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ME 215.3 Fluid Mechanics I

Example Problems

c James D. Bugg

January 2009

Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Saskatchewan

1.

The tank shown holds oil of speciﬁc gravity 0.89. The top of the tank is closed and the space in the tank above the oil contains air. The U-tube manometer contains water and the displacements are as indicated. Atmospheric pressure is 101 .3 kPa. What is the pressure of the air in the tank? (Solution: page 49)

Open to atmosphere
Air
Air
Water
Oil
4 cm
6 cm
15 cm

2. A ﬂat, vertical gate holds back a pool of water as shown. Find the force that the water exerts on the gate. (Solution: page 51)

P atm = 100 kPa
ρ = 1000 kg / m 3
hinge
gate (5 m wide)
stop
3 m
3 m

3.

A Tainter gate is constructed from a quarter-cylinder and is used to hold back a pool of water. The radius of the gate is 1 .22 m and it is 2 .44 m long. Calculate the hydrostatic force on the gate. (Solution: page 53)

length=2 .44 m
gate
ρ = 1000 kg / m 3
R = 1 .22 m

4. A ﬂat, vertical gate holds back a pool of water as shown. Find the force that the stop exerts on the gate. (Solution: page 56)

P atm = 100 kPa
ρ = 1000 kg / m 3
hinge
gate (5 m wide)
stop
3 m3
m

5. A circular hatch on a submarine is hinged as shown. The radius of the hatch is 35 cm above the centre of the hatch. Determine how hard a sailor has to push on the centre of the hatch to open it. The seawater density is 1025 kg / m 3 and the centre of the hatch is 2 m below the surface of the ocean. The air pressure inside the submarine is equal to atmospheric pressure.

g

hinge
A
opening
force
hatch
inside of
outside of
submarine
submarine
A
70 cm
hatch

View A-A

6. A rectangular gate is hinged along the top edge as shown. The gate is 4 m long, 15 cm thick, and is made of concrete (s.g.=2.3). Determine the water depth H if the gate is just about to open. What force does the gate exert on the hinge? The water density is 1000 kg / m 3 .

H
hinge
gate
o
45
2 m

g

7.

A pool of ﬂuid has a density that varies linearly from 1000 kg / m 3 at the surface to 1600 kg / m 3 at a depth of 4 m. A 2 m by 2 m square gate is hinged along its bottom edge and held in place by a force F at its top edge. Find the force F .

2

2

m

m

F

hinge

g

8. A long, square wooden block is pivoted along one edge. The block is in equilibrium when immersed in water ( ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 ) to the depth shown. Evaluate the speciﬁc gravity of the wood.

1.2 m

wood
0 .6 m
water
hinge

1.2 m

9. A cylindrical gate with a radius of curvature of 2 m holds back a pool of water with a layer of oil ﬂoating on the surface. The gate is 8 m long. What force does the pinned connection at A exert on the gate?

Oil (s.g. = 0 .8)
g
1 m
A
Water (ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 )
1 m
√ 2 m

10. A parabolic gate 4 m wide (in the z direction) holds a pool of water as shown. Find the tension in the cable AB required to hold the gate in the position shown. Find the reaction force which the hinge at C exerts on the gate. Note that point A is directly above point C .

g
A
Cable
1 .5 m
B
0 .5 m
y
2 m
water
ρ = 1000 kg / m 3
C
x
Hinge

Parabolic gate

y = x 2

11.

A partially submerged pipe rests against a frictionless wall at B as shown. The speciﬁc gravity of the pipe material is 2.0 and the pipe has an outside diameter of 2 m. The ﬂuid is water with ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 . Find the inside diameter of the pipe and the force which the wall exerts on the pipe. The ends of the pipe are closed.

s.g. = 2 .0
0 .5 m
B

g

12. A gate of mass 2000 kg is mounted on a frictionless hinge along its lower edge. The width of the gate (perpendicular to the plane of view) is 8 m. For the equilibrium position shown, calculate the length of the gate, b.

b
1 m
o
30
Water
hinge

13.

A vertical, plane wall holds back a pool of water (ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 ) which is 1 .5 m deep. The wall has a triangular gate in it that is hinged along the bottom edge and held closed by a horizontal force F applied at the top corner. Calculate the force F required to hold it closed.

A
F
gate
gate
g
A
hinge
1 m
1 .5 m
2 m

View A-A

14. A Tainter gate holds back a pool of water (ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 ) which is 2 m deep. The radius of curvature of the gate is 2 m and it is 6 m long. The mass of the gate is 1000 kg and its centre of gravity is at the position indicated on the diagram. Assume that the point where the gate contacts the bottom of the pool is frictionless. Calculate the reaction force on the hinge.

2 m
gate c. of g.
o
45
g
o
45
2 m
1 .8 m

hinge

15.

Determine H when the L-shaped gate shown is just about to open. Neglect the weight of the gate and let the density of the ﬂuid be ρ.

gate
H
hinge
L

g

16. What force F is needed to hold the 4 m wide gate closed? The ﬂuid is water and it has a density of 1000 kg / m 3 .

hinge
9 m
3 m
F

17.

A semi-circular gate is hinged at the bottom as shown. The density of the ﬂuid varies linearly from 1000 kg / m 3 at the surface of the reservoir to 1500 kg / m 3 at the bottom of the reservoir. Find the force F required to hold the gate in place?

F
3 m
1 m

Section A-A

g

gate

hinge

A
A

hinge

18. A circular cylinder holding back a pool of water is held in place by a stop as shown. The height of the stop is 0 .5 m and the water depth is 1 .5 m. If the water depth were increased beyond 1 .5 m the cylinder would roll over the stop. Assuming that the water contacts the cylinder surface right up to point A, what is the speciﬁc gravity of the cylinder.

Diameter = 2 m
1 .5 m
A
0 .5 m

19. A gate composed of a quarter circle portion and a straight portion holds back a pool of water. The gate is hinged at A and held in place by a force F applied as shown. Find the magnitude of the force F required to hold the gate in the position shown. The width of the gate is 8 m.

F
0 .5 m
g
Water (ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 )
1 .5 m
Width of Gate is 8 m
R = 1 m
A
Hinge

20.

A circular cylinder

of radius R = 50 mm, length b = 100 mm, and density ρ c =

800 kg / m 3 blocks a slot in the bottom of a water tank as shown. The line joining the centre of the cylinder and the point where the cylinder co ntacts the edge of the slot subtends an angle of α = 30 o with the vertical. If h = 150 mm what is the force exerted on the cylinder by the tank?

h
R
α = 30 o

g

21.

Water at 20 o C is retained in a pool by a triangular gate which is hinged along its top edge and held in place by a stop at its lowest point. What force does the stop exert on the gate? What force does the hinge exert on the gate?

A
g
hinge
1 m
stop
A
Section A-A
7 m
3 .5 m

22. A 35 kg, 10 cm cube of material is suspended from a wire in a ﬂuid of unknown den- sity. The tension in the wire is 335 .5 N. Determine the speciﬁc gravity of the ﬂuid. ( Solution: page 59)

23. A U-tube is used as a crude way to measure linear acceleration. Determine the mag- nitude of the acceleration as a function of the geometry of the tube, the acceleration due to gravity, and the displacement of the ﬂuid in the tube. (Solution: page 61)

24.

An open-top cart half full of water (ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 ) is shown at rest in the ﬁgure below. The cart begins to accelerate to the right at a constant 3 m/ s 2 . After some time, the ﬂuid reaches a hydrostatic state. Determine the net hydrostatic force on the rear, vertical end of the cart. The cart is 0.8 m wide.

25.

2 m

3 m/ s 2
1 m
0 .5 m

g

A container of water (ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 ) accelerates on a 30 o slope. It is completely

closed except for a small hole in the position indicated. If the gauge pressure at point

 A is 25 kPa, what is the acceleration a? If the width of the container (perpendicular to the page) is 0 .5 m, what is the net hydrostatic force on the top of the container?
hole
1 m
a
0 .75 m
A
30 o

g

26.

A partially full can with an open top spins around an axis as shown. The diameter of the can is 50 cm and is spinning at 50 rpm. If the depth of the ﬂuid at the outer edge of the can is 30 cm, what is the depth of the ﬂuid on the axis of rotation? (Solution:

page 63)

ω = 50 rpm

50 cm

30 cm

27. A cylindrical container is rotated about its axis. Derive a general relationship for the shape of the free surface as a function of the rotation rate, container radius, and the depth of the ﬂuid when it is not spinning. (Solution: page 65)

ω
R

H o

28. A cylindrical can of radius 4 cm and height 12 cm has an open top. It is initially at rest and completely full of liquid. It is rotated about its axis at 250 rev / min until the ﬂuid inside it achieves solid body rotation. The rotation is then stopped and the ﬂuid within the container is allowed to come to rest. How deep will the ﬂuid in the container be?

g
12 cm

4 cm

29. A U-tube manometer contains two ﬂuids with diﬀerent densities as shown. The ﬂuid positions shown in the diagram are for the case when the tube is not spinning. It is then spun around the axis shown until the liquid level in both legs is equal? Find ω .

g

1200 kg / m 3

ω
20 cm
10 cm

1000 kg / m 3

30.

The U-tube shown is rotated about the vertical axis indicated on the diagram at 60 rev / min. Determine the displacement of the water in each leg from its rest position. Perform this calculation on the centreline of the tubes. What is the pressure at point A?

Axis of rotation
Diameter, 5 mm
Diameter, 8 mm
Rest level
A
g
3 cm
10 cm
5 cm

31. A 80 cm diameter cylindrical can has a closed top except for a small vent hole at the centre. If the density of the ﬂuid is 1000 kg / m 3 and the can spins at 60 rpm, what is the force on the top of the can? (Solution: page 67)

60 rpm

vent

ρ = 1000 kg / m 3

cylindrical can

32.

An upright, 10-cm diameter, cylindrical paint can 20 cm deep spins around its axis of symmetry at 500 rpm. It is completely full of mineral oil (sg = 0 .87) and there is a very small hole in the lid at the rim of the can. Determine the net hydrostatic force on the lid.

33. A quarter-circle, cylindrical gate 5 m long and with a 1.5 m radius is hinged at the point indicated below. It holds back a pool of water (ρ = 998 kg / m 3 ) with a horizontal force F applied as shown. Determine the force F and the reaction at the hinge.

g

F
hinge
1 .5 m

34. You are driving down the road at 100 km/ hr with a cup of coﬀee in your drink holder. The cup has no lid and is 8 cm in diameter. The coﬀee is initially 1 cm from the top of the cup. You come to a curve in the highway which is not banked. Determine the minimum radius of the curve for which the coﬀee will not spill. If you go around a curve whose radius is 75% of the minimum, how much coﬀee will spill (in cm 3 )?

35. A square gate (1.25 m x 1.25 m) is hinged along a line 0.25 m from its top edge. A force F 1 applied at the top of the gate holds it closed. The pool of water ( ρ = 998 kg / m 3 ) is 1.75 m deep. Calculate the force F 1 required to hold the gate closed.

g

hinge
F
1
gate
1 .75 m
1 .25 m
1 m

36. A cylindrical container is 40 cm deep and 30 cm in diameter and is open at the top. Water is put in the container to a depth of 20 cm. The container is then spun around its axis at an angular speed of ω until the water reaches a hydrostatic state. The spinning is stopped and the water is allowed to come to rest. After coming to rest, the water is 10 cm deep. Determine ω in revolutions per minute (rpm).

initial water level
g
30 cm
20 cm
40 cm

37. The police are using a ﬁre hose to move a ﬂat barricade. What is the horizontal force on the barricade due to the stream of water? (Solution: page 69)

V
= 15 m/ s
A j = 0 .01 m 2

38.

A jet of water from issues from a 0.01 m 2 nozzle at 15 m/ s. It impinges on a vane mounted on a movable cart and is deﬂected through 45 o . If the cart is moving away from the nozzle at 5 m/ s, what is the force which the water exerts on the cart? (Solution:

page 72)

A j = 0 .01 m 2

45 o
cart

39. A 50 mm diameter pipe carries water at 1 m/ s. A nozzle with an exit diameter of 25 mm is attached at the end of the pipe. If the pressure just upstream of the nozzle is 10 kPa, what is the force on the bolts at the ﬂange connection attaching the nozzle to the pipe? ( Solution: page 79)

40. Consider the entrance region of a circular pipe for laminar ﬂow. What is the frictional drag on the ﬂuid between axial locations 1 and 2 in terms of the pressure at those locations, the density of the ﬂuid, the mean velocity of the ﬂuid, and the pipe radius. ( Solution: page 81)

1

U
u ( r ) = U max (1 − ( r/R ) 2 )
o
r
z
2
circular pipe

41.

A 50 mm diameter pipe carries water at 1 m/ s. A nozzle with an exit diameter of 25 mm is attached at the end of the pipe. Assuming frictionless ﬂow, ﬁnd the force on the ﬂange connection. (Solution: page 84)

42. If the nozzle from the previous problem has a pressure of 10 kPa at its entrance, what is the loss coeﬃcient? ( Solution: page 86)

43. A transition piece turns 45 o and expands from 50 mm to 80 mm. The pressure at the entrance is 20 kPa and the loss coeﬃcient is 0.50 based on the discharge velocity. Water ﬂows through the transition at 4 kg / s. Find the force required to hold the transition in place. ( Solution: page 87)

4 kg / s

20 kPa
D 1 = 50 mm
D 2 = 80 mm
o
45
transition piece
K m = 0 .50 (based on
discharge velocity)

44. Air (ρ = 1 .2 kg / m 3 ) blows parallel to a ﬂat plate upon which a boundary layer grows. The plate is 10 m long in the streamwise direction and 4 m wide (normal to the page). At the leading edge of the plate the air speed is uniform at U = 10 m/ s. The velocity proﬁle is measured at the end of the plate and is found to vary with distance y from the plate according to u = U ( y/δ ) 1/7 where δ = 170 mm is the boundary layer thickness. Determine the viscous force on the plate. Consider only the ﬂow over the top surface of the plate. The dashed line labeled “A” is a streamline in this ﬂow.

10 m/ s

A
ﬂat plate
y
10 m

170 mm

45. An object is placed in a 1 m diameter wind tunnel and the air velocity downstream of the object is found to linearly vary from zero at the centreline of the wind tunnel to a maximum at the wind tunnel wall. The air velocity upstream of the object is

a uniform 20 m/ s. A mercury manometer indicates a 10 mm Hg

shown. Assume the pressure is uniform across the wind tunnel at any axial location. Neglect shear at the wind tunnel walls and let ρ = 1 .2 kg / m 3 . Determine the drag force on the object.

pressure diﬀerence as

20 m/ s
1 m diameter
g
mercury (s.g.=13.56)
10 mm

46. A tank on wheels contains water (ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 ) and is held in place by a cable as shown below. A pump mounted on top of the tank draws water from the tank and discharges the water through a horizontal, 1 cm diameter nozzle at a mass ﬂow rate of 5 kg / s. The cable breaks and the cart begins to move. At some instant in time later, the total mass of the tank, pump assembly, and the water remaining in the tank is 100 kg and the velocity of the system is 20 m/ s. Determine the acceleration of the system at this instant in time. The ﬂow rate supplied by the pump remains constant.

Pump
5 kg / s
g
1 cm dia.
Cable

47. A new type of lawn sprinkler is developed that has two arms of diﬀerent lengths. The arms lie in a horizontal plane and rotate about a vertical axis. Both nozzles are aimed upward at 20 o from the horizontal plane and have an exit diameter of 2 mm. The ﬂow to each arm is equal. One arm is 10 cm from the pivot and the other is 20 cm from the pivot. If the pivot is assumed to be frictionless and the sprinkler delivers 2 L/ min, ﬁnd the angular speed of the sprinkler?

10 cm
20 cm
D = 2 mm

48.

An aluminium block weighing 10 N is supported by a jet of water issuing from a 2 .5 cm diameter nozzle. What jet exit velocity is required to hold the block 10 cm above the nozzle exit? The jet of water is deﬂected through 180 o when it strikes the block and the guides holding the block in place are frictionless.

guides
g
aluminum block
10 cm
2 .5 cm

49. An elbow connected to a 5 cm diameter pipe discharges water ( ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 ) as shown. The diﬀerence between the stagnation and static pressures ∆P measured by the pitot-static tube is 500 Pa. The mass of the elbow and the water which it contains is 1 kg. The elbow has a minor loss coeﬃcient of 0.75 based on the inlet velocity. What force does the pipe exert on the elbow at the ﬂange connection?

∆P
D 1 = 5 cm

Pipe

Flange

Elbow

D 2 = 3 cm

g

50. A pipe 4 cm in diameter supplies water to a 2 cm diameter nozzle. The gauge pressure just upstream of the nozzle is 60 kPa and the head loss in the nozzle is given by h L = 0 .2 V / 2 g where V e is the velocity at the nozzle exit. The jet of water (not shown) hits a frictionless splitter plate which is inclined at 30 o to the axis of the pipe. Half of the water is deﬂected downwards along this plate. Find the force required to hold the plate in this position.

2

e

water

ρ = 1000 kg / m 3

60 kPa
30 o

51. Water (ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 ) is pumped at volume ﬂowrate Q through the nozzle shown. If the ﬂowrate is high enough, a force F will be required to keep the cart stationary. Assume that the depth of the water in the cart remains at 0.8 m. Derive an expression for F as a function of Q and indicate the range of Q for which it is valid. Sketch the function.

g
1 m
F
0 .8 m
D = 5 cm
45 o
2 m
2 m

Q

52. An engineer is measuring the lift and drag on an aerofoil section mounted in a two– dimensional wind tunnel. The wind tunnel is 0 .5 m high and 0 .5 m deep (into the paper). The upstream air velocity is uniform at 10 m/ s. The downstream velocity is uniform at 12 m/ s in the lower half of the wind tunnel. The downstream velocity in the upper half is uniform. The vertical component of velocity is zero at the beginning and end of the test section. The test section is 1 m long. The engineer measures the pressure distribution in the tunnel along the upper and lower walls and ﬁnds

P u = 100 10 x 20 x(1 x) [Pa , gauge]

P l = 100 10 x + 20 x(1 x) [Pa , gauge]

where x is the distance in metres measured from the beginning of the test section. The air density is constant at 1.2 kg / m 3 . Find the lift and drag forces acting on the aerofoil. Neglect shear on the walls of the wind tunnel.

Beginning

End

 of of Test section Test section g 0 .25 m 10 m/ s 0 .25 m 12 m/s

1 m

x

53. A cart mounted on straight, level rails is used to test rocket engines. A 400 kg cart has a rocket mounted on it which has an initial mass of 500 kg. Eighty percent of the mass of the rocket is fuel. The products of combustion exhaust at a speed of 1000 m/ s relative to the rocket nozzle. Neglect friction in the wheels of the cart and aerodynamic drag. Determine the speed of the rocket when the fuel is all used.

g

54. Water (ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 ) exits from a circular pipe 10 cm in diameter with a mass ﬂow rate of 4 kg / s and strikes a ﬂat plate at 90 o . The velocity at the exit varies linearly from a maximum at the pipe centreline to zero at the pipe wall as shown. Determine the force exerted on the ﬂat plate. Compare this to the force that would be exerted at the same mass ﬂow rate if the pipe exit velocity had been uniform.

10 cm diameter
m˙ = 4 kg / s

55. A two-arm sprinkler is constructed as shown below. The total mass ﬂow rate of water ( ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 ) is 1 kg / s and it is divided equally between the two arms. At the end of one arm a 12 mm diameter nozzle is oriented perpendicular to the arm and is in the same horizontal plane as the arm. The other arm has a 1 mm wide slot that also emits water in the horizontal plane. Find the rotational speed of the sprinkler in revolutions per minute assuming that the pivot is frictionless.

15 cm
15 cm
2 cm
12 mm dia.
A
axis of rotation
A

Plan View

Section A-A

(enlarged)

1 mm

56.

Two circular coaxial jets of incompressible liquid with speed V collide as shown. The interaction region is open to atmosphere. Liquid leaves the interaction region as a conical sheet. Obtain an expression for the angle θ of the resulting ﬂow in terms of d 1 and d 2 .

V
θ
V
d 1
d 2
V
V

57. A tank of water sitting on a weigh scale is being ﬁlled with water (ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 ) from a 2 cm diameter pipe at a rate of 5 kg / s. The tank is circular and has a diameter of 0 .5 m. The empty tank has a mass of 2 kg. At the instant when the water is 0 .5 m deep in the tank, what force will the scale read? Carefully explain each of your assumptions.

5 kg / s
2 cm
0 .5 m
0 .5 m diameter
0 .5 m
Scale

g

58.

Calculate the force of the water (ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 ) on the frictionless vane if

 (a) the blade is stationary, (b) the blade moves to the right at 20 m/ s, and (c) the blade moves to the left at 20 m/ s.
40 m/ s
5 cm

dia.

60 o

59. A jet of water (ρ = 998 kg / m 3 ) strikes a frictionless splitter vane as shown. The ﬂowrate is 1 kg / s while the diameter of the nozzle is 1 cm. The position of the splitter vane is adjusted in the z direction so that there is no reaction in the z direction. What is the reaction in the x direction?

1 kg / s

z
45 o

splitter

vane

D = 1 cm

x

60.

Water at 20 o C ﬂows from a nozzle of diameter D = 5 mm at speed V = 10 m/ s and strikes a vane which splits the ﬂow and deﬂects it as shown. Thirty-ﬁve percent of the mass ﬂow deﬂects through 90 o (to the left). What force does the ﬂuid exert on the vane?

D
V

45

o

61. Water at 20 o C ﬂows through an elbow/nozzle arrangement and exits to atmosphere as shown below. The inlet pipe diameter is 12 cm while the nozzle exit diameter is 3 cm. The mass ﬂowrate is 1 kg / s. If the pressure at the ﬂange connection is 200 kPa(gauge), what is the force and moment on the ﬂanged connection? Neglect the weight of the elbow and water.

200 kPa

Water
o

45

ﬂanged

connection

30 cm

g

62. A nozzle for a spray system is designed to produce a ﬂat radial sheet of water. The sheet leaves the nozzle at V 2 = 10 m/ s, covers 180 o of arc and has thickness t = 1 .5 mm. The nozzle discharge radius is R = 50 mm. The water supply pipe is 35 mm in diameter and the inlet pressure P 1 is 50 kPa above atmospheric. Calculate the force exerted by the spray nozzle on the supply pipe through the ﬂanged connection.

P
1
V 2
R

spray nozzle

35 mm

diameter

supply pipe

Water

ﬂanged

connection

thickness, t

63. A ride at an amusement park consists of a wheeled cart that zooms down an inclined plane onto a straight and level track where it decelerates to rest by means of a high- speed jet of air projected directly forward through a nozzle. The jet is supplied by a compressed air cylinder aboard the cart. The initial gross mass of the cart and its occupants is 500 kg. Air escapes from the braking jet at a constant mass ﬂow rate of 20 kg / s and a constant velocity (relative to the nozzle) of 150 m/ s. At the instant when the braking jet is activated, the speed of the cart is 40 m/ s. Determine how much air must escape in order to stop the cart. What is the stopping distance?

64.

Fluid enters a 5 cm diameter pipe with a uniform velocity of U o . The ﬂuid exits the pipe at two locations. One is a 5 cm diameter exit with a turbulent velocity proﬁle described by

u z = U c 1 1 r

R

1 1/7

.

where u z is the axial component of velocity, U c1 is the centreline velocity, r is the radial coordinate, and R 1 is the radius of the pipe. The second exit is 1 .5 cm in diameter and has a laminar, parabolic velocity proﬁle described by

u z

= U c 2 1

r

R

2

2 .

If U c 1 is measured to be 2 m/ s and U c 2 is measured to be 1 m/ s, what is U o ?

uniform
velocity
5 cm diameter
turbulent velocity proﬁle
1 .5 cm diameter
laminar velocity proﬁle

65. A 6 mm diameter angled nozzle is attached to the end of a 2 cm diameter pipe with a ﬂanged connection as shown below. The angle between the nozzle and the supply pipe is 45 o . The pressure just upstream of the ﬂanged connection is 200 kPa (gauge). Water (ρ = 998 kg / m 3 ) exits the nozzle at 20 m/ s. Determine the force and torque in the ﬂanged connection.

2 cm diameter

200
kPa
ﬂanged connection
6 mm diameter
4 cm

66.

A

two-arm lawn sprinkler, as viewed from above, is shown in the sketch. Water is

delivered to the sprinkler at a volume ﬂow rate of 5 L/ min and it can be assumed that this ﬂow is split evenly between the two nozzles. The nozzles both have a diameter

 of 2 mm and are both angled upwards from the horizontal plane at 30 o . The density of the water is 998 kg / m 3 . Assume the pivot is frictionless. Calculate the rotational

speed of the sprinkler.

15 cm

15 cm

45 o

67. Fluid (ρ = 850 kg / m 3 ) enters a 5-cm diameter pipe with a uniform velocity of 3 m/ s

at location A. At location B, the ﬂuid has a turbulent velocity proﬁle described by

u z = U c 1

R 1/5

r

where u z is the axial component of velocity, U c is the centreline velocity, r is the radial coordinate, and R is the radius of the pipe. The pressure at location A is 4 kPa larger than at location B. Determine the viscous force on the wall of the pipe between location

A
and B.
uniform velocity
5 cm diameter
A
B
68. 2” ID steel pipe 50 m long carries water at a rate of 0.04 m 3 / s. There are two 90 o
A

regular ﬂanged elbows and an open ﬂanged globe valve. The net elevation change is 30 m. Calculate the pressure diﬀerence between the ends of the pipe. ( Solution: page

90)

69.

Two reservoirs are connected by a pipe as shown. The elevation change between the two reservoirs is 20 m. Find the volume ﬂowrate between the reservoirs. (Solution:

page 92)

 20 m

a

b

ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 µ = 0 .001 kg / (m · s)

D = 2 cm L = 5 m

D = 4 cm L = 5 m

ǫ = 0 .05 mm

70. Calculate the frictional pressure drop in 100 m of 3-cm diameter smooth pipe with water (ρ = 1000 kg / s, µ = 0 .001 Pa · s) ﬂowing at 1 kg / s. What would the frictional pressure loss be if the roughness were 0 .5 mm?

71. The frictional pressure drop in 100 m of 3-cm diameter smo oth pipe with water (ρ = 1000 kg / s, µ = 0 .001 Pa · s) ﬂowing is 1 MPa. Determine the volume ﬂow rate.

72. A piping system contains a valve (K m = 6 .5) and discharges water (ρ = 998 kg / m 3 , ν = 10 6 m 2 / s) to atmosphere. A mercury manometer 20 m from the end of the pipe reads as shown. The right leg of the manometer is open to atmosphere. The pipe is smooth and its diameter is 5 cm. Determine the volume ﬂowrate through the pipe in L/min.

20
cm
mercury (s.g.=13.56)
20
cm

g

73.

A pump has a characteristic curve that can be approximated by a parabola as shown. It pumps water through 100 m of 20 cm diameter cast iron pipe. What is the ﬂowrate? ( Solution: page 94)

100
80
60
40
20
0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5

Flowrate(m 3 / s)

74. Two large water (ν = 10 6 m 2 / s) reservoirs are joined by two equal-length pipes as shown. The 25 mm diameter pipe has a roughness of 0.5 mm while the 20 mm diameter pipe is smooth. The ﬂow rates through the two pipes are equal. What is the total ﬂow rate between the two reservoirs? Neglect minor losses.

20 mm, smooth
25 mm, ǫ = 0 .5 mm

g

75. Water (ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 , µ = 0 .001 Pa · s) ﬂows through a horizontal section of 4 cm diameter pipe. The pipe has a roughness of 0 .2 mm. A stagnation pressure tap and a static pressure tap are mounted 1 m apart as shown. The pressure diﬀerence between these two taps is measured with a mercury (s.g.=13.56) manometer which shows a displacement of 5 cm. The manometer tubes are otherwise full of water. What is the volume ﬂow rate of the water?

Stagnation tap
Static tap
Q
g
5 cm
1 m
mercury (s.g.=13.56)

76.

A vertical section of 4 cm diameter pipe with ǫ = 0 .2 mm has two pressure gauges mounted 5 m apart which, at the current ﬂow rate, read the same ( P A = P B ) . A ﬂuid with a kinematic viscosity of 4 × 10 6 m 2 / s ﬂows through the pipe. Does the ﬂuid ﬂow up or down? What is the volume ﬂow rate?

5 m

P
A
P
B

D = 4 cm

g

77. A pump draws water (ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 , µ = 0 .001 Pa · s) from a reservoir and discharges it into 100 m of 10 cm diameter pipe which has a roughness of 0.1 mm. The discharge of the pipe is 20 m lower than the surface of the reservoir. Neglect minor losses. If the pump characteristics are represented by the pump curve shown below, estimate the ﬂowrate.

60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0

Flow Rate (m 3 / min)

78. An engineer needs to measure the minor loss coeﬃcient of a reducing elbow which has already been installed in a piping system. Because of limited access to the piping system, the only available pressure taps are 1 m upstream and 0 .75 m downstream of the elbow. A mercury manometer is attached at these locations and reads 7 .5 cm Hg when the mass ﬂowrate is 1 kg / s. What is the minor loss coeﬃcient for the elbow? Assume that all pipes are smooth. The ﬂowing ﬂuid is water with ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 and µ = 0 .001 Pa · s.

0 .75 m
Reducing elbow
2 cm diameter
not to scale
1 m
g
4 cm diameter
7 .5 cm
m˙ = 1 kg / s
mercury (s.g.=13.56)

79.

A centrifugal pump has a pump curve that can be described by

h p = 4 10 Q 2

where h p is the pump head in metres of water and Q is the volume ﬂowrate in L/ min. This pump is used to supply water (ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 , ν = 10 6 m 2 / s) to the system shown below. The sum of all minor loss coeﬃcients is 12 and the total length of tube is 8 m. The tube has an inside diameter of 5 mm and roughness ǫ = 0 .025 mm. What is the ﬂowrate achieved?

2 .0 m
Total length L = 8 m
Diameter D = 5 mm
Roughness ǫ = 0 .05 mm

Discharge to

atmosphere

80. A centrifugal pump draws water (ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 , µ = 0 .001 Pa · s) from a large reservoir and pumps it through 1335 m of 30 cm inside diameter pipe with roughness ǫ = 0 .5 mm. Over the range of interest the pump head can be expressed by

h p = A BQ 2

where h p is the head produced by the pump, Q is the volume ﬂowrate, and A and B are constants. When the pipe exit is at the same elevation as the reservoir surface the ﬂowrate is 17 .0 m 3 / min. However, when the exit of the same pipe is raised to an elevation of 50 m the ﬂow reduces to 13.3 m 3 / min. How high can the exit be raised before the ﬂow will be zero? For all conditions the pipe discharges to atmosphere. Neglect minor losses in this problem.

81.

A 6 mm internal diameter, thin-walled, smooth rubber hose 12 m long is used to siphon water (ρ = 1000 kg / m 3 , ν = 10 6 m 2 / s) from a large tank. The outlet of the hose is 6 m below the water surface in the tank. What will the volume ﬂowrate be? Neglect minor losses due to bends in the hose.

6 mm I.D., 12 m long

6 m

82. The piping system shown is ﬁtted with a centrifugal pump whose characteristics can be approximated by h p = 46 2 .5 Q 2 where h p is the head produced by the pump in m of water and Q is the volume ﬂowrate in m 3 / min. What is the ﬂowrate through this piping system?

Pump

Sudden

All elbows shown are 90 o , regular, ﬂanged.

All pipes have ǫ = 0 .15 mm

expansion
D = 100 mm
L = 170 m
Sudden
Gate valve
contraction

D = 200 mm L = 340 m

Fully open

83. You are going to measure the minor loss coeﬃcient of a new valve design using the apparatus shown. Assume that the water tank is large and the pipe discharges to atmosphere. The 2-cm diameter smooth pipe is 4 m long. The free surface in the tank is 5 m above the pipe exit. If you measure the ﬂowrate to be 60 L/ min what is the minor loss coeﬃcient of the valve? Let ν = 10 6 m 2 / s.

5 m

L = 4 m D = 2 cm

New valve

84. A centrifugal pump is connected to a piping system as shown below. The pipe is 5 cm in diameter and has a roughness of ǫ = 0 .5 mm. The two valves are identical and have minor loss coeﬃcients of 1.0 when fully open and 20 when 50% op en. With both valves fully open, the pressure guage reads P A = 250 kPa. When both valves are 50% open, the ﬂow is 355 L/ min. The pump curve can be represented by a parabola. The free surface in the tank is at the same elevation as the pipe exit. Let ν = 10 6 m 2 / s and ρ = 998 kg / m 3 . Determine P A if the ﬁrst valve is fully open and the second valve is fully closed. Neglect losses which occur on the suction side of the pump.

P
A

Pump

Valve

Valve

25 m

25 m

25 m

25 m

85. A portion of a piping system is shown below. At point B, the piping system discharges to the atmosphere. The two elbows each have a minor loss coeﬃcient of 2.4. The valve has a minor loss coeﬃcient of 6.9. The pipe is 25 mm in diameter and has a roughness of 0 .05 mm. There is a total of 15 m of pipe between point A and point B. Point B is 3 m above point A. The pressure P A is 200 kPa guage. Determine the volume ﬂow rate (in L/min) if the ﬂuid is water with ρ = 998 kg / m 3 and µ = 0 .001 Pa · s.

Valve

B

P
A
A

86. Flow around a certain bridge pier can be modelled by a freestream and a single source. If the freestream velocity is 5 m/ s and the pressure a long distance upstream is 50 kPa, what is the pressure at point A on the pier surface? The stagnation point will be 1 m upstream of the source. (Solution: page 96)

y
x
2 m
A

87.

A pair of doublets of equal strength are placed in a freestream as indicated below. The streamline which passes through the origin also passes through the point (4 m, 1 m). What is the doublet strength? Referenced to P , what is the pressure at the origin? ( Solution: page 99)

2 m
2 m
doublets
2 m
y
x
30 o
U ∞ = 10 m/ s

88. The landing gear strut on a small aircraft has a cross–section as indicated below. This shape can be modelled as a Rankine Oval with a source and a sink placed as shown. The aircraft is ﬂying at 45 m/ s and the air density is 1 .2 kg / m 3 . What is the diﬀerence in static pressure between points A and B? ( Solution: page 101)

U

B
A
source
sink
12 cm
12 cm

30 cm

89. Consider the irrotational ﬂow around a circular cylinder which is creating no lift.

 (a) Derive an expression for the velocity along the positive y axis in terms of U ∞ , a, and y . (b) Sketch this function. (c) Consider the streamline labelled A. Far upstream of the cylinder this streamline is a distance L from the horizontal plane of symmetry. At what distance from the origin does the streamline cross the y axis?

( Solution: page 104)

L

y

g

A
U ∞
x
a

90. Consider the ﬂow of air (ρ = 1 .2 kg / m 3 ) over a 20 cm diameter circular cylinder. The freestream velocity is 20 m/s . The volume ﬂowrate per unit length between the two streamlines labelled A and B is 1 .19 m 2 / s. The streamline labelled B passes through the point (x, y ) = (0 , 0 .12 m). What is the lift force per unit length on the cylinder? ( Solution: page 107)

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

−0.1

−0.2

−0.3

−0.4

−0.5

( x, y ) = (0 , 0 .12 m)
y
x
B
A
−0.5
−0.4
−0.3
−0.2
−0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5

91. An inviscid ﬂow of air (ρ = 1 .2 kg / m 3 ) is produced by a freestream (U = 50 m/ s) aligned with the x axis, a source at the origin, and a second source of equal strength located at (x, y ) = (0 .1 m, 0). The stagnation streamline crosses the y axis at y = 9 cm. Determine the gauge pressure at the point where the stagnation streamline crosses the y axis. Determine the acceleration 2 cm upstream of the ﬁrst stagnation point.

a

92. An inviscid ﬂow is produced by a freestream (U = 10 m/ s) aligned with the x axis, three sources placed as shown, and a single sink with a strength appropriate to form a closed streamline in the ﬂow. The streamline shown on the diagram is a distance a from the x axis far upstream of the origin and passes through the point (x, y ) = (0 , 2 a). Determine the thickness of the object at x = 0 if a = 0 .2 m.

y
sources
sink
U ∞ = 10 m/ s
x
2
a
aa

93. The maximum pressure diﬀerence between any two points on the surface of the Rankine oval shown below is measured to be 500 Pa. The source and the sink are placed 40 cm apart. The maximum thickness of the oval is 20 cm. Determine the freestream velocity if the density of the air is 0 .8 kg / m 3 .

U

source
40 cm
20 cm

sink

Solution: Problem # 1

Given:

Air trapped over oil in a closed tank as shown

Open to atmosphere
Air
P atm = 101 .3 kPa
Air
g
1
Water
z
B
Oil
s.g = 0 .89
A
Find:
• Calculate the air pressure in the tank.
h 3 = 4 cm
h 2 = 6 cm
h 1 = 15 cm

Assumptions:

ﬂuid is in a hydrostatic state

no acceleration

density of the air is negligible

ρ w = 998 kg / m 3 (constant)

ρ oil is constant

g is constant

Analysis:

P = ρ( g a)

ˆ

g = g k

a = 0

P = ρg k

ˆ

dP dz = ρg

dP = ρg dz

Since ρ and g are constant,

P = ρg z

Now,

P 1 = (P 1 P B ) + (P B P A ) + (P A P atm ) + P atm

P 1 = ρ oil g ( z 1 z B ) ρ air g ( z B z A ) ρ w g ( z A z atm ) + P atm

z 1 z B = h 3

z A z atm = h 1

P 1 = ρ oil gh 3 + ρ w gh 1 + P atm

P 1 = ρ w g ( h 1 sg oil h 3 ) + P atm

P 1 = 998

3 9 .81 m (0 .15[m] 0 .89(0 .04)[m]) + 101, 300[Pa]

kg

m

s

2

P 1 = 102 .4 kPa(abs)

The pressure in the air chamber is 102 .4 kPa (abs).

Solution: Problem # 2

Given:

A rectangular gate holding a pool of water.

P atm = 100 kPa
x
z
ρ = 1000 kg / m 3
hinge
g
gate (5 m wide)
stop
3 m3
m

Find:

The force which the water exerts on the gate

Assumptions:

ﬂuid is in a hydrostatic state

no acceleration

g is constant

ρ is constant

Analysis:

Establish a coordinate system (see diagram).

F s = Pnˆ dA

S

P = ρ( g a)

g =

a = 0

P = ρg k

ˆ

g k

ˆ

dP dz = ρg

dP = ρg dz

dP = ρg dz

P = ρgz + C

at z = 0, P = P atm . Therefore, C = P atm .

P = ρgz + P atm

nˆ = ˆı

F s =

z

z

1

2

w

0

( ρgz + P atm ıdy dz

F s = ˆı z 2 ( ρgz +

z

P atm )dz w dy
1

0

F s =

ˆıw ρgz 2

2

+ P atm z z 2

z

1

F s = ˆı 5[m] 1000

3 9 .81 m

kg

m

s

2

(6 2 3 2 )

2

F s = 2 .16ˆı MN

[m 2 ] + 100 , 000[Pa](6 3)[m]

The water will exert a horizontal force of 2.16 MN on the gate.

Solution: Problem # 3

Given:

• A Tainter gate holding back a pool of water
z
length=2 .44 m
gate
x
ρ = 1000 kg / m 3
R = 1 .22 m

Find:

The net hydrostatic force on the gate

Assumptions:

atmosphere is constant pressure

ﬂuid is in a hydrostatic state

density of water is constant

g is constant

no acceleration

Analysis:

Establish coordinate system (see diagram).

F s = Pnˆ dA

S

P = ρ( g a)

ˆ

g = g k

a = 0

g

dP dz = ρg

P = ρgz + C

at z = R/ 2, P = 0 (gauge).

Therefore, C = ρgR/ 2.

P

nˆ

= ρg ( R/ 2 z )

ˆ

= cos θˆı + sin θ k

θ
dA = R dθ dy
θ 2
ˆ
F s = − w
ρg ( R/ √ 2 − z )(cos θˆı + sin θ k ) R dθ dy
0
θ
1
z = R sin θ
θ 2
ˆ
cos θˆı +
sin θ k
ˆ
F s = −ρgwR 2
2
2
− sin θ cos θˆı − sin 2 θ k dθ
θ
1

Recall that

sin 2 θ = 1 cos 2 θ

2

F s =

ρgwR 2 sin θˆı cos θ k sin 2 θ

2

ˆ

2

2

ˆı

1 θ sin 2 θ

2

2

F s = ρgwR 2 ˆı sin θ

2

F s = 1000

sin 2 θ

2

k cos θ

ˆ

+ θ

2

sin 2 θ

4

1

2

2

3 9 .81 m 2 .44[m]1 .22 2 [m 2 ] ˆı

kg

m

s

2

k

ˆ

1

2 + π 8

4

1

1

2 π

8 +

4

1

ˆ

k

θ

θ

2

1

π/4

π/4

1

4

1

2

4

1

F s =

35630[N] ˆı k π

ˆ

4

F s = 35 .ı + 10 .2 k kN

ˆ

2

1

With respect to the coordinate system shown on the diagram, the net hydrostatic

ˆ

force on the gate is (35 .ı + 10 .2 k ) kN.

Solution: Problem # 4

Given:

A rectangular gate hinged at the top holding back a pool of water

P atm = 100 kPa
ρ = 1000 kg / m 3
hinge
x
g
gate (5 m wide)
z
stop
3 m
3 m

Find:

The force which the stop exerts on the gate

Assumptions:

ﬂuid is in a hydrostatic state

no acceleration

ρ is constant

g is constant

hinge is frictionless

Analysis:

Establish coordinate system (see diagram)

Draw a free body diagram of the gate.

x
z
F s

M o = 0

( H k × F b ) + M s = 0

ˆ

s = P ( r × nˆ )dA

M

S

ˆ

r = z k

nˆ = ˆı

r × nˆ = z k × ˆı = zˆ

P = ρ( g a)

a = 0

ˆ

ˆ

g = g k

dP dz = ρg

P = ρgz + C

F t

F b

at z = 0, P = ρgh 0 . Therefore, C = ρgh 0 .

P = ρg ( z + h 0 )

dA = dy dz

M s = w

0

z

z

1

s = ρgwˆ

M

z

2

z

1

( zˆ) ρg ( z + h 0 )dz dy

2

( z 2 + h 0 z )dz

M s = ρgwˆ z 3

3

+ h 0 z 2

2

z

z

2

1

M s = 1000

3 9 .81 m 5[m]ˆ 3 3

kg

m

s

2

3

[m 3 ] + 3[m]3 2

2

[m

2 ]

M s = 1104ˆkN · m

Recall that,

( H k × F b ) + M s = 0

ˆ

ˆ

k

×

F b = 1104ˆ

3[m]

[kN · m]

F b = 368 kNˆı

The stop exerts a force of 368 kN on the gate.

Solution: Problem # 22

Given:

An object suspended in a liquid by a wire

10 cm cube, m = 35 kg

g