 *1011 = 4 + 2e kj + e ji + e ki

8.8.14
.
8.8.15
mg (e kj )c 2 = 0.4667 *1011 M

mg (e ji )c 2 = 0.3471*1011 M
mg (eki )c 2 = 1.520807 *1011 M
11
m g (1) = 0.13171*10 M
u, u
ji
ki
kj

u = 8 + 34e

+ 4e + 6e

u q = 68 34e kj 4e ji + 6e ki

-
x =

(e kj ) =

h
(34 * 0.4667 *1011)c

(e ji ) = 5.44 * 10 21

h
. mx c

= 047605 *10 21
8.8.16

(e ki ) = 0.8278 *10 21
(1) = 7,198 *10 21
390

8. .
.


10 43 . . ,
21
r = 10

.
21
7.198 * 10
.
.

.
++
(1232) uuu ,
++
kj
g (1232) 0 + 102e
12e ji + 18e ki ,

ji
ki
kj
u = 8 + 34e + 4e + 6e , . s = 3 / 2 ,
1/2 . . m + +
c 2 = 1282 . 4,1%. (1232)
3/2,

J = 3 / 2 , u . ( ) .

uud
+
+

p (938), (1232)

, . ., +
1 / 2 (1 / 2) .
u, d
g+ (1232) = 9 + 105e kj 6e ji + 18e ki .
m +
c 2 = 1227.7 . (1232)
076%. , , 1/2 3/2.
.

g+ (1236) = 1 + 105e kj 14e ji + 18e ki .


m +
c 2 = 1346.8 . 9,3%. 3/2, (1236)
3/2.

391

8. .
.

udd

n (940), (1232) .
. .
d () ,
0
kj
g (1232) = 10 + 108e
8e ji + 18e ki
m 0
c 2 = 1285.6 . (1236)
+
1/2, 3/2. . 1 / 2 (3 / 2) .
u ,
g0 (1236) = 2 + 108e kj 14e ji + 18eki .
m 0
c 2 = 1389.24 . (1236)
13%.
3/2,
. 3/2, +
. 3 / 2 (3 / 2) - .
, 1
. 1.
( ), (
). , .

() ,
.

ddd (1241) .
3 / 2+ (3 / 2) . .
g (1241) = 15 + 111e kj 6e ji + 18e ki .
m
c 2 = 1287.23 .
(1241)
g (1241) = 3 + 111e kj 18e ji + 18eki .
m
c 2 = 1480.32
(1241)

392

8. .
.


3,7 %, 19 %.
+
+
1 / 2 (3 / 2) , 3 / 2 (3 / 2) .
, ,
S = 0 .

+ + (1232), + (1236), 0 (1236), (1241) +


3 / 2 (3 / 2). u, d . d , .
15 %. 1/2
10 %, 3/2 15 %.

S = 1 . ,
S = (u + u q ) + d . ( )

(u + u q ) .
u + u q = d + d q = 60 + 6eki .

uus
+ (1383), + (1189) .
u ,
q
u d .

g + (1383) = 127 + 37e kj 14e ji + 30eki ( u d . 3/2. 1, .


g + (1189) = 107 + 37e kj + 6e ji + 30eki (
u ). 1/2. 1/2. (
)
m +
c 2 = 1458 . 5,3 %.
(1383)
3/2. 1/2.
m +
c 2 = 1146.83 . . 3,6 %.
(1189)
. d u
ji
ki
+
kj

g (1189) = 111 + 37e

+ 2e + 30e

393

8. .
.

+
1 / 2 (1 / 2) .
m +
c 2 = 1206 . 1,4 %. ,
(1189)
1 . ,
1, J =

1
S , S -
2

.
uds ,
0
0
0
(1386), (1192), (1116) .
.
, .

0
ji
ki
kj

g (1192) = 120 + 34e

4e + 30e

m 0
c 2 = 1265.5
(1192)

g0 (1385) = 132 + 34e kj 16e ji + 30eki


m 0
c 2 = 1456.13
(1385)

g0 (1116) = 112 + 34e kj + 4e ji + 30eki


m 0
c 2 = 1145.31
(1116)

1 S = 1 / 2, s = 3 / 2, s = 1 / 2
1/2. 1.
dds

. (1197), (1385) .

ji
ki

kj

g (1197) = 92 + 37e

+ 6e + 30e

m
c 2 = 1087.33
(1197 )
g (1385) = 95 + 37e kj 18e ji + 30eki
m
c 2 = 1363.26
(1385)
2,6 % 1,6 %.

1 / 2 + (1),3 / 2+ (1) .
( S) uss, dss .
0
0

. (1529), (1315), (1321), (1530)

394

8. .
.



.

0
ji
ki
kj

g (1315) = 258 34e

4e + 42e

m 0
c 2 = 1234
(1315)
g 0 (1529) = 240 34e kj 16e ji + 42eki
m 0
c 2 = 1480.6
(1529)
g (1321) = 253 34e kj 6e ji + 42eki
m
c 2 = 1372
(1321)
g (1535) = 265 37e kj 18e ji + 42eki
m
c 2 = 1571.56
(1535)
, 3,2 %, 3,9 %. 2,45
%. , 1 -1/2

1
* 2 = 1. 2

, 1/2. .
s = 1 / 2 ,
3/2.
sss
(1672) .
q
3- d (u + u ) ,

s = (u + u q ) + d .

ji
ki
kj

3d = 39 + 111e

+ 18e + 18e +

(u + u q ) = 180 + 36e ki = 141 + 111e kj + 18e ji + 18e ki




ji
ki

kj

g (1672) = 399 111e

18e + 18e

m
c 2 = 1618 . (1672)
3,3 %.

395

8. .
.

s = 3 / 2 , 0,

1
( S = 3) =3/2.
2
+
3 / 2 (0).

J = 3 / 2 j =

. .
q
c = 3(u + u ) + u .
+
c ( 2285) udc ,

g+c (2285) = 179 + 37e kj 6e ji + 42e ki .
m +
c 2 = 2330 . 2 %.
c ( 2285)
1/2. 1/2

1
* (c = 1) = 1 / 2 . J = 1 . 2

0.
++
kj

uuc 188 + 34e

12e ji + 42eki

m ++
c 2 = 2413
c ( 2453)

1,7 %.
+
1 / 2 (1) . .
0c ddc 192 + 34e kj 4e ji + 42e ki
m 0
c 2 = 2341
c ( 2452)
1,3 %.

1 / 2+ (1) .
b . b .
b udb 178 + 108e kj 14e ji + 54eki
mb (5425)c 2 = 5289
1,3 %.

3 / 2+ (3 / 2) . ,
.

396

8. .
.

8.9 . ,
, ,
. -. .

.
g = a + be kj + ce ji + de ki , a, b, c.d ,
.
, . .
. ,
( ).
g (1) = a1 + b1e kj + c1e ji + d1eki

g (2) = a2 + b2e kj + c2e ji + d 2e ki


:

g (1,2) = g (1) + g (2) =


= (a1 + a2 ) + (b1 + b2 )e kj + (c1 + c2 )e ji + (d1 + d 2 )eki .

(b1 + b2 ) = 0


(a1 + a2 ) 0, (d1 + d 2 ) 0 , .
.
s, c, b, t .

sc, scb, sb, cbt , ns + n1c, ( ni - ) .


(c1 + c2 ) = 0

s = 0 .
. .
.
,
s 0 , J 0 . 397

8. .
.


, .
. s =

1 cx
,
*
2 cu ,d

c x - ,
cu , d - u , d .
n
1 bx
1 n
+ * Qx , ks + k1c + k2b + ... J= *
2 bu , d 2 1
0
, , bx -
, bu , d - u d .
.
u, d , ,
.
, , , , 8 % .
26 19 .
84, 85, 86, 87
.
kj
u = 8 + 34e
+ 4e ji + 6e ki q
+ kj
u = 68 34e
4e ji + 6eki ,
,
kj
u1 = 0 + 34e
4e ji + 6eki ,

u q1 = 60 34e+ kj + 4e ji + 6e ki . u1
q
, u . q
u 1
u .
. .

-

398

8. .
.

(
).
u (kj, ji ) u (e , e ), u (e kj , e ji )

q
q kj ji
kj ji

q + kj ji

u (kj, ji ) u (e

, e ), u (e , e


,
kj 2
kj 2

m( e

) c = m( e ) c

m(e ji )c 2 = m(e ji )c 2

+cji
-c

+b
-bkj
-c

-cji
84.
= a + be kj ce ji + de ki
g
b >0,C>0.

87. -

399

8. .
.

,
(-). 87 .

-c

+ bkj

-cji

85.
g = a be kj ce ji + de ki b>0, C>0 86 (-).

+b
-bkj

cji

c
86.
g = a + be kj + ce ji + de ki ( b>0,C>0).
W . ,
. (
) , ( ), W
( ). ,
- -.
, . , , 400

8. .
.

, W .

cji

+ bkj

87.
g = a be kj + ce ji + de ki ( b>0,c>0).
, W . ( -)
(-) ( ) . W -
.
+

+
CPW ( ) = , CPW ( ) =
0

0 = uu q dd q .

g 0 (134.96) = 60 + 0 + 0 + 12e ki .
m 0
c 2 = 139.677 . 3,496 %.
(134.96)
,

g 0 (134.96) = 57 + 0 + 0 + 12e ki .

401

8. .
.

m 0
c 2 = 135.499 . 0,4 %. ,
(134.96)
,
g 0 (134.96) = 60 1 * e kj + 0 + 12eki .
m 0
c 2 = 134.7299 . 0,17 %. (134.96)
,
s = 0, ,
J 0 = 1 , .

.
g + (139.5673) = 65 3e kj 2e ji + 12e ki .
g (139.5673) = 55 + 3e kj + 2e ji + 12eki .

m
c 2 = 140.22 . 0,462 %. (139.5673)
0,492 %. ji

2e
kj
0,099 , e
0,045. .
.
, . CPW -.
ji
ki

kj

C ( ) = C (55 + 3e

+ 2e + 12e ) = 55 + 3 3kj + 3 3 + 2 + 2 ji + 12e ki =

= 65 3ekj 2e ji + 12e ki

W .

CPW ( ) = W (65 3e kj 2e ji + 12e ki ) =


= 65 3e kj 2e ji + 12eki = +

.
(547) ,

= uu q + dd q ,
g (547) = 114 + 24e ki ,
m (547)c 2 = 543.3
0,05 %. ( , -

402

8. .
.

).

0, . 0 (0) .

/ (958)
ss q = (u + u q ) + d + (u + u q ) + d q = 3 0 .

g / = 171 + 36eki .

= 1222.5 .
m /
(958)
27 %.

0 (0) . .
+
(770) q
ud , u
u1 = 0 + 34e kj 4e ji + 6e ki , ,
d
d1 = 1 + 37e kj 6e ji + 6e ki . ,
g + (770) = 1 + 71e kj 10e ji + 12eki ,
m +
c 2 = 613.14 . 26 %.
(770)
9,3 +
, 1 (1).
q
q
(782) uu + dd , 0
+

= + + .
g (782) = 140 + 0 20e ji + 24eki .
m (782)c 2 = 778.35 . 0,5 %.
u d.

1 (0) .
q
(1020) ss ,
q
q
q
q
q
q

(1020) = (u + u ) + d + (u + u ) + d = u d + d u + uu =
=+ + +0

.
, -

403

8. .
.

1 (0) . q
, d
d q1 = 61 37e kj + 6e ji + 6e ki ,
180. . ,
g (1020) = 168 + 0 + 12e ji + 36eki .
m (1020)c 2 = 1079 . 5.8 %.
. s =
J =

0 +11
= 0.
2

1 12
= 1 .
2 6


D (1869), D 0 , D 0 (1865), Ds (1969)
.
Ds+ = cs q = 2(u + u q ) + u + (u + u q ) + d q =
0
0
0
+
+

= 2 + + = 2 + K

gDs+ (1969) = 247 3e kj 2e ji + 48eki .


m +
c 2 = 2190 . 11,1 %.
Ds (1969)
. , q
c, s . .

q
q
q
q
0

D (1865) = uc = u + 2(u + u ) + u = 3(u + u )

171 + 0 + 0 + 36e ki

m 0
c = 1219.5 .
D (1865)
35 %., .
q
u
u q1 = 0 + 34e kj 4e ji + 36e ki .
gD 0 = 120 + 68e kj + 0 + 36e ki .

404

8. .
.

m 0
c 2 = 2139.42 . 9 %. C D (1965)
, .

J=

68 / 34 1
= 1 / 2 . 2
2

.
q
+

D (1869) cd = 2(u + u q ) + u + d q 120 + 24eki + (u = 8 +

+ 34e kj + 4e ji + 6e ki ) + (d q1 = 1 + 37e kj 6e ji + 6e ki ) =
= 111 + 71e kj 2e ji + 36e ki


m +
c 2 = 2144.73 . 14,7 %. D (1869)
,
0,099,
m + c 2 = 1869 0.6 . D
. J =

1 71 1
= 1 / 2.
2 34 2

q
q
kj
d 1 d 2 = 13 + 37e
+ 6e ji + 6e ki ,
+
kj
gD = 93 + 71e
+ 10e ji + 36e ki . 2
m + c = 1910.04 . 2,2 %. D
+
1 / 2 (1 / 2) .
(1820), (2030) . 0.5% .
,

, .
.

K + (493.667) = us q , K (493.667) = su q S
s = (u + u q ) + d ,
q
q
q
q
q
0
+
+

K us = u + (u + u ) + d = ud + uu = +

K su q = (u + u q ) + d + u q = uu q + du q = 0 +
.
.

405

8. .
.

u = 8 + 34e kj + 4e ji + 6e ki +
d q = 73 37e kj 6e ji + 6e ki +

0 = 60 e kj + 0 + 12e ki =
= gK + = 125 4e kj 2e ji + 24e ki

m +
c 2 = 547.709 . 10,9 %.
K ( 494)

K
q
ji
ki
kj

u = 68 34e

4e + 6e +

d = 13 + 37e kj + 6e ji + 6e ki +

0 = 60 e kj + 0 + 12e ki =
= gK = 115 + 2e kj + 2e ji + 24e ki
m
c 2 = 549.83 .
K ( 494)
11,4 %. 0,38 %.
q
, u , d

CPW (u q d ) = d qu . .
, .
. S,
0 ( 1 / 2) .
0
q
K ( 497.67) = ds .
2- .
.
ds q = d + (u + u q ) + d q = 0 + 0 + + .
K s0
0
kj
gK s = 120 2e
+ 0 + 24eki .
m 0
c 2 = 538.92 . K s ( 498)
8,3 %.

406

8. .
.

gQ = 69e kj + 8e ji , 177,65 .
.

1 / 2+ (1 / 2) .
ji
ki
kj

gXZ = 60 + 69e

+ 8e + 12e

764,29 .
(770) -. dd q
gQ = 75e kj + 12e ji .

gXZ = 60 + 75e kj 12e ji + 12e ki , 872, 66 .
*
K (892) .
,
0
kj
gK l = 120 6e
4e ji + 24e ki ,
m 0
c 2 = 528.91 . 6,2 %.
K l ( 498)
, ,

gKl0 (498) = 180 69e kj 8e ji + 36eki ,
m 0
c 2 = 490.24 . 1,5 %.
K l ( 498)
+
1 / 2 (1 / 2) . . ,
.
+
K q
+
K = us , q
q
q
s = (u + u ) + d , 9,5 .
+
m(gK ) = 135 3e kj 2e ji + 24e ki . 586 ,
494 18 %.

q
kj
d = 73 37e
6e ji + 6e ki
407

8. .
.

d q = 73 37e kj 6 6 ji 6 + 6 + 6eki =
= 61 37e kj + 6e ji + 6e ki = d 2q


+
m(gK ) = 113 3e kj + 4e ji + 6e ki .
482,23 .
2,4 %.
.

q
q
q

K = su = (u + u ) + d + u

m(gK ) = 115 + 3e kj + 2e ji + 24e ki . 559,78 13 %.



q
kj
u = 68 34e
4e ji + 6e ki ,
u2q = 68 34e kj 4 4 ji + 4 4 + 6eki =
.
kj
ji
ki

= 60 34e

+ 4e

+ 6e

m(gK ) = 107 + 3e kj + 10e ji + 24e ki , 480,85


2,7 %.

K 0 = ds q = d + (u + u q ) + d q
(
0
0
0
K +

0
m(gK ) = 120 + 24e ki ,
558,71 , 498
12 %.


0
+
m(gK ) = m(g( k + k ) / 2 ) = 110 + 7e ji + 24e ki ,
481,54 4,3 %.
q
q
= uu + dd

ki
m( g ) = 120 + 24e

408

8. .
.

2
m c = 560.08 .
547 .
2,4 %.
0 +
D , D , D 0
q +
q
q
D = cc , D = cd , D = dc q
, c = 2(u + u ) + u ,
D + cd q 2(u + u q ) + u + d q 2 0 + + ,

q
q
q
0
+
+

D (u + u ) + u + d + ( u + u ) K +

. 0
0
+
+
D K + + D+
kj
m( g ) = 227 3e
+ 4e ji + 48e ki 2
m + c = 2137.96 .
D
.
8 14 %.

cc q = 2(u + u q ) + u + 2(u + u q ) + u q = 5(u + u q )


J / 3097 . J /
m( g
) = 285 + 60eki .
2
m j / c = 3387.51 3097 . 9,4 %.
q
9460 = bb . q
b = 4(u + u ) + u ( ),
m(g ) = 9(u + u q ) .
m c 2 = 10975 .
. q
, (u + u ) 0
B+
ki
7 . , m( g ) = 399 + 72e .

m + c 2 = 5376 . 5279 . B
2 %.

409

8. .
.

0 - 0 uds .
s s = (u + u q ) + d ,

0 = u + d + (u + u q ) + d = udd + uu q = n0 + 0 .

g0 = u = 8 + 34e kj + 4e ji + 6e ki +
ji
ki
kj

+ d === 13 + 37e

+ 6e + 6e +

+ d === 13 + 37e kj + 6e ji + 6e ki +
+ (u + u q ) = 60 + 0 + 0 + 12e ki =
= 26 + 108e kj + 16e ji + 30e ki

2
m c = 1804.54
0
. 1115,6 52
%. u
u1 = 0 + 34e kj 4e ji + 6e ki
d d1 = 73 37e kj 6e ji + 6e ki . . kj
g0 = 120 + 34e
4e ji + 30e ki .
2
m c = 1265.49 .
0
13,4 %.
d ,

g0 = 112 + 34e kj + 4e ji + 30eki


m0 c 2 = 1177.7 .
5,5 %.
kj
g0 = 112 + 33e
+ 4e ji + 30e ki .
2
m c = 1131.058 .
0
1115,6 . 1,34 %.
uds

0
0

(1193), (1384)

u1, d1 ,

g0 (1193) = 120 + 33e kj 4e ji + 30eki ,


m 0 c 2 = 1250.507 . 4,82 %.

410

8. .
.

d
d 2 = 1 + 37e kj 6e ji + 6e ki ,
g0 (1384) = 132 + 33e kj 16e ji + 30e ki .

= 1440.9 . 4 %.
m 0
(1384)
86, 84, 84

0 (1116), 0 (1193), 0 (1383) .


, . ,
:
s = 1 / 2 . ,
s = 3 / 2 . ,

0 (1116)
0 (1193)
s = 1/ 2 ,
s = 1/ 2 ,
0 (1383) s = 3 / 2 . s = 1 .
. 0 (1116)
J = 0 ,
.
0 (1193), 0 (1383) J = 1 .
.
uus
+
+
: (1189), (1385) ,

1 / 2+ (1) 3 / 2+ (1) .

s = (u + u q ) + d ,
q
0
+
+

(1189) = u + u + (u + u ) + d = p +

.
u
u1 = 68 34e kj 4e ji + 6eki
kj
u u 2 = 0 + 34e
4e ji + 6e ki .
g + (1189) = 115 + 36e kj 2e ji + 30e ki ,
m +
c 2 = 1252.1 . 5,3 %.
(1189)

411

8. .
.

d d1 = 1 + 37e

ji
ki
kj

u1 = 68 e

kj

6e ji + 6e ki

4e + 6e +

u 2 = 0 + 34e kj 4e ji + 6e ki +

0 = 60 e kj + e ji + 12eki +
d1 = 1 + 37e kj 6e ji + 6e ki =
= 127 36e kj 14e ji + 30e ki

m +
c = 1442.64 . 4,2 %.
(1385)
84 87
dds ,
(1197), (1387) 1 / 2+ (1),3 / 2+ (1)

q
q
0

dds = d + d + (u + u ) + d = ddu + u d = n +


d (1197) .

(1387) .

g (1197) = 107 + 36e kj + 6e ji + 30e ki ,
m
c 2 = 1130.22 , 5,4 %.
(1197 )
g (1383) = 134 + 36e kj 18e ji + 30eki ,

m
c 2 = 1506.6 . 8.6 %.
(1383)

.
uss
0 (1315), 0 (1530) 1 / 2+ (1 / 2),3 / 2+ (1 / 2)

uss = u + 2(u + u q ) + 2d = udd + 2(u + u q ) =
u
0
0
0
0 +

= n + 2 + ( p )

u1 = 68 34e

kj

4e ji + 6eki ,

412

8. .
.

d d 2 = 73 37e kj 6e ji + 6e ki
g 0 (1315) = 248 36e kj 4e ji + 42e ki
m 0
c 2 = 1342.95 . 2,1 %.
(1315)

.
g 0 (1532) = 262 36e kj 16e ji + 42eki ,

m 0
c 2 = 1549.36 . 1,13 %.
(1532)
85. , .
, .

. (1321), (1530)
+
+

1 / 2 (1 / 2),3 / 2 (1 / 2)

dss = d + 2(u + u q ) + 2d = ddu + (u + u q ) + du q =


= n0 + 0 + = + 0 0 +


.
g (1321) = 247 39e kj 6e ji + 42e ki ,
m
c 2 = 1341.28 .
(1321)
g (1530) = 265 39e kj 18e ji + 42e ki ,
m
c 2 = 1538.24 .
(1530)
1,5 %, 0,2 %.
.
.
8 . 0,2-8 %.
. ,
.. u , d , s, c, b, t ,
. ,

. s, c, b, t q q
u , d , u , d . -

413

8. .
.

. ,
q q
u, d u , d .
-
. ,
, , ,
. ( . 7 8.).

,
, , , ..
- ,
.
,
s, c, b, t , .
q
0

s = (u + u ) + d = + d

c = (u + u q ) + (d + d q ) + u = 2 0 + u
b = (u + u q ) + (d + d q ) + (u + u q ) + d = 3 0 + d
t = (u + u q ) + (d + d q ) + (u + u q ) + (d + d q ) + u = 4 0 + u
.
: , ,
.. : 1- , 2-,3 ..
,
s, c, b, t .
,
u, d . u, d
. ( ,
).
s =

1 c1
2c

414

8. .
.

1 b1 1 n
+ Qn , b1 -
2b 2 1
, c1 -
, b, c -
J =

u, d ,

Qn

1
s, c, b, t .

, .
, s, c, b, t , u, d .

. , , ,
.
8.10
, .
6 .

.
.. .
Z /(9 10) = P , Z- , 9-10 -
.
, , . , .

.

.

.
6,7,8
, .
.
,
.
( ,
)
415

8. .
.

m p c 2 = 2mg c 2 4(mg c 2 )2 (mvp c 2 )2


mnc 2 = 2mnc 2 4(mnc 2 ) 2 (mvnc 2 ) 2
2
mg c
p 2 n 2
mv c , mv c , , .

10.1.
p 2 2
2 1 ( mv c )
m pc =
4 mg c 2
10.2.
n 2 2
2 1 ( mv c )
mnc =
4 mg c 2
8 . . . 7,8, ,
10.3.
= 29 + 105e kj + 14e ji + 18e ki
m p c 2 = g
v

mp

mvnc 2 = gmn = 34 + 108e kj + 16e ji + 18e ki

10.4.


.
10.5.
mvc 2 = gm = 31.5 + 106.5e kj + 15e ji + 18e ki

Z N
mc 2 = Zm p c 2 + Nmnc 2

10.6.
2 2
2 1 ( mv c )
mN c =
4 mg c 2
, Z N
A
10.7.
2 2
2 1 ( mv c )
,
Mc = A
4
mg c 2
A = Z + N

10.8.
2 2

E = ( Zm p c 2 + Nmnc 2 )

1 ( mv c )
A
4
mg c 2


9,5. . ,
416

8. .
.

1
mvc 2 (mvp c 2 + mvn c 2 )
2

. 0.75
31.5+ 0.35 .
-29>(-31.13.-32.25)>-34. 11
+ 0..07
. 67.48 0.07 * 10 .

1 p 2
67.527 * 1011 + 67.713 *1011
n 2
= 67.67 *1011 >
(mv c + mv c ) =

> 67.48 0.07 *1011

0,2 . 1 2-3 .
.
.
,
. 8 : .
3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,12
.. ,
.

417

68 -0,3471

0,1312 120 0,4667

12
-2

-0,3471 -2
-0,3471
2
-0,3471
0
-0,3471 -2
-0,3471
2
-0,3471
0
-0,3471
0
-0,3471
0
-0,3471 -10
-0,3471 -20

0 -0,3471
69 -0,3471

-3
3
-1
-4
2
-2
-2
-3
71
-2

m(ji)

0,1312 168 0,4667


0,1312 111 0,4667

65 0,4667
55 0,4667
60 0,4667
125 0,4667
115 0,4667
120 0,4667
120 0,4667
180 0,4667
-1 0,4667
146 0,4667

0,1317
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1317
0,1317
0,1312
0,1312

m(kj) b

m(1)

1,5208

1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

m(ki)

d
26,10
26,17
25,65
51,72
51,82
51,31
51,37
77,06
54,73
61,66

36 102,23

36 72,62
36 102,21

12
12
12
24
24
24
24
36
12
24

gm

mg

1,22

1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

4 2139,4214d0(cuq)

4
4

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

1865 1,1471

M
%
%

()
139,5174pion+
139,5673 0,9996
140,2127pijn 139,5673 1,0046
134,7300pion00
134,96 0,9983
547,7093k+usq
493,667 1,1095
549,8295k-suq
493,667 1,1138
538,9199kodsq
497,67 1,0829
540,2727itta(uuq + ddq)
547 0,9877
1215,6346itta(uuq + ddq)
958 1,2689
613,1404ro(uuq-ddq)
770 0,7963
778,3547omega(uuq +
782 0,9953
ddq)
1079,6825fi(ssq)
1020 1,0585
2138,6016d+(cdq)
1869 1,1442

8.2. , , ,
.
.
a,b,c,d- gm- ,
m(1), m(kj), m(ji), m(ki) - .
a
b
c D
Gm
m(1) m(kj) m(ji) m(ki)
gm
mg
m
-29 105 14 18 67,6970
1593,1200 12096 0,1317 0,4667 -0,3471
1,5208 67,6989
1,2211
4 938,3223
-34 108 16 18 67,7440
5645,2080 12096 0,1317 0,4667 -0,3471
1,5208 67,7462
1,2211
4 939,6347
65 -3 -2 12 26,1090
-4198,7800 12096 0,1317 0,4667 -0,3471
1,5208 26,1047
1,2211
4 139,5172
-4
2 1
1
1,5800 1209618395,6900 12096 0,1317 0,4667 -0,3471
1,5208
1,5803
1,2211
4
0,5113

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

0,1312 -3 0,4667
3 -0,3471
3
0,1312 248 0,4667 -36 -0,3471 -4
0,1312 262 0,4667 -36 -0,3471 -16

0,1312 253 0,4667 -39 -0,3471 -6


0,1312 265 0,4667 -39 -0,3471 -18

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

221 0,4667 43 -0,3471


6
-34 0,4667 108 -0,3471 16
-29 0,4667 105 -0,3471 14
206 0,4667 108 -0,3471 16
179 0,4667 37 -0,3471 -6
188 0,4667 34 -0,3471 -12
192 0,4667 34 -0,3471 -4

1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

36 -0,3471
6
36 -0,3471 -18

0,1312 107 0,4646


0,1312 131 0,4646

-0,3471
4
-0,3471 -4
-0,3471 -16
-0,3471 60
-0,3471 -2
-0,3471 -14

112 0,4667
120 0,4667
132 0,4667
286 0,4667
115 0,4667
127 0,4667

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

33
33
33
74
36
36

247 0,4667 -3 -0,3471


2
125 0,4667 136 -0,3471 -24
292 0,4667
0 -0,3471
8
504 0,4667
0 -0,3471 -84

0,1317
0,1317
0,1312
0,1312

103,44
161,26
126,77
223,02

54
18
18
66
42
42
42

42
42

0
42
42

30
30

129,10
67,76
67,71
172,24
106,70
108,57
106,31

80,94
86,68

-0,03
80,99
86,99

74,30
85,78

30 74,33
30 78,15
30 83,89
72 160,72
30 78,20
30 83,94

48
48
60
84

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1131,0583lambda (uds)
1250,5073cigma (uds)
1440,9212cigma (uds)
5288,4493b(ub)
1252,1081sigma (uus)
1442,6395(uus) cigma

8
4
4
4
4
4
4

1706,0365sss
940,1330ddu
938,7448uud
6073,9511udb
2330,9966udc
2413,1047uuc
2314,0278ddc

4 1341,2847dss
4 1538,2394dss

4
0,0002mjion
4 1342,9468uss
4 1549,3587uss

4 1130,2248sigma (dds)
4 1506,4276sigma (dds)

4
4
4
4
4
4

4 2190,4021ds(csq)
4 5324,2654B(ub)
4 3290,3177j/rci(ccq)
410182,4497yy(bb)
1,0135
1,0482
1,0404
1,0018
1,0531
1,0424

1,1124
1,0086
1,0624
1,0162

1672
939,5731
938,2796
5425
2285
2454
2285

1,0204
1,0006
1,0005
1,1196
1,0201
0,9833
1,0127

1321 1,0154
1535 1,0021

1315 1,0213
1532 1,0113

1197 0,9442
1387 1,0861

1116
1193
1385
5279
1189
1384

1969
5279
3097
10020

-0,3471
-0,3471
-0,3471
-0,3471
-0,3471
-0,3471
-0,3471
-0,3471
-0,3471
-0,3471
-0,3471
-0,3471
-0,3471
-0,3471
-0,3471

2
6
-4
20
4
6
-4
-6
-4
-6
4
6
6
4
6

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

6 0,4667
60 0,4667
-5 0,4667
156 0,4667
-8 0,4667
-13 0,4667
68 0,4667
73 0,4667
0 0,4667
-1 0,4667
60 0,4667
61 0,4667
47 0,4667
107 0,4667
167 0,4667

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

0
37
-34
34
34
37
-34
-37
34
37
-34
-37
37
34
37

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

60 0,4667 37 -0,3471
0 0,4667 68 -0,3471
136 0,4667 68 -0,3471
60 0,4667
0 -0,3471
21 0,4667 68 -0,3471
120 0,4667 74 -0,3471
120 0,4667 -6 -0,3471
120 0,4667 142 -0,3471
120 0,4667 34 -0,3471
228 0,4667
0 -0,3471
60 0,4667 34 -0,3471

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

6
8
-8
0
8
12
-4
20
4
0
4

1,5208

0,1312 178 0,4667 108 -0,3471 -14

0
0,09
0 23,06
12
3,11
42 93,26
6 22,55
6 22,60
6
3,57
6
3,52
6 26,38
6 28,34
6 -0,26
6 -2,22
18 48,72
30 74,14
42 100,96

24 59,55
0 28,96
12 70,60
12 26,12
0 31,71
24 82,61
24 50,83
24 111,57
24 66,72
48 102,91
24 58,85

54 160,73

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
726,1300omega
171,6871GG1
1020,4881GG2
139,6768pio
205,9026
1397,1664
528,9183itta
2548,3952
911,3429itta/
2167,9976Fi(csq)
709,0194ro

4
0,0018v+vv
4 108,8243mjion
4
1,9859yyyy
4 1780,6936tau
4 104,1501u
4 104,6124d
4
2,6021uq
4
2,5296dq
4 142,4847u1
4 164,4800d1
4
0,0140uq1
4
1,0130dq1
4 486,0488s
4 1125,3090c
4 2086,9820b

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

4 5289,3426udb

1,0199
1,1782

0,9845
1,0087
1,0326

pi+
pi

493,7
K
1115,6 lambda
2021
fi

139,7
139,6

1784+-3 1,0000

105,66 1,0299

958 0,9513
2021 1,0727
770 0,9208

547 0,9669

219 0,9402

782 0,9286
219 0,7840

5350 0,9887

37 -0,3471
37 -0,3471

0,1312 92 0,4667
0,1312 124 0,4667
1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

34 -0,3471
8
34 -0,3471 -16
34 -0,3471 -4

0,1312 108 0,4667


0,1312 132 0,4667
0,1312 120 0,4667

0,1312 240 0,4667 -34 -0,3471 -16


0,1312 258 0,4667 -34 -0,3471 -4

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

0,1312 -15 0,4667 111 -0,3471 -6


0,1312 -3 0,4667 111 -0,3471 -18
0,1312 127 0,4667 37 -0,3471 -14
0,1312 111 0,4667 37 -0,3471
2

1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208

0,1312 -34 0,4667 108 -0,3471 16


0,1312 -2 0,4667 108 -0,3471 -14

6
-8

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

0,1312 -24 0,4667 102 -0,3471 12


0,1312
0 0,4667 102 -0,3471 -12
0,1312 -8 0,4667 102 -0,3471 -4
0,1312 -29 0,4667 105 -0,3471 14
0,1312 -1 0,4667 105 -0,3471 -14

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

34 -0,3471
37 -0,3471

0,1312 -10 0,4667


0,1312 -15 0,4667

4
3
5

34 -0,3471

0,1312 227 0,4667

42
42

30
30

30
30
30

18
18
30
30

18
18

18
18
18
18
18

6
6

85,04
83,24

72,88
81,93

72,88
84,36
78,62

79,29
85,03
84,41
76,76

67,76
82,38

67,66
79,14
75,32
67,71
81,11

22,64
22,69

54 126,38

1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22

1,22
104,9345u-vq
105,3986d-vq

1287,2289ddd
1480,3199ddd
1458,7253uus
1206,2185uus

4 1480,5962uss
4 1418,4324uss

4 1087,3339uds
4 1374,3953uds

4 1087,4645uds
4 1456,9974uds
4 1265,4868uds

4
4
4
4

4 940,1237udd
4 1389,2410udd

4 937,3506uuu
4 1282,3626uuu
4 1161,3638uuu
4 938,7366uud
4 1346,7703uud

4
4

4 3269,8509t

1529
1315

1116
1385

1116
1385
1192

1241
1241
1385
1189

939,57
1232

938
1232
1232
938
1232

105,66
105,66

3097
m.ji

j/kci

0,9683
1,0787

0,9743
0,9923

0,9744
1,0520
1,0617

1,0373
1,1928
1,0532
1,0145

1,0006
1,1276

0,9993
1,0409
0,9427
1,0008
1,0932

0,9931
0,9975

1,0558

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

34
24

0,1312 273 0,4667 -37 -0,3471


0,1312 281 0,4667 -37 -0,3471

0,1312 399 0,4667 -108 -0,3471 -18


0,1312 399 0,4667 -111 -0,3471 -18
0,1312 -1 0,4667
1 -0,3471
1
0,1312
5 0,4667 -3 -0,3471 -2

54
54
-1
0

54
54

42
42

90,30
88,90
-1,53
-0,05

88,86
93,38

87,61
81,87

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22

4 1669,5719sss
4 1618,2027sss
4
0,4808sss
4
0,0005sss

4 1616,6773sss
4 1785,3459sss

4 1571,5597dss
4 1372,4023dss

1672
1672
1672

1672
1672

1534
1321

-30,15
-30,62
-30,38
-31,8

1,0000

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

kj

106
106
106
106

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

ji c

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

18
18
18
18

ki d

67,68
67,62
67,65
67,47

gm

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

mg

4
4
4
4

937,8699
936,1622
937,0340
931,8814

(
)

gM

2 1875,739825
3 2808,48646
3 2811,102019
4 3727,525783

1877,8527
2816,1323
2817,4258
3755,705

-2,1129
-7,6458
-6,3238
-28,1792

28,3

7,7

E(- E() )

X(Z-A)

H(1-1)
H(1-2)
He(2-1)
He(2-2)

8.3. .
a, b, c, d -
1, kj, ji, ki - ,
Zmp + Nmn = M
gm - ,
mg - ,
() - ,
A - ,
gM - ,
M - ,
E - .

1,5208
1,5208

0,1312 265 0,4667 -37 -0,3471 -18


0,1312 253 0,4667 -37 -0,3471 -6

0,9985
0,9678
0,0003

0,9669
1,0678

1,0245
1,0389

-31,35
-31,15

-31,35
-31,35
-31,35
-31,25

-31,15
-31,35
-31,8
-31,62
-31,62
-31,45
-31,2
-31,62
-31,65
-31,75
-31,65
-31,6

-31,55
-31,7
-32
-31,9
-31,9
-31,78
-31,73

-31,57
-31,87

0,1312
0,1312

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

0,1312
0,1312

106
106
106
106
106
106
106

106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106

106
106
106
106

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

18
18
18
18
18
18
18

18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18

18
18
18
18

67,50
67,48
67,44
67,45
67,45
67,47
67,48

67,55
67,53
67,47
67,49
67,49
67,51
67,55
67,49
67,49
67,47
67,49
67,49

67,53
67,53
67,53
67,54

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

4
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4

932,7876
932,2438
931,1569
931,5191
931,5191
931,9539
932,1351

934,2382
933,5128
931,8814
932,5338
932,5338
933,1501
934,0569
932,5338
932,4251
932,0626
932,4251
932,6063

933,5128
933,5128
933,5128
933,8755

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,50 1,22 4 932,7151


0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,46 1,22 4 931,6278

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,53 1,22 4 933,5128


0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,55 1,22 4 934,2382

9327,875563
10254,68221
11173,88249
12109,74862
13041,26775
13979,30877
14914,1618

5605,429495
6534,589332
7455,051565
8392,804208
9325,338009
10264,65136
7472,454807
8392,804208
9324,250592
10252,68896
11189,10071
12123,88189

4667,563809
5601,076571
6534,589332
7471,003762

12 11192,58061
13 12111,16158

10
11
12
13
14
15
16

6
7
8
9
10
11
8
9
10
11
12
13

5
6
7
8

5 4667,563809
6 5605,429495

11265,8227
12205,3958

9387,97
10327,5431
11267,1162
12206,6893
13146,2624
14085,8355
15025,4086

5632,2646
6571,8377
7511,4108
8450,9839
9390,557
10330,1301
7510,1173
8449,6904
9389,2635
10328,8366
11268,4097
12207,9828

4693,985
5633,5581
6573,1312
7512,7043

4695,2785
5634,8516

-73,2421
-94,2342

-60,0944
-72,8609
-93,2337
-96,9407
-104,9947
-106,5267
-111,2468

-26,8351
-37,2484
-56,3592
-58,1797
-65,2190
-65,4787
-37,6625
-56,8862
-65,0129
-76,1476
-79,3090
-84,1009

-26,4212
-32,4815
-38,5419
-41,7005

-27,7147
-29,4221

73,8
94,4

60,3
73,4
92,2
97,1
105,3
106,5
110,8

26,9
37,6
56,5
58,2
65
65,5
37,7
56,3
64,7
76,2
79,6
84,5

26,3
32
39,2
41,3

27,3
29,3

-0,9966
-0,9927
-1,0112
-0,9984
-0,9971
-1,0003
-1,0040

-0,9976
-0,9906
-0,9975
-0,9997
-1,0034
-0,9997
-0,9990
-1,0104
-1,0048
-0,9993
-0,9963
-0,9953

-1,0046
-1,0150
-0,9832
-1,0097

N(7-5) -0,9924
N(7-6) -0,9982

C(6-4)
C(6-5)
C(6-6)
C(6-7)
C(6-8)
C(6-9)
C(6-10)

Be(4-2)
Be(4-3)
Be(4-4)
Be(4-5)
Be(4-6)
Be(4-7)
B(5-3)
B(5-4)
B(5-5)
B(5-6)
B(5-7)
B(5-8)

Li(3-2)
Li(3-3)
Li(3-4)
Li(3-5)

He(2-3)
He(2-4)

-31,92
-31,97
-31,87
-31,82

-31,82
-31,92
-32,05
-31,98
-31,98
-31,92
-31,91

-31,94
-31,96
-31,99
-31,97
-31,98

-31,39
-31,49
-31,62
-31,58
-31,6
-31,56
-32,03

-32,09
-32,14
-32,12
-32,14

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

106
106
106
106

106
106
106
106
106
106
106

106
106
106
106
106

106
106
106
106
106
106
106

106
106
106
106

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

18
18
18
18

18
18
18
18
18
18
18

18
18
18
18
18

18
18
18
18
18
18
18

18
18
18
18

67,43
67,42
67,42
67,42

67,52
67,51
67,49
67,50
67,49
67,50
67,44

67,45
67,45
67,44
67,44
67,44

67,46
67,45
67,43
67,44
67,44
67,45
67,45

67,45
67,44
67,46
67,46

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4

930,8309
930,6498
930,7223
930,6498

933,3677
933,0051
932,5338
932,6788
932,6063
932,7513
931,0482

931,3742
931,3018
931,1931
931,2655
931,2293

931,8090
931,4467
930,9758
931,2293
931,2293
931,4467
931,4829

931,4467
931,2655
931,6278
931,8090

16800,61857
17727,09668
18650,67602
19586,25479
20517,33858
21453,27998
22345,15711

15833,36167
16763,43179
17692,66882
18625,31084
19555,81569

13045,32566
13971,70003
14895,61241
15830,89842
16762,12774
17697,48671
18629,65793

13040,25337
13968,98313
14906,04502
15840,75259

23 21409,11091
24 22335,5962
25 23268,05666
26 24196,89589

18
19
20
21
22
23
24

17
18
19
20
21

14
15
16
17
18
19
20

14
15
16
17

21595,9528
22534,2324
23473,8055
24413,3786

16899,3808
17838,9539
18778,527
19718,1001
20657,6732
21597,2463
22536,8194

15961,1012
16900,6743
17840,2474
18779,8205
19719,3936

13143,6754
14083,2485
15022,8216
15962,3947
16901,9678
17841,5409
18781,114

13144,9689
14084,542
15024,1151
15963,6882

-186,8419
-198,6362
-205,7488
-216,4827

-98,7622
-111,8572
-127,8510
-131,8453
-140,3346
-143,9663
-191,6623

-127,7395
-137,2425
-147,5786
-154,5097
-163,5779

-98,3497
-111,5485
-127,2092
-131,4963
-139,8401
-144,0542
-151,4561

-104,7155
-115,5589
-118,0701
-122,9356

186,6
198,3
205,6
216,7

98,7
111,9
127,6
131,8
139,8
143,8
191,4

128,2
137,4
147,8
154,4
163,5

98,7
111,9
127,6
131,8
139,8
143,8
151,4

104,7
115,5
118
123

Na(11-12)
Mg(12-12)
Mg(12-13)
Mg(12-14)

Ne(10-8)
Ne(10-9)
Ne(10-10)
Ne(10-11)
Ne(10-12)
Ne(10-13)
Ne(10-14)

F(9-8)
F(9-9)
F(9-10)
F(9-11)
F(9-12)

O(8-6)
O(8-7)
O(8-8)
O(8-9)
O(8-10)
O(8-11)
O(8-12)

N(7-7)
N(7-8)
N(7-9)
N(7-10)

-1,0013
-1,0017
-1,0007
-0,9990

-1,0006
-0,9996
-1,0020
-1,0003
-1,0038
-1,0012
-1,0014

-0,9964
-0,9989
-0,9985
-1,0007
-1,0005

-0,9965
-0,9969
-0,9969
-0,9977
-1,0003
-1,0018
-1,0004

-1,0001
-1,0005
-1,0006
-0,9995

106
106
106
106

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
18
18
18
18

18
18
18
18
18
18
67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41

67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4

930,3240
930,3240
930,3240
930,3059

930,3059
930,3059
930,3059
930,3059
930,3059
930,3240

930,2697
930,2878
930,2878
930,2878
930,3240

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

0,1312 -32,23
0,1312 -32,23
0,1312 -32,23
0,1312 -32,235

106
106
106
106
106
106

67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

18
18
18
18
18

-32,235
-32,235
-32,235
-32,235
-32,235
-32,23

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,41 1,22 4 930,3059

106
106
106
106
106

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,41 1,22 4 930,2878


0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,41 1,22 4 930,2878

0,1312 -32,235

-32,24
-32,24

0,1312
0,1312

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,41 1,22 4 930,2516


0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,41 1,22 4 930,2516
0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,41 1,22 4 930,2878

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

-32,25
-32,25
-32,24

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,42 1,22 4 930,6861


0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,42 1,22 4 930,5412
0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,42 1,22 4 930,5412

0,1312 -32,245
0,1312 -32,24
0,1312 -32,24
0,1312 -32,24
0,1312 -32,23

-32,13
-32,17
-32,17

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

65118,87607
66980,71875
67911,00651
68841,29427
70704,62137

68842,63385
70703,24557
71633,55143
72563,8573
74424,46902
76286,56516
79 73495,59326
81 75356,24119
78 72565,2693
80 74424,46902

74
76
77
78
80
82

75 69772,93971

70
72
73
74
76

69 64189,85547
71 66050,43099

67 62326,85426
68 63257,10582
70 65120,14323

27 25128,52345
28 26055,15388
30 27916,2363

74181,0024
76060,1486
73240,1358
75119,282

69485,7239
71363,5766
72303,1497
73242,7228
75121,869
77001,0152

70425,297

65728,725
67607,8712
68547,4443
69487,0174
71366,1636

64790,4454
66669,5916

62912,5927
63852,1658
65731,312

25351,6582
26291,2313
28170,3775

225
236,5
255

-685,4091
-703,9074
-674,8665
-694,8130

-643,0901
-660,3310
-669,5983
-678,8655
-697,4000
-714,4500

-652,3573

-609,8489
-627,1525
-636,4378
-645,7231
-661,5422

-600,5899
-619,1606

686,3
704,3
675,6
695,4

642,9
662
669,5
679,9
696,9
712,9

652,6

610,5
629
635,6
645,7
661,6

601,9
618,8

-585,7384 585,1
-595,0600 -595,4
-611,1688
611

-223,1347
-236,0774
-254,1412

-0,9989
-0,9971
-1,0013
-1,0000
-0,9999

Br(35-44)
Br(35-46)
Kr(36-42)
Kr(36-44)

Se(34-40)
Se(34-42)
Se(34-43)
Se(34-44)
Se(34-46)
Se(34-48)

-0,9987
-0,9994
-0,9989
-0,9992

-1,0003
-0,9975
-1,0001
-0,9985
-1,0007
-1,0022

As(33-42) -0,9996

Ge(32-38)
Ge(32-40)
Ge(32-41)
Ge(32-42)
Ge(32-44)

Ca(31-38) -0,9978
Ca(31-40) -1,0006

Zn(30-37) -1,0011
Zn(30-38) 0,9994
Zn(30-40) -1,0003

Al(13-14) -0,9917
Al(13-15) -0,9982
Al(13-17) -0,9966

18
18
18
18

67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

4
4
4
4

930,2878
930,3240
930,3240
930,3240

106
106
106
106
106
106
106

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

18
18
18
18
18
18
18

67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41

67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

4
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4

76283,59635
77216,88912
78147,21309
80007,86102

78145,69247
80004,74739
80936,61006
81865,32291

83725,89843
84657,83351
85589,80481
87453,85608
89318,05223

85589,80481
87450,45274
88382,49647
89312,83854
90246,69259
91177,07086
93043,25845

93 86521,81233

90
91
92
94
96

88 81855,76517

84
86
87
88

85 79077,53705
87 80936,61006

82
83
84
86

930,3240 92
930,3240 94
930,3421 95
930,3421 96
930,3783 97
930,3783 98
930,4326 100

930,2878
930,3059
930,3240
930,3602
930,3964

930,3059
930,2878
930,3059
930,2878

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

-32,23
-32,23
-32,225
-32,225
-32,215
-32,215
-32,2

18
18
18
18
18

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,41 1,22 4 930,3421

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

18
18
18
18

0,1312 -32,225

106
106
106
106
106

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

0,1312 -32,24
0,1312 -32,235
0,1312 -32,23
0,1312 -32,22
0,1312 -32,21

-32,27

106
106
106
106

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,41 1,22 4 930,1791

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

0,1312

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

106
106
106
106

0,1312 -32,235
0,1312 -32,24
0,1312 -32,235
0,1312 -32,24

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,41 1,22 4 930,3240


0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,41 1,22 4 930,3059

-32,24
-32,23
-32,23
-32,23

0,1312 -32,23
0,1312 -32,235

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

86386,3982
88265,5444
89205,1175
90144,6906
91084,2637
92023,8368
93902,983

87327,2648

84509,839
85449,4121
86388,9852
88268,1314
90147,2776

82631,9863

78874,9874
80754,1336
81693,7067
82633,2798

79815,854
81695,0002

76998,4282
77938,0013
78877,5744
80756,7206

-796,5934
-815,0917
-822,6210
-831,8521
-837,5711
-846,7659
-859,7246

-805,4525

-783,9406
-791,5786
-799,1804
-814,2753
-829,2254

-776,2211

-729,2949
-749,3862
-757,0966
-767,9569

-738,3169
-758,3901

-714,8318
-721,1122
-730,3613
-748,8596

796,5
814,2
821,2
830,8
837,6
846,1
860,4

805,6

783,8
791,1
799,9
814,7
828,9

775,5

728,9
748,9
757,3
768,4

739,4
757,9

714,3
721,7
732,2
749,2

-1,0007
-0,9992
-0,9975
-0,9995

-1,0005
-1,0006
-0,9997
-0,9994

-1,0002
-1,0006
-0,9991
-0,9995
-1,0004

Mo(42-50)
Mo(42-52)
Mo(42-53)
Mo(42-54)
Mo(42-55)
Mo(42-56)
Mo(42-58)

-1,0001
-1,0011
-1,0017
-1,0013
-1,0000
-1,0008
-0,9992

Nb(41-52) -0,9998

Zr(40-50)
Zr(40-51)
Zr(40-52)
Zr(40-54)
Zr(40-56)

Y(39-49) -1,0009

Sr(38-46)
Sr(38-48)
Sr(38-49)
Sr(38-50)

Pb(37-48) -0,9985
Pb(37-50) -1,0006

Kr(36-46)
Kr(36-47)
Kr(36-48)
Kr(36-50)

106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18

18
18
18
18
18
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42

67,41
67,41
67,41
67,42
67,42
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4

930,4869
930,4869
930,4869
930,6136
930,5050
930,5412
930,5231
930,5231

930,3964
930,4507
930,4507
930,4688
930,4688

930,3964
930,4145
930,4326
930,4326
930,4507

112
114
115
116
117
118
119
120

106
108
110
111
112

102
104
105
106
108

96
98
99
100
101
102
103

90142,1036
92021,2498
92960,8229
93900,396
94839,9691
95779,5422
96719,1153

104214,5324
106075,5062
107005,9931
107951,1811
108869,0851
109803,8628
110732,2495
111662,7726

-910,6446
-923,1325
-941,3773
-948,4902
-957,5945

-915,3036
-931,5750

-876,5247
-892,9954
-900,2531
-909,3936
-925,7195

-827,5272
-845,9530
-853,3738
-862,5686
-869,9350
-879,1117
-893,8823

905,6
923,6
940,7
947,8
956,8

915,4
931,8

875,7
893,1
900,3
909,7
925,2

826,7
845,3
852,5
862
869,1
878,4
893,4

105167,5122 -952,9798 953,3


107046,6584 -971,1522 971,4
107986,2315 -980,2384 979,1
108925,8046 -974,6235 956,8
109865,3777 -996,2926 995,6
110804,9508 -1001,0880 1000
111744,5239 -1012,2744 1011,5
112684,097 -1021,3244 1020,6

98622,016 99532,6606
100488,6743 101411,8068
102349,5757 103290,953
103282,0359 104230,5261
104212,5047 105170,0992

94900,4305 95776,9552
96763,10601 97656,1014
97695,42137 98595,6745
98625,85396 99535,2476
100488,6743 101414,3938

89314,57642
91175,29676
92107,44914
93037,82741
93970,03412
94900,4305
95825,23301

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

-32,185
-32,185
-32,185
-32,15
-32,18
-32,17
-32,175
-32,175

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

930,3602
930,3602
930,3783
930,3783
930,3964
930,3964
930,3421

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

106
106
106
106
106

67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41

4
4
4
4
4
4
4

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

18
18
18
18
18

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

0,1312 -32,21
0,1312 -32,195
0,1312 -32,195
0,1312 -32,19
0,1312 -32,19

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41
67,41

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,41 1,22 4 930,4507 107 99558,22365 100473,5272
0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,42 1,22 4 930,4688 109 101421,0984 102352,6734

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

18
18
18
18
18
18
18

0,1312 -32,195
0,1312 -32,19

106
106
106
106
106

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

0,1312 -32,21
0,1312 -32,205
0,1312
-32,2
0,1312
-32,2
0,1312 -32,195

106
106
106
106
106
106
106

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

0,1312 -32,22
0,1312 -32,22
0,1312 -32,215
0,1312 -32,215
0,1312 -32,21
0,1312 -32,21
0,1312 -32,225

-1,0009
-0,9999
-0,9999
-0,9997
-1,0006

-1,0010
-1,0008
-1,0010
-1,0007
-1,0010
-1,0008
-1,0005

Sn(50-62)
Sn(50-64)
Sn(50-65)
Sn(50-66)
Sn(50-67)
Sn(50-68)
Sn(50-69)
Sn(50-70)

Cd(48-58)
cd(48-60)
Cd(48-62)
Cd(48-63)
Cd(48-64)

-0,9997
-0,9997
-1,0012
-1,0186
-1,0007
-1,0011
-1,0008
-1,0007

-1,0056
-0,9995
-1,0007
-1,0007
-1,0008

Ag(47-60) -0,9999
Ag(47-62) -0,9998

Pd(46-56)
Pd(46-58)
Pd(46-59)
Pd(46-60)
Pd(46-62)

Ru(44-52)
Ru(44-54)
Ru(44-55)
Ru(44-56)
Ru(44-57)
Ru(44-58)
Ru(44-59)

106
106
106
106
106
106
106

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
18
18
18
18
18
18
18

18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42

67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

930,6136
930,6136
930,6317
930,6317
930,6317
930,6498
930,6498

930,6136
930,5774
930,5774
930,5955
930,5955
930,6136
930,6136
930,6317
930,6679

930,5412
930,5593
930,5593
930,5593
930,5593
930,5774
930,5774
930,5231
930,6136

130
132
134
135
136
137
138

124
126
128
129
130
131
132
134
136

121
123
120
122
124
125
126
128
130

120979,772
122840,9992
124704,6526
125635,2844
126565,9161
127499,0283
128429,6782

115396,0902
117252,7549
119113,9097
120046,8227
120977,4183
121910,3856
122840,9992
124704,6526
126570,8409

112595,4864
114458,7957
111667,1178
113528,2364
115389,355
116322,1775
117252,7549
119106,9575
120979,772

122072,067
123951,2132
125830,3594
126769,9325
127709,5056
128649,0787
129588,6518

116442,3894
118316,3616
120195,5078
121135,0809
122074,654
123014,2271
123953,8002
125832,9464
127712,0926

113622,3766
115501,5228
112681,51
114560,6562
116439,8024
117379,3755
118318,9486
120198,0948
122077,241

-1092,2950
-1110,2140
-1125,7068
-1134,6481
-1143,5895
-1150,0504
-1158,9736

-1046,2992
-1063,6067
-1081,5981
-1088,2582
-1097,2357
-1103,8415
-1112,8010
-1128,2938
-1141,2517

-1026,8902
-1042,7271
-1014,3922
-1032,4198
-1050,4474
-1057,1980
-1066,1937
-1091,1373
-1097,4690

1092,8
1110
1126,8
1133,8
1143
1149,9
1158,5

1046
1064
1080,7
1087,6
1096,9
1103,5
1112,4
1127,4
1141,8

1026,5
1042,3
1016,8
1034,5
1050,7
1057,3
1064
1020,6
1096,9

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

0,1312 -32,15
0,1312 -32,15
0,1312 -32,145
0,1312 -32,145
0,1312 -32,145
0,1312 -32,14
0,1312 -32,14

106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106

67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18

-32,15
-32,16
-32,16
-32,155
-32,155
-32,15
-32,15
-32,145
-32,135

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

-32,17
-32,165
-32,165
-32,165
-32,165
-32,16
-32,16
-32,175
-32,15

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106
106

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,42 1,22 4 930,5593 122 113528,2364 114563,2432 -1035,0068 1035,8
0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,42 1,22 4 930,5774 124 115391,6001 116442,3894 -1050,7893 1050,1

0,1312 -32,165
0,1312 -32,16

Ba(56-74)
Ba(56-76)
Ba(56-78)
Ba(56-79)
Ba(56-80)
Ba(56-81)
Ba(56-82)

Xe(54-70)
Xe(54-72)
Xe(54-74)
Xe(54-75)
Xe(54-76)
Xe(54-77)
Xe(54-78)
Xe(54-80)
Xe(54-82)

Sb(51-70)
Sb(51-72)
Te(52-68)
Te(52-70)
Te(52-73)
Te(52-73)
Te(52-74)
Te(52-76)
Te(52-78)

-0,9995
-1,0002
-0,9990
-1,0007
-1,0005
-1,0001
-1,0004

-1,0003
-0,9996
-1,0008
-1,0006
-1,0003
-1,0003
-1,0004
-1,0008
-0,9995

-1,0004
-1,0004
-0,9976
-0,9980
-0,9998
-0,9999
-1,0021
-1,0691
-1,0005

Sn(50-72) -0,9992
Sn(50-74) -1,0007

-32,09

0,1312

144
147
148
149
150
152
154

Pr(60-82)
Pr(60-83)
Pr(60-84)
Pr(60-85)
Pr(60-86)
Pr(60-88)
Pr(60-70)

-0,9991
-0,9994
-1,0003
-1,0005
-0,9996
-1,0000
-0,9925

Ge(58-80) -1,0001
Ge(58-82) -0,9990
Ge(58-84) -0,9990

Za(57-82) -0,9994

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,43 1,22 4 930,8309 156 145209,6218 146488,0326 -1278,4108 1278,5

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,43 1,22 4 930,9033 159 148013,6312 149308,0454 -1294,4142 1302,4

Du(66-90) -0,9999

Tb(65-93) -0,9939

Gd(64-88) -0,9999
Gd(64-96) -1,0007

Eu(63-88) -0,9998
Eu(63-90) -1,0018

134024,0064 135218,3294 -1194,3230 1196 Sm(62-82) -0,9986


136821,4966 138037,0487 -1215,5521 1217,5 Sm(62-85) -0,9984
137752,255
138976,62 -1224,3650 1225,6 Sm(62-86) -0,9990
138684,6323
139916,19 -1231,5577 1231,3 Sm(62-87) -1,0002
139615,4016 140855,768 -1240,3664 1239,5 Sm(62-88) -1,0007
141480,7935
142734,91 -1254,1165 1253,3 Sm(62-90) -1,0007
143347,96 144614,0604 -1266,1004 1267,1 Sm(62-92) -0,9992

1185,4
1191,4
1199,2
1205,2
1212,4
1225,4
1237,6

-32,07

930,7223
930,7585
930,7585
930,7693
930,7693
930,7947
930,8309

-1184,3506
-1190,6484
-1199,5173
-1205,7609
-1211,9681
-1225,3459
-1228,2863

0,1312

4
4
4
4
4
4
4

133341,7702
134281,3433
135220,9164
136160,4895
137100,0626
138979,2088
140858,355

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,43 1,22 4 930,7947 152 141480,7935 142732,3272 -1251,5337 1251,7
0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,43 1,22 4 930,8671 160 148938,7399 150248,912 -1310,1721 1309,2

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

132157,4196
133090,6949
134021,3991
134954,7286
135888,0945
137753,8629
139630,0687

-32,1
-32,08

67,42
67,43
67,43
67,43
67,43
67,43
67,43

142
143
144
145
146
148
150

0,1312
0,1312

18
18
18
18
18
18
18

930,6861
930,7042
930,7042
930,7223
930,7404
930,7693
930,8671

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,43 1,22 4 930,7947 151 140549,9988 141794,0476 -1244,0488 1244,3
0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,43 1,22 4 930,7947 153 142411,5882 143673,1938 -1261,6056 1259,3

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

4
4
4
4
4
4
4

-32,1
-32,1

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

0,1312
0,1312

106
106
106
106
106
106
106

67,42
67,42
67,42
67,42
67,43
67,43
67,43

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

18
18
18
18
18
18
18

0,1312 -32,12
0,1312 -32,11
0,1312 -32,11
0,1312 -32,107
0,1312 -32,107
0,1312
-32,1
0,1312 -32,09

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

-32,13
-32,125
-32,125
-32,12
-32,115
-32,107
-32,08

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,42 1,22 4 930,6498 138 128429,6782 129586,0648 -1156,3866 1156,3
0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,42 1,22 4 930,6679 140 130293,5127 131465,211 -1171,6983 1172,9
0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,42 1,22 4 930,7042 142 132159,9907 133344,3572 -1184,3665 1185,5

0,1312 -32,14
0,1312 -32,135
0,1312 -32,125

106
106
106
106
106
106
106

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,42 1,22 4 930,6679 139 129362,8447 130526,9314 -1164,0867 1164,8

0,1312 -32,135

-32,07

-32,09

-32,08
-32,06

-32,06

-32,06
-32,04

-32,05

-32,05
-32,04

-32,03
-32,02

-32,03
-32,02

-32,03
-32,01

-32,01
-32,01

-32,01
-32

0,1312

0,1312

0,1312
0,1312

0,1312

0,1312
0,1312

0,1312

0,1312
0,1312

0,1312
0,1312

0,1312
0,1312

0,1312
0,1312

0,1312
0,1312

0,1312
0,1312

153587,1

154942,897 -1355,7970 1334,3

Ho(67-98) -1,0161

Du(6698) -0,9986

164333,454 -1412,6933

1412 Zn(71-104) -1,0005

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,44 1,22 4 931,1207 190 176912,9241


0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,44 1,22 4 931,1569 198 184369,0611

Ir(77-114) -0,9980
Ir(77-116) -1,0000
178417,996 -1505,0719 1509,8 Pt(78-112) -0,9969
185934,58 -1565,5189 1567,3 Pt(78-120) -0,9989

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,44 1,22 4 931,1207 191 177844,0447 179358,8626 -1514,8179 1517,8
0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,44 1,22 4 931,1207 193 179706,286 181238,0088 -1531,7228 1531,7

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,44 1,22 4 931,0482 184 171312,8711 172783,1444 -1470,2733 1469,8 Os(76-118) -1,0003
0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,44 1,22 4 931,1207 192 178775,1654 180299,7292 -1524,5638 1526,2 Os(76-126) -0,9989

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,44 1,22 4 931,0482 185 172243,9194 173724,011 -1480,0916 1478,3 Re(75-110) -1,0012
0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,44 1,22 4 931,0844 187 174112,7889 175603,1572 -1490,3683 1491,7 Re(75-112)

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,44 1,22 4 931,0482 180 167588,6783 169027,439 -1438,7607 1444,3 W(74-106) -0,9962
0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,44 1,22 4 931,0844 186 173181,7044 174664,8776 -1483,1732 1485,9 W(74-112) -0,9982

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,43 1,22 4 930,9758 174 161989,7849 163392,5874 -1402,8025 1403,7 Hf(72-102) -0,9994
0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,44 1,22 4 931,0120 180 167582,1589 169030,026 -1447,8671 1446 Hf(72-108) -1,0013

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,43 1,22 4 930,9758 175 162920,7607

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,43 1,22 4 930,9396 168 156397,8457 157757,7358 -1359,8901 1362,8 Yb(70-98) -0,9979
0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,44 1,22 4 931,0120 176 163858,1109 165274,3206 -1416,2097 1419 Yb(70-106) -0,9980

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,43 1,22 4 930,9396 169 157328,7852 158698,6024 -1369,8172 1371,2 Tm(69-100) -0,9990

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,43 1,22 4 930,8671 162 150800,4742 152122,8842 -1322,4100 1320,7 Er(68-94) -1,0013
0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,43 1,22 4 930,9396 170 158259,7248 159639,469 -1379,7442 1379 Er(68-102) -1,0005

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,43 1,22 4 930,8309 165

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,43 1,22 4 930,9033 164 152668,1479 154004,6174 -1336,4695 1338,3

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,45 1,22 4 931,5554 244 227299,5063


0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,45 1,22 4 931,5554 244 227299,5063

-32
-31,99
-31,99
-31,99

0,1312
0,1312
0,1312
0,1312

0,1312 -31,985
0,1312 -31,95
0,1312 -31,96
0,1312 -31,96

0,1312 -31,95
0,1312 -31,935
0,1312 -31,92
0,1312 -31,92

0,1312 -31,92
0,1312 -31,915
0,1312
-31,9
0,1312 -31,92

0,1312
0,1312

-31,89
-31,89

0,4667
0,4667
0,4667
0,4667

-31,98
-31,96

0,1312
0,1312

106
106
106
106

106
106
106
106

106
106
106
106

106
106
106
106

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15
-0,3471 15

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

1,5208
1,5208
1,5208
1,5208

18
18
18
18

18
18
18
18

18
18
18
18

18
18
18
18

67,45
67,45
67,45
67,45

67,45
67,45
67,45
67,45

67,44
67,45
67,45
67,45

67,44
67,44
67,44
67,44

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

1,22
1,22
1,22
1,22

4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4

931,4467
931,4648
931,5191
931,4467

931,3380
931,3923
931,4467
931,4467

931,2112
931,3380
931,3018
931,3018

931,1569
931,1931
931,1931
931,1931

191568,14 -1597,3590
195326,43 -1615,6627

1600
1615

Tl(81-123) -0,9983
Tl(81-127)

184052,85 -1553,2020 1551,2 Hg(80-116) -1,0013


191569,43 -1613,4277 1608,6 Hg(80-124) -1,0030

184993,71 -1562,9414 1559,4 Au(79-118) -1,0023

235
238
238
238

220
223
232
232

218889,9672
221688,6183
221701,5517
221684,3072

204894,3579
207700,4894
216095,6272
216095,6272

1696,6
1713,8
1766,5
1765,9

Fr(87-133)
Ra(88-135)
Ac(89-143)
Ur(92-140)

-1,0015
-0,9981
-1,0014
-1,0002
-1790,7128 1783,8 U(92-143) -1,0039
-1810,7817 1810 U(92-146) -1,0004
-1796,5483 1800,8 Np(93-145) -0,9976
-1812,4928 1801,3 Pu(94-144) -1,0062

-1699,1921
-1710,4806
-1768,9128
-1766,3328

229132,95 -1833,4437 1835 Am(95-149) -0,9992


229131,66 -1832,1537 1835,7 Cm(96-148) -0,9981

220680,68
223499,4
223498,1
223496,8

206593,55
209410,97
217864,54
217861,96

209 194623,1423
196263,42 -1640,2777 1640,2 Bi(83-126) -1,0000
214
199306,33
200959,99 -1653,6600 1666 Po(84-130) -0,9926
216 201161,1814 202837,8421 -1676,6607 1674,6 At(85-131) -1,0012
216 201161,1814
202836,55 -1675,3686 1675,9 Rn(86-130) -0,9997

204 189956,0023 191566,8454 -1610,8431 1607,5 Pb(82-122) -1,0021


206 191825,7778
193445,99 -1620,2122 1622,3 Pb(82-124) -0,9987
207 192756,9709 194385,5647 -1628,5938 1629 Pb(82-125) -0,9998
208 193688,164
195325,14 -1636,9760 1636,4 Pb(82-126) -1,0004

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,44 1,22 4 931,2293 204 189970,781


0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,45 1,22 4 931,3018 208 193710,7673

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,44 1,22 4 931,1207 196 182499,648


0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,44 1,22 4 931,1569 204 189956,0023

-32,01
-32

0,1312
0,1312

0,4667 106 -0,3471 15 1,5208 18 67,44 1,22 4 931,1207 197 183430,7686

-32,01

0,1312

9.
9.1. .

.
Y, , L, Nd, Sm, Eu, Cd, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu.
MBa Cu O
,
2
3 6+ x

.
.
86 98.
5- Tl Ca
Ba Cu O
2 n 1 2 n 2n 1
n = 1 T = 80 K n = 2
c
Tc = 100 K , n = 3 Tc = 125K .
Tl1Can Ba2CunO2n + 2
n = 2 Tc = 75K
n = 3 Tc = 105

.
.
,
.
N-

.

6s . .
- 5d, 5f, 5g .
,


Tc .
.
,
. 5
Xe54 , 6-
, ,
8- .
.

. ,

.
, .
,

9.

-
.
,
, .

.

.
6,7,8 ,
,

( 7.5). EJ e
mn c 2
EJ e = ( mn c 2 + me c 2 ) ( mn c 2 + me c 2 ) 2 ( mv c 2 ) 2

9.1.

mv c 2 -
.

.
9.2.
mv c 2 = mvn c 2 + mve c 2


mvg c 2 .
(1)
9.3.
EJ e = ( mn c 2 + mec 2 ) ( mn c 2 + mec 2 )2 ( mv c 2 mvg c 2 )2

.

9.4.
mv c 2 mvg c 2 = 0

EJ e = 0
.

mv c 2 mvg c 2 > 0 ,
2
2 2
1 ( mv c mvg c )
EJ e =
2 ( mn c 2 + mec 2 )

9.5.

p = ( mv mvg )c
9.6.
1
p2
EJ e =
2 ( mn + me )
,
.
433

9.


.

- mvT c 2 ,
9.7.
K BT = ( mn c 2 + mec 2 ) ( mn c 2 + mec 2 )2 ( mvT c 2 )2
K B - , K B = 1.38 * 1023 DgK 1
- (1, 3/2,),
.
(7)
mvT c 2 = 2K BT ( mn c 2 + mec 2 )

(4)
9.8.

mv c 2 2K BT ( mn c 2 + me c 2 ) = 0

mv c 2
mn c 2 , ,
,
EJ e = 0 .
TK ,
.
,
, ,
. ,
,
,
.
mvk c 2

meVe2
= ( mn c 2 + me c 2 ) ( mn c 2 + me c 2 )2 ( mvk c 2 )2
2

mvk c 2 = meVe2 ( mn c 2 + me c 2 )
EH c

9.9.

mvH c 2 ,
- ,
U
9.10.
EH c = H c2dU
0


mvH c 2 = 2 EH c ( mn c 2 + me c 2 )

9.11.

434

9.


.
(3)

mvg c 2 = mvT c 2 + mvH c 2 ,

mv c 2 mvT c 2 mvH c 2 = 0

9.12.



, EJ e = 0 .
H c = 0 Tmax ,
.

mv c 2 mvT c 2 = 0
T = 0 mv c 2 mvH c 2 = 0
.
, .
H c , Tc
[21] (11,4 406)

T 2
H c (T ) = H c0 1
Tc

.

H c ,
. H c0 .
9.8, 9.9, 9.11 ,
, ,
.

1
( mv c 2 ) 2
Tk =
.
2 K B ( mn c 2 + me c 2 )
Ve =

( mv c 2 )2

me ( mn c 2 + mec 2 )

,
,
.

, . [19], [20] .
[10] .

435

9.

mn = Zm p + NmN Ecv

9.14.

Z,N ,
m p = 938.26 M
.
mN = 939.55M
A
2
3
( Z )2
2

z
2
3
4
Ecv = A A

+ A
1
A
A3
= 15.75, = 17.8, = 0.71, = 94.8 .
A= Z + N
= + -

= 0
= - .
= 34
9.2.
.

, .
.

,
.
.
5-
M i X jYk Z l ON ,

,,,Z, , I,j,k,l,N .
EJ en , n
,,,Z,O.
mn c 2 .
n (1)
9.15.
mvn c 2 = 2 EJ en ( mn c 2 + me c 2 )
(14).
n , 5-
.
EJ en - . [19].

5
9.16.
( mv c 2 ) s = n mvn c 2
1

436

9.

n - I,j,k,l,N.

5

( mn c 2 ) s = n mn c 2

9.17.


< mv c 2 >=

( mv c 2 ) s

9.18.

( mn c 2 ) s


- .

.
9.19.
mvn c 2 = mvn c 2 < mvn c 2 >
(19)
.
mvM c 2 = mvM c 2 < mv c 2 >
...........................................
...........................................
mvO c 2 = mvO c 2 < mv c 2 >

.

.
5
9.20.
2
( mvn c ) s = n mvn c 2
1

mvnC =

n mvn c 2mn c 2 ( mvn c 2 ) s

9.21.

nmvn c2mnc2
1

mvn c 2 ,
. ,
, ,

9.22.
mvn c 2 (1) = mvn c 2 (0) mvn c 2 (0)
1, 0
0 ,
.
,
,

437

9.

EJ en (1) =

9.23.

1 ( mvn c 2 (1))2
2 ( mn c 2 + me c 2 )

EJ en (1)
(22), N
9.24.
m c 2 ( N + 1) = m c 2 ( N ) m c 2 ( N )
vn

vn

vn

N

9.25.
1 ( mvn c 2 ( N ))2
n
EJ e ( N ) =
2 ( mn c 2 + me c 2 )
(24)
N , N + 1
.
.
mvn c 2 ( N + 1) < 0 1
.

mvn c 2 ( N + 1) < 0
mvn 3 ( N + 1) < 0

2 .

mvn c 2 ( N + 1) < 0
mvn 3c 2 ( N + 1) < 0 3 .
mvn 2c 2 ( N + 1) < 0
4, 5 ..
.
.
,


.

,
.
1,2, 3, 4 . , ,
, .

. 1,
. 2,
..
.

.
1,2, . ,
.
,
, ,
438

9.

(24),(25),
, (4).
,

209
205
138
Bi83 , Tl81 , Ba56 ,....
n
.

9.24a.
mvn c 2 (1) = mvn c 2 (0) ( mvn c 2 (0)) 2

(24).


9.24b
mvn c 2 ( N > 1) = mVn c 2 ( N > 1) ( mvn c 2 ( N > 1)) Bn
(24).
m c2
Bn = n n n
n mnc 2
1

Bn ,
,
.
,
( mvn c 2 ( N > 1)) Bn > 0.02 .

.
N + 1 (24)
(24),
.
1,2, ..
1,2,3,.
( )
.
.
,
1,2,.. .

.

Ve = 107 /.

.
1
h
[21]
Ve = (3 2 n )3
me
n - .
Ve 108 /
1,2,..

439

9.

( ),
.

(9)
2
9.26.
< mv c 2 ( N ) >
Ve =
n
me n mn c 2

(9.26) . me = 9.1 *1028 .

1,2,..
1,2, ,
2

m c 2 ( N )mn c 2 + n 3mvn 3c 2 ( N )mn 3c 2
< mv c 2 >= n vn

n mn c 2 + n 3mn 3c 2
3,4,.
,
.
.
,
1,,

.
.

.
9.3.
.
,
88-100
.
.
3.6 < X < 7.7
.
MBa2Cu3Ox , - .

Z -

Y -
La -
Nd -
Sm -
Eu -

38
57
60
62
63

- EJ e -


89
6.2171
139
5.577
142
5.49
154
5.65
153
5.664

440

9.

Gd -
Er -
Lu -
Pr -

64
68
71
59

154
170
175
141

6.16
6.1
5.4229
5.42


.
.
, TP
0.
.

. .
0,001
TP , T = 0 K .
,
Tp .
, Tc .
Tc 0
O X .
,
TP , Tc .
,
.

.

.

cp1
mv c 2 ( Ba ) < 0

2
mv c ( Ba ) < 0
cp2
mv c 2 (Cu ) < 0
(13),
Ba,
2, 1.
Ba.


mv c 2 ( M ) < 0
3
mv c 2 ( Ba ) < 0
mv c 2 (Cu ) < 0

4.

441

9.

mv c 2 ( M ) < 0
mv c 2 ( Ba ) < 0
mv c (Cu ) < 0
2

cp4

mv c 2 (O ) < 0
3, 4
Ox .
Tc
. Tc
X < 0 . 001 /
1,
2,. ,
Tc .
,

mvn c 2 106 108 .

1 2,
3 ,

107 108 /. (
.) 0 .
2 0
. 3
5.5 * 108 /.
.

.
(
).
5- .
Tl2CaBa2Cu2O X 8

Tl2Ca2 Ba2Cu3O X 10
.
.
1, P2, 3,
4 1, 3,4.
(22) (22),
(22) (22). 1 (
) 2, 3, 4 (
) .
105 107 /, 2,3,.. 108 109 /.

.
. [21].

442

9.


.

.
.

T = 0 K
T = TP . X 0.0001 (

).
1 2 ( ).
.
1 .
.
TP Tc 0 .
.
TP max TP min = Tc max . TP min = TC max 0 K .

1 2.
.
( X 0.0001 ).
.
YBa 2Cu3 (O816 ) x
.
X 1 = 5.582 Tc = 341.33K C 2 Vc = 4.319 *10^8
/
X 2 = 5.5815 TP = 341.95K C1 VP = 1.3856 * 10^8
X = 0.0005
3,12 . .

TP Tc = 0.62 K . 0,0000534.
.
X 1 = 5.0663 TP = 1310.6 K C1 2,76544 * 10^8
/
X 2 = 5.0665 Tc = 108 K CP 2 1.25795 * 10^8
X = 0.0002 , 2,19 .
1,1.
, .
K BT 104 .

.
, - - [21] ,
.
. .

443

9.

YBa 2 Cu3O(16 ) x
1600.0
1500.0

1400.0
1300.0

1200.0

T -

1100.0

1000.0
900.0

800.0
700.0

600.0
500.0

5.58

400.0
300.0

4.54

7.21

200.0
100.0

0.0
3.0

3.8
3.5

4.0

4.26
4.5

5.05
5.0

6.37
5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

8.0

O -

O
3.60
3.65
3.70
3.80
3.81
3.95
3.97
4.00
4.10
4.15
4.20
4.25
4.26
4.27
4.30
4.40
4.54
4.55
4.60
4.63
4.65
4.70
4.80
4.90
5.00
5.05
5.07
5.15
5.25
5.35
5.45
5.55
5.58
5.59

683.00
341.00
133.70
0.00
CP4
1425.00
CP1
556.00
473.00
363.00
118.70
52.70
15.45
0.00
0.00
CP2
1428.00
CP1
1287.00
885.00
309.00
CP1
454.00
CP2
350.00
500.00
262.00
191.00
89.35
30.37
4.20
0.00
CP2
1301.00
CP1
1092.00
865.00
674.00
512.00
378.00
343.00
CP1
332.00
CP2

5,4*10^8
3*10^8

1,29*10^8
2,97*10^8
1,7*10^8
4,53*10^8

1,34*10^8
2,7*10^8

1,39*10^8
4,29*10^8

O
T

5.65
270.00
5.66
259.00
5.67
251.00
5.70
225.00
5.75
185.00
5.80
150.00
5.90
93.70
6.00
53.00
6.05
38.00
6.10
25.81
6.15
16.38
6.25
4.48
6.30
1.54
6.35
0.00
6.37
0.00
CP2
6.38 1040.00
CP1
6.39 1020.00
6.40 1003.00
6.50
845.00
7.00
268.00
7.10
194.00
7.15
161.00
7.18
143.00
7.21
126.00
CP1
7.22
121.00
CP2
7.23
115.00
7.24
110.00
7.25
105.00
7.30
81.93
7.35
61.52
7.45
30.00
7.50
18.10
7.55
9.40
7.70
0.00

1,46*10^8
2,34*10^8

7,9*10^7
4,63*10^8

. 88. Y Ba2 Cu3 O(16)x

444

9.

GdBa 2 Cu3 O (16 ) x

400.0
350.0

T -

300.0
250.0

200.0
150.0

5.3

100.0
50.0

0.0

4.7

4.8

4.9

5.0

5.1

5.2

6.19

5.7

5.05
5.3

5.4

5.5

5.6

5.7

5.8

5.9

6.0

6.1

6.2

6.7
6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.7

6.8

6.9

O -

O
4.80
4.90
5.03
5.05
5.08
5.10
5.20
5.25
5.30
5.32
5.35
5.40
5.50
5.70
5.75

156.60
1
48.38
3
1.70
0.00
3
398.00
1
363.00
222.00
168.50
124.90
1
109.96
2
89.70
62.30
25.00
0.00
3
268.00
1

2,82*10^8
1,31*10^8

7,3*10^7
2,57*10^8

3,3*10^8
1,06*10^8

O
T

5.80 224.00
5.90 153.00
6.00 100.00
6.10
61.00
6.15
47.00
6.18
32.00
6.19
37.00
1
6.20
34.00
2
6.30
18.00
6.35
12.00
6.40
8.00
6.45
4.50
6.50
2.00
6.70
0.00

3,86*10^7
2,3*10^8

. 89 Gd Ba2 Cu3 O(16)x

445

9.

Pr Ba 2 Cu3 O(16 ) x
600.0
550.0

500.0
450.0

T -

400.0
350.0

300.0
250.0

4.91

200.0

5.52

150.0

100.0
6.57

50.0

0.0
4.5

5.0

7.0

6.01

5.22
6.0

5.5

6.5

7.0

7.5
7.5

O -

4.80 448.00

6.00

0.00

4.90 214.00

6.01

0.00

3,*10^8

1,7*10^6

4.91 197.00

9,6*10^7

6.02 363.00

4.92 181.64

2,9*10^8

6.05 333.00

4.93 166.34

6.10 287.00

4.95 138.20

6.20 207.00

5.00

82.39

6.30 145.00

5.10

19.32

6.40

97.90

5.20

0.00

6.50

62.45

5.21

0.00

6.55

48.90

5.22

0.00

6.57

44.10

4,3*10^7

5.23 527.00

6.59

39.60

2,3*10^8

5.30 398.00

6.60

37.40

5.40 256.00

6.70

20.00

5.50 154.00

6.80

9.70

5.52 138.50

C1

7,9*10^7

6.90

3.90

5.53 130.00

5,9*10^8

7.00

0.00

5.55 116.41

7.10

0.00

5.56 109.00

7.20

63.38

5.60

85.40

7.30

29.00

5.70

41.37

7.40

8.50

5.80

16.10

7.50

0.00

5.90

3.86

. 90 Pr Ba2 Cu3 O(16)x

446

9.

ErBa 2 Cu3 O (16 ) x


600.0
550.0

500.0
450.0

T -

400.0
350.0

300.0
250.0

200.0
5.06

150.0

100.0

5.82

50.0

4.85
0.0

4.4

4.7

4.9

6.25

5.46
5.2

5.4

5.7

5.9

6.2

6.4

6.7

O -

O
4.4000
4.4500
4.4800
4.5000
4.6000
4.7000
4.8000
4.8500
4.8900
4.9000
4.9200
4.9500
4.9500
5.0000
5.0500
5.0550
5.0560
5.0570
5.0575
5.0580
5.0600
5.0700
5.0800
5.0900
5.1000
5.1000
5.1500
5.2000
5.3000
5.4000
5.4500

70.0000
12.0000
0.0000
507.0000
213.0000
62.0000
5.8700
0.0000
2
395.0000
1
377.0000
1
340.0000
290.0000
290.7800
219.0000
160.3100
1
160.3000
2
153.9700
1
153.1000
1
152.5770
1
151.0000
1
150.1000
2
140.2100
2
131.0000
2
122.0000
2
113.0000
2
113.0000
2
76.9800
47.9000
15.0000
1.7000
0.0000

8,1*10^7
2,75*10^8

O
5.4600
5.4610
5.4620
5.4650
5.4700
5.5000
5.6000
5.7000
5.8000
5.8100
5.8200
5.8200
5.8210
5.8220
5.8230
5.8240
5.8250
5.8300
5.8300
5.8400
5.8500
5.9000
6.0000
6.1000
6.1500
6.2000
6.2500
6.3000
6.4000
6.5000
6.6000

0.0000
4
330.0000
1
329.0000
326.3000
320.0000
287.0000
196.0000
128.0000
78.0000
74.0000
71.0000
71.0000
70.5800
70.2100
1
69.8280
2
69.4400
69.1000
67.3000
67.2000
63.0000
60.0000
44.0000
22.4100
9.4200
5.6200
3.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
12.1000
0.0000

3,8*10^8
1,14*10^8

5,21*10^7
2,575*10^8

. 91 Er Ba2 Cu3 O(16)x

447

9.

EuBa 2 Cu3O(16 ) x

500.0
450.0

T -

400.0
350.0

300.0
250.0

200.0
150.0

5.4

4.9
100.0

6.34

50.0

5.14
0.0

5.3

4.8

6.8

5.8
6.3

5.8

6.8

7.3

O -

O
4.8000
4.8500
4.8900
4.9000
4.9000
4.9500
5.0000
5.1000
5.1000
5.1100
5.1200
5.1300
5.1350
5.1370
5.1380
5.1395
5.1400
5.1500
5.1500
5.1700
5.1900
5.2000
5.2500
5.2900
5.3000
5.4000
5.4000
5.4010

294.00
193.00
193.00
9,3*10^7
118.00 2,06*10^8
118.72
66.50
32.00
1.93
1.86
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00 2,62*10^8
490.00
1,4*10^8
488.00
470.00
469.00
431.00
400.00
379.00
300.00
247.00
234.00
135.00
135.00
134.49
7,6*10^7

1
2

3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

O
5.4020
5.4030
5.4050
5.4100
5.4100
5.4200
5.4300
5.4500
5.5000
5.6000
5.7000
5.7500
5.8000
5.8200
5.8500
5.8500
5.8600
5.8610
5.8615
5.8620
5.8630
5.8650
5.8670
5.8680
5.8690
5.8700
5.8700
5.9000

T
133.71
132.91
131.24
127.00
127.00
119.00
112.00
98.00
69.00
30.00
9.20
4.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
326.49
325.47
323.40
319.90
319.00
319.38
316.00
318.30
289.00


2,68*10^8 2
2,69*10^8 2
2
2
2

3
3

2,72*10^8 3
1,16*10^8 1

O
T
5.9000 289.00
6.0000 205.00
6.1000 140.00
6.2000 92.00
6.3000 57.00
6.3000 56.88
6.3200 51.00
6.3200 51.32
6.3250 49.89
6.3300 48.54
6.3350 47.26
6.3360 46.99
6.3365 46.84
6.3370 46.73
6.3380 46.48
6.3400 45.91
6.3450 44.72
6.3500 43.00
6.3500 43.44
6.4000 32.00
6.5000 17.00
6.6000
7.30
6.7000
2.47
6.8000
0.00
6.9000
0.00
7.0000
0.00
7.1000
0.00

1
1
4,3*10^7 1
2,38*10^8 2
2

. 92 Eu Ba2 Cu3 O(16)x

448

9.

SmBa 2 Cu3 O (16 ) x


500.0
450.0

400.0

T -

350.0

300.0
250.0

200.0
150.0

5.4

100.0
6.33

50.0

5.12

4.7

0.0
4.0

4.5

5.0

6.8

5.8
5.5

6.5

6.0

7.2
7.0

7.5

8.0

O -

O
4.40

20.60

O
5.86

0.00

2,69*10^8

4.50 330.00

5.86 326.00

1,16*10^8

4.55 162.00

5.87 316.00

4.60

62.00

5.90 287.00

4.60

62.50

6.00 205.00

4.70

0.00

6.10 140.00

4.72

0.00

6.15 114.00

4.75 423.00

6.20

91.00

4.80 290.00

6.25

71.00

4.90 116.00

6.33

49.46

4,5*10^7

5.00

30.00

6.33

48.94

2,4*10^8

5.10

1.54

6.34

45.00

5.12

0.00

2,75*10^8

6.35

43.00

5.20 375.00

1,27*10^8

6.40

32.00

5.30 231.00

9,9*10^7

6.50

16.40

5.40 133.00

2,68*10^8

6.70

2.34

5.50

68.00

6.80

0.00

5.70

8.65

6.90

0.00

5.80

0.00

7.00

25.57

5.81

0.00

7.10

5.87

5.85

0.00

7.20

0.00

. 93 Sm Ba2 Cu3 O(16)x

449

9.

NdBa 2 Cu3 O (16 ) x

500.0
450.0

T -

400.0
350.0

300.0
250.0

200.0
4.91
150.0

5.52
100.0
6.56

50.0

5.2
0.0
4.5

5.0

7.0

6.0
6.0

5.5

6.5

7.0

7.5
7.5

O -

4.80 429.00

6.01 343.00

4.90 202.00

6.01 344.50

4.90 203.00

9,7*10^7

6.10 261.00

4.91 185.00

2,9*10^8

6.30 129.00

4.92 170.00
4.92 170.00

4.93 156.00
4.95 129.00

4.96 115.00

6.40

85.50

6.45

68.20

6.50

53.40

6.50

53.30

6.55

41.12

1,21*10^8

4,1*10^7

5.00

75.00

6.56

39.88

2,31*10^8

5.00

75.90

6.56

39.80

5.10 166.00

6.56

39.59

5.10 166.90

6.56

39.00

5.20

0.00

6.57

37.00

5.20

0.00

2,9*10^8

6.60

30.90

5.25 459.00

1,37*10^8

6.60

31.00

5.30 374.00

6.65

22.70

5.50 141.00

6.70

16.23

5.51 134.00

7,7*10^7

6.80

2.62

5.52 126.00

2,68*10^8

7.00

0.00

5.53 119.00

7.10

0.00

5.55 105.60

7.10

0.00

5.60

76.70

7.15

0.00

5.60

76.50

7.20

44.70

5.70

35.85

7.30

17.16

5.80

13.14

7.40

2.62

6.00

0.00

7.50

0.00

6.00

0.00

2,87*10^8

. 94 Nd Ba2 Cu3 O(16)x


450

9.

LuBa 2 Cu3 O (16 ) x

500.0
450.0

T -

400.0
350.0

300.0
250.0

200.0
150.0

5.89

100.0
50.0

4.95
0.0
4.0

4.5

5.0

6.37

5.61
5.5

6.5

6.0

6.97
7.5
7.5

7.0

8.0

8.5

9.0

O -

4.70 165.00

6.25

2.62

4.90

5.64

6.37

0.00

3,26*10^8

4.95

8,8*10:7

0.00

6.39 226.00

4.97 456.00

6.50 160.00

5.00 310.00

6.70

81.00

5.20 473.00

6.90

37.00

5.30 214.00

6.95

30.00

5.35 132.00

6.97

27.00

3*10^7

5.40

76.36

7.00

23.00

1,56*10^8

5.50

16.23

7.10

14.00

5.61

0.00

3,1*10^8

7.20

8.65

5.62 384.00

1,18*10^8

7.40

2.55

5.65 337.00

7.50

0.00

5.70 265.00

7.60

0.00

5.80 159.00

7.70

0.00

5.88 101.00

6,7*10^7

7.80

0.00

5.89

95.10

2,1*10^8

8.00

12.00

6.00

44.00

8.10

6.18

6.20

6.00

. 95 Lu Ba2 Cu3 O(16)x

451

9.

LaBa 2 Cu3 O (16 ) x


600.0
550.0

500.0
450.0

T -

400.0
350.0

300.0
250.0

200.0
150.0

5.52

4.95
100.0

6.57

50.0

5.18
0.0
4.5

5.0

6.0

7.0

6.0

5.5

6.5

7.0

7.5

O -

4.80 395.00

O
6.00

0.00

4.90 183.00

9,3*10^7

6.01 339.00

4.91 169.12

2,53*10^8

6.10 258.00

4.93 140.83

6.30 127.00

4.95 115.00

6.40

83.50

5.00

67.00

6.50

52.50

4*10^7

5.10

13.80

6.55

40.00

3,94*10^7

5.15

3.24

6.56

38.15

5.18

0.00

2,89*10^8

6.57

37.10

3,9*10^7

5.19

0.00

1,54*10^8

6.57

36.64

2,28*10^8

5.20

0.00

6.57

36.49

2,28*10^8

5.21 520.00

6.57

36.30

5.30 360.00

6.57

36.00

5.40 228.00

C1

7,6*10^7

6.59

32.00

5.50 136.00

C2

2,67*10^8

6.60

30.30

5.51 128.00

6.70

15.80

5.52 121.00

6.75

11.00

5.54 107.00

6.80

7.00

5.55 101.00

6.90

3.00

5.57

89.00

7.00

0.00

5.60

72.00

7.10

0.00

5.70

34.00

7.20

0.00

5.80

12.00

2,9*10^8

7.30

17.62

5.90

2.40

1,21*10^8

7.40

2.70

4,1*10^7

. 96 La Ba2 Cu3 O(16)x

452

9.

Tl 2 CaBa 2 Cu 2 O x
250.0

240.0
230.0

220.0
210.0

200.0
190.0

180.0
T -

170.0

160.0
150.0

140.0
130.0

120.0
110.0

100.0
90.0

80.0
70.0

60.0
50.0

40.0
30.0

20.0
10.0

0.0

6.0

6.3

6.5

6.8

7.0

7.3

7.5

7.8

8.0

8.3

O -

O
6.0000

T
73.0000

2,1

1 2
9*10^8

6,5*10^7

6.4000

2.0000

3,1

7*10^8

1,1*10^7

6.6000

223.0000

C2,1

6,4*10^8

1,1*10^7

6.8000

123.0000

2,1

7.0000

61.6000

2,1

7.2000

27.0000

2,1

7.4000

9.7000

4,1

7.6000

0.0000

C4,1

9,2*10^8

2,3*10^7

7.8000

0.0000

4,1

8.0000

97.0000

1,2

8.2000

54.0000

1,2

. 97 Tl2 Ca Ba2 Cu2 Ox

453

9.

Tl 2 Ca 2 Ba 2 Cu3 O x
115.0

110.0
105.0

100.0
95.0

90.0
85.0

T -

80.0
75.0

70.0
65.0

60.0
55.0

50.0
45.0

40.0
35.0

30.0
25.0

20.0
15.0

10.0
5.0

0.0
7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

10.0

10.5

11.0

O -

7.60

0.00

1,4

7.65 109.00

1,3

7.68 101.00

1,3

7.70

96.00

1,3

7.80

73.00

1,3

7.85

63.00

1,3

7.90

55.00

1,3

8.00

41.10

1,3

8.20

21.00

1,4

8.40

10.40

1,4

8.60

4.60

1,4

8.80

2.00

1,4

9.00

0.00

1,4

9.20

0.00

1,4

9.40

0.00

1,4

9.60

27.40

1,4

9.80

17.24

1,4

10.00

10.60

1,4

10.40

3.51

1,4

10.80

0.00

1,4

1 2
7,5*10^7

8,8*10^8

6,3*10^7

8,1*10^8

4,4*10^6

7,5*10^8

1,1*10^7

8,8*10^8

. 98 Tl2 Ca2 Ba2 Cu3 Ox

454

9.

TlCaBa 2 Cu 2 O x
300.0
275.0

250.0
225.0

T -

200.0
175.0

150.0
125.0

100.0
75.0

50.0
25.0

0.0

6.7

6.8

6.9

7.0

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.5

7.4

7.6

7.7

7.8

7.9

8.0

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

8.6

8.7

O -

6.88

0.00

7.00

7.88 25.60

2.96

7.90 32.00

7.20 25.90

8.00 87.00

7.30 48.97

8.05 128.00

2 2,8*10^8

7.40 82.23

8.07 148.00

1 9,2*10^7

7.41 86.00

8.10 180.80

7.43 94.00

8.12

0.00

7.45 103.00

8.17

6.48

7.47 112.00

8.20 15.33

7.49 122.00

8.22 23.87

7.50 127.00

8.25 41.90

7.60 186.00

8.27 57.60

7.70 261.00

8.30 87.93

7.73

0.00

8.35

7.80

6.66

8.40 11.39

0.00

7.82 10.10

8.50

0.00

7.84 14.20

8.60

2.96

7.86 19.40

. 99 Tl Ca2 Ba2 Cu2 Ox

455

9.

TlCa 2 Ba 2 Cu 3O x
400.0

350.0

T -

300.0

250.0

200.0

150.0

100.0

50.0

0.0

7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

O -

7.00 231.00
7.30

1.54

7.50 277.00
7.60 292.00
7.90

4.30

8.00 345.00
8.20

0.00

8.30

3.00

8.70

50.00

8.80

75.00

8.90 106.00
9.00 143.00
9.20 241.00
9.40

7.70

. 100 Tl Ca2 Ba2 Cu3 Ox

456

10.

10.
10.1 .
HE
.
.
.


= x + iy + j + ji = x + iy + j ( + i ) ,
I,J ( )
x 2 + 1 = 0 ,
ij = ji
x 2 1 = 0 ,
(i + j )(i j ) = 0 .

:
J, I
X 2 + 1 = 0 ;
X 2 1 = 0

ji = ij ; ,

.

I,

X 2 + 1 = 0 , X 1,2 = 1 = I

X 2 + 1 = ( X I )( X + I ) = 0
, .
. .



X I 0
,
X +I 0
.
( ),
X I =0
X I 0
.

457

10.

J,
X,Y I
X 2 + 1 = 0,
X 3,4 = 1 = J .
,
,
X 2 + 1 = ( J I )( J + I ) = 0
. ,
,

.

, ,
, .
, ,
,
.
. :
,
, ,

. JI = IJ .

X 2 + 1 = I ( JI + 1) I ( JI + 1) = 11 ( JI ) 2 = 1 0 = 0

K = JI = IJ
, .
K 2 = ( ji ) 2 = (ij ) 2 = 1 .
X 2 1 = 0 ,
, .
+1
2 k
2 k
n
1 = cos
+ i sin
, k = 0,1,2,......, n 1
n
n
, .

, e 0 = A0 = 1 . .
10.2 +1.
n

Z = a , a 0 .
i

n in

a = e , Z = re , r e
, ,

= ei ,

rn =
n = + 2k
r = n

k = ( + 2k ) / n

458

10.

Z k = n e ( + 2 k )i / n ,

k = 0,1,2,.....n 1 n

.
a = +1, n = 2

Z1, 2 =

( + 2 k )i
e n ,k

= 0,1
i

= 0 Z1 = 1, Z 2 = e = 1 .
, .

.
,
i

a = 1 = e e
= i i = 0

Z k = 0 = e i / 2 e i / 2 = i ( i ) = +1

Z k =1 = ei / 2 +i e i / 2 +i = (i )i = +1
, .
,
k = 0 , k = 1 .

Z = (ei / 2 +i ) k =1 (e i / 2 ) k = 0 = (i ) (i ) = 1

j 2 = 1
i

a = 1 = e e = ( 1) ( 1) = 1
.

Z k = 0 = ei +j = ei / 2 ej / 2 = ij
Z k =1 = e(i + 4 ki ) + (j + 2 kj ) = ei / 2 + 2i ej / 2 +j = i ( j ) = ij
,
Z 3, 4 = ji
,
.
= i + j .

k = 4ik + 2jk ,

, .
.
10.3

= X + iY + j + ji = ( X + iY ) + j ( + i ) = Z + j = ei + jrei

459

10.

Z = ei

= rei
= Z , r = - , = arg Z , = arg -
.

= Z2 + 2 .
= arg

= arktg

ei ( )

= e j

= e j .

,
.
,
.

= ( ei ) 2 + (rei ) 2 = 4 4 + 2 2 r 2 cos 2( ) + r 4
1
2 sin 2 + r 2 sin 2
F = arg = arctg 2
2
cos 2 + r 2 cos 2

i iZ 1
= + i ,
arktgZ = ln
2 iZ + 1

= e iF + j + ji

= e ,

[ ]
1 = + iF + j + ji = e1 .
, ,
.

= eiF + j .

10.4.
[Z ]
- .

460

10.
i

= re , , j.
r
[Z ]

[Z ] .

C3 3.
:

+ .
2
2
(4),
.
1) = , =
0 F 2 ,

= 2 + r2 = R
F =

= arktg


. 0, r 0
.

= ei + j = ei + jre i ,

= 0 jre

C3

2 4

2
2

,
G = 4i + 2j .
,
+1
2)
:

461

10.

= 2 r2
F =

= arktgi

r
i + jarktg i

, = r e
, .
= r
2

d = 0e jarktgi+i (5)
,
,
arktgi.
.
.

0 0 , .

.


4
4 + 2 2 r 2 cos 2( ) + r 4 < 2 + r 2
2 r 2 < 2 + r 2

.

.
(5)
,
d = 0e jarktgi+i = e i (1 + ji )
(
)
d = e i (1 + ji ) .

, 6.

.
10.5
.
( )

Q ( x ) = x 2 + px + q
D = p 2 4q
462

10.

: 1) D < 0 ,

1 =

p
p2
p
p2
+i q
3 = + j q
2
4
2
4

p
p2
p
p2
i q
4 = j q
2
4
2
4

[Z ] [ ] .

Q2 ( x ) = x 2 + px + q = ( x 1 )( x 2 ) = ( x 3 )( x 4 ) = 0
1 , 2

p2
Q2 ( x ) = (1 3 )(1 4 ) = ( q )( j i )( j + i ) = 0
4
1 , 2
, .

2 =

2). D > 0 ,

1 =

p
+
2

p2
q
4

p
p2

q
2
4
.

2 =

3) D > 0 ,

3 =

p
p2
+ ji
q
2
4

p
p2
ji
q
2
4

Q2 ( x ) = x 2 + px + q = ( x 1 )( x 2 ) = ( x 3 )( x 4 ) = 0
( )
,

4 =

p2
p2
p2
q ( ji 1)(1 + ji )
q = ( q )(1 ji )(1 + ji ) = 0
4
4
4
3 4

( 3 1 )( 3 2 ) = 0
, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4
. .
,

( x 1 )( x 3 ) = 0
.
( x 1 )( x 3 ) = x 2 x (1 + 3 ) + 1 3 = 0
(1 3 )(1 4 ) =


463

10.

1 + 3
(1 + 3 ) 2
ji
1 3
2
4

Q2 ( x ) = ( x 1 )( x 3 ) = ( x x3 )( x x4 ) = 0

.

1 + 3
(1 + 3 ) 2
1 + 3
(1 + 3 ) 2
(1
ji
1 3 )(1
+ ji
1 3 ) =
2
4
2
4
(
( ) 2 ( + ) 2
= 1 3 1 3 + 1 3 = 0
4
4
,
.
: n 1

.
Qn (x )
X 3, 4 =

Qn ( x ) = cn ( x a1 )1 ...( x ak ) k ( x 2 + p1 x + q1 ) 1 ...( x 2 + ps x + qs ) s

m =1

j =1

m + 2 j

cn , a1 ,...., ak , p1 ,.... ps , q1 ,....qs .


[ ] , ,
.
,
.
n > 2
.

, ,
.

.
,
.

,
. .

,
, .
, ,
.
.
.
,

464

10.

1 = R1e i1 + j 1
2 = R2 e i 2 + j 2
i ( + ) + j (1 + 2 )

= 1 2 = R1R2e 1 2
, ).

1 R1 i (12 )+ j (1 2 )
=
e
2 R2

).
, .
: " " " ".
.

.

1
1
=
= (1 ji ) 1 + ji
0e jarktgi
i + + j

d = Re
(1 ji ) ,
,
.
.

Ln d = ln R + i + j + ln(1 ji) = ln R + i + j + ln 0 jarktgi


,

jarktgi =

ji 1 1
ln
= ji ln ,
2 1 +1

1
1
Ln d = ln R + i + i + ( ) ji = (1 m ji ) .
2
2
.
.

.

= Re i j
= Re

i j

( )

.
,
.. ,
:
:
: a + (b + c ) = ( a + d ) + c
: a + b = b + a
: a + x = b a, b
:
: a bc = ab c
: a b = b a

465

10.

a (b + c) = a b + a c
(b + c) a = b a + c a

,
.
ax = b

a 0, a d , d - .
ya = b
.
.
, a b = 0, a 0 , a 1
1

b = 0 . , a = d , 0 ( d ) = d b

.
, N
,
, .. .
,
. ,
, .
10.6

,
.

.
, Z
Z=(X,Y).
Z.

F(X,Y),
F(Z).
F(X,Y,Z),
F ( ) . , .
.

( ).

.
(X,Y,Z)
(0,0,0) X,Y,Z.
,
, .
.
1.1.
( )
(
) (, ) x1 , x 2 ,..., x n , .

466

10.

Q
( ).
U , V , W , P , x, y , , .
Q = U + iV + jW + jiP
U = U ( x , y , , )
V = V ( x, y , , )
W = W ( x, y , , )
P = P ( x, y , , )
, Q,
U , V , W , P , x, y , ,
,
..
,
.
, ,
,
. [ ] ,
[Z ] .

.
.
,

n<
1
2
n
x , x ,..., x ( ).
N-
x 1 , x 2 ,..., x n . ,
x1 , x2 ,... x n , .
N
( x 1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) ,

k
k
1
2
n
x = x ( x , x ,..., x ).
:

x k
det k . Q
x
.

.

.
. ,
.
2

ds = c dT dX dY dZ
.

ds = c dT (dx + dy + dz ) ,

.

467

10.

dR 2 = dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 ,
dR 2 = dr 2 + r 2 d 2 + dz 2 (
r, , z ) ,
2

( , , ) dR = d d + sin d .
,
(x,y,z)
, . ,

( ), . x, y , z
,
.

, = x + iy + jz .

= ( x + iy ) 2 + z 2 , = 4 ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 + 2 z 2 ( x 2 y 2 )


= x + iy + jze i = e i + jze i = e i ( + jz )
= x2 + y2 + z2

.
.
X,Y,Z,
.
Y
= e i + j , = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 , = arktg ,
X
Z
= arktg
2
X +Y 2
.
10.7 .
[ ]
.
.
,
.

( ).
2. f ( ) G
( ) C3 G
.1
0 , ,
, C3 ,
1
f ( )d
f ( 0 ) =

4i + 2j C3 0

468

10.

3. f ( ) G
[ ] ,
C3 .
0 , G,
( ) , 3
1
f ( )d
f ( 0 ) =
, d -
2

4 ji ( 0 ) 2
, ,
( ),
, ,
,
( ),
, ,
,
.

,
,
-
, .
1
f ( x ) =
x
x = 0 . (x,y) S = x 2 + y 2
(0,0),
,
.
(x,y,z)
(0,0,0).
,
.

d = ei (i j ) = ei 0e jarktgi

,
,
arktgi.

.
.
,
.

- .
, , ,
,
.

.
469

10.

,
.
.
.
10.8.
.
, ,
(z),
, .
(z) ()
. ()
.

,
,
C3 .
, .
,
(z) .
(z). ,
, - .
(z)
. ,
.

arktgi .
(), (z),
(z) .
,
.
,
C3 .
, , ,
,
. ,
(z) () z
2.
2 , 4 . . 3.

.

. , ,
.
, .

.
54
.
470

10.

10.8.

.. .

( )
,
, ,
.
.
,
( ) -
(
, ).
, - , , , ..
,

. ""
.
,
-,


() -.
,
,
.

.
, .
,
,
- -
, .
-

(-
). -
,
-.

, ,
, ,
, .
, .


.
, ..

471

10.

. ..

. , Z A- -,
, -
()
.
.
- P-Z/(910).
- 6 Xe54
6 - .
78 .
n- -
, n+1 .
, .

U92/238/ -
200M,
. -
,
.
10
Ne20
-.
54
200 . Xe131
, , 6 6*200=1200 (
).


- ,
-. 3
-
,
- . ,

.

10.9
.
,
. (
..),

, .
, ,
.
-,
.
-
.
472

10.

. , .
.

- .
E N mi

2

2
N

E = mi c 2 mi c 2 (NmV c 2 )
2

2
mV c - , N
,
- .
N - [ N ]

N-1, N 1 , N
N . ,
.
S = N 1 N
,
,

S = X 2 + Y 2 + Z 2 X 2 + Y 2 + Z 2 (cT ) 2
cT .

,
/ 2 .
. ,
,

.
. ,
.
,
, / 2
.
,
,
.
.
E Z mP N
m N

E = ( ZmP c 2 + Nm N c 2 )

(Zm c
P

+ Nm N c 2

) [(Z + N )m c ]
2

2 2

mV c 2 - ( ),
.

473

10.

,

.

.

, ,
, ..

,
.

2E ( ZmP c 2 + Nm N c 2 ) E 2
mV c =
Z+N
2


-,
.
,

. 2 / 3
-.
53 ,
..,
(, ..).
,
, ,
,
.
10.10.


,
, .


,
.

,
EJ E= ( m c 2 + m E c 2 )

(m c

+ m E c 2 ) ( m c 2 ) 2
2

EJ E - ,
m c 2 - , m E c 2 - ,
mV c 2 - ,
.

474

10.


.
mg c 2 ,
EJ E = ( m c 2 + m E c 2 ) ( m c 2 + m E c 2 ) 2 ( m c 2 mg c 2 ) 2 (1)
,
m c 2 mg c 2 = 0 ,
EJ E = 0 .

.
,

( m c 2 mg c 2 ) = 2 EJ E ( m c 2 + m E c 2 ) EJ E2
,

.
.

K B T = ( m c 2 + m E c 2 ) ( m c 2 + m E c 2 ) 2 ( mT c 2 ) 2
K B - , = 1,3 / 2,....
mT c 2 - .

mT c 2 = 2K B T ( m c 2 + m E c 2 ) (K B T ) 2 (2)
(2)
(1) mg c 2 = mT c 2 ,
.

. ,
,
. .

.
10.11.
.
:
.
.
, ,
.
.
,
.

475

10.



.
dS = dx 2 + dy 2
dS = dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 , dx, dy , dz
.
, .

P( x ), P ( x + dx ) dS 2

dS 2 = g dx dx ,
g = g (P )
g = g , . g
, .

Vn .
g ik = g ik ( x 1 , x 2 ,..., x n ) . ,
.

..
. ,
.
, .
, ,
, ,
.
.
, . .
,
-.
. .

.
.
VN dS 2
dx i .
x i .
.
, .
,
, .
(
)
= ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) .
,
2

dS

476

10.

P, P . .. dS = g dx dx ,

g = g (P)

g = g , .
g (x) ,
(),
T (x );

1
g R = 8GT ( x) ,
2

R - , R- ,
G- .
,
.
.. ,
, , ,
, ,
.

, ,
. .. .
.
, .
.
.
.


dS 2 = c 2 dt 2 dx 2 dy 2 dz 2

d = cdt + ji dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 , ,
( dx, dy , dz ) .
,
d = cdt + jidX .
,
,
, .
,
,
(x,y,z),
, .

.
.
. .
.
477

10.

,
.

.

0 0
arktgi .
.

d3 = dx + idy + jdzei = dx 2 + dy 2 ei + jdzei


= ei (d + jdz ) = dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 ei + j
, dx + idy
dz . ,
-
.
.
,
,

d = cdtei + j + kj dx 2 + dy 2 ei + jdzei =
= c 2 dt 2 dx 2 dy 2 dz 2 ei + j + k
d = d e i + j + k
d , , , - .


= z + j

= 4 4 + 2 2 r 2 cos 2( ) + r 4
, - z = x + iy = e

r,
- = + i = re
,

, ,
. z,
,
.

. .,
.

,
.

478

10.

, .
.
.

( , ..)
.
. ,
,
,
, , .

rg =

2GM
, .
c2

r > rg
r < rg
. . .
,
,
.
,
.

,

.
- (
, ) .
.
,
.
(
),
.
,

, .
,
.
.
,
.
,
,
.
S -, . ,
,
, .
. . .

479

10.

-,
.
10.12.
-. .

.
.
arktgi.
:
.
.
E 2 B 2
.
E , B
.
.

E 2 B 2 = ( E jiB )( E + jiB ) =
E 2 (1 ji )(1 + ji ) = E 2 0e jarktgi 0e jarktgi =
= E 2 ( 0 ) 2 e0 = 0

W = E jiB = E 2 B 2 e jarktgi
E = B ,

W = E 0e jarktgi

.
2



,

WGEB = FG ei + j kjFEB ei + j =
= FG 2 FEB 2 ei + j karktgj
FG = FEB ,

WGEB = FG 0e i + j karktgj

(
).
,
480

10.

.
2

,
( : , ..),
.

m1m2
= (m1c 2 + m2c 2 ) (m1c 2 + m2c 2 ) 2 (mV c 2 ) 2
r



2
10.12.1
mm
mm
mV c 2 = 2G

(m1c 2 + m2 c 2 ) G


r
4
V = r 3
3
,
( ).
10.12.2.
3 mV c 2
=
4 r 3

-,

2Gm1
rg =
,

c2
2

2Gm
V = 2 1 r
c

mV c 2
=
V

-
2
10.12.3.

4 r
=
3 rg


.
, .

- .
.
,
, .

481

10.

.
-
,
.
.
.
. .
,
, .
, ,
. ,
gik

Rik

1
8G
g ik R = 4 Tik g ik
2
c

0 , ,
2

mV c .


2

mm
mm
mV c = 2G 1 2 ( m1c 2 + m2 c 2 ) G 1 2
r
r


r
4
V = r 3
3
,
( ).
3 mV c 2
=
4 r 3

-,

2Gm1
rg =
,
c2
2

2Gm
V = 2 1 r
c

mV c 2
=
V
-

4 r
=
3 rg

482

10.


.
, .

-
..
,
, .

.
-
,
.
,
, ,
,
mV c 2 ,
,
, ,
.
c 2
=
8G
,
, :
1055 c *-2, 1028 /*3, = 107 /*3.


2
mm
G c k = ( mc + mk )c 2 (mc + mk )c 2 ( mV c 2 ) 2
Rck
mc , mk - , , Rck - .

m
mV c 2 = mc c 2G k
Rck
4
V = Rck3 , ,
3

m
3mc c 2G k
Rck
ck =
4Rck3
.

c
=
8G
2

3mc c 2G
4Rck3

mk
Rck

483

10.

2Gmc 1
m 1
1 r r
) 3 2G 2k
= 3 2 gc gk
2
c
Rck
c Rck
Rck Rck Rck



.

tan g gc , tan g gk .

= 3(


tan gc
=3
Rck

tan g gk
Rck

: mk = 5.977.1027 ,
m p = 0.9mk

Rck = 1.4961013 ,

Rckp = 5.911014 .
mc = 1.9891033 .
,
z = 4.1041 *-2, p = 9.1047 *-2

z = 4.1014 /c*3, p = 9.1020 /c*3


.
.

.

.
,
,


,
.
10.13

.
, m1
( ) mZ ,
mm
F = G 1 2Z ,
RZ
G - , RZ -
.
mIH

484

10.

F = amIH

. .

, ,
, ,
( )
( )
. , ,
.
, ,

.

m mIH
10 12 . 1
10 12
m1
,
- , .
,
,
m1 = mIH ,
m
a = g = G Z2
RZ
g .
, m1 , m2
().
,
,
.
mV ,
C3 (. 1) ,
,
.( 101)
mV C 2 .
,

.
,

mg C 2 = m1C 2 + m2C 2

. ,
.
(
)

485

10.

m C 2 =

[(m + m )C ] (m C
2 2

2 2

)
,
mV C 2 .
,
(
, ).
mg C 2 m C 2
1

.


.
,
( )
2
2
mm
G 1 Z = (m1 + mZ )c 2 (m1 + mZ )c 2 mVP1c 2
RZ

, ,

( ).

.
(
) .

,
mVP1c 2 .
, .
,
, ,
.
.
.

mV1 C 2 ( ),

] [

m1 mV2 C 2 mZ .
mV C 2 = mV1 C 2 + mV2 C 2

m1
mV1 C 2 = mV C 2
m1 + m2
mZ
m1 + mZ
mV C 2 << m1C 2 + m2C 2
mV2 C 2 = mV C 2

mV C 2 = 2G

m1mZ
(m1C 2 + mZ C 2 )
RZ

486

10.


m1
mV1 C 2 CVm1
m2
,
m
1
mV2 C 2 CVm2
m2
m2
RZ

m1

. ,
m2

.
, V1
,
mVK C 2
V = 2G

m1V1
= (m1C 2 + m2C 2 ) (m1C 2 + m2C 2 ) (mVK C 2 ) 2
2
mVK C 2 << m1C 2 + m2C 2
mVK C 2 = V1C m1 (m1 + m2 )

m1
m2
mVK C 2 = mVK C 2
+ mVK C 2
m1 + m2
m1 + m2
mVK 1C 2 = CV1m1

m1
m2

m1
m2
, .

, V1 V .


.
,
.
. , m1
mV1 ,
mVK 2C 2 = CV1m2

m1IN C 2 = m1C 2 jimV1 C 2 ,


1 (mV1 C 2 ) 2
1 (mV1 C 2 ) 2
2
)
=
m
C

1
2 (m1C 2 ) 2
2 m1C 2
,
m1IN C 2 = (m1C 2 ) 2 (mV1 C 2 ) 2 = m1C 2 (1

487

10.

m
1
m1IN C 2 = m1C 2 m1V 2 1
2
m2

1
2
mIN
C 2 = m2C 2 m1V 2
2
2
1 V m1
1
mIN = m1 m1
2 C m2

2
1 V
2
mIN = m2 m1
2 C

.

,
.
.
, .

.
, ,
,

.
.
,

2
m1m2
V1
G
= mIN
m1 , mIN
RZ
2
V1 = 2G

mZ

RZ

.

,
.


2
m1mZ
1 2Gm2 m1 V1

= m1 m1
G

RZ
2 RZ C 2 m2 2

m1
m
2G Z
RZ
2
V1 =

1 2Gm2 m1

1
2 RZ C 2 m2
,

488

10.

1 rg m1
,
2 RZ m2

2Gm2
V
RZ

,
V1

m1
10 15 10 22
m2
.
,

.
,
.
. .
,
.
, -,
,
( ).

,
. ,
(,
, ) ,
,
. .
,
. , (
m1 V 2
mm
) G 1 Z = IN

RZ
2
m1
m1IN ,
.
.
.
,
.


1
m1
m1C 2 = m1IN C 2 + m1V 2
2
m1 + m2
1
m2
m1V 2
2
m1 + m2

2
m2C 2 = mIN
C2 +

489

10.

1 1 2
mINV
2
,
,
m1C 2 + m2C 2 = m1IN C 2 + m 2 IN C 2 +

mK C 2 = mINK + W1 W1 - m1IN

(
).

.

m1 IN C 2 = m1C 2 jimV C 2 = m1C 2 m mV C 2 mV C 2 ( ji 1) =
= (m1C 2 m mV C 2 ) mV C 2 0e m jarktgi
,

, (
).
m1IN C 2 = (m1C 2 ) 2 (mV C 2 ) 2
mZ C 2
mg C 2

mB C 2

mZ C 2 = m Z B C 2 + m Z g C 2

mB C 2 = mZ C 2 jim Z g C 2 = (mZ C 2 m m Z g C 2 ) m Z g C 2 (1 ji ) =
= (mZ C 2 m Z g C 2 ) + m Z g C 2 0e jarktgi
, mIN C 2 mBIN C 2
mgIN C 2 .
m1C 2 = m1B C 2 + m1g C 2

m1B C 2 = (m1C 2 m1g C 2 ) + m1g C 2 0e jarktgi

Z 2
1
2
2
2
Z 2
1
2
Z 2
1
2
jarktgi
mB C + mB C = (mZ C + m1C ) (mg C + mg C ) + (mg C + mg C ) 0e

,

mV C 2 = (mgZ C 2 + m1g C 2 ) + (mgZ C 2 + m1g C 2 ) 0e jarktgi = mBB C 2 + mVV C 2


. ,

.

490

10.


, .
.
,
1
2
m1C 2 + m2C 2 = m1IN C 2 + m2IN C 2 + m1INV1
2
2
1 V
m1
m1IN = m1 m1
2 C m1 + m2

2
1 V
m2
m2IN = m2 m2
2 C m1 + m2
m2
RZ

V1 .
,
m
1 10 20
m2
V 0.95C
,
,

.

, .
, V1 0 ,
RZ ,
,
RZ .
RZ
,

c V1
V = 2G

mV C 2 = 2G

m1m2
m INV
(m1C 2 + m2C 2 ) + 2 1 1 (m1C 2 + m2C 2 )
RZ
2

V1 = 0 ,
RZ
,
(mV C 2 ) 2
(m + m1 )m2 1
G 1
=
RZ
2 (m1C 2 + m2C 2 )

(m1 + m1 )m2
mm
m INV
= 2G 1 2 + 2 1 1
RZ
RZ
2

2G

491

10.

m1INV1 RZ
m1
m1 (1 +
) = m1 +
m1
2Gm2
m1IN = m1 .


RZ
= C 2 (
2Gm2
, RZ = rg ).

V
m1 = 2m1
C
.
,

. ,
.

.
.
(
, )
m1m2
G
= m1C 2 (m1C 2 ) 2 (mVK C 2 ) 2
R
m
m1C 2 = mVK C 2 G 2 = C 2
R

.
(m + m1 )m2 1 (mV C 2 ) 2
G 1
=
RZ/
2 m1C 2 + m2C 2
m1m2 1 (mV C 2 ) 2
G
=
RZ
2 m1C 2 + m2C 2
m1
)
m1

,
V
RZ + RZ = RZ + RZ 2 1
C
( )
V
RZ = 2 RZ 1
C

m1 .
RZ/ = RZ + RZ = RZ (1 +

492

10.

10.14


.

.
,
.

= z + ji .

1 + ji = 0e + jarktgi

1 ji = 0e + jarktgi

(
) (. 7, 8, 9).
,
.

mG1 C 2 = mV1 C 2 + jimV1 C 2 = mV1 C 2 0e + jarktgi
m1g C 2 = mV1 C 2 jimV1 C 2 = mV1 C 2 e + jarktgi
mG2 C 2 = mV2 C 2 0e + jarktgi
mg2 C 2 = mV2 C 2 0e + jarktgi

C3
(. 101).


mG1 C 2 + mG2 C 2 = mV C 2 0e + jarktgi (
),
mG1 C 2 + mg2 C 2 = (mV1 C 2 mV2 C 2 ) 0e + jarktgi

mV C 2 > (mV1 C 2 mV2 C 2 )

, .
mV C 2
(mV1 C 2 mV2 C 2 ) .
/

RZ RZ = RZ .

.

,

(mV1 C 2 + mV2 C 2 ) 0e + jarktgi
mV C 2 0e + jarktgi

,
493

10.

. ,
( )
.
, 10.13,

m1IN C 2 = m1C 2 jimV1 C 2 = (m1C 2 ) 2 (mV1 C 2 ) 2 e jarktgi


mV1 C 2
m1C 2

( ),
.

.
,
.
m1 , m2 , mV C 2 , RZ .
,
2
m1
1 V
IN
m1 = m1 m1
2 C m1 + m2
=

m2
1 V
m = m2 m1
2 C m1 + m2

,
,

IN
2

1 V
m IN 1C 2 + m2IN C 2 = m1C 2 + m2C 2 m1
2 C

2

IN
1

IN
2

m m

1 V
m1
1 V
m1
m1m2 m1m2
m1m2
=
2 C m1 + m2
2 C m1 + m2

V 2 m1
= m1m2 1

C m1 + m2

V 2 m1
m1m2 1

2Gm1m2 (m1C 2 + m2C 2 ) 1


C m1 + m2

G
=
1
RZ + RZ
2(m1C 2 + m2C 2 m1V 2 ) RZ
2

V 2 m1
1

m1 + m2
1
C m1 + m2 =
2
RZ + RZ
1 V RZ
m1 + m2 m1
2 C
494

10.

C3
m1v C 2

jim1v C 2

m1C 2

mv1C 2

jimv1C 2

rg e jarctgi
RZ

Rg e jarctgi

jimv2C 2
mv2C 2
mv2C 2

. 101. m1
m2
RZ

RZ

V 2 m1 1 V 2 m1
RZ + RZ = RZ 1
1

C m1 + m2 2 C m1 + m2
2
2
V 2 m1

1 V
m1
3 V
m1
RZ 1

+ .... RZ RZ
2 C m1 + m2
C m1 + m2 2 C m1 + m2

3 V
m1
RZ =
RZ
2 C m1 + m2
495

10.


RZ .
n >1

n>2

V m1
,
.
C m1 + m2

3 2Gm2 m1
3
RZ =
RZ rg
2
2 RZ C m2
2
, ,


. .
.
.
.
,
.

, , ,
.

.
, ,
(0,0,...,0) 0 .
.

. : z = e i 0 = 1, z = e 2i = 1
,

.

.
(Ct , x, y, z ) Ct / , x / , y / , z /

( )2

( )

dS 2 = dS / (Ct ) x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = Ct / ( ( x / ) 2 + ( y / ) 2 + ( z / ) 2 ) 2

. . .


.

= e1 x1 + e2 x2 + e3 x3

= e1 y1 + e2 y2 + e3 y3
x1 , x2 , x3 , y1 , y2 , y3 ,

e1 , e2 , e3 ,

( ) = x1 y1 + x2 y2 + x3 y3 . N
.
2

496

10.

r = =

(x )

. ,

.

.
,
(0, 0, 0) ,

.

.
.
.
. .

ds 2 = g ik dx i dx k , i, k = 0,1,2,3
,
.
-
.
.
.
,
, .
, (
) ,
.

.
, ,
.
. ,

, .
.
:

. ,
, .
,
,
. ,
, ,
.
, .

.

497

10.

,
. ,
.
, ,

.
.
,
, , , .
(
).
, .

, ,
1
.

x
x = 0 . .
.
,
.

.

.

.
V = C
.
,
, ,
.
.
,
.
dS 2 = (Ct ) 2 r 2 = (Ct jir )(Ct + jir ) =
= (Ct ) 2 r 2 e

jarktgi

r
Ct

(Ct ) 2 r 2 e

jarktgi

r
Ct

= (Ct ) 2 r 2
dS 2 = Ct 0e jarktgiCt 0e jarktgi =
r

= V ,
C
= Ct (1 ji )Ct (1 + ji ) = (Ct ) 2 0 = 0
,
. ,
V = C Ct 0 ,
, ,
arctgi,
. T jiX,
,
/ 2 ,
498

10.

.
.
.
,
.
.
, . .
(
). .
(
, - ).
,
.

.

1. +1
,
, 1
+1 .
,
.
.

499

10.

10.15. .

(),
. (1789-1857.).
,
.

(10.15.1)
z = x + iy = ei

I, 1,

i = 1

.
X, Y I
(10.15.1) (Z) z.
Z, X, Y .
Z
X, Y .
.
Z
.
(1)
(10.15.2)
= x 2 + y 2 -,
y
= arktg -.
x
2i ,
, +1,
e 0 I = +1, e 2I = +1
, z = 1 ,
X.
,
z = 0 .
(10.15.3)
0 = 0ei

z n = a , a 0 -
. a = ei , z = rei , r n e in = e i , ,

r = n , k = ( + 2k )

rn =
n = + 2k

1
n

500

10.

(10.15.4)

( + 2k )i 1

zk = n e
, k = 0,1,2,..., n 1
n-. ,
.
;
.
.
1

(10.15.5)
= x + iy + j + ji = ( x + iy ) + j ( + i )
i, j ( ),
X 2 + 1 = 0 .
ji = ij .
X 2 1 = 0 .
(i + j )(i j ) = 0 .
( )
.
.
:
j (
i, j, ),
X 2 + 1 = 0 .

2
X 1 = 0 ij ,
ij = ji .
,

.
,

.
+1. (10.15.4)
z k = 1e

i 0 + 2 ki

1
2 , k = 0,1

z k = 0 = e 0i = 1,
z k =1 = e

0i + 2i

1
2 = 1

z1,2 = 1
.
,

.
.

501

10.

.
+1 ( Z 0 = 1 ).
ei = cos + i sin

+1.
, (10.15.4),
+1 e i i .

. +1
z k = ei e i
z k = ei + +2ki e i + 2ki , k = 0,1

i i
z k = 0 = e 2 e 2 = e 0 = +1
i
i
+i +i
z k =1 = e 2 e 2
= e 2i = +1

, .

.
,
,
z k , k1 = ei + 2ki e i + 2 k1i , k1 = k + 1, k = 0,1
i i
+i
= ei = 1
z k = 0, k1=1 = e 2 e 2


j. ,
2i,2j ,
z k = 0 = ei + e j = ji = ij
z k =1 = ei + 2i e j + 2j = ji = ij
,
2 ,
.
, k1 = k + 1
.
+1
z k = ei + 2ki e j + 4kj , k = 0,1
i j

z k = 0 = e 2 e 2 = ji
j
i
+i + 2j
2
z k =1 = e
e 2
= + ji

502

10.

.
,
.

(10.15.6)
= Re i + j

R , (10.15.5)
.
(10.15.7)
= ( x + i )2 + ( + i )2
R= =

(x + iy )2 + ( + i )2

= 4 + r 4 + 2 2 r 2 cos 2( )

x + iy = z = e i

(10.15.8)

+ i = = re i

(10.15.9)
r
= arctg ei ( )

(10.15.10)
1
2 sin 2 + r 2 sin 2
= arctg 2
2
cos 2 + r 2 cos 2
(10.15.6 - 10.15.10)
.
(x, y, , ) ,
(z , ) ( ) .
, (10.15.6)
. .
(
)
.

: , , , , . .
.
,
. 0
,
0 0 .

0 .
, .
, ,
0 ,
.
.
0
0e i ,
503

10.

0 .
, .
,
.

2
(10.15.11)
1
iei d
f ( z ) = dz =
= 2i
i
z
0 e

(z ) ,
.

= Rei + j = R cos cos +
+ iR sin cos + j Rei sin

X = R cos cos

(10.15.12)

Y = iR sin cos

= j Re i sin
(10.15.12)
. (10.15.12)
X = cos
(10.15.13)
y = i sin
= jrei
, = r
(z ) .

z , (10.15.8)
, (10.15.6)

= 2 + r 2 ei + j
, r , , .

R = 2 + r2

-, = jrei .

C3 ( ) . , :

= R, r - .
C3 ( ) ,
4 , 2 .
.
.

504

10.

+1
.

, e 0i = e i i .
.
.
,
. ,
(z ) , C3 ( )
. ,
2 ,
2 ,
4 , 2 .

(10.15.14)
1
f ( ) = d =
C3

C3 Re
4

i + j

(i Rei + j d + j Rei + j d ) =

id + jd = 4i + 2j.
0

,
,
C3 ( ) ,
(10.15.15)
1
f ( ) =
dS =
S

2
1

2 2i + 2 j

S R e
2

= ji

( jiR 2e 2i + 2 j )dd =

d d = 2

ji

(
).

,
,


.
.

z , .

505

10.

=
=r

(10.15.16)

(10.15.6 - 10.15.10)
R = 2 r2 = 0

(10.15.17)

=
= arctgi
(6)
d = ei 0e jarctgi

(10.15.18)

(10.15.19)

( ) 0 0
arctgi .
0 = 0 . ,

(10.15.19)
(10.15.20)
= ei (1 ji )
d

,

,

.
2
.
arctgi

0 0 . ,

.
. , ab = 0 ,
a = 0, b 0
: a 0, b = 0
a 0, b 0
. ,
.
a = ei (1 + ji ), b = ei (1 ji )
,

( )( )

2
2
(10.15.21)
ab = ( e i ) 2 0e + jarctgi 0e jarctgi = e i
0 e0 = 0
.

.
,

0 = 0e i + j , ,
.

506

10.

, .
.
1
1
e i m jarctgi
0 ei e jarctgi
a + 0 = a , a + d a .
a 0 = 0 a d = ad ,
.

ei + jrei ei + jrei

(10.15.21)
4 + r 4 + 2 2 r 2 cos 2( ) 2 + r 2
,
, ,
.
1

,
=0

arctgi . ,
,
.

.
.


= ei 0e jarctgi = ei jiei ,
.


(10.15.22)
= Re i + j = Re i cos + j Re i sin i Re i sin =
= Re i ( ) + j 0e arctgi Re i sin
4

0e jarctgi = e ji ,

(10.15.23)
= Re i ( ) + je ji Re i sin
,
: Re i ( ) ,
,
(10.15.24)
d = Je ji Rei sin =
= j (1 ji ) Rei sin = j Rei sin i Rei sin

..

507

10.

( ) ( ) ,

(10.15.25)
= 1 + k 2 ,
k = 1, kji = ijk = jik = ikj = jki,

(kji )2 = 1

( ) , (10.15.6),
, ( ) ( ) ,
(z ) .

1 , 2

= Rei + j .

,
(10.15.25)
(10.15.26)
= Re i + j + k
R- ,
(10.15.25),

( )
R=
-, - (z ) , - ( ) .

. (10.15.26)
(10.15.27)
= Rei cos cos +
+ j Rei sin cos +
+ k Rei + j sin

X Z = Rei cos cos

(10.15.27)

YZ = j Rei sin cos


Z z = k Rei + j sin
(z ) ,
( ) .
( ) .
, , ,
. C3 ( ) -
( ) .
C3 ( ) . ( )
= 8i + 4j + 2k .

1
f ( ) =
d =
C3 ( )

f ( ) =

3 dV ( )

V ( )

508

10.


, , , .
(z , , )
, C3 ,
S3 ( ), S3 ( ) , V3 ( ) .
, , , .

.
, ,

.

,
- .


.
(10.15.26)
.

(10.15.27)
= Rei + j cos + k Rei + j sin j Rei + j sin =
= Rei + j ( + ) + k (e + karctgj 0 ) Rei + j sin
, ( )
ke kj ( ) (
0e karctgi = e kj ).

ji

e ,
Re i + j ( + ) = Re i ( + + ) + je ji Re i sin( + )
ke kj ( )
e ji .
Re i + j = Re i ( + ) + je ji Re i sin
(10.15.23).
= Rei ( + + ) + je ji Rei sin( + ) +

(10.15.27)

+ ke kj Rei ( + ) sin + kje kj + ji Rei sin sin


, (10.15.27)
e ji , e kj
e kj + ji .
,

.
(10.15.26)

509

10.

[(

)] [(

)]

= ei + jrei + k 1ei + jr1ei =


= 2 + r 2 ei + j + k 12 + r12 ei + j =
= ei + j + k 2 + r 2 + 12 + r12
R, , , ,


(10.15.28)
2 + r 2 + 12 + r12


(10.15.29)
( ) = ( ) + k1 ( )

(10.15.30)
= Re i + j + k + k1
( k1 = 1, ijkk1 = , i = jkk1,...., 2 = +1,..... )

(10.15.31)
= Re i + j cos cos +
+ k Rei + j sin cos +
+ k1 Re i + j + k sin

X B = Rei + j cos cos

(10.15.31)

YB = k Rei + j sin cos


Z B = k1 Rei + j + k sin
(10.15.12, 10.15.27, 10.15.31) ,
.
( ) , ,
( ) ,
( )
..
(10.15.29) ( )
(10.15.25),
( ) = [(1 + k 2 )] + k1[( 3 + k 4 )]
( ) = ( z ) + j ( ) .

(10.15.32)
( ) = ([(z1 + j 1 ) + k (z 2 + j 2 )] + k1 [(z3 + j 3 ) + k (z 4 + j 4 )])
,
,
(z ) ( ) .
,
.

510

10.


(30)

( )

= Rei + j + k cos + k1 Re i + j + k sin k Re i + j + k sin =


= Re i + j + k ( + ) + k1 0e k1arctgk Re i + j + k sin
,
(10.15.33)
= Re i + j + k ( + ) + k1e k1k Re i + j + k sin
(10.15.22), (10.15.27) ,

.
(10.15.33)
,
(10.15.27).
(10.15.33)
.


.

(10.15.34)

C
V
U =
,

2
2

V
V
1
1 C

C


U =

C
2

+ ji

V
2

= Ce

jarktgi

V
C

(10.15.35)

V
V
1
1
C
C
(10.15.34)
.
(10.15.35) U
V
= jarktgi .
C
, V ,
,
.
C
(i + j )
V = C , U = Ce jarktgi =
0
,
,
.
.
:

511

10.

mV

P =

V
1
C

(10.15.36)

mC 2

E =

V
1
C

E
P = , P
C
-
V
PC
(10.15.37)
2
jarktgi
jarktgi
E
E
2
C
E
P = jiP = P e
= mCe
C
C
(10.15.36)
(10.15.37),
.

E = C P 2 + m 2C 2

P = mC ,
V
.
C

E = PU . (10.15.35), (10.15.37),

Jarktgi

V
V
V
Jarktgi
2 jarktgi
C Ce
C = mC 2 e
C

(10.15.38)

E = mCe
,

(10.15.39)
E = mC 2 e J ,
V
C
= arktgi
2
V
1+
C
V = C ,
2

E = mC 2 e jarktgi

(10.15.40)

E = mC 2 .
.

(10.15.36), .
, ,
.

.

512

10.

:

.
.
,
.
,
, , , ,
.
N>3
.
,

, .
,
, .
.

.

.
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
.

,
V .
U = C V
.
.

, V .

, ,

V
(10.15.41)
2
V jarktgi C
U = C jiV = C 1 e
C

2

V
k = 1 ,
C
.

513

10.

V Jarktgi C i (t )
U = C 1 e
C
2

V
C
(t ) ,
.
,
, .

= arktgi

10.16.

.
.


(10.16.1)
= Rei j
e

( )

e jarktgi .
e ji . ,

e + = Rei cos + j Rei sin i Rei sin =


= + = Rei ( + ) + je + ji Rei sin
1e

2e = Rei ( ) + je ji Rei sin



3e = Rei ( + ) je ji Rei sin
+ = Rei ( ) je + ji Rei sin
4e

(10.16.2)

1+e , 4+e . Re i ( + ) ,(

Rei )
.


2e , 3e .

Le = +1
P = 1 e

Le = 1 P = +1
~e

514

10.

e ( 1+e , 4+e )
~e ( 2e , 3e )

(10.16.3)

Rei ,
P = 1 .
(10.16.2)
.
(10.16.4)
+ + = Rei + j
1e
2e
4+e + 3e = Re i j

1+e + 4+e = 2 Re i cos

(10.16.5)

2e + 3e = 2 Rei cos
102

, +
. :
,
~ .
C3 ( )
, , . ,
C3 ( )
.
.
102 .
.
(10.16.5),
Rei cos = ,
( ).

:

,
e + ~e = 2 + W ,
2 = 2 Rei cos , W = 2 je ji Rei sin
,
(10.16.5) (10.16.2)
,
(10.16.6)
+ = 2 Re i cos + Rei ( + ) je ji Rei sin
1

. L 1
,
.

515

10.

,
(10.16.2)
-,
(10.16.7)
+ = 4 Rei cos + Re i ( + ) je ji Re i sin
1

. - L 1 .
(10.16.6), (10.16.7)
,
. -
.
104 .
,
.
, ,
( X ) = R cos cos

(Y ) = iR sin cos
(Z ) = j Rei sin

.
, ,

( )

( )

e e + .
(10.16.8)
Z = Re i j k

,
( ) .
Z
(10.16.9)
Z = Re i + j cos k Re i j sin

Z1+ = Re i + j ( + ) + ke kj Re i + j ( ) sin

(10.16.10)

Z 2 = Re i + j ( ) + ke kj Re i + j ( ) sin
Z 3 = Re i + j ( + ) ke kj Re i + j ( ) sin
Z 4+ = Re i + j ( ) ke kj Re i + j ( ) sin
(10.16.10) (10.16.2)

.
Re i + j = ( e ) e j ,

ke kj ( e ) sin

Z1+ = ( e )e j + ke kj ( e ) sin

(10.16.11)

Z 4+ = ( e )e j ke kj ( e ) sin

516

10.

( )

( e ) = ~e ,

Z1+ , Z 4+

e + ,
.
,

(10.16.12)
Z + + Z + = ~ cos
1

( )

Z 2 = e e j + ke kj e sin

(10.16.13)

Z 3 = e e j ke kj e sin

Z 2 + Z 3 = e cos

(10.16.14)

( )( )

e , e +
C3 ,
(10.16.11), (10.16.13).
(Z )
( e ) cos .

(10.16.15)
Z + Z + = ( )e j + ke kj ( )sin
2

4
j

+ ( e )e
ke ( e ) sin = e cos
(10.16.14) ,
(Z )
, .

(10.16.16)
Z + + Z = ~ cos
1

kj


, (Z) .
,


E = Z 2 + Z 3 = Re i ( + ) + Re i ( + + ) +

+ j 0e jarktgi Re i (sin ( ) + sin ( + )) +

+ (k 0e karktgj Re i ( + ) sin k 0e karktgj Re i ( + ) sin ) +

+ k 0e karktgj j 0e jarktgi Re i sin sin k 0e karktgj j 0e jarktgi Re i sin sin



,

E = Rei ( + ) + je ji Rei sin ( )

ke kj Rei ( + ) sin ke kj + ji Rei sin sin

517

10.


.



,
,
(10.16.16)
E = 2 Re i ( + ) cos + 2 je Ji Re i sin cos +
+ 2ke kj Re i ( + ) sin +
+ 2ke kj + ji Re i sin sin
( ) ,
( ),
( ), - (
).
105.
C3 ( e ) ( e )
C3 (Z ) (Z ) . ( e )

C3 ( e ) = 4i + 2j .
(Z )

(Z ) = 8i + 4j + 2k .
, ,

.

(Z ) .

( X Z ) = Rei cos cos


(YZ ) = j Rei sin cos
(Z Z ) = k Rei + j sin


.
( ) .

E + E + = 2 + W ,
2 = ~e cos + cos , W = 2(ke kj + ke kj )( e ) sin
(Z ) ( e )

.
( e ) (Z )

(Z 2 + Z 3 ) = Rei + j ( ) + ke kj Rei + j sin +

+ Re i + j ( + ) ke kj Re i j sin = 2 Re i cos( ) +
+ 2e kj Re i sin sin

518

10.

= 2 Re i cos( ) + 2e kj Re i sin sin

(10.16.17)

+ = Z1+ + Z 4+ = Rei + j ( + + ) + ke kj Re i + j sin +


+ Re i + j ( ) ke kj Re i j sin =
= 2 Re i cos( + ) + 2e kj Re i sin sin

+ = 2 Rei cos( + ) + 2e kj Rei sin sin

(10.16.18)

0
,
(10.16.12), ( 10.16.14).
(10.16.19)
0 = ~ cos + cos = Rei cos cos

106

.
,
. .
( ) ,
.
.

jZ , .

0 .
(10.16.6), -
(7).
(10.16.20)
= e j ke kj sin
.

( e ) .

( )


(10.16.21)
= e j ke kj
-
- .

+ , , 0 .
-S, -c, b.

. S
,

519

10.

K+ = + + 0 =
= Rei cos cos + 2 Rei cos( + ) + 2e kj Rei sin sin
K + - ,
.
.
.
K 0
, S.

(10.16.23)
K0 = 0 + 0
K0 = + +
(10.16.17), (10.16.18), (10.16.19),
, .
.

, .
(10.16.24)
D0 = K + +

K
- S
.
.


(10.16.25)
B = Re i + j + k + k1
(k1 = 1, ijkk1 = jikk1,.......)

B = Re i + j + k cos + k1 Rei + j + k sin k Re i + j + k sin =
= Re i + j + k ( + ) + k1e + k1k Re i + j + k sin
, ,

B1+ = Re i + j + k ( + ) + k1e + k1k Re i + j + k sin

(10.16.26)

B2 = Re i + j + k ( ) + k1e k1k Re i + j + k sin


B3 = Re i + j + k ( + ) k1e k1k Re i + j + k sin
B4+ = Re i + j + k ( ) k1e + k1k Re i + j + k sin

(10.16.27)
X = Rei + j cos cos
B

YB = k Rei + j sin cos


Z B = k1 Rei + j + k sin
(10.16.26)

520

10.

B1+ + B4+ = Re i + j + k ( + ) + k1e k1k Re i + j + k sin +

(10.16.28)

+ Re i + j + k ( ) k1e k1k Re i + j k sin =


= 2 Re i + j cos( + ) + 2e k1k Re i + j sin sin

B1+ + B4+ = 2 Re i j cos( + ) + 2e k1k Re i j sin sin
(10.16.28) (10.16.29)

(10.16.29)

B = Rei cos cos( + ) + e k1k Rei cos sin sin

(10.16.30)


.
B1+ (10.16.26)
-
+ (10.16.18),
(10.16.31)
B1+ = + e k + k1e k1k + sin
,
(10.16.26)

B1+ + B4+ = Re i + j + k ( + ) + Re i + j + k ( ) , ,
,
.
,

( B1+ + B4+ ) = Rei + j + k ( + ) + Rei + j k ( + ) = 2 Rei + j cos( + )


, ,
.

( B1+ + B4+ ) = 2 Rei j cos( + )


(10.16.31)
K + ,
D + K , D , K 0 , D 0 , .

(10.16.32)
B + K + = ( K + e k ) + + k e k1k K + sin

( )
( )

1
1
B1+ D + = ( D + e k ) + + k1e k1k D + sin

........................................................

( )
B1+ (D 0 ) = ( D 0 e k ) 0 + k1e k1k D 0 sin

B1+ K 0 = ( K 0 e k ) 0 + k1e k1k K 0 sin


........................................................
: p +
n 0 .
n 0 p + + E + ~ (10.16.33)
,
.
521

10.

.
(
),
(10.16.34)
B + = ( 0 e k ) 0 + k e k1k 0 sin
1

,

.
(10.16.17), (10.16.18), (10.16.19)

0 = ( Z1+ + Z 2 + Z 4+ ) + Z 3
Z 3 :

. (10.16.33) E ( Z 3 ) .

.

,
2Z1+ + Z 2 = 2 Rei + j ( + ) + 2ke kj Rei + j sin +
+ j

+ Rei + j ( + ) ke kj Rei

sin

(2ke kj ke kj ) Rei + j sin =


= (2k (1 + kj ) k (1 kj )) Rei + j sin =
= (2k 2 j k j ) Rei + j sin =
= (k Rei + j j Rei + j 2 j Rei + j ) sin =

= ke kj Rei + j sin 2 j Rei + j sin


,
.

2 Z1+ + Z 2 = 3 Rei + j cos + 3 j Rei + j sin


2 j Rei + j sin + ke kj Rei + j sin =
= 3 Rei + j cos + ke kj Rei + j sin j Rei + j sin

.

0 = (3 Rei + j cos + ke kj Rei + j sin ) + ( Z 3 ) + ( j Rei + j sin )

)
+ ke kj Rei + j sin ( + ) + (Z 3 )+ ( j Rei + j sin ( + )

( 0e k ) = 3 Rei + j cos( + ) +



(10.16.33).

522

10.


,

(10.16.35)
E = Re i + j ( + + ) ke kj Rei + j sin ( + ) +

+ k1e k1k (Rei + j ( + ) ke kj Rei + j sin ) sin


~ = k1e k1k j Rei + j sin sin j Re i + j sin ( + )

(10.16.36)
B( p ) = 3 Re i + j cos( + ) + ke kj Re i + j sin ( + ) +
+ k1e k1k (3 Re i + j cos + ke kj Re i + j sin ) sin

, ,
= 0
E = Rei + j ( + ) ke kj Rei + j sin
~ = j Rei + j sin

(10.16.37)

B ( p ) = 3 Rei + j cos + ke kj Rei + j sin



.
n 0 p + + E + ~
, B( p ), E ,~
k1e k1k .
,
, (10.16.37). B( p )
.
- K + ,
.

K+ 0 + + ,

i + j

2 Re
cos

2 Rei + j cos + Rei + j cos + (k j ) Re i + j sin =

= Rei + j + Rei + j ( ) + Rei + j + k


, ,

-.
K S0 0 + 0
K S0 + +
K L0 + + + 0
D0 K + +
,
.
523

10.



K + + +0
~
D+ K 0 + +
,
.

.
, , .
.
S, , b
, 0 , .

0 p +
0 n + 0
+ p + 0
.........................................
C p + + K
C 0 + +

.

,

.

, : ,
, , ..
,
.

.

( e ) = Rei + j .

Le , L , L .

(Z E ) = Re i + j + k .

(Z E ) ( e ) ,

(Z E ) = ( e )e k .
, ,
.
.
524

10.


( e ), (Z E ) ,
.


, 0 .

Le , L , L : S - , - , b -
..
S -
, -


.
(Z E ) ,
. - e .

e , , .
,
e + ~e = 2
, ( Rei )
,
.

,
.

(B ) = Re i + j + k + k1 . ,
[B(Z E )], [Z E ( )], [ ( )]


( ) = Rei + j = Rei cos j Rei sin i Rei sin =
= Re i ( ) j 0e jarktgi Re i sin = g jgL

(Z E ) = Rei j k

= Re i j cos k Re i j sin j Re i j sin =

= Re i j ( ) k 0e karktgj Re i j sin = g Z kg Ze

(B ) = Rei j k k1 = (Z E ) cos k1(Z E ) sin k (Z E ) sin =


= (Z E )e k k1 0e k1arktgk (Z E ) sin = g B k1g B

g = Re i ( ) ,
g Z = ( )e j ,

g B = (Z E )e k .
,

525

10.

. ,
, ,
. .
.

gL = (1 ji ) Rei sin = D 0e jarktgi ,
D = Re i sin

g Ze = D E (1 kj ) = D E 0e karktgj ,

D E = ( ) sin

g B = D B (1 k1k ) = D B 0e k1arktgk ,

D B = (Z E ) sin
:
: - jarktgi , karktgj , - k1arktgk .;
,
.

, ,

90
.
( D (1 ji ), D E (1 kj ), D B (1 k1k ) .
.
, ,
.
P + 107
, D B
.

... .


.
, .
.

0 P + , 0 n 0 ,....

.
, ,
.

(B ) = P + P~ +
...
-
.
,
,

( )( )

526

10.

,

.

, ,
,
.
,

.
10.17
, ,
,
,
. .
,
, ,
.

[] = Rei + j + k + k1 +... =
= X = R cos cos cos cos +

( )

+ (Y ) = iR sin cos cos cos +


+ (Z ) = j Rei sin cos cos +
+ ( ) = k Rei + j sin cos +
+ ( ) = k1 Rei + j + k sin
( X ), (Y ) -
(Z )
. ,

,
.
.
,
. (Z ), ( ), ( )


(Z ) = j sin cos cos
( ) = k ( )sin cos
( ) = k1(Z E )sin

.
. ,
,
..

527

10.

, []
.
, ,
. ,
[] .

. [B]
, .,
()
. []
.
, , -
.
10 33 .
[] ,

.
,
.
, .
( 10.16.11-10.16.16)
.
.
.
,
.
,
,

( )( )

Z + Z + = Rei + j + k

.
.
, ,
.
Z + = Re i + j ( + ) + k 0e karktgj Re i + j sin

( )
(Z )= Rei + j( ) + k

0e karktgj Re i + j sin




Z + + Z = 2 Re i + j cos + [k (1 + kj ) + k (1 kj )] Rei + j sin =

( ) ( )

= 2 Rei + j cos + 2k Re i + j sin = 2 Rei + j + k


[] .

.
.
,

528

10.

, -,
-, .

,
.
,
,
.
, ,

,
,
, .
,

,
.
.

,
.

.

dS 2 = dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2
, ,
(x,y,z).
, ,

,
, .
, .
d = d Re i + j ,
,
dR = dS .

d = dei + je i z ,

d = dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 . , d 1 = de i + jzei ,
d1 d . , ,
( ) .
, ,
,
.
,
.
,
,
.
,
.
529

10.

, , ,
,

dS 2 = g ki ( x )dx i dx k ,

g ki -

, i, k .

.
. .
. (B.Rieman), .. ..
(K.F.Gauss) g ki ,
. ,
.
. .
.
. ,

dS 2 = c 2 dt 2 dx 2 dy 2 dz 2 , , t-.
, , ,

(Minkowski).
,
.
,
.
.

.
.
,
.
,
.

, ,
.
, ,
(Lorentz).
. ..

-.

= ctei + j + kj ( ei + jei ) =
= (ct + kj 2 + 2 )ei + j =
= c 2t 2 x 2 y 2 2 ei + j + k

= arctg

530

10.

x2 + y 2 + 2
ct
, , .

= arctgj


X 2 = x 2 + y 2 + 2 .

V
(10.17.1)
2
V i + j + karctgj c
= ct 1 e
c
V =V,

= ct 0e i + j + karctgj .

= Re i + j + k = Re i + j cos + k Re i + j sin j Re i + j sin =


= Re i + j ( + ) + k 0e karctgj Re i + j sin

(10.17.2)

(10.17.1) (10.17.2) :
Re i + j sin ( )
.
,
k 0e karktgj Rei + j sin = k Rei + j sin j Rei + j sin

.
( )
-
,
.

jZ

ji

iY

_
+ ij

q
C3 (~e )

ij

ji

-e

. 102. e .

D (1 + ji ) = D 0e

+ jarktgi

531

10.

.
( ) ,
.
( X ) = R cos cos

(Y ) = iR sin cos
(Z ) = j Rei sin

g = Re i ( + ) .
D = Rei sin

+i

jZ

+ ij

iY
e + ji

+ji

-e

C3 (~e )

ij

w
. 103. e .

jZ

iY

+ij


q1

+ji

C3 (~e )

+i

-e

e+ji

ij

. 104. .

532

10.

D (1 ji ) = D 0e jarktgi ,
.
g = Rei ( ) .

D = Rei sin .

g1 = ( e + ~e ) = 2 Rei cos . e

g = Re i ( + ) .
D (1 + ji ) = D 0e + jarktgi
D = Rei sin .
e

+ i

jZ

_
+ ij

iY


q1

+ji

C3 (~e )

-e

e+ ji
kZ E

_
ij

j ( + )

jZ

e+i
e

ji

jYE

_
+ ij

iY

q1

C3 (~e )

q
ij

X E
ji

-e

e
e

+i

jZ

j ( )

_
+ ij

iY


q1

+ji

C3 (~e )

-e

_
ij

.105.

e+ ji

533

10.

(Z ) = k Re sin
(Y ) = j Re sin cos
(X ) = Re cos cos
i +j

g = Re i ( + ) ,
, .


L+e = D (1 + ji ) = 0e jarktgi D ,
D = Rei sin ( )

(e )= D E (1 kj ) =

D = Re i ( + ) sin
E

0e karktgj D ,
E



L+e = DE (1 + ji ) = DE 0e jarktgi ,
DE = Rei sin
:

(
e L+e ) = D e (1 kj )(1 + ji ) = D e

0e karktgj 0e jarktgi ,

D e = Re i sin sin
1,i,j (Z )
.
g , g1 .
g , g1 -
-.
.

534

10.

+ i

jZ

iY

q1

kZ E

C3 (~e )
X

j ( + )

jYE

q1

C3 (~e )

X E

e
e

+i

jZ

j ( )

iY

_
q1

C3 (~e )
X

.106.

.
(Z ) .
. .
.
g = 2 Rei cos( )

(e + ) = D E + (1 + kj ) = D E +

0e karktgj ,

D + = 2 Re i sin sin
E

K+

+ (. 106.)
0 ,
,

g = g 0 + g + = Rei cos cos + 2 Re i cos( ) .

535

10.

jZ

+i

k1ZB
iY

q1

+ i

jZ

+ i

q1

q1

q
e

q1

j ( + )

C3 (~e )

X E

k k
+e 1

kZ E
X

jYB

jYE

kZ E

DB

C3 (~e )

j ( + )

k1kD B

C3 (~e )
iY

iY

jZ

kZ E

C3 (~e )

jYE

j ( + )

+i

jZ

j ( )

iY
q0

q+

q1

C3 (~e )

jYE

q1

X E

k k
e1

+DB

+ i

jZ

C3 (~e )
X

j ( )

iY

C3 (~e )

X E

e
e

+ i

jZ

q1

j ( )

k+

XB

C3 (~e )

iY

_
q1

-k1kD B

k+

C3 (~e )
X

k+

107 P + .
.

(Z B ) = k1 Rei + j + k sin
(YB ) = k Rei + j sin cos
( X B ) = Rei + j cos cos
(YB ), ( X B ) ,
( e ) ,
(Z E ) . (Z B )
(Z E ) .

(B + ) = D B (1 + k1k ) = D B

0e k1arktgk ,

D B = + sin

+ , ,
(YB ), ( X B ) . +
5 .

536

10.


+ , K + , D + ..

, 0 .
10.18.

.
1881 ,

( ). .
, .
.

:

V . L.
t1 , t 2 -

Ct1 = L + Vt1
Ct 2 = L Vt 2
,
2L
t = t1 + t 2 =
V2
C 1 2
C
( 108).
(Ct )2 = L2 + (Vt )2
2L
t=
V2
C 1 2
C

,

L1 = L0 1

V2
,
C2

L1 , L0 -

.


, ..
,
,
. ,

U = C V , .

537

10.

,
V

V 2 jarktgi C
U = C jiV = C 1
e
C2
V = C ,

U = C 0e jarktgi

Ct1 = L ei + jiVt1
t1 =

L e i
C 1

Ct 2 = L e

jarktgi

V
C

C2
L e i

jiVt 2 t 2 =

C 1

+ jarktgi

V
C

C2

V
jarktgi V
jarktgi

C
C
t = t1 + t 2 =
e
e
2
V
C 1
C2

L e i

jarktgi

V
V
jarktgi
C e
C = 2 cos arktgi V ,


t=

L ei

C 1

2 cos arktgi
C

V2

C2

(Ct )2 = L ei
t=

] + [ jiVt ]
2

2 L e i
C 1

V2
C2

, cos arktgi ,
C

, .

538

10.

cos arktgi =
C

1
1

V2

C2
,
.

.
.

.

,
.

539


1
2
3
4
5

.. , ...
. - , 1983, - 60. (/ , - ,
83,25).
.. , ...
. - , 1983, 60. (/ , - :
83.24).
.. , ...
: - , 1984, 57.
(/ , - : 84.61).
.. , ...
. - , 1984, 61. (/ .
- : 84.62 ).
.. , - .: , 1986.-120 (-
"". . 54).

. . . - .: , 1979, 624.

. . . . .
. - .: ,1965, 716.

. . . .
. - .: , 1987, 272.

. . . . .
. 1. . , - .: ,. 1969,
272.
.. . 1.
. - .: , 1983, 16.

10
11

. , . . . - .: ,
1979, 736.

12

. . , . . . . - .: , 1980,
728.

13

. . , .. . . .: , 1982, 376.

14

.. .
.
, , 1990 . 189 .
.. , .. . .
. 2.. - . 1983 . 510 .

15

540

16
17

.. . .. , ...
. . 4. -
.1989 . 725 .
.. . . 4.
. - . 1977 . 415 .

18

.. , ...
. . - . 1971 . 485 .

19

.
. .. -
.1974 . 351 .
.
.. . . .1976. 1005 .

20
21

. . . , . . . . -
. 2000 . 496 .

541