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Rizal second sojourn in Paris and the universal exposition of 1889

Rizal went to Paris after his stay in London. Despite the social parties and the glittering lights of the city, he continued his fruitful artistic, literary, and patriotic labours. He lived in a little room, together with two other Filipinos- Capitan Justo Trinidad, former gobernadorcillo of Santa Ana, Manila and a refugee from Spanish tyranny, and Jose Albert, a young student from Manila. In Paris, Rizal continued to be busy in his pursuits. He checked up his historial annotations on Morga's book. He wrote letters to his family in Calamba giving an interesting account of his life in Paris. Like any ordinary Filipino tourist in a foreign land, Rizal was fascinated by the Universal Expostion of Paris which opened on May 6, 1889. Rizal and his friends attended the opening ceremonies and saw the cutting of the ribbon by Pres. Sadi Cannot of the Third French Republic. On May 19, 1889, Rizal organized his paisanos (compatriots) into a society called Kidlat Club. Among its members were, Antonio and Juan Luna,Gregorio Aguilera, Fernando Canon, Lauro Dimayuga, Julie Llorente, Guillermo Puatu and Baldomero Roxas. Kidlat Club was founded by Rizal to bring together the young Filipinos in the French capital so that they could enjoy their sojourn in the city during the duration of the Universal Exposition. Rizal and the members of the Kidlat Club were amazed to see the Buffalo Bull show which featured the American Indians. The red-skinned Indians were proud riding their sturdy ponies, elegantly dressed in their native attire and wearing their war feathers and paints. Rizal was enchanted by the dignified and proud bearing of the American Indians. They are ashamed of their name. Let us be like them he said. Proud of the name Indio and make our Spanish enemies revise their conception of the term. Then he said, they shall be Indios Bravos. Thus was born a new society of Filipino patriots in Paris. It replaced the ephemeral Kidlat Club. Another society founded by Rizal in Paris during the Universal Exposition of 1889 was the mysterious Sociedad R.D.L.M. Society. The letters R.D.L.M. are believed to be the initials of the socity 's secret name Redencion de los Malayos (Redemption of the Malays). Only a few of Rizal's trusted friends became members of the RDLM, namely, Gregorio del Pilar, Mariano Ponce, Baldomero Roxas, and Father Jose Maria Changco (Filipino priest). The aim of the secret society was the propagation of all useful knowledge - scientific, artistic, literary in the Philippines. And another aim was the redemption of the Malay race. Rizal's outstanding achievement in Paris was the publication in 1890 of his annotated edition of Morga's Sucesos. The prologue was written by Professor Blumentritt, who censured Rizal's errors namely: 1) Rizal commits the error of many historians in appraising the events of the past in the light of present standards and 2) Rizal 's attacks on the church were unfair and unjustified because the abuses of the friars should not be construed to mean that Catholicism is bad. Rizal's

annotated and published Morga's Sucesos was the best of the many histories of the Philippines written by early Spanish writers, being accurate in the narration of events,unbiased in judgement, and unmarred by childish fantasies. Rizal dedicated his new edition of Morga to the Filipino people so that they would know of their glorious past. In the fall of 1889 Rizal wrote another satirical work entitled Por Telefono as a reply to another slanderer, Fr. Salvador Font, who mastermind the banning of his Noli. Por Telofono was published in booklet form in Barcelona. This satirical pamphlet under the authorship of "Dimas Alang"( one of Rizal's pen-names) is a witty satire which ridicules Father Font. It describes in comical vein a telephone conversation between Father Font who was in Madrid and the father provincial of the San Agustin Convent in Manila. In December 25, 1889, Rizal and Jose Albert scraped enough money to celebrate Christmas. Shortly after New Year, Rizal made a brief visit to London to check up his annotated edition of Morga Sucesos with the original copy in the British Musem and to see Gertrude Beckett for the last time. By the middle of January 1890, he was back in Paris. He complained of a terrible headache but was not stricken with flu.

Stay in London
Lived in London May 1888 to Mar. 1889 3 reasons why he stayed there: 1) To improve the his knowledge of the English Language 2) To study and annotate Morga s Sucesos de Las Islas Filipinas 3) London was a safe place for him to carry on his fight against Spanish Tyranny > Filipiniana studies > Completing annotating Morga s books > Wrote many articles in La Solidaridad Penned Young Women of Malolos Had romance with Gertrude Beckett

Trip Across the Atlantic

Made friends in his Atlantic voyage Amazed some American and European passengers Had a chat with newspaper men but became disappointed Arrived on Liverpool May 24, 1888 Liverpool is a big and beautiful city and its celebrated port is worthy of its great fame. The entrance is magnificent and the custom house is quite good.

Life in London
Went to London May 25, 1888 Stayed as a guest at Dr. Regidor s home Became a boarder at the Beckett s by the end of May Was called Pearl of Man by Dr. Reinhold Rost Played Cricket and Boxing with Dr. Rost s sons.

Good and bad news from home Bad News

Persecution of the Filipino patriots who signed the Anti-friar Petition of 1888 Persecution of Calamba tenants Furious attacks on Rizal by Senator Salamanca and Vida in the Spanish Cortes and by Desengaos (Wenseslao E. Retana) and Quioquiap (Pablo Feced) in Spanish newspapers Rizal s brother-in-law, Manuel Hidalgo was exiled in Bohol Laureano Viado, his friend was arrested and jailed because copies of Noli were found in his house

Good News
Rev. Vicente Garcias defended Noli against the attacks of the friars.

Content of the letter We young Filipinos are trying to make over a nation and must not halt in our onward march, but from time to time turn our gaze upon our elders. We shall wish to read in their contenances approval of our actions. We are anxious to learn of the Philippines past which we need to understand in order to plan intelligently for the future. We want to know all that our ancestors knew, and then add our own studies to theirs. Thus we shall progress the faster because we can go on from where they left off.

Annotating Morgas books

Spent many days in the reading room of the British Museum reading Morga s books and old stories of the Philippines Wrote a letter to Blumentritt on Sept. 17, 1888 Mariano Ponce urged him to edit a newspaper but refused

Short Visit to Paris and Spain

September 1888 he visited Paris for a week Entertained in a gay French Metropolis by Juan Luna and his wife He returned to London Dec. 11, 1888 he went to Spain Met Marcelo H. del Pilar and Mariano Ponce

Christmas in London

Rizal returned to London on Dec. 24, 1888 and spent his Christmas and new year s day with the Becketts. He sent a gift to Blumentritt and Dr. Carlos Czepelak Received a gift from Mrs. Beckett

Rizal becomes leader of Filipinos in Europe

Chosen to be honorary president Wrote a letter of thanks adressed to the members of Asociacion La Solidaridad on Jan. 28, 1889 Letter content When defeated never surrender Great deal of integrity and much good will

Rizal and the La Solidaridad paper

Graciano Lopez founded La Solidaridad on Feb.15,1889 at Barcelona Marcelo H. del Pilar about their newspaper Rizal congratulated Lopez Jaena and the associates and wrote articles

First Article in La Solidaridad

Los Agricultores Filipinos (The Filipino Farmers) Published Mar. 25, 1889 Depicted the deplorable conditions in the Philippines which cause the backwardness of the country.

Writings in London
La Vision del Fray Rodriguez (The vision of Fray Rodriguez) Published at Barcelona

Letter to the Young Women of Malolos 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) M.H. del Pilar Praise the young ladies of Malolos for their courage to establish a school where they could learn spanish despite the opposition of Fr. Felipe Garcia, Spanish parish priest of Malolos. A Filipino mother should teach her children love of God, fatherland, and mankind Filipino mother should be glad, like the Spartan mother Filipino woman should know how to preserve her dignity and honor Filipino woman should educate herself, aside from retaining her good racial virtues; Faith is not merely reciting long prayers and wearing religious pictures, but rather it is living the real Christian way, with good morals and good manners.

6) Specimens of Tagalog Folklore 7) Two Eastern Fables Requested by: Dr. Rost

Romance with Gertrude Beckett

Gertrude Beckett - Buxom English girl with brown hair, blue eyes, and rosy cheeks - Eldest of the three sisters - Fell in love with Rizal - helped him in his painting and sculpture Gettie - Rizal finished 4 sculptures - Promotheus Bound - The Triumph of Death over Life - The Triumph of Science over Death - Composite carving of the heads of the Beckett sisters

Adios London
Rizal s sculptural works Prometheus Bound The Triumph of Death over Life The Triumph of Science over Death Carving of the heads of the 3 Beckett sisters March 19, 1889 - he leaved London