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. .

, 2006

514.113
22.151.0
73

73

. .
. .:
, 2006. 160 .: .
ISBN 5-94057-263-4
, .
.

22.151.0




. .
20.09.2006 . 60 90 1/16. 1.
. . . 10. 2000 .
. 119002, , ., . 11. . 2417483.
.

, ., . 11. . 2417285. E-mail: biblio@mccme.ru

ISBN 5-94057-263-4

c . ., 2006.

c , 2006.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.
6
1. , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.
3. , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24
28
30
31

3.
33
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.
50
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
5.
60
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
12.
13.
14.
15.

6.
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. . . . . . . . . . . . .

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73
76
79
82
83

16.
17.
18.
19.

7.
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,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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.

87
87
88
95
102

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, , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159


, ,
, .

. , ,
, ,
, . , , ,
, .
, .

(.: , 1996).
, , , .
. , , .
, ,
.
, , .
, , .
. , ,
.
,
.
,
, .
1 2 .
3 4 ,
4

. 5 .
, , . 6 .
, , . 7 . .
.
.

. ,
. , ,
.

. .
, .
. 1
. ,
D1
C1
, .

A1
B1
45 , ,
.
D
C
. 2 B
A
NABC. AKN ,
N K , . 1
, AN KN ,
NAK , .
, ,
.
, . , ,
.
,
,
, . .
6

1 .
, , .
.
, -
, .
. ,
.
, ,
, .
,

.
.
1. , a. , N
.
. N H NABC BCL , AN (. 2). L
C
, H
ABC. BCL K
. KL, - A
H
B
AK, AH AN .
. 2
ABC AB = a,
:
AK =

3
a,
2

2
3

AH = AK =

3
a
3

( ).

AHN :
r
AN =

a2 +
7

a2
2
= a.
3
3

, AKN , :
AK N H
KL =
.
AN

, : KL = a. , 4
BCL
3
8

S = a2 .
, - . .
,
.
, ,
,
.
, , KL BCL -. KL

AKL,
AK =

a 3
, a AN 2

. , .
NH
AHN tg a =
, N H = a AH =
AH

= , tg a = 3 a = 60 . AKL :
3

a 3
3
3
KL = AK sin 60 =

= a.
2
2
4

3
8

S = a2 .
, , BCL ABC
BCL,
S = SABC cos b,
b = AKL
BCL ABC.

S =

a2 3
b = 30 ,
4

a2 3
3
S=
cos 30 = a2 .
4
8

,
: ,
a = 60 .


S = S cos f,
S , S , f
.

.
(. 6).
, .
2. . a,
3 : 2, .
.
. . 2 . ABN AN
, ,
.
AL = 2x, LN = 3x. AN = BN = 5x.
AN BCL,
BL, , ABL BLN . BL,
:
BL2 = a2 4x2
:

BL2 = 25x2 9x2 .

16x2 = a2 4x2 ,

5
5
2
2
20x = a , x =
a, AN = 5x, AN =
a.
10
2

.
BKN , , :
r
KN =

5a2
a2

= a.
4
4

3
2

S = a2 .
9

, , .
.
3. , .
, ?
. NABCD , ADN CDN
(. 3).
N

D
K
A

B
. 3

ABCD AD = CD, ADN


CDN , , AN = CN . ABN BCN
( ). DK BC, N K BC . , DKN
BC.
DKN . DKN = x.
: AB = a DK = h. DKN :
DN = h tg x,

KN =

h
.
cos x

S = 2SADN + 2SBCN ,

S = AD DN + BC KN.
AD, DN KN , :


1
S = ah tg x +
.
cos x

S = 2S , S = ah, ,
tg x +

1
= 2.
cos x

10

, 0 < x < 90 tg x < 2, . :


2 tg x =

1
.
cos x


1
= 1 + tg2 x.
2
cos x

4 tg x = 3.
3
, DKN = arctg .
4

:
. ,
.
. , .
4. a a
O. O b,
a b (b 6= 90 ).
g a b.
. AC , - A a , OC AO
(. 4). CB b.
AB OB A
.
AOC,
COB AOB :
OC
= cos a,
OA

OB
= cos b,
OC

OB
= cos g.
OA

,
:
cos g = cos a cos b.

a g
O

b
B

, OABC ,
. 4
OC .
, .
cos g = cos a cos b
.
.
11

. .
.
5. ABCA1 B1 C1 ABC. A1 H .
, AB = a A1 AH = a.
. , BCC1 B1 (. 5). BC AH, BC AA1
C1
A1

aa
aa

B1

bbbb

H
K
B
. 5

( ). BC AA1 . BB1 k AA1 , BC BB1 .


( AA1 H).
. AA1 = b A1 AB = b.

S = ab + 2ab sin b = ab(1 + 2 sin b).
A1 K AB. A1 A B,
, K AB. AA1 K :
b=

a
.
2 cos b

b.
. AH
AA1 HK , A1 AH = a, BAH = 30 , ,
r

p
3
3

2
cos b = cos 30 cos a =
cos a, sin b = 1 cos b = 1 cos2 a.
2

12

, :

a2
(1 + 4 3 cos2 a).
S =
3 cos a
,
AH, HK, A1 H, AA1 A1 K,
.
. ;
.
, . , ,
, .
.
6.
ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 , . D1 AB BC .
, AB = a.
. . 6, K L AB BC , E F
KL DA DC. KLM D1 N , D1

C1

A1

B1
M
D

F
O

L
B

E
. 6

. EF D1 LF M ,

( LF M EKN ). 13


S =

S
.
cos f

KLM D1 N AKLCD, ,
ABCD BKL:
1
8

7
8

S = a2 a2 = a2 .
BD KL O.
KL BD KL OD1 ( ), DOD1 = f KL.
:

3
3 2
DD1 = BD = 2a, DO = BD =
a.
4

D1 DO :

5 2
a.
4
7
3
35
= a2 : = a2 .
8
5
24

D1 O =
DO

, cos f =
= S
D1 O
5
,
, , ,
.
, . .
: , . : .
.
7. ABCD,
C
D ,
CD AD BD. , a b
C 90 .
g
1. ABCD a+b
(. 7). : AD = a, BD = b, AC = m, BC = n,
b
D
ACD = a, BCD = b ACB = g. B
a
AD < CD BD < CD, a
b 45 0 < a + b < 90 . ,
A
0 < g < 90 . , sin(a + b) = cos g.
. 7
14

sin a =

a
b
a+b
a+b
, sin b = , cos a =
, cos b =
,
m
n
m
n

sin(a + b) =

b(a + b)
(a + b)2
a(a + b)
+
=
.
mn
mn
mn

ABC, AB 2 = a2 + b2 , :
cos g =

m2 + n2 (a2 + b2 )
.
2mn

ACD BCD ,
m2 + n2 = a2 + (a + b)2 + b2 + (a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2(a + b)2 .
,
cos g =

(a + b)2
.
mn

, sin(a + b) = cos g, sin(a + b) = sin(90 g). ,


, : a + b = 90 g,
a + b + g = 90 .
,
, sin(a + b) =

(a + b)2
mn

.
2. BCD CD , ACD BCD
CD. D , AB 0 C AB 0 , a + b, CD, a + b.
:
mn sin(a + b) = (a + b)2 ,

sin(a + b) =

(a + b)2
.
mn

.
C (. 4).
CD , ,
cos g = cos a cos b.
cos a =

a+b
a+b
, cos b =
,
m
n

cos g =

(a + b)2
.
mn

, sin(a + b) = cos g , , a + b + g = 90 .
15

3. ABD ABCD, .
.
,
AD, BD CD. , C1
D2 A1 D1 C1 D2 B1
C1 (. 8).
b
C1 D1 C2 D2 , B1 a + b. D1 C2 C2 D2
a
D1 A1 C2 B1 , a. A1 C2 =
= B1 D2 = b. ACD,
a A1 b C2
D1
BCD ABD A1 C1 D1 , B1 C1 D2 A1 B1 C2 ( . 8
). , AC = A1 C1 , BC = B1 C1
AB = A1 B1 . ABC A1 B1 C1 . , A1 D1 C1 D2 B1 ABCD. ,
C D1 C1 D2 , . . 90 .
, , , ,
, . :
( )
.
, ,
: ,
, , , .
, .
, . , , ,
, .
.
,
. ,
16

, .
1 ,
.
.
, , . , , , . ,
.

1. , ,
1. DA, DB DC ABC. DE
M . , M (
1
3

) ABC DM = DE.
2. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 . A P Q A1 B1 C1 D1 BB1 C1 C .
B1 C1 ?
3. , , .
4. , .

5. , , ,
.
6. a, b, c. , a < b < c.
7.
3 4 . 5 ,
7 . , , .
8. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 ABCD, A
60 . , a.
, ) BD1 A; ) BD1 K AA1 .
9. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 ,
AB = 4 , AD = 2 , AA1 = 5 . AA1 K ,
17

AK

= 4.
KA1
BD1 K ,
A1 BCD1 .

10. , ,
, , , .
11.
, ,
. , .
12. . .
13. a
b. .
14.
, a.

15. ,
, a, b, g. g, a = 45
b = 60 .
16. 2 ,
4 2 .
.
17. a, ,
,
, 135 .
18. a b.
. a b, a + b = 75 .
19. a
b. g .

20. ABCA1 B1 C1
AB C1 .
18

a, f.
.
21. h.
, , a.
a = 45 .
22. , d, a b.
.
23. a
a. ,
, . .
24. , d, , ,
a. .
25. , , a.
, d.

26. , , a, b c. ,
a. .
27. a b.
, a b . , c.

2. ,
28. 10 ,
10 12 .
45 . .
29. , 6 8 , 7 .
13 . .
30. 13 , 14
15 . 75 . .
19

31. . b.
h. .

32. NABC , AC = BC = b. f. ,
N C .
33. NABC AC BC, ACB = g. 45 . C N O
1
. , S > S .
2

1
2

) S = S ; ) S = S ?
34. , ,
. .

35. NABC, N H , N K , NAH = a, N KH = b, AN B = g. ,

g
3
g
tg b = 2 tg a, sin =
cos a, tg = 3 cos b.
2

36. a,
. .
37.
. .
38.
g, d. ,
cos

g
2

sin

d
2

1
2

= .

39. , b d.
40.
, a
.
20

41. ABCD
a, g. AB BC , BD.
.
42. AC BD ABCD
. K, AB,
AC BD. , , K.
43. ABCD , AC BD. .
44. ,
a b ,
. .
45. ,
, .
46. a
b ,
. .
b = 60 .

47.
. , a
g. g ?
48. .
, a
b.
49. a, a.
,
. a ?
50. , , , .


21

51.
NABCD
AB = a AD = a 2.
30 . AC DN .
.
52. 60 . b.
b. . b = 45 .
53. NABCD
AB = a. NAB ,
AN = BN . N CD, , AN B.

54. NABC ABC, AC BC a. ,


AN C = g. , AB CN .
55. NABC ABC BAC , a. NAB NAC
, NA = h. NAB N BC
. .
56. . , 1. .

57. NABC ABC a. N BC ,


NAB = NAC = a. .
a = 60 .
58. a.
2, 3, 5 3.
.
59. NABCD . N D h. N B
b. .


22

60.
36 14 . ,
,
. .
61. Q q. ,
, 60 . .
62.
,
a, a b (a > b).
63. , , . , S1 S2 .
64. . S1 S2 ,
S. ,

S1 + S2
S=
.
2

23


. .
.
,
N
, , , (
) O
(. 9).
S
. .
, . 9
,
,
.
,
.
, . , ,
N
, . ,
(. 10).
, , - A
, ,
H
B
.
1. . . 10

3
. 8

.
. ,
N H , ABN , 24

(. 11). N H
M . M N ,
M AN = 90 , AH ,
N
NAH
, NAH = AM N .
M N = 2R, AH = r, AN = l
HAN = x. , :

prl =

3
4pR2 ,
8

2rl = 3R2 .

AM N
AHN :

M
. 11

l = 2R sin x,
r = l cos x = 2R sin x cos x.

l r , :
8 sin2 x cos x = 3,

0 < x < 90 ,

:
8 cos3 x 8 cos x + 3 = 0.
2 cos x = z, :
z 3 4z + 3 = 0.
:
z 3 z 3z + 3 = 0,
(z 1)(z 2 + z 3) = 0.

13 1

1
13 1
. , cos x1 = cos x2 =
0,65.
2
4

z1 = 1 z2 =

: x1 = 60 x2 49 200 .
. . ,

.
2. r , l. .
25

.
O M N , O
.
, (. 12).
A
M
B
: r1 r2 . 12
(r1 < r2 ), S
.

S = p(r1 + r2 )l.
, , :
r1 + r2 = l.
,
S = pl2 .
AOM DON ,
r1
r
= , r1 r2 = r2 .
D

r2

:
pr12 + pr22 = p(r1 + r2 )2 2pr1 r2 = p(l2 2r2 ).
,
S = pl2 + p(l2 2r2 ).
:
S = 2p(l2 r2 ).
3. ,
. R.
.
N
.
r h.
1
8
pR2 h = pr3 ,
3
3

R2 h = 8r3 .
, r h,
.
HAN
2a,
HAO = a (. 13). R a
OH N H .
26

H
. 13

AOH AN H :
r = R tg a,

h = R tg 2a.

r h R2 h = 8r3 , :
tg 2a = 8 tg3 a, 0 < a < 45 .
2 tg a
, tg a 6= 0 tg a 6= 1,
tg 2a =
1 tg2 a
:
4 tg4 a 4 tg2 a + 1 = 0,

2
tg a =
.
2

(2 tg2 a 1)2 = 0.

: tg 2a = 2 2, , ,

2
r=
R, h = 2R 2.
2

, . ,
,
. ,
,
.
4. R
.
. .
. O1 , O2 , O3
, O ; A, B, C P
(. 14).
O2
- O1
,
, ,
O3
, AB = BC = CA = 2R,
AO1 = R ABCO1 O3 O2
.
K
O
C
x, O1 O = R + x, OP = x. A
P
P 2R
3

, AP = . ,
27

B
. 14

AO1 OP . O
OK AO1 OKO1 2R
3

, R x.
(R + x)2 = (R x)2 +
1
3

4R2
,
3

1
3

x = R. , OP = R.
. , , ,
, .
, , , .
, 4 5,
, , .
2 :
S ,
S ,
V .
r , l , h ,
1
S = prl, S = pr(l + r), V = pr2 h.
3

r1 r2 , l , h ,
S = p(r1 + r2 )l,

S = p(r1 + r2 )l + pr12 + pr22 ,

1
3

V = ph(r12 + r1 r2 + r22 ).

3. , ,
65. . .
66. . , .
67. , . .
28

68. , d, , , a. .
69. ABCD.
A C
l1 , ABC l2 . l1 l2 ,
) AB = BC, ) AB = 2BC.

70. .
.
71. .

k. k?
, k = 1.
72. , ABC AC
BC, 2. .
73. a.
. a ?
74. ABC AB, BC.
, A a.

75. 4. ,
. .
76.
a. .
.
77. ABCD AB, AD.
, AB = 2CD
ABC = b.
78. 5 12
,
3 . .
29

4.
79. ,

2
.
5

.
80. .
.
81. . .
a .
1

82. , 2
. .
1
83. R . 4
. .

84. r , h.
.
2
85. .
3

. ,
R.
86. r ,
. .
87. . ,

.
88. , .
?
89. . ,
2a.

90. , a. Q. .
91.

3
4

. 30

,
l.
92.
R , R 2,
a. .
93. R , b.
, , a.
.
94. R ,
h. .
2
. , ) h = R,
3

3
2

) h = R?

5.
95. , 2a, 3a 3a,
. ,
,
.
96. .
a, b c.
.
97. r. .
.
98. r .
2r.
.
.
99. r, .
60 .
.
100. r.
. .
.
101. 2a a , ,
31

. .
102. , .
r, 3r 3r.
. .
3

103. , 3, 1 ,
4
.
. .
104.
.
.
105. ,
. R, r. , ,
R = 6 r = 1.

32


,
, , , .
. , , , . ,
, . , ,
.
. .
, 6 , ,
. . , . ,
, 7,
. .
,
.
1) A, B, C :

# 

# 

# 

AB + BC = AC

( ).

2) A, B O :

# 

# 

# 

AB = OB OA ( ).
3) , C AB, , k,

# 

# 

AC = k AB.
# 
AC
, #  = k.
AB

33

4) A B C
# 
AC
, #  = k. :
CB

# 

# 

OC =

# 

OA + k OB
,
1+k

O .
# 
# 
#  #  #
, k 6= 1, AC = CB, AC + CB = 0 ,
#  #
. . AB = 0 . , A B .
# 
# 
# 
AC
#  = k AC = k CB. CB

, :

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

OC OA = k(OB OC),

# 

# 

OC + k OC = OA + k OB,

# 

OC =

# 

# 

OA + kOB
.
1+k

.
#  1 #  # 
C AB, k = 1 OC = (OA + OB).
2

5) ABCD
# 
, : AD =
#  #  #  #  #  #  #  # 
= BC, AC = AB + AD, OA + OC = OB + OD, O .
#
6) #
a b , #
c,
#
#
a b ,
x y ,
#
#
c = x #
a +yb.
7) #
p
#
#
a , b , #
c:

#
#
p = x #
a + y b + z #
c

(x, y, z ).
#
#
, x #
a + y b + z #
c = 0 , x = y = z = 0.
8) A, B, C , ,
D ABC, ,
a b,

# 

# 

# 

CD = aCA + bCB.
34

,
.
1. ,
, 2 : 1, .
. CD ABC M ,
,

CM
= 2 (. 15). MD

# 

# 

OM =
E

# 

OC + 2OD
,
3

O .
D AB,

# 

1
2

# 

# 

OD = (OA + OB).
A

D
. 15

# 

1
3

# 

# 

# 

OM = (OA + OB + OC).
M 0 2 : 1,
# 
. OM 0
# 0 # 
, . . OM = OM . , M M 0 .
, ABC
M , 2 : 1, .
. ,
# 
#  #  # 
OM OA, OB OC, ,
O OABC .
M .
, .
, , .
, D
, .

, .
M
M
2. , M222222
M
M
C

3 : 1, .
M1
. DM1 - A
ABCD M ,

DM
=3
M M1

(. 16).
35

B
. 16

# 

# 

OM =

OD + 3OM1
,
4

O ( . 16 ).
, M1 ABC
#  1 #  #  # 
OM1 = (OA + OB + OC),
3

# 

1
4

# 

# 

# 

# 

OM = (OA + OB + OC + OD).
M 0 ,
ABCD 3 : 1, ,
#  #  #  # 
( OA, OB, OC OD). # 0 # 
, OM = OM M 3 : 1,
. M .
# 
#  #  # 
, OM OA, OB, OC
# 
OD, .
,
.
3. SABCD . , SA, SB,
SC, SD 1
k

K, L, M , N , SK = SA,
1
l

SL = SB, SM =

1
1
SC, SN = SD. m
n

k, l,
m n.
. K, L, M
N :

# 

# 

N
L
K

# 

M N = aM K + bM L.
,
,
S (. 17). :

# 

# 

# 

# 

A
. 17

#

# 

SN SM = a(SK SM ) + b(SL SM ).
36

# 

# 

#

# 

SN = aSK + bSL + gSM ,

g = 1 a b.
,
a#  b# 
g# 
1# 
SD = SA + SB + SC.
n

O
ABCD. O AC BD,

#

# 

# 

# 

# 

SA + SC = SB + SD = 2SO.
,

1# 
1 #  #  # 
SD = (SA SB + SC).
n
n
1# 
, SD n

# # 

# 

SA, SB SC.
:
a
1
b
1
g
1
= ,
= ,
= .
k

, , a + b + g = 1, :
k
l
m
+ = 1,
n
n
n

k + m = l + n.
. A ABCD SB SD L N
1#
2

 # 

1# 
3
#  1# 
m = 2 + 3 1 = 4, . . SM = SC.
4

#

, SL = SB, SN = SD, k = 1, l = 2, n = 3, ,


,
. .
1) ,

#
a #
a = | #
a |2 ,
. . . , AB

# 2
AB 2 = AB .
37

#
f #
a b
#
#
a b
cos f = # # .
|a| | b |

#
2) #
a b
#
# 2
( #
a b )2 > #
a2 b .
3) AB CD ,

#  # 
# #

AB CD = 0.

4) a b :

#
# # 2
( #
a + b )2 = #
a 2 + 2 #
a b + b .

, . , .
#
5) #
a , b , #
c :

#
# 2
#
#
( #
a + b + #
c )2 = #
a 2 + b + #
c 2 + 2 #
a b + 2 b #
c + 2 #
c #
a.

6) A, B C:

#  # 

AB 2 + AC 2 BC 2 = 2AB AC
( ).
7) A, B, C, D:

#  # 

AD2 + BC 2 AC 2 BD2 = 2AB CD.

# 

# 

. BC BD ,
A. :

# 2

# 

# 

# 2

# 

# 

AD2 + BC 2 AC 2 BD2 = AD + (AC AB)2 AC (AD AB)2 =

#  # 

#  # 

# 

# 

# 

#  # 

= 2AB AD 2AB AC = 2AB (AD AC) = 2AB CD.


6),
D A.
, .
4. , mc ABC
:
m2c =

c2
a2 + b2
.
2
4

38

. CD ABC (. . 15).

#  1 #  # 
CD = (CA + CB).
2

# 

CD, :

#  # 

1
4

CD2 = (a2 + b2 + 2CA CB).

# 

# 

CA CB ,
#  #  # 
AB = CB CA.

#  # 
#  # 

c2 = a2 + b2 2CA CB,

2CA CB = a2 + b2 c2 .

1
4

CD2 = (2a2 + 2b2 c2 ),

m2c =

a2 + b2
c2
.
2
4

. ,
.
, .
5. DM1 ABCD .
. ABCD : AD = a,
BD = b, CD = c, BC = a1 , CA = b1 , AB = c1 (. . 16).
M1 ABC,

1
3

# 

# 

# 

DM1 = (DA + DB + DC)


(. 1).
:

#  # 

1
9

#  # 

#  # 

DM12 = (a2 + b2 + c2 + 2DA DB + 2DA DC + 2DB DC).


, ,

# 

# 

# 

AB = DB DA.
,

#  # 

c21 = a2 + b2 2DA DB,

#  # 

2DA DB = a2 + b2 c21 .
39

#  # 

#  # 

, 2DA DC = a2 + c2 b21 , 2DB DC = b2 +


2
+ c a21 . ,
m2D =

a2 + b21 + c21
a2 + b2 + c2
1
,
3
9

mD DM1
.
, #  #  # 
# 
DA, DB DC. DM1 ,
, . # 
DM1 .
. ,
, .
,
, .
6.
. .
. ABCDEF A1 B1 C1 D1 E1 F1 (. 18). AB1
# 
# 
BC1 . AB1 BC1
#
#

# 
E1
D1
a = AB, b = BC
#
# # 
F1
C1 c = BB1 . :

# 
AB1 = #
a + #
c,

B1

A1

#

E
F

C
A

B
. 18

#  #
BC1 = b + #
c.

a , b #
c ,

#

1, AB1 = BC1 = 2.
#
#
#
a b 60 , #
a #
c , b #
c.
,

#
#  # 
1
3
AB1 BC1 = ( #
a + #
c )( b + #
c)= +1= .

f AB1 BC1 ,
#  # 
AB1 BC1
3
cos f =
= .
AB1 BC1

3
, f = arccos .
4

, ,
.
40

7.
. , 1.
. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 (. 19).
M N BA1
CB1 .
# 
#  # # 
# 
# 
: BA = #
a , BC = b BB1 = #
c . BM = xBA1 ,
# 
# 
#  # 
CN = y CB1 . BM CN #
a,
# #
b , c . :
D1
A1

# 
BA1 = #
a + #
c,

C1

# 
BM = x( #
a + #
c ),

B1

# 

# 

#
# 
CB1 = #
c b,

#

# 

CN = y( #
c b ).

# 

# 

, M N = M B + BC + CN = x #
a+
#
#
+ (1 y) b + (y x) c . M N M

BA1
D
C
# 
CB1 , M N
A
B
# 
#  # 
BA1 = 0 M N CB1 = 0. #
. 19
#
a , b , #
c ,
#
# # # #
#
a b = b c = c a = 0.
# 2
#
a 2 = b = #
c 2 = 1. , :
(
2x y = 0,
x 2y + 1 = 0.
N

:
x=

1
3

2
3

y= .

, M N BA1 CB1 1 : 2,
B B1 . M N .
x y :

# 
1 # 1
1
a + b + #
c.
M N = #
3

# 

M N , BA1 CB1 :

3
MN =
.
3

,
: , .
41

8. a, b g.
( ).
. # 
# 
# 
O OA = e#1 , OB = e#2 , OC = e#3 .
BOC = a, COA = b, AOB = g. OA, OB,
OC A, B C. O
OA BM
#  # 
CN (. 20). (M B, N C) = A,
g
#

#

N
a
OM = cos ge#1 , ON = cos be#1 . bbbb

M

# 

# 

# 

OB = OM + M B,
A

C
B

# 

# 

# 

OC = ON + N C.

, M B ON , N C OM , :

#  # 

#  # 

#  # 

OB OC = OM ON + M B N C,
. 20

#  # 

e#2 e#3 = cos b cos g + M B N C.

#  # 
e#2 e#3 = cos a, M B N C = sin b sin g cos A, ,
cos a = cos b cos g + sin b sin g cos A,

cos A =

cos a cos b cos g


.
sin b sin g

. , OA , cos a =
= cos b cos g, .
,
. 7,
.

6.
106. A, B, C, D.
M N AB CD. ,

# 

1
2

# 

# 

M N = (AD + BC).
, , AD BC
, ,
MN,

1
1
AD BC.
2
2

42

107. ABCD A1 B1 C1 D1 .
K, L, M , N AA1 , BB1 , CC1
DD1 . , K, L, M , N
, KLM N .
108. OABC OA1 B1 C1 O
. ,

# 

# 

# 

BB1 = AA1 + CC1 .


.
109. ABCD. AB CD M N
,

CN
AM
=
= 2. , AC, BD M N MB
ND

.
110. ABCD. AB CD M N , :

# 

# 

# 

CN
AM
=
= k.
MB
ND

M N AC BD.

111. , , , ( )
.
112. ) , M
ABC ,

# 

# 

# 

#

MA + MB + MC = 0 .
) , M ABCD
,

# 

# 

# 

# 

#

MA + MB + MC + MD = 0 .
113. ) ABC A1 B1 C1 . M M1 . ,

1
3

# 

# 

# 

M M1 = (AA1 + BB1 + CC1 ).


) A1 B1 C1 ABC , AA1 = a, BB1 = b, CC1 = c.
.
114. ) ABCD A1 B1 C1 D1 . M M1
. ,

1
4

# 

# 

# 

# 

M M1 = (AA1 + BB1 + CC1 + DD1 ).


) AA1 , BB1 , CC1 DD1 , ABCD A1 B1 C1 D1 , . 43

, M M1 , M M1
, AA1 .
115. ) ABC CM . l CA, CB CM A1 , B1 M1 ,

CA1
CB1
CM1
= k,
= l,
= m. ,
CA
CB
CM


1
1 1
1
=
+
.
m
2 k
l

) ABCD DM . p
DA, DB, DC DM A1 , B1 , C1 M1 .
,


1
1 1
1
1
=
+ +
,
m

DA1
DB1
DC1
DM1

= k,
= l,
= n,
= m.
DA
DB
DC
DM

116. ) , , . ?
) ,
, . .
117. , . ,
, .
?
118. ) ABC P . , , P
, , . .
) ABCD P .
M1 BCD. A1 ,
# 
# 
P A1 = 3P M1 . B1 , C1 D1 .
, A1 B1 C1 D1 ABCD #  # 
S, M S = P M M ABCD.

119. , K M AB CD
ABCD, BC L AD 44

BL

AN

N . ,
=
LN KM
LC
ND
.
120. AB, BC, CD, DA
ABCD ( ) K, L,
M N . ,
#  #  #  # 
AK BL CM DN
, #  #  #  #  = 1 ( ).
KB

LC

MD

NA


121. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 . BA1 CB1
# 
# 
CN
BM
M N , #  = #  . ,
BA1

CB1

M N .
122. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 . , AC1 BA1 CB1
.
123. ABCD. M N CD AB
BM CN . ,
DE ACD.

7.
124. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 ,
AB = a, BAD1 = 60 . AC1 BD1 .
125. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 ABCD
a, AA1 a AB AD
, 60 .
ACC1 A1 .
126. .
.
127. K BB1
ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 . , AKC1 > 90 . AKC1 = 120 ?
128. ABCD AD ABC,
AD = a, AB = b, BAC = 45 . AC BD.
a = b.
129. ABCD D. M N AB CD.
AN DM , DA = DB = 1 DC = 2.


45

130. ) , ,
.
) . , , ,
, , .
131. ) a, b, g .
) ,
180 ,
.
132. ) OABC: BOC = a,
COA = b, AOB = g.
BOC COA.
) a, b, g , , ,
.
133. ,
, ,
.

#
134. ) , #
a , b , #
c
:
#
#
#
#
a ( b #
c ) + b ( #
c #
a ) + #
c ( #
a b ) = 0.

) , A, B, C, D

#  # 

#  # 

#  # 

DA BC + DB CA + DC AB = 0.
135. ) ,
.
) , AB CD, AC BD
ABCD , AC
BD .
136. ) ABC ( ) H, O , . ,

# 

# 

# 

# 

OH = OA + OB + OC.
( H ABC).
46

) ABCD, H. ,

# 

1
2

# 

# 

# 

# 

OH = (OA + OB + OC + OD),
O , .
137. , ,
.
(, H, , H .)
138. , AB
CD ABCD, : DA = a, DB = b,
DC = c, BC = a1 , CA = b1 , AB = c1 .

139. ) , ABC O , M H ,
# 
# 
OH = 3OM .
) , O , M H ABCD ,
O H M .

140. ) , O
ABC M ,
1
9

OM 2 = R2 (a2 + b2 + c2 ),
R a, b, c .
) ABCD R , . O
M .
) )?

141. ) , P
ABC M
P A2 + P B 2 + P C 2 = AM 2 + BM 2 + CM 2 + 3P M 2 .
( ).
) , M ABCD P ,
P A2 + P B 2 + P C 2 + P D2 = M A2 + M B 2 + M C 2 + M D2 + 4P M 2 .
47

142. ) ABC , .
) , .
) ABC P . ,
1
9

1
3

P M 2 = (P A2 + P B 2 + P C 2 ) (AB 2 + BC 2 + CA2 ),
M .
143. R O. M , , , A
B. ,

#  # 

M A M B = OM 2 R2 .

144. A B. M #  # 
, M A M B = k, k .
145. A, B, C, .
M ,

#  # 

#  # 

#  # 

M A M B = M B M C = M C M A.
146. ABC. M ,
M A2 + M B 2 = 2M C 2 .
147. ABC. M ,
M A2 + M B 2 = M C 2 .

148. , .
.
149. ABCD. ,
1
3

DA2 + DB 2 + DC 2 > (AB 2 + BC 2 + CA2 ).


150. A, B, C, D . ,
AB 2 + BC 2 + CD2 + DA2 > AC 2 + BD2 .
?
48

151. a. f

.
f, a = arctg 2.
152. a.
.
153. ABCD D .
K AB. f
CA DK. , BAC = f. K
AC, DA = 1, DB = DC = 2.
154. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 .
AA1 BD1
AA1 BD1 , AB = a AD = b? .
155. SABCD,
1. M N
AB SC . M N
AB SC?

49


. , , .
, , .
, ,
, ,
, .
,
. ,
, .
, , M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 )
#
n = {A, B, C} :
A(x x0 ) + B(y y0 ) + C(z z0 ) = 0,
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0, D = (Ax0 + By0 + Cz0 ).
, Ax + By + Cz + D = 0
, {A, B, C}.
, .
M1 (a, 0, 0), M2 (0, b, 0), M3 (0, 0, c),
.
, :
Aa + D = 0, Bb + D = 0, Cc + D = 0,
a, b, c D . :
A=

D
,
a

B=

D
,
b

C =

D
,
c

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 :
x
y
z
+ + = 1.
a

.
.
50

, A(x1 , y1 , z1 )
B(x2 , y2 , z2 ) :
p
AB = (x2 x1 )2 + (y2 y1 )2 + (z2 z1 )2 .
, .
R
C(a, b, c) :
(x a)2 + (y b)2 + (z c)2 = R2 .
, , :
z

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = R2 .
.
l
M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) #
a = {a1 , a2 , a3 }. #
a l
(. 21).
M (x, y, z) l , # 
M0 M #
a , . . :

M0 M = t #
a,

# 

M0

#
a

x
. 21

OM = OM0 + t #
a,

t ().
:

x = x0 + a1 t,
y = y0 + a2 t,

z = z0 + a3 t.
.
#
l Oz, k = {0, 0, 1} , :
x = x0 , y = y0 ( z ).
#
a . , t,
x x0
y y0
z z0
=
=
.
a1
a2
a3

.
51

z
M0

#
n

M1

M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 )
a, Ax + By + Cz +
+ D = 0.
,
M0 a, Ml (. 22).

M0 M1 = {x1 x, y1 y, z1 z}.

#
n = {A, B, C} a , , #

M0 M1 , , ,
#

#

#
n M0 M1 = | #
n | |M0 M1 | (1).
. 22

|M0 M1 | = d.

d=

| #
n M0 M1 |
.
| #
n|

, ,
#

#
n M0 M1 . :

#

#
n M0 M1 = A(xl x0 ) + B(y1 y0 ) + C(z1 z0 ) =
= Ax1 + By1 + Cz1 (Ax0 + By0 + Cz0 ).
M1 a, Ax1 + By1 + Cz1 + D = 0.
, :

| #
n M0 M1 | = |Ax0 + By0 + Cz0 + D|.

#
, | n | = A2 + B 2 + C 2 , :
d=

|Ax0 + By0 + Cz0 + D|

.
A2 + B 2 + C 2

, , M0 a, Ax + By + Cz + D x, y, z

M0 ,

A2 + B 2 + C 2 .
1. ABCD,
D , DA = a, DB = b, DC = c DH = h, DH
. ,
1
1
1
1
= 2 + 2 + 2.
h2
a
b
c

52

. D ,
DA, DB, DC .
: A(a, 0, 0), B(0, b, 0), C(0, 0, c). ABC
z
:
D1

x
y
z
+ + = 1.
a
b
c


:
h= r

C1
B1

A1

1
1
1
1
+ 2 + 2
a2
b
c

,
D

C y
M
M
M
M

1
1
1
1
= 2 + 2 + 2.
h2
a
b
c

x
. 23

2.
ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 , AD = a, AB = b, AA1 = c. B1 l
ACD1 . , a > b > c, l ABCD M . B1 M .
. D, . 23.
A(a, 0, 0),
C(0, b, 0), D1 (0, 0, c), B1 (a, b, c).
ACD1 :
x
y
z
+ + = 1.
a
b
c

#
n=

1 1 1
, ,
a b c

ACD1

l. l:

x = a + t,

1
y = b + t,
b

z = c + t, t R.
c

M (x1 , y1 , z1 ) l Oxy. z1 = 0, t = c2 , x1 =
53

a2 c2
b2 c2
, y1 =
.
a
b

, a > b > c, 0 < x1 < a, 0 < y1 < b. , M


ABCD.

r
B1 M = c2
B1 M =

1
1
1
+ 2 + 2,
a2
b
c

c2
, h D ACD1 .
h

. ,
- .
DH ACD1
A1 B1 C1 N . M DN B1 .
DN D1 , DN =

DD12
c2
, B1 M = .
DH
h


.
, . ,
. ,
.
3. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1.
BD1 ACD1 ?
. , (. 24).
z
D1

C1

B1

A1

#
#
#
n
n
n
n
n

x
. 24

54

ACD1 :
x
y
z
+ + = 1.
a
b
c

#
n=

1 1 1
, ,
a b c

ACD1 . -

f. , sin f = cos(90 f) =
# 
# 
# 
|D1 B #
n|
= #  # . : D1 B = {a, b, c}, D1 B #
n = 1. ,
|D1 B| | n |


1
1
1
1
sin f = , k 2 = (a2 + b2 + c2 ) 2 + 2 + 2 .
k

b
a

b
a

a2

2

b2

> 0 , 2 + 2 > 2.

b
c
,
 2
  2
  2

a
b2
a
c2
b
c2
k2 = 3 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 > 9
b

k > 3, k = 3 , a = b = c.
, sin f 6
arcsin

1
f ,
3

1
, .
3

, #
a #
n ,
a, f
| #
a #
n|
sin f = cos(90 f) = # # .
| a | |n|


0 90 . n#1 n#2 ,
a b, f

# 1 n# 2 |
z
|n
cos f = | cos (n#1 , n#2 )| = #  #  .
D1
C1
|n1 | |n2 |

( n#1 n#2 , 180 ).


4. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 .
ABD1
BCD1 .
. DA1 AD1 DA1
# 
AB, DA1
# 
ABD1 . , DC1
BCD1 (. 25).
55

B1

A1

M
y
D
D
D
D

x
. 25

D
#  #  # 
DA, DC, DD1 . A(1, 0, 0), C(0, 1, 0), D1 (0, 0, 1), A1 (1, 0, 1),
# 
# 
C1 (0, 1, 1), n#1 = DA1 n#2 = DC1 ,
A1 C1 : n#1 = {1, 0, 1}, n#2 = {0, 1, 1}.
f ABD1 BCD1 :
# 1 n# 2 |
|n
cos f = #  #  .
|n1 | |n2 |

1
#

#

#

#

n1 n2 = 1 |n1 | = |n2 | = 2, cos f = f = 60 .
2

, AM C BD1
120 .

AM C BD1 ,
AM C, AM C.
. DA1 C1 ,
1. ,
#  # 
DA1 DC1 60 .
,
- .

,
z
.
M
5. A
B. M ,

A
M A2 M B 2 = c2 ,
B
y
c .
x
. . 26
A,
AB (. 26).
M (x, y, z) , AB = a. B (a, 0, 0).
:
x2 + y 2 + z 2 (x a)2 y 2 z 2 = c2 ,
2a a2 = c2 , x =

a2 + c2
.
2a

, , AB.
56

8.
156. ABCD, D
. M , ABC,
. DM , DA = a, DB = b DC = c.
157. ABCA1 B1 C1
ABC C. C ABC1 , A1 B1 C1 M .
CM , CC1 = 1, CA = 2 CB = 3.
158. NABCD
45 . N D
ABN .
159.
SABC 3. A SB, SB N .
NABC.

160. ABCD D .
M N AC BD.
M N M N ABC, DA = 1,
DB = DC = 2.
161. NABCD ABCD.
N D . , B NA N C, N D L. BL, , AD = 2, AB = 4,
DN = 6.
162. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 , AA1 = 2,
AB = 3, AD = 4. A , B1 C , .
163. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 ,
AB = a AA1 = 2a. A ,
DB1 , . M DB1 DB1 ?

164. M , 2 : 3, .
, a.
57

165.
. , .

9.
166. a 60 .
h. . , .
a = 4 h = 3.
167. a h . , a = 12
h = 8.
168. a) A,
m n. ,
A .
?
) A , . ,
A m, n p.
, : 1) m = 1, n = 2, p = 5; 2) m = n = 1, p = 4;
3) m = 1, n = 2, p = 6.
169. OABC
O. P ABC,

AP
BP
CP
= u,
= v,
= w. ,
AO
BO
CO

u2 + v 2 + w2 = 2 + ctg2 a,
a OP ABC.
.
( ).
170. D ABCD ,
DA = 4, DB = 8, DC = 12. , .
171. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 a. ,
E AB A, A1 C1 .
172.

ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 a, 2a. ,
AA1 , BB1 A C1 .
, B.
173. SABC ABC, SC 58

, AB = 1 SC = 3. M SA,
ABC B SB N .

SN
.
NB


174. , a, . ,

. .
175. , a.
,
12a2 .

176. A B. M ,
M A2 + M B 2 = 2AB 2 .
177. a) A B. M , A , B.
) A B. M
,
MA
= k, k > 1.
MB

178. ABC C.
M ,
M A2 + M B 2 = 3M C 2 .
179. a) ABC
M , AM , BM CM
CM .
) ABC. M ,
M A2 + M B 2 = M C 2 .
180. ABCD, a. M ,
3a2 .

59


. , , 300 . ., VI
,
.
(, , )
, , , . . : , , , . ,
, . ,
,
.
, :

a+b
ab 6
.
2

a+b+c
3
abc 6
,
3

. ,
(a b)2 + (b c)2 + (c a)2 > 0
:
1
3

ab + bc + ca 6 (a + b + c)2 6 a2 + b2 + c2 ,
, a = b = c.

a+b+c
3
abc 6
,
3

60

: a = x3 , b = y 3 , c = z 3 . :
x3 + y 3 + z 3 3xyz > 0.
, , :
x3 + y 3 + z 3 3xyz = (x + y)3 + z 3 3xy(x + y + z) =
= (x + y + z)(x2 + y 2 + z 2 xy yz zx).
,
x2 + y 2 + z 2 xy yz zx > 0.
, x + y + z > 0, :
x3 + y 3 + z 3 3xyz > 0.
, x = y = z,
a = b = c.

a+b+c
, a + b + c = k, k
3 abc 6
3
 3
k
, abc 6
,
3

, a = b = c.
, ( ) ,
, .
, , ,
.
,
.

. , .
:
1
x

1
2

1) y = 4x + , x > 0 (y = 4 x = );
2) y = x2 4x + 3 (y = 1 x = 2).

:

3) y = x 4 x2 , 0 < x < 2 (y = 2 x = 2);


a
2

4) y = x2 (a 2x), 0 < x < .


y : y = x x (a 2x).
: x + x + (a 2x) = a,
61

1
3

y x = a 2x, . . x = a,
ymax =

1 3
a .
27


. , ,
x, , , , x.
.
1. 2p,
.
. ABCD CD (. 27). AB + BC = p. : BC = x. AB = p x.
V , , :
A

V = px2 (p x),

0 < x < p.

V
. V
:

px

1
2

V = px x(2p 2x).
B

, x, 2p,

. 27

x = 2p 2x, . . x = p.
3
1
4p
p Vmax = p3 .
3

27

. ,
.
2. R .
?
1. r h
. ABN , , M N
62

2R, N D , AD
(. 28).
:

1
3

V = pr2 h.
h. M AN = 90 ,
M AN
:
AD2 = M D DN,

r2 = (2R h) h.

, V
h:
1
3

V = p(2R h)h2 ,

M
. 28

0 < h < 2R.

V .
(4R 2h) h h.
, 4R, ,
4
3

h = 4R 2h, h = R.
4
3

, h = R , , Vmax =

32
pR3 .
27

2.
,
DAN = x (. . 28). h r R
x AM N ADN . :
AN = 2R sin x,

h = AN sin x = 2R sin2 x,

AD = 2R sin x cos x.

8
, V = pR3 sin4 x cos2 x, 0 < x < 90 .
3

,
. , V
.
V
y = 2 sin4 x cos2 x,

y = sin2 x sin2 x (2 2 sin2 x),


r

. . sin2 x = 2 2 sin2 x. sin x =

2
. 3

h. sin x
4
3

h = 2R sin2 x, h = R.
63

,
, . .
:
1) y = sin x cos x, 0 < x < 180 .
, : y =
, ymax =

1
x = 45 .
2

sin 2x
.
2

a
a
2) y = sin x sin(a x). . ymax = sin2 x = .
2
2
3) y = sin x + cos x.

sin x + cos x = 2 sin(x + 45 ), ymax = 2


x = 45 .
4) y = a sin x + b cos x.
:
(a sin x + b cos x)2 + (a cos x b sin x)2 = a2 + b2 .

a sin x + b cos x 6 a2 + b2 .
a
, tg x = .
b

3. c
a ,
. a ?
A
. ABC
AB = c a, l,
AB (. 29).
c

.
D
C
, , CD B
ABC.
: CD = r, BC = l1 , AC = l2 . . 29
S :
S = 2pcr + prl1 + prl2 , S = pr(2c + l1 + l2 ).
ABC ACD :
l1 = c sin a, l2 = c cos a, r = c sin a cos a.
:
1
2

s = pc2 sin 2a(2 + sin a + cos a),

0 < a < 90 .

S. , sin 2a 1 a = 45 ,

sin a + cos a, , 2,
64

a = 45 . , S a = 45 ,
1
2

Smax = pc2 (2 +

2).

, , , CD, l1 + l2
ABC, ,
AC = BC, a = 45 . , S
, .

.
. .
4. , . h, 2r.
1) h = 2, r = 3; 2) h = 4, r = 9.
. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 , AC , B1 D1 M (. 30).
B1
F

C1

M
O1

A1

D1

C
N
O

D
. 30

ABCD A1 B1 C1 D1 O O1 . A1 AC
. , M B1 O1 .
ACEF ,
, M B1 ,
, M O1 .
65

B1 BD, M O ACE, EM = M F = B1 M .
M N .
B1 M = x, EF = 2x, N O = r x,
p
M O = (r x)2 + h2 .
ACEF
p
S = (r + x) (r x)2 + h2 ,

0 6 x 6 r.

S [0; r] . , y:
y = S 2 = (r + x)2 (x2 2rx + r2 + h2 )
[0; r].
y:
y 0 = 2(r + x)(2x2 2rx + h2 ).
r + x > 0, y 0 = 0,
2x2 2rx + h2 = 0.

(1)

1) h = 2 r = 3 (1)
x2 3x + 2 = 0,
x1 = 1 x2 = 2.
p
S1 = (3 + x) (3 x)2 + 4
[0; 3], 1.
1
x
S1 (x)

3 13 10,8

8 2 11,3

5 5 11,1

12

, , S1 [0; 3],
ACC1 A1 , ACB1 .
2) h = 4 r = 9 (1)
x2 9x + 8 = 0.
66

x1 = 1 x2 = 8.
p
S2 = (9 + x) (9 x)2 + 16
[0; 9], 2.
2
x
S2 (x)

9 97 88

40 5 89

17 17 70

72

, S2
x1 = 1 x2 = 8.
,
,
. 11.

10.
181.
, .
182. )
d?
)
, .
183. V ,
?

184. )
,
.
) .
185. .
186. ,
,
.


67

187. ) , , ,
.
) .
?
188. R n- .
, ?

189. R .
? ,
V > 2V1 ,
V , V1 .
190. ,
, . ,
4
9

V1 6 V,
V1 , V .
?

191. a , , .
?
192. l.

? ?
193. l f.
f ?
?

194. x,
, 1.
x. x ?
195. x, , 1.
68

x. x ?

196. , a, , .
?
197. ) ABCD ,
AD BC. , AD = BC = a.
) ABCD , .
, AD = BC = a, BD = AC = b, CD = AB = c?
198. SABCD ABCD.
A K SC , SB SD M N . ,
1
3
V 6 V1 6 V,
3
8

V SABCD, V1 SAM KN .
?
199. a) , a1 , a2 , . . . , an
b1 , b2 , . . . , bn
p
p
p

a21 + b21 + a22 + b22 + . . . + a2n + b2n > a2 + b2 ,


a1 + a2 + . . . + an = a, b1 + b2 + . . . + bn = b. ,
a1
a2
an
a
=
= ... =
= .
b1
b2
bn
b

) ABC AB
CH , .
) ABCD ABC
DH ,
.
200. ) , a1 , a2 , a3
b1 , b2 , b3
p
p
a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 6 a21 + a22 + a23 b21 + b22 + b23 ,
,

a1
a2
a3
=
=
(
b1
b2
b3

).
) ABCD, AD, BD, CD , AD = a, BD = b, CD = c. ,
69

M , ABC, s A, B C DM
p
s 6 2(a2 + b2 + c2 ).

DM ? : a = b = 6, c = 2.
201. A, ,
AO AB AC. , BO = 1, CO = 2 2
BOC = 45 . AO, BAC = 45 . ?
202. . , Q?
203. r
. ? .

11.
204. V .
,
?
205. , S,
?
206. V .
, ?

207. R .
?
208.
, R?
209. V . , ?
210. r , .
?
70

211. R
, ,
.
?

212. . 5 ,
15 . ?
213. .
2, 3.
?

214. NABCD h, 2r. , N
AC , h = 2 r = 9?
215. a,
h. , ,
a = 14 h = 6 ?
216. ABCA1 B1 C1 ,
h, AB a, CH l.
AB , .
1) a = 2, h = 2, l = 3; 2) a = 9, h = 4, l = 9.
217. ABC ABD ABCD AB. AB
. AC BC , ABD.
, AB = a ABC ABD,
C D, h l.
: 1) a = h = l = 1; 2) a = 4, h = 2, l = 3.
218. ABCA1 B1 C1 , C = 90 , BC = a AB = c. AB
, B1 C1 A1 C1
M N . ,
1
3

a = 1, c = 2 h = AA1 = ?
71


219. , Q, .
a ?
220. R . ,
, .
.

221. , 21
4, .
?
222. , , 2 1 .
? ?

72


,
. ,
, .
( ) . ,
.
, . , .
, ,
. ,
. , , , ,
.
,
2 : 1, .

. .
,
.
. ,
,
.
, ,
3 : 1, . 3 (. 1 2). - ,
.
, .
.
,
(. 111).
. , . , .
73

ABCD AB (. 31). CE DF ABC ABD. AC = BC


B
AD = BD, E F D
F
AB, . . CE DF
E
. .
A
AC = BC, AD 6= BD, CE DF
. 31
. ,
.
, , . , , ABCD
D. DA, DB DC
DD1
D. .
, (
) , .
136, 137, 139 3 , . . 14 15 , .
- ,

.
.
. .
. . .
.
1. M , ABC,
BC, CA AB , da , db , dc . ,
C

db
dc
da
+
+
= 1,
ha
hb
hc

ha , hb , hc ABC.
74

?
. M ABC.
BCM , CAM , ABM
S1 , S2 , S3
C
ABC S (. 32).
1
2

S1 = ada
db

da

1
2

S = aha .

S1
da
S2
db
= . ,
=

S
ha
S
hb

S3
dc
= . , S1 + S2 + S3 = S,
S
hc

dc
A


db
dc
da
+
+
= 1.
ha
hb
hc

. 32

(1)

1. M , ABC, (1) :
1
1
1
1
+
= .
+
ha
hb
hc
r

2. ha = hb = hc = h,
ah = bh = ch = 2S : a = b = c. (1) ,
da + db + dc = h.
, , , ,
.
3. ha < hb < hc ,
da + db + dc
>1
ha

da + db + dc
< 1.
hc

, ,
, : ha < da + db + dc < hc .
, ,
.
2. M , ABCD,
BCD, ACD, ABD
ABC, d1 , d2 , d3 , d4 . ,
d1
d2
d3
d4
+
+
+
= 1,
h1
h2
h3
h4

h1 , h2 , h3 , h4 .
75

, . , . : V1
BCDM V ABCD,
d1
V1
= .
V
h1

, , .
,
,
. ,
, , .
.

.
: DA = a, DB = b, DC = c,
BC = a1 , CA = b1 , AB = c1 ;
S1 , S2 , S3 , S4 ,
A, B, C, D;
h1 , h2 , h3 , h4 ,
A, B, C, D;
m1 , m2 , m3 , m4 ,
A, B, C, D;
R , r ;
V .

12.
223. ,
.
3V
, i = 1, 2, 3, 4;
Si
3V
2) r =
;
S1 + S2 + S3 + S4

1) hi =

3) m24 =

a2 + b2 + c2
a2 + b21 + c21
1
.
3
9

224. ABC ABD ABCD AB. , ,


C D, .
225. , AB
CD ABCD, .
76

226. ABC ABD ABCD AB. EF ,


AD BC, AB = c1 CD = c.
227. AC BD ABCD . ,
KL M N , AB CD, AD
BC, .

228. 2,
, 1. ,
, .
229. , b, a. ,
a.
230. x, 1.
x ?

231. ABCD, DA = DB = DC = 1,
BDC = a, CDA = b ADB = g.
232. ABCD D. DC ABD.
233. ABCD , D, D.
234.

ABCD, DA = 3, DB = 4, DC =

= AB = 5, BC = 21, AC = 19.
235. ABCD
,
ABD , AB = 1, BC = 2,
AC = 3, DC = 2.

236. ,

T
V =
,
6R

R , , T , aa1 , bb1 , cc1 .


237.
ABCD: DA = DB = DC =

= AB = 1, BC = 2, CA = 3. .
77

238. ) :
1
1
1
1
+
+
= ;
ha
hb
hc
r
3
2
2
2
2) ma + mb + mc = (a2 + b2 + c2 ).
4

1)

) , :
1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+
= ;
h1
h2
h3
h4
r
4
2) m21 + m22 + m23 + m24 = Q,
9

1)

Q .

239. ) r.

r1 , r2 r3 . ,
r1 + r2 + r3 = r.
) r.
r1 , r2 , r3 r4 . ,
r1 + r2 + r3 + r4 = 2r.
240. ) ,
S, . S1 , S2 S3 .
,
p
p
p

S = S1 + S2 + S3 .
) , , .
V1 , V2 , V3 V4 . ,
p
p
p
p

3
V = 3 V 1 + 3 V2 + 3 V 3 + 3 V 4 .

241. ) , :
3 2
9r 6 ha + hb + hc 6 ma + mb + mc 6
a + b2 + c2 .
2

?
78

) , :
4p
16r 6 h1 + h2 + h3 + h4 6 m1 + m2 + m3 + m4 6
Q,
3

Q .
?
242. ) , ABC

1
4r2 6 (a2 + b2 + c2 ) 6 R2 .
9

) , ABCD
1
9r2 6 Q 6 R2 ,
16

Q .
243. ) ,

a2 + b2 + c2 > 4 3S.
?
) ,

3
S1 + S2 + S3 + S4 6
Q,
6

Q .
?

13.
DA, DB, DC , ABCD
D (. 33).
. ABC ,
,
DA, DB, DC .
C
244. , ABC ABCD
.
245. ) ABCD H
D. ,
D
B
DH ABC.
) - A
. 33
ABCD, AD = a, BC = a1 , DAH = a.
79

246. ) ,
.
) , S1 , S2 , S3 , S ,
S12 + S22 + S32 = S 2
( ).
247. a, b c. ,
1
1
1
1
= 2 + 2 + 2,
2
h

h , .
248.
D ABCD ,

DB = 2, DC = 2, ACD ABC. DH , DA
DA .
249. ABCD a, b,
c. DM .
250. AD ABCD, a,
ABC a. R
DM .
251. ABC
ABCD, DA = a BAC = a.

252. a, b, g. a1 , b1 , g1 .
,
) sin2 a + sin2 b + sin2 g = 1;
) cos2 a1 + cos2 b1 + cos2 g = 1.
253. DA, DB, DC ABCD
a, b, g. ,
sin g
) sin f =
;
cos a cos b
) cos f = tg a tg b, f = AHB H
ABC.
254. DA, DB, DH
ABCD, DC = c, DAH = 30 DBH = 45 .


80

255. , , ,
r=

S1 + S2 + S3 S
,
a+b+c

a, b, c , S .
256. ABC ABCD
L, . ,
l = DL =

abc 3
ab + bc + ca

( DL ).
257. ) ,
a, b c

a + b 6 c 2.
) ,

S1 + S2 + S3 6 S 3,
S .
?
258. ,

S 3 6 2R2 .
259. ) ,
:

a+b
1
h 6 ( 2 + 1)r 6 l 6 S 6 6 c = R.
2

) , :

abc
1p
2
h 6 ( 3 + 1)r 6 l 6 6
2(S1 + S2 + S3 ) 6 R.
3

?
260. R ,
h. , R = 3 h = 2.
261.
, 2 ?
81

14.
262. ) , AA1 BB1 ABCD
, AB CD . ?
) , ,
.
263. ) , , .
) ,
, .
264. ,
, :
) ;
) ;
) .
265. ) AA1 BB1 ABCD H. , H
AB CD.
) ,
.
266. ,
, , , .
267. ) , C ABC ,
, , s < 0, s = 0 s > 0,
1
4

s = m2c (a2 + b2 )
(a = BC, b = AC mc , C).
) , D ABCD , ,
, s < 0, s = 0 s > 0,
1
9

s = m2D (a2 + b2 + c2 )
(a = DA, b = DB, c = DC mD ,
D).
82

268. ) , ABC O , M H
# 
# 
, OH = 3OM ( ).
) , O , M H ABCD , O H M (
).
269. ) , , ,
, (
).
) , , ,
, , 1 : 2, , ( 12 ).

15.
, . .
AB CD
. D1
B
, ABCD, - A
C1
, , , (. 34).
B1
D
, ABCD
,
A1
C
, ,
. 34
. .
.
270. ) . ,
.
) . , .
271. ,
180 .
?
83

272. , ,
:
) ;
) ;
) ;
) - 180 .
273. ) ABC ABD ABCD . , AB CD CD.
) , ,
.
274. , ,
.

275. , . ,
, .
276. ABCD DA1 , DB1 , DC1
DBC, DAC, DAB. , A1 B1 C1 D1
, D ABCD (. . D
).

277. , ,
:
) , , ;
) , , ;
) , , .
278. ,
,
.
279. O , ABCD. ,

# 

# 

# 

# 

#

OA + OB + OC + OD = 0
84

, ABCD .

280. a, b, c.
,
4
1p
1) m = R =
2(a2 + b2 + c2 );
3
3
1p
2(a2 + b2 c2 )(a2 + c2 b2 )(b2 + c2 a2 ),
2) V =
12

R , m , V .
281.
a, b, g. ,
p
4r = h = 4R cos a cos b cos g;
p
1
V = abc cos a cos b cos g.
3

282. a, b, c.
.
283. ABCD
180 . AB CD, BC = 4, CA = 5, AB = 6.
284. , ABCD, BC = AD = 6 BC
AD 8 .
285. ABCD ABCDB1 C1
( ABC ). , BCC1 B1 .
D , DA = a, DB = b
DC = c.
, .
286. , , , .
1
4

, , r = h, r h .
287. , , , , .

288. ,
.
85

289. ai ,
i = 1, 2, . . . , 6. ,
6
X

cos ai 6 2,

i=1

, .
290. ,
R2 >

1 2
(a + b2 + c2 + a21 + b21 + c21 ),
16

,
.

86


, .
, .
. ,
.

16.
291. .
. .
292. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 , a.
, D1
AB, BC BB1 .
293. D ABCD .
, D , ABC.
, DA = a, DB = b DC = c.
294. . ,
, . V . .
295. ,
.
.
.
296. NABCD . NAD N CD , NAB a.
, , . 87

: ) k ; ) a,
8
3

k = ; ) k.
297.
, V . ,

,
.
.

17.
,
. N H n- NA1 A2 . . . An , H
(. 35).
2p
N
N H
(k = 1, 2, . . . , n 1)
k

, , , , .
, An
. ,
, N H. a
A1
H
.
A2 a
A3
M
, ,
. 35
. . N H H.
N H M , M N
, , M A1 N = 90 .
H, NA1 H = 45 ,
, NA1 H
45 .
: M N = 2R, A1 A2 = a, NA1 = b, N H = h, A1 H = R1 ,
NA1 H = a. , A1 H A1 M N , , , 88

p
: b2 = 2Rh, R12 = (2R h)h, a = 2R1 sin ,
n
b = 2R sin a, h = b sin a, R1 = b cos a.
, - N
,
L
L
L
, . N K
L
n- O
NA1 A2 . . . An ( . 36 A2
).
N K A1 A2 N H A1 A2 , A1 A2 H
K
N HK
A1
. HKN , . 36
N H , O. , O , .
OL N K. OL = OH, OL O H.
NA1 A2 . ,
OL A1 A2 OL N K. , NA1 A2 OL L.
2p
N H
(k = 1, 2, . . . , n 1) NA1 A2 k

, O , O OL,
. . O OH . O N H
N KH ( N KH
). : N H = h, OH = r,
r
= cos b ( KO HKN = b,
hr
h cos b
HKN ), r =
. r 1 + cos b
b
b
r = HK tg , r = h ctg b tg .
2

n- . , a
,
g , . . ,
. ,
, ,
.
89

. .
1. n- a,
b, g. ,
p
a) tg a = cos tg b,
) cos a =
) cos b =

n
1

sin
1
tg

g
p sin 2 ,

g
p tg 2 .

. AB n-
, N H , N K (. 37).
NAH = a, N KH = b, AN B = g AHB =
2p
N
= . AN H
n

ggg

HN K N H.
N H = h, :
AH = h ctg a, HK = h ctg b.
HK , AHB
2p
p
HK
p
AHB = , AHK =
= cos .

B
H

bbb

K
A

. 37

AH

,
ctg b
p
p
= cos , tg a = cos tg b.
ctg a
n
n
AN H AN K,
AN = b,
g
AH = b cos a, AK = b sin .
p

sin

AK = AH sin , cos a =

p sin 2
n

b g. :
g
HK = l cos b, AK = l tg ,
p

l = KN . HK = N K ctg , cos b =
n

1
tg

g
p tg 2 .

), ), )
. n.
90

2. R . g.
. g ?
N
. NABCD
, N H ,
M N (. 38).

b,
S = 2b2 sin g.

aa
aa
A

S g.
.
NAH = a.
b = 2R sin a

S = 8R2 sin2 a sin g.

,
:

g
cos a = 2 sin .

. 38

:
sin2 a = 1 cos2 a = 1 2 sin2

g
2

= cos g.

, S = 8R2 sin g cos g = 4R2 sin 2g.


S 4R2 g = 45 .
3. h,
g. :
; g = 60 .
. O ,
NABC, N H (. 39). AK ABC. N K
BC ( N
) HKN
BC.
HKN = b. KO
HKN ,
O
h cos b
r
C
= cos b r =
.
hr
1 + cos b
K
A
H
g b:
B
g
1
. 39
(. 1),
cos b = tg
3

91

:
h tg

2 ,
g
3 + tg
2

0 < g < 90 .

r=
1
4

g = 60 , r = h.
, , . ,
: ,
.

298. ) , 6 .
.
) , 4 . 6 .
.
299. a,
a.
.
300. R,
g. g = 45 .
301.
a. b, d. ,
1
d
) sin a = ctg ;
3
2
) sin b = cos
3

d
2

302. h, d. ,
. d? d

3
h?
2

303.
. ,
, , .


92

304. a.
b. , .
305. a,
h. , ,
a = 4 h = 8 .
306. h. .
.
307. ,
r. h.
, r = 1 h = 3.

308. R , d.
. d?
309. R , g.
. g ?
310. ,
, 2.
.

311. , , h
g.
312. , 1
, . 3

, b.
313. R , h. ,
, R = 5 h = 8 .
314. , d.
g. r , , R , .
315. a. , , . , .
93

316. r R
n- , h , g .
,

p
k = tg .

(1 + k2 ) cos g + k2 1
h
=
,
R
k2
r
k sin g + cos g 1
=
,
R
k2

317. k. d
2
3

. d k = .
318. n- R.
h. . h ?
319. , n- , .
.
320.
n- ,
.
321. , d n-

p

sin g

n .
d=
p
sin

322. , n- ,
p
, . .
n
p.
323. R r n- . ,
R
1
>1+
p,
r
cos
n

,
.
324. a) , , . 94


.
) , , .

.
325. r
R.
h

d , r = 1 R = 1 + 5.
326. n- . ,

q
R
p
= 1 + 2 + tg2 .
r

327. R r n- , d . ,
p
a) d2 = R2 2Rr r2 tg2 ;

n
R
1
) > 1 +
p , ,
r
cos
n

18. ,

, , ,
. , A, (. 40). ,
A.
A
, , ,
.
O
1. ,
,
. , . 40
, .
95

, ABC.
, O ABC
(. 41). K,
L, M AB, BC, CA , O OK
ABC. ,
m ABC, O. , S , m,
SK = SL = SM , , ABC . , ,
SK AB, SL BC, SM CA. , 1, S SK ABC.
S m ,
S AB, BC CA (
). S
, ABC.
, , A1 A2 . . . An , .
ABCD , , , , ,
. .
2. ,
.
. A1 A2 . . . An n-
, N H , N K , P ,
NA1 A2 ( . 42 N
S

M
O

O1
H

A2

L
L
L

A1

B
. 41

. 42

96

). ,
NA1 A2 , m NA1 A2 ,
P . , A1 A2 . . . An , N H
H. m N H O1 . ,
A1 A2 N H A1 A2 N K, , , A1 A2 HKN .
N HK NA1 A2 . , m
N HK , HKN , N H. , O1 ,
NA1 NA2 . O1 K. ,
O1
O1 L, L ,
NA1 A2 , NA1 , , O1 L = O1 K.
, ,
.
, ,
.
.
, , .
1. n- b, a.
, . a
?
. . 42.
A1 A2 . . . An , , A1 A2 = a,
1
2

: A1 L = A1 K = a ( A1 L A1 K , NA1 A2 ).
HA1 N LO1 N , , LO1 N = HA1 N = a. R1 ,
:
1

LN = b a, HA1 = b cos a,
2
p
p
a = 2HA1 sin = 2b sin cos a.

R1 = LN ctg a,

,


p
R1 = b ctg a 1 sin cos a .
n

97

p
b
1

sin cos a
R1
n
: N H = b sin a, N O1 =
=
.
cos a
sin a
O1 H , N H = N O1 ,
p
p
sin2 a = 1 sin cos a, 0 < a < .
n

:


p
cos a cos a sin
= 0.
n

cos a 6= 0, :
p
p
p
cos a = sin , a = .
n

, n = 6, a = .
3

2. R , g. R1 , ,

R1
.
R

. , , :


1
R1 = b ctg a 1 cos a , b = NA1 a = NA1 H.
2

N H H M (. 42). M N .
M NA1 , HA1 N = a, :
b = 2R sin a.
,


1
R1 = 2R cos a 1 cos a .
2

n- :


p
R1 = 2R cos a 1 sin cos a ,
n

.
a g g
cos a = 2 sin (. 18, 1), 2
:


g
g
R1 = 4R sin
1 sin
.
2

98

,
R1
g
g
= 4 sin
1 sin
.
R
2
2

, 0 < g < 60 , A1 NA2 < A1 HA2 .


3. R1 , , r , , R , r = 1 R = 3.
1.



3
R1 = 2R cos a 1
cos a ,
2

a ,
216:
r
=
R

3 sin g + cos g 1
,
3

g .
r R, :

3 sin g + cos g = 2.
g < 0 < 120 . :
sin(g + 30 ) = 1,
g = 60 .

2
g
cos a = sin . g = 60 2
3

1
: cos a = . , R1 = 3.
3

2. :



3
R1 = 2R cos a 1
cos a .
2

cos a : h b . :
h = 2R sin2 a,

r=

h cos b
1 + cos b

(. 18).

h r = 1 R = 3,
:
1
6 sin2 a 1 =
(1)
cos b
a b tg b = 2 tg a (. 18, 1).
99

1
, :
cos2 b

1 + tg2 b =

3 sin2 a + 1
1
=
2
cos b
1 sin2 a

(2)

(1) (2) cos b :


36 sin4 a 12 sin2 a + 1 =

3 sin2 a + 1
,
1 sin2 a

0 < a < 90 ,

:
9 sin4 a 12 sin2 a + 4 = 0,
r

2
3

1
.
3

sin2 a = . , cos a =

cos a , :

R1 = 3.
. ,
R

> 3, r
. ,
.
.
sin a :
R2 sin4 a R(R + r) sin2 a + r(R + r) = 0,

sin a =
2

(R + r)

p
(R + r)(R r)
.
2R

R > 3r.

328.
a, b. R1 , . a
1
2

, R1 = a.
329. b 30 . R1 ,
, R h .
330. , 6. , 100


, 2 3. .
331. a, g.
, .
332. R1 R , , 3 4 .
.

333. n- h. a.
, ,
. a
?
334. n- h,
g. R1 ,
.
335. R1 , n- , , ,
r b. R1 , r = 1 b = 60 .

336. R1 R ,
, . ,

R
> 2.
R1

?
337. , , , ,
.

338. , d O , n- , O1 ,
, :
|a b|
,
2 sin a

b 1 2 sin cos a
n
) d =
,
2 sin a

) d =

101

a b , a
.
339. , n- , ,
?
340. n- a,
a.
) ,
; ) ,
?
341. n- ,
, , . a
. a n = 6.

19.
342. ,
. .
343. ABCD, DAB = DAC = ACB = 90 .
, AD = BC = 6 AC = 3.
344. NABCD ,
a. N D , NAB
b. ,
, .
345. ,
13 , 14 15 .
12 . , .
346. ,
r. h , V .
h r = 1 V = 12 3 .

347. , ,
, c
a. .
348. ,
a.
l b.
.
102

349.
a, b.
, , .
.
350. ABC, C = 45 AB = 4. 4.
, ABC
.
351. , , a.
, f. ,
a
sin = tg f.
2

352. a.
,
a. ,
, .
.
353. ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 ABCD, AB = 3, BC = 6, B = 60 .
9. , ABCD .

354. 2, 3.
. .
355. . ,
.
356. ABCA1 B1 C1 , AB = AC = 6 BC = 4.
5
3

a = arctg .
ABC A1 B1 C1 .
.

357. , .
103

. n. b
. b n = 3.
358. 3 4, 7. .
359. R ,
a b.
h , a = 8, b = 6 R = 5 2.

360.
. ?
361. ,
, , .
362. ,
, 60 , ,
.
363. R , .
. .
364. , .
a,
h. .
365. . :
, . .
366. , ,
. .
.

104

, ,
1. . , CD.
B1 K

2.
=2, K B1 C1 AP Q.
KC1
3. . . , .
4. .
.
5. . . , .
.

6. a b2 + c2 ; b a2 + c2 ; c a2 +
b2 ( ).
2
2

a
a
7
6
7. 60 , 40 3 2 .
8.
,
.
9. 12 2 .
2

10. . DB1 ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 .


DB AC, , DB1 AC . DA1 AD1 , , DB1 AD1 . DB1 ACD1 , DB1 ACD1
.
11. ) DB1 ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1
ACD1 . DB1 AC
DB AC. , ABCD .
, ADD1 A1 .
13.

12. .

ab
.
+ b2

a2

a 3
14.
. . 1 10.
3

15. 60 . . , cos2 a + cos2 b + cos2 g = 1.


2+

16. : 22,5 ,
2 ; 67,5 ,
2 .
2
2

17. 2a 2. . x
,
cos(135 x) = cos 45 cos x, 0 < x < 90 .

18. cos a = 2 sin b, 0 < a < 90 , 0 < b < 45 , 0 < a +


b < 90 .

. a + b = 75
cos a =
a).

2 sin(75

, sin 75 =

6+
2

105

cos 75 =

6
2

19. cos g = sin a sin b. . .

3
2 a
h

3a3
tg f.
8

3 sin

h3 6

2 , 0 < a < 60 ;
21.
a = 45 .
2 cos a 1
4
p
22. d3 sin a
sin b cos(a + b) cos(a b), 0 < a + b < 90 .
3
23. a sin a cos a.

3 3 3
24.
d cos2 a 1 4 cos2 a, 60 < a < 90 . . ,
2
b , cos b = 2 cos a.
q
a
a
1
1 tg2 . . b 25. d3 tg2
2
2
2
a
, cos b = tg

20.

1
V = d3 cos2 b sin b.
2

26. abc cos 2a, 45 < a < 90 .

27. p

abc

1 + ctg2 a + ctg2 b

. . AA1

, A1 H . A1 M A1 N AB AD .
A1 M H A1 N H AB
AD. AM N , M N = AH.
A1 H h, A1 AH x.
AM N : ctg2 x = ctg2 a + ctg2 b.
h = c sin x = p

1 + ctg2 x

, ,

V = abh, ,
V =p
28. 6

1
.
4

abc

1 + ctg2 a + ctg2 b

29. 12 . . NABCD , N O
, ABCD
AB. ,
AD = BC = 5 2 , ABD = 45 AO = 5 (O ,
).
30. 4(2 + 3) .
31. (3 + 2 2)h2 ctg2 b. . ,

, r(ctg 45 + ctg 22,5 ) = r( 2 + 2), r


.
1

32. b2 tg f. . N O .
4
106

, O , ABC.
b2

R R =
, CK
2CK
ABC.
b2
N O R tg f, . . N O =
tg f. 2CK
1
b2
1
1
tg f = b2 tg f.
, S = CK N O = CK
2
2
2CK
4

, ACB.
33. a) g = 30 ; ) g = 30 g = 150 .

34. 3. . , tg2 b = 2, b
.
N
35. . AN H KN H N H (. 43). N H = h. AH = h ctg a KH = h ctg b.
AH = 2KH, ctg a = 2 ctg b, :
L
tg b = 2 tg a.
C
BN H BN K, H
H
BN = b, : BH = b cos a BK = A
H
K
H
g
BK
g

B
= b sin
= sin 60 , sin =
2
3
=
cos a.
2

BH

. 43

, KN = l, BKN HKN g
: BK = l tg , HK = l cos b.
2
g
, tg = 3 cos b.
36.

1
a.
2

37. 60 , arctg

12
.
5

38. . NABC ,
N H , N K , BLC
AN (. . 43).
BKN , BKL BLN , BK
g
d
, BL , BN K = , BLK = ,
2
2
g BK
BK BL
d
BN K = g. : sin =
=

= sin sin g.
2
BN
BL BN
2
g
g
g
d
1
, sin g = 2 sin cos , cos sin = .
2
2
2
2
2
b
d

39.
ctg , 60 < d < 180 . . 2
3
1
d
. , sin a = ctg ,
3

a = NAH (. . 43).
107


7 2
g
40.
a . . tg = 3 cos b

4
2
g
1
3
d
cos =
sin b.
, cos =
d
2
2
2
2 sin
2
2
d = 2 b : tg b = .
3
S
.
S =

cos b
d
3
, cos =
sin b 2
2

, , ,
: S = 3S1 cos b, S1 = S cos b + 2S1 cos d, S S1 . : 3 cos2 b + 2 cos d 1 = 0.
.
41.

a2
8 sin

g , 0 < g < 120 .

42. AC = BD = a, (
) 2a.
43. ,
AB, BC, AD CD.
44.

ab
.
a+b

46. S

b
a2 3 cos
2 ; b = 60 , S = 3 a2 . .
=

2(1 + 3 cos b)
10

NABC , KN
(K BC). AKN BC. , BC
, AN L. KL BCL . KL b
2ab
cos , lc ABC.
lc =
a+b
2
a2
47. S =
1 + 2 cos g, g < 90 .
4

48. a2 sin3 b, 45 < b < 90 . . , NABCD , AB, ABEF . N H K


AB . EF L. KL ABEF . N CD N EF , EF ,
AB + EF = 2a sin2 b.
a2 cos a

49.
a , 0 < a < 90 .
cos

108

50. 45 . . ,
,
h1 h2 , l1 l2 , .

l2
h2
=
= 2 cos x, x .
l1
h1

,
, l2 = l1 2.
cos x =

2
.
2

51. AN B = 60 , AN D = 90 ; S =
52.

11 2
a .
8

2b2 cos2 x
, x 1 + cos2 b

ctg x = 2 ctg b. b = 45 :

1
4
6
tg x = , cos2 x = , S = b2 .
2
5
5

6 2
53.
a . . a N CD 3
g
AN B = g, 2 tg a = tg .
2
2
a
54.
cos g. . 2

g
a, , cos a = 2 sin , 2

S = a2 sin a.
2
2 cos a 1 2
h , 0 < a < 60 . . x
55.
sin a
a
N BC , , sin x = 2 sin .
2

56. 2. . NABC , NA = N B =
= N C = l, AB ABC. BN C = a, AN C = b, AN B = g. AB > BC AB >
> AC, g N .
, , sin a = sin b = sin g. , g > a, g > b 0 < g < 180 , : a = b g = 180 a.
BN C AN B :
BC 2 = 2 2 cos a,

AB 2 = 2 + 2 cos a.

BN C AN C , AC = BC, ,
ABC, :
2 2 cos a = 1 + cos a,

2 2

, cos a = . , sin a =
3
3

S = 2.
109


a3
2 3

2
57.
3 4 cos a, 30 < a < 90 ;
a a = 60 . .
16 cos a
8

N H , NAH= = x, , V =

a3
tg x. x 8

, A:
cos a = cos 30 cos x.
58.

1 3
a . . 2x
6

. ctg 2x + ctg 5x = 2 ctg 3x, 0 < x < 18 .


1

sin 5x sin 3x = sin x, cos 4x =


2
x = 15 .


1
b
59. h3 tg2 1 , 90 < b < 180 .
60. 750 2 .

6
2
Qq
. . a 61.
2
1
. cos a = .
2
p
(a2 b2 ) 3(4 3 cos2 a)

62.
, 0 < a < 90 . .
4 cos a

, b,

3
cos a.
, cos b =
2
S1 + S2
63.
. . ,
2

a b, x ,
, x2 =

a2 + b2
.
2

64. .
.
1
1
a
65. 4.
67. .
68. pd 3 sin a cos .
69. ) l1 < l2 ; ) l1 > l2 .
2

70. 2.
71. 0 < k < 2, 30 k = 1.

72. 31 220 , 58 380 . . .


a
73. 2p sin ; 60 .
74. sin a.
2

75. r1 = 3, r2 = 6, l = 5, r1 r2 l . .
: r2 = 2r1 , (r1 + r2 )l = r12 + r22 , l2 = (r2 r1 )2 + 16.
76. 2 sin a, 45 < a < 90 .
79. :

1
2.
2

77.

4
tg b.
7

110

78. 280p 3 .

80.

2 2
; . . V1 S1 3 3

, V S
.

S1
2
V1
=
= .
V
S
3

82. : 30 150 .

81. arctg 2.

83. : R

5+1
R. . 2

r h, , r2 h = R3
r2 = (2R h)h.
h3 2Rh2 + R3 = 0, 0 < h < 2R.
.
ph 2 r
84.
. . h 2r

.
2a, ,
cos 2a =

r
,
hr

R = r tg a,

l=

R
.
cos 2a

85. : 2R 3R.
8
r. . 2a
3
2r
, R = r tg a h =
.
1 tg2 a
3
89. (1 sin a)3 .
88. .
8
Q
90.
. . S = p(r1 + r2 )l,
sin2 a

86.

r1 r2 l .
, r1 + r2 = l.
91.

1 1
l, l.
4 2

92. (2 sin a + 1)pR2 . . , r1 + r2 = R 2 sin a,

r2 r1 = R 2 cos a, r12 + r22 = R2 .


93. 2R2 sin a sin2 b. . S =
1

= d2 sin a, d .
2

1
94. ph(h2 + R2 ), R < h < R 2. . l 6

, h . , l = R 2, 2(r12 + r22 ) = l2 ,
r1 + r2 = h.

R
2
R
3
=
= , .
h
3
h
2

95. 6a. . , .


bc ac ab
1
96.
, , .
97.
6 + 2 r.
98. ( 2 + 1)r.
2a 2b 2c

111

99. 5r. . O1 , , N H (. 44).


HN O1
N
AN . O1 AN r. , AO1 HAN , 60 .
B
,

BAO1 = 30 , O1 B = r AB = r 3.
O1 , O2 , O3
O1 O2 = 2r, O1 C O1
O1
C , 2r
3

2r 3 5r 3
+ O1 C = r 3 +
=
. AHN
3
3

, . , AH = AB + BH = AB +

B
. 44

: N H = AH tg 60 = 5r.

1 1
100. arccos , (2 6 + 3 3 + 3)r.
3 3

101. 4,5a. . O1 , O2 , O3
A, B, C (. 45). AO1 = a, BO2 = CO3 = 2a,
O1 O2 = O1 O3
= 3a, O2 O3 = 4a. ,
O3
AB = AC = 2 2a, AO BAC
BAC = 90 . O1
O2
x,
A1
ABO :
C
(x 2a)2 = 8a2 + (x a)2 4(x a)a,

2x = 9a.
102.

3
r 3r ( ). .
4

B1

O1 , O2 , O3 . 45
, A, B, C
. AO1 = r, BO2 = CO
3 = 3r, O1 O2 = O1 O3 = 4r,
O2 O3 = 6r. , AB = AC = 2r 3, BC = 6r, BAC = 120 .
O

P .

x,
,

AP
=
2
rx,
BP =

= BC = 2 3rx.

ABP

: 3rx = 3r
2x, P ABP , 3rx = 2x 3r, ABP .
112

103. : 3 .
7

104. 2 + 3. . O1 O2 ,
R, O3 , O4 , r (. 46). O2
, O1 O2 O3 O4 , O1 O2 = O1
=2R, O3 O4 = 2r O4
R + r.
D
- K
O
O
O
O333333
A, B, C D.
B
O
AO1 = R, CO3 = r, ACO3 O1 - A
.
C
O3 K AO1 . 46
O1 O3 K : AC 2 = (R + r)2
(R r)2 = 4Rr. ACBD
, 2 Rr. O
, AOC = 90 , AO = R CO = r. ACO, :
4Rr = R2 + r2 ,

R2 4Rr + r2 = 0,

R = (2 +

3)r.

105. : 1 2. . ,
, 1, a,
.
a, .
a, , x,

(6 + x)2 = (2 + x)2 + 48,


x = 2.
106. .

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

M N = M A + AD + DN ,
M N = M B + BC + CN .
.
107. .
#  # 
, KN = LM .
#  # 
108. . OABC , OA + OC =
# 
#  #  # 
= OB. , OA1 + OC1 = OB1 . ,

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

AA1 + CC1 = (OA1 OA) + (OC1 OC) = OB1 OB = BB1 .


113

, a) AA1 , BB1 CC1


#  # 
, ) AA1 CC1 , , AA1 , BB1 CC1 .
109. . BC K ,

#  1#  #  2#  #  1#  2# 
BK
1
= , M K = AC, KN = BD M N = AC + BD.
CK
2
3
3
3
3

110. . .
111. . K N AB CD , M KN .

# 

1
2

# 

# 

1
4

# 

# 

# 

# 

OM = (OK + ON ) = (OA + OB + OC + OD).


, , ( )
(. 2). ,
,
.
#  1 #  # 
112. ) . OM = (OA + OB +
3
# 
+ OC) O M .
#  1 #  # 
) . OM = (OA + OB +
4
#  # 
+ OC + OD) O M .
#  1 #  # 
113. ) . OM = (OA + OB +

# 

# 

1
3

+ OC) M M1 = OM1 OM . ) (a + b + c).

# 

#  #  # 
1 # 
(OA + OB + OC + OD)
4
#  1 #  #  # 
#  1 #  #  #  # 
OM1 = (OA1 + OB1 + OC1 + OD1 ), M M1 = (AA1 + BB1 + CC1 +
4
4
# 
#  #  # 
114. ) . OM =

+ DD1 ). M M1 AA1 , BB1 , CC1 ,


# 
# 
DD1 , AA1 .
) . ).
115. ) . A1 , B1 , M1 .
# 
A1 M
#  = l, M1 B
# 
# 
#  CA
1 + lCB1
: CM1 =
.
1+l
#  #  #  #  # 
# 
CA1 = k CA, CB1 = lCB, CM1 = mCM . , :
# 
# 
#  kCA
+ llCB
mCM =
.
1+l
114

M AB,

# 

1
2

# 

# 

CM = (CA + CB).
,

m #  # 
k # 
ll # 
(CA + CB) =
CA +
CB.
2
1+l
1+l


#  # 
CA CB, :
k
m
ll
m
=
,
=
.
2
1+l
2
1+l
k
l = . l , :
l


1 1
1
1
=
+
.
m

) . ).
(. 8).
1

116. ) k = ,
2
.
1
) k = , 3
.
117. . ABCD , M , M1 BCD, A1 , A

5#
3

M1 . , M A1 = M A.
118. a) . , P BC, CA AB ABC, A1 , B1 C1 . P A1 BC
,
#  #  #  # 
OA1 + OP = OB + OC.
O. #  # 
O M ABC. M A + M B +
#  #
+ M C = 0 :

# 

# 

M A1 + M A = M P .

# 

# 

# 

, M B1 + M B = M C1 + M C = M P .
, AA1 , BB1 CC1 S,
#  # 
#  M
A1 + M A
1# 
MS =
= MP,
2

. . ABC A1 B1 C1 S

# 

1#
2

MS = MP.
115

) . , , M
#  #  #  #  #
ABC M A + M B + M C + M D = 0 , :

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

M A1 + M A = M B1 + M B = M C1 + M C = M D1 + M D = 2M P .
119. . :

# 

# 

# 

KN = aKL + bKM .

#  #  # 
BL
AN
= l,
= m, KL, KM KN
LC
ND

#  # 

# 

KB, KC KD.

# 
# 
# 
# 
AK
BL
CM
DN
120. . #  = a, #  = b, #  = g, #  = d.
KB

LC

MD

NA

, K. :
# 
# 
# 
# 
#  KB
#  KC
+ bKC
+ gKD
KL =
, KM =
,
1+b
1+g
# 
# 
# 
# 
#  KD
#  KD
+ dKA
adKB
KN =
KN =
,
1+d
1+d

# 

# 

KA = aKB.
K, L, M N
, l m,

# 

# 

# 

KN = lKL + mKM ,
x y,

# 

# 

# 

(1 + d)KN = x(1 + b)KL + y(1 + g)KM .

#  # 

# 

KL, KM KD
:
# 
# 
#  #
(ad + x)KB + (bx + y)KC + (gy 1)KD = 0 .

#  # 

# 

KB, KC KD , ,
ad + x = 0,

bx + y = 0,

gy 1 = 0.


K, L, M N : abgd = 1.
# 
#  # 
121. . BM = lBA1 CN =
# 
#  # #  # #  #
= lCB1 . BA = a , BC = b , BB1 = c , ,

# 

# 

# 

# 

#

M N = M B + BC + CN = l #
a + (1 l) b .
116

122. .
BA1 CB1 M
N (. 47). #  # 
AC1 N M
#  # #  # #  #
BA = a , BC = b BB1 = c . :

#
# 
AC1 = #
a + b + #
c,
# 

B1

# 

# 

# 

C
M

# 

# 

# 

# 

. 47

BM = xBA1 CN = y CB1 , :

# 

C1

A1

# 
BA1 = #
a + #
c,

#
# 
CB1 = #
c b.
# 

D1

# 

M N = M B + BC + CN = xBA1 + BC + y CB1 =

#
#
#
= x( #
a + #
c ) + b + y( #
c b ) = x #
a + (1 y) b + (y x) #
c.

M N AC1 ,
# 
# 
l, M N = lAC1 , . . ,
x = l,

1 y = l,

y x = l,

#  1#  #  2# 
2
1
y = . , BM = BA1 , CN = CB1 . M N
3
3
3
3
#
#  1
1# 
. M N = ( #
a + b + #
c ) = AC1 .
3
3
x =

123. . P Q

BM CN
# 
#  #
a , DB = b ,
(. 48). DA = #
#  #
DC = c . :

D
M
P
C
E

# 

BM =

1 # #
c b,
2

#
#  1
CN = ( #
a + b ) #
c.
2

# 
# 
# 
# 
P M = xBM CQ = y CN .
#  #  #  # 

P Q = P M + M C + CQ, :

 # 

#  y
y
x
1 #
a+
x b +
y+
c.
P Q = #

B
. 48

2
2
2
1 # #
P Q = lDE DE = ( a + c ), 2

# 

y = l,

# 

# 

y = 2x,

l = x 2y + 1,

#  1
1
2
2# 
x= , y=
P Q = ( #
a + #
c ) = DE.
5
5
5
5

124. AC1 = 6a, BD1 = 2a.


117

125. AC1 = 5a, BD1 = B1 D = 3a, A1 C = a. AA1 C ABC, ACC1 A1 a2 .


r
126. arccos

3
.
10

h2

127. AB = a, AA1 = h, AKC1 = f. cos f = 2


,
4a + h2
f = 120 h = 2a.
b
, a AC BD.
2(a2 + b2 )

128. cos a = p

a = b, a = 60 .
129. 60 .
130. ) . .
#
#
a , b #
c .
# #
#
a + b , b + #
c , #
c + #
a .
:

# #
#
( #
a + b ) ( b + #
c ) = ( b + #
c ) ( #
c + #
a) =

#
# #
= ( #
c + #
a ) ( #
a + b ) = 1 + #
a b + b #
c + #
c #
a.

, , .
#
131. a) . #
a , b , #
c , OA, OB OC OABC.
# #
b + c BOC.
#
a b + #
c . #
#
a b = cos g, #
a #
c = cos b. ,
#
# #
#
a (b + c)
cos b + cos g
cos f = # # # =
a .
|a| | b + c |
2 cos

132. a) cos f =

cos a + cos b + cos g + 1


4 cos

a
2

cos

) cos a + cos b + cos g = 1. (: a = 90 , b = g = 120 .)


#
a , b , #
c
133. . OABC #
, OA, OB OC.
# #
#
a + b , b + #
c , #
c #
a AOB,
BOC , AOC.
# 
#  # # 
134. ) . DA = #
a , DB = b DC = #
c .
#
# 
# 
# 
BC = #
c #
a , CA = #
a #
c , AB = b #
a . ,
).
118

135. a) . ABC, #  # 
A B, H. AH BC = 0,
#  # 
BH CA = 0. ( 134, ) :

#  # 

#  # 

#  # 

AH BC + BH CA + CH AB = 0.

#  # 

, CH AB = 0. , ABC, C, H.
) . 134, ).
136. ) 1. , #  # 
ABC, H. AH BC = 0. O
# 
# 
, ABC, |OC| = |OB|.
:
#  #  # 
(OH OA) BC = 0,

# 

# 

# 

(OB + OC) BC = 0.
:

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

(OH OA OB OC) BC = 0

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

#
x BC = 0, #
x = OH OA OB OC.
# 
#  # 
, #
x BA = 0. BC BA
#  #  #  # 
#
, #
x = 0 , OH = OA + OB + OC.
2. ABC , #  # 
(. 49). OA OB.
D, O C
#  #  # 
AB. OD = OA + OB.
H ,

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

OH = OD + OC = OA + OB + OC.

, H
ABC.
CH OD
A
B
, OD AB, D
, CH
. 49
AB, H , #  # 
C. , OA OC,
H, , B. , O

119

H , A. , ABC H,
#  #  #  # 
OH = OA + OB + OC.
, .
) ABCD #  # 
#  # 
#  # 
H (. 50). AB DH = 0 AB CH = 0. AB CD =
#  #  #  # 
#  # 
= AB CH AB DH, AB CD = 0, , AB CD.
, AC BD BC AD.
, D
, . ,
A1
H
.
C

A

# 

D1

1
2

# 

# 

# 

# 

OH = (OA + OB + OC + OD).
B

H
#  # 
ABCD, DH AB = 0 ,
#  # 
, CD AB = 0. # 2 # 2
, OA OB = 0, OA OB
. :
. 50

# 

# 

# 

(OH OD) AB = 0,

# 

# 

# 

# 

(OC OD) AB = 0,

# 

# 

(OA + OB) AB = 0.

2 .
:
#  #  #  #  #  # 
(2OH OA OB OC OD) AB = 0,

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

#
x AB = 0, #
x = 2OH OA OB OC OD.
# 
# 
, #
x AC = 0 #
x AD = 0.
#  #  # 
#
AB, AC AD , #
x = 0 ,
,
#  1 #  #  #  # 
OH = (OA + OB + OC + OD).
2

# 

1
2

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

#

137. . OP = (OA + OB + OC + OD) DP 6= 0 . , P ABCD. :

# 

# 

# 

1
2

# 

# 

# 

# 

1
2

# 

# 

# 

DP = OP OD = (OA + OB + OC + OD) = (OA + OB + DC).


120

#  # 

1
2

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

DP AB = (OA + OB + DC) (OB OA) =


1
2

# 2

# 2

#  # 

1#
2

 # 

= ( OB OA + DC AB) = DC AB.

#  # 

#  # 

#  # 

DC AB = 0, DP AB = 0. , DP BC = 0. , DP ABC.
, AP , BP CP
BCD, ACD ABD. , P
ABCD.
1
4

138. M N 2 = (a2 + a21 + b2 + b21 c2 c21 ), M N

# 

1
2

# 

# 

AB CD. . M N = (AD + BC).


139. a) . 136:

# 

# 

# 

# 

OH = OA + OB + OC.

# 

1
3

# 

# 

# 

OM = (OA + OB + OC), -

# 

# 

, OH = 3OM .
140. a) . M ABC

# 

1
3

# 

# 

# 

OM = (OA + OB + OC).

# 2

1
9

#  # 

#  # 

#  # 

OM = (3R2 + 2OA OB + 2OA OC + 2OB OC).

#  # 

2OA OB = OA2 + OB 2 AB 2 = 2R2 c2 ,


1
9

OM 2 = R2 (a2 + b2 + c2 ).
, a2 + b2 + c2 6 9R2 .
) OM 2 = R2

1 2
(a + b2 + c2 + a21 + b21 + c21 ).
16

. :
a2 + b2 + c2 + a21 + b21 + c21 6 16R2 .
141. a) . :
#  #  #  #  #  #  #  #  # 
P A = P M + M A, P B = P M + M B, P C = P M + M C. .
#  #  #  #
M A + M B + M C = 0 (. 112) :

# 2

# 2

# 2

P A + P B + P C = 3P M 2 + AM 2 + BM 2 + CM 2 .

142. ) .
121

143. . :
#  #  #  #  #  # 
#  #  #  #  # 
M A M B = (OA OM ) (OB OM ) = OM 2 (OA + OB) OM + OA OB.

# 

# 

# 

C AB. OA + OB = 2OC. (
# 
# 
#  # 
|OA| = |OB| = R) : OA OB = 2OC 2 R2 . ,

#  # 
#  # 

#  # 
#  #  # 
#  #  # 
OC (OM OC) = OC CM = 0, OC CM . ,
#  # 
2
2

M A M B = OM 2 2OC OM +2OC 2 R2 = OM 2 R2 2OC (OM OC).


M A M B = OM R .
, .
#  # 
, M A M B M
() , M . OM 2 R2
().
#  # 
144. . M A M B = k
#  #  #  # 
#  #  #  # 
: (OA OM ) (OB OM ) = k, OM 2 (OA + OB) OM + OA
# 
#  #  #
OB = k. O AB OA = R. OA + OB = 0
#  # 
OA OB = R2 . , :
OM 2 = k + R2 .
,

k + R2 O, k + R2 , , .
145. ABC,
.
146. . :

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

(OA OM )2 + (OB OM )2 = 2(OC OM )2 ,

# 

# 

2OM (OA + OB 2OC) = OA2 + OB 2 2OC 2 .


O , ABC.
#  # 
# 
OA = OB = OC OA + OB = 2OD, D AB.
:
#  #  # 
OM (OD OC) = 0,

#  # 
OM CD = 0.
, , , ABC
CD .
122

147. . :

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

(OA OM )2 + (OB OM )2 (OC OM )2 = 0,

# 

# 

# 

# 

OM 2 + 2(OC OA OB) OM + OA2 + OB 2 OC 2 = 0.


O AB.
#  #  #
OA + OB = 0 OA = OB. :

#  # 

OM 2 + 2OC OM = OC 2 2OA2 ,

# 

# 

(OM + OC)2 = 2(OC 2 OA2 ).


D , C O, . .
# 
# 
D ABCD. OD = OC,
#  #  #  #  # 
OM + OC = OM OD = DM , :
DM 2 = 2(OC 2 OA2 ).
p , OC > OA,
2(OC 2 OA2 ); OC = OA, D,
ACB = 90 ; OC < OA,
.
148. . CM ,

# 

1
2

# 

# 

CM = (CA + CB).

# 

# 

CA CB ,
1
2

# 

# 

1
2

CM = |CA + CB| < (CA + CB).


.
DM ,

# 

1
3

# 

# 

# 

DM = (DA + DB + DC).

#  #  # 

DA, DB, DC , ,
1
3

DM < (DA + DB + DC).


1

, ,
3
.
#  #  # 
149. . , (DA + DB + DC)2 > 0, #  # 
2DA DB = DA2 + DB 2 AB 2 .
#  #  # 
150. . #
s = AB + AD AC , ABCD ,
123

#
s 2 > 0. , :

#  # 

#  # 

#  # 

AB 2 + AD2 + AC 2 + 2AB AD 2AB AC 2AD AC > 0.


, :
AB 2 + BC 2 + CD2 + DA2 AC 2 BD2 > 0,
( ).

3
151. cos f = 1 cos2 a; tg a = 2, f = 60 .
2

152. .
ABCA1 B1 C1 (. 51). M N
BA1 CB1 .
# 
#  #
C1
: BA = #
a , BC = b ,
A1
#  #
# 
#  # 
# 
BB1 = c . BM = xBA1 , B1 N = y B1 C. B1
#  #  # 
BM , B1 N , M N #
a,
N
# #
b , c . :

# 
BA1 = #
a + #
c,

M
A

# 
BM = x( #
a + #
c ),

# 

# 

#  #
B1 C = b #
c,

#
# 
B1 N = y( b #
c ),

# 

# 

M N = M B + BB1 + B1 N ,

. 51

#

# 

M N = x #
a + y b + (1 x y) #
c.

# 

M N BA1 CB1 , M N
#
# 
#  # 
BA1 = 0 M N B1 C = 0. #
a #
c = b #
c =0

# 1
#
a b = a2 . :
2

x + 4y 2 = 0,

4x + y 2 = 0.

# 

#

x = y = . , M N = (2 #
a + 2 b + #
c ), M N 2 = a2 ,
2
5

1
5

1
5

1
5

M N = a.
x y BA1 CB1 .
# 
#  # # 
153. . DA = #
a , DB = b , DC = #
c . a, b, c.
:

# 

#

# 
CA = #
a #
c,

DK = ( #
a + b ),
1
2

cos f =

a2

a2

,
a2 + c2

b2

124

#  # 

1
2

DK CA = a2 ,
0 < f < 90 .

#  #
# 
#  # 
AB = b #
a , AC = #
c #
a , AB AC = a2 ,
a2

,
a2 + b2 a2 + c2

cos a = cos BAC =

0 < a < 90 .

, BAC = f.
K AC d = AK sin f.

2 6
1
1
DA = 1, DB = DC = 2, AK =
5, cos f = , sin f =
2
5
5

d = 1,2 1,1.
154. M N =

AM
ab
BN
a2
,
=
= 2 , M N
2
N D1
b
+ b M A1

a2

AA1 BD1 .

# 

155.

# 
#  #
CN
AM
6
=
= 2, M N =
. . BA = #
a , BC = b ,
MB
NS
3

# 

#  # 

# 

BS = #
c (. 52). BM = xBA, CN = y CS.

# 

# 

# 

# 

M N = M B + BC + CN ,

#

# 

M N = x #
a + (1 y) b + y #
c.

#  # 

M N BA = 0

#  # 

M N CS = 0.

1, ABC = 90 , ABS = CBS = 60 .

# 2
#
#
1
a2 = b =
, #
a b = 0, #
a #
c = b #
c = . #

D
A

. 52

= #
c 2 = 1. , :
2x y = 0,

x 2y + 1 = 0,

# 
1
1 #
2
AM
CN
1
x = , y = . :
a+ b+
=
= 2, M N = #
3
3
MB
NS
3
3
2 #
2
2
+ c , MN = .
3
3
abc
156.
.
ab + bc + ca
7
157. . . C , 6
CA, CB CC1 . : A(2, 0, 0), B(0, 3, 0), C1 (0, 0, 1).
ABC1 : 3x + 2y + 6z 6 = 0. #
n = {3, 2, 6}
CM ,
x
y
z
= = .
3
2
6

125

A1 B1 C1 

1
. M
, 13, 1 .
2
r
158.

2
. . 3

O ABCD.
#  #  # 
OA, OB ON . NAO = 45 ,
OA = ON : A(1, 0, 0),
B(0, 1, 0), N (0, 0, 1), D(0, 1, 0). ABN :
x + y + z = 1. #
n = {1, 1, 1} ABN .
# 
DN {0, 1, 1}. # 
f, DN #
n a. ,
sin f = | cos a|,
# 
|DN #
n|
sin f = #  # .
|DN | | n |

# 
DN #
n , ,
r
2
=
2 3

sin f =

159.

2
.
3

3
(. .). .
32

O ABC,
#  #  # 
OA, BC OS. 


3
1
: A(1, 0, 0), B , , 0 , S(0, 0, 3).

6
160. M N = 1,5; arcsin
.
9

2
9

161. BL = 6, S = 6 (. .), arccos .

162. 3 17 (. .).
163. S =

1
6 2 DM
a ,
= . .
4
M B1
5

D ,
A(a, 0, 0), C(0, a, 0), D1 (0, 0, 2a).
: x + y + 2z = a. ,
1

DD1 E, DE = a.
2

164. 3 3a.
166.

1
. . NABCD . 3

, , ,
, . N O
ABCD.
126

OA, OB ON . r
, (0, 0, r).
r , ,
ABN r.
167. 3.

168. ) m + n 2mn,
.
) 2r = m + n + p 2mn + 2mp + 2np m2 n2 p2 , r
. 1) : r1 = 3 r2 = 5. 2) : r = 3. 3) .
169. . O OABC , , : A(a, 0, 0), B(0, b, 0), C(0, 0, c).
: P (x, y, z), OP = p, AP = a, BP = b, CP = c1 . :
a21 = (x a)2 + y 2 + z 2 , p2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 .




2x
2y
a21 = a2 1
+ p2 . , b21 = b2 1
+ p2 , c21 =
a
c




2z
a2
b2
c2
x
y
z
= c2 1
+ p2 . , 21 + 12 + 12 = 3 2
+ +
+
c
a
b
c
a
b
c


1
1
1
+ p2 2 + 2 + 2 . P ABC,

a
b
c
x y
z
1
1
1
1
a1
+ + = 1. , 2 + 2 + 2 = 2 (. 1).
= u,
a
b
c
a
b
c
h
a
1
c1
p2
b1
= v,
= w 2 = 2 = 1 + ctg2 a,
b
c
h
sin a

u2 + v 2 + w2 = 2 + ctg2 a.

14
171.
a.
4

4
3

22
172.
a. .
4

170.

A ,
B, D, A1 : B(a, 0, 0), D(0, a, 0), A1 (0, 0, 2a). O(x, y, z)

a
2
. , x = , y = a, z =
a.
2
4
SN
2
173. 1,
= . .
NB
3

,



 :

3 1
3 1
3
C(0, 0, 0), B(0, 1, 0), A
, , 0 , S(0, 0, 3), M
, ,
. 2

OB = OM , z.
174. 8a2 .
175. , .
127


3
176. . AB,
a,
2

a = AB.
4
177. ) , AB b,
3

b = AB. b. . A
3
. Oy
B. B(0, b, 0) M (x, y, z), :

3x2 + 3y 2 + 3z 2 8by + 4b2 = 0,




4 2
4
x2 + y b + z 2 = b2 .
3

.
) , k > 1. , AB
.
178. , (x + a)2 + (y + b)2 + z 2 = 2(a2 + b2 ),
a = CA, b = CB, C .
179. ) , A B ( A
B), C AB.
) , A B , C AB. .
O AB, Ox Oy OC OB.
AB = 2,
ABC
: A(0, 1, 0), B(0, 1, 0), C( 3, 0, 0). M (x, y, z) .
:
M A2 = x2 + (y + 1)2 + z 2 ,
M B 2 = x2 + (y 1)2 + z 2 ,

M C 2 = (x 3)2 + y 2 + z 2 .
M A2 + M B 2 = M C 2 ,

:
x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 2 3x 1 = 0,

(x + 3)2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4.
,
R = 2

D( 3, 0, 0).
180. , .
181. . . x2 + y 2 + z 2 6
6 xy + yz + zx.
128


182. ) 3d2 . ) , , . .
ABCDA1 B1 C1 D1 , AC1 = d. : CAC1 = a CAB = b. ,
S = d2 sin 2a(sin b + cos b),
a = 45 b = 45 .
183. ,
. . x y z .
V = xyz, S = xy + 2xz + 2yz.
, :

p
3
S 6 3 3 4x2 y 2 z 2 = 3 4V 2 .

xy = 2xz = 2yz, . . x = y =
= 2z = 3 2V .
184. ) .
) .
1

185. .
3
186. . a h
, V , x . ,
V =

a2
(h x)2 x,
h2

0 < x < h.

:
V =

a2
2x(h x)(h x).
2h2

2h,
Vmax =

4 2
1
a h x = h.
27
3

187. ) . )

4
3

5 1. 188. R.

189. Vmax = pR3 h = 4R. . h r


3
.

1
V = pr2 h.
3

. 2x.
1
3

: r = R ctg x, h = R ctg x tg 2x, V = pR3 ctg3 x tg 2x.


129


f (x) = ctg3 x tg 2x,
tg 2x =

0 < x < 45 .

2 tg x
, 1 tg2 x

, :
f (x) =

2
.
tg2 x(1 tg2 x)

, f (x)

1
, tg2 x = 1 tg2 x, . . tg x = . r = R 2
2

8
3

h = 4R. pR3 ,
4
3

V1 = pR3 , , V > 2V1 .


1

191. a. . 6
x, a 2x,
x. ,
1
4

V = (a 2x)2 x = (a 2x)(a 2x) 4x.


(a 2x) + (a 2x) + 4x = 2a , 1
6

4x = a 2x, x = a.
192. Vmax =

4 3 3
l ,
27

2pl3
193. Vmax = f = arcctg 2.

9 3

1 2
2 3
2
194. V = x 4 2x2 , 0 < x < 2, Vmax =
x = .
12
27
3
r

1
1
3
195. V = x 3 x2 , 0 < x < 3, Vmax = x =
. .
6
4
2

NABCD , NA = x
, 1. ABCD, O.
, AO = OC = ON AN C = 90 .
AN C NABCD,
1
3

V = SAN C BD.
196. Smin

6 2
6
=
a f = arccos
.
2
3

1. , BD1
, AA1 K (. 53). 130

CC1 L, K . BKD1 L,
BKD1 . KM
BKD1 . : BD1 = d, KM = h, BM = y,
AK = x.
D1

C1
B
B111111
B
B

A1

L
M
D

B
H

. 53

S = dh, d = 3a. , h.
BKM D1 KM , KM , :
(a2 + x2 ) y 2 = a2 + (a x)2 (d y)2 ,
1
3

y = (a + x).
1

, h2 = a2 + x2 (a + x)2 = (x2 ax + a2 ).
3
3
, :


2
a 2
a2
h2 =
x
+ , 0 < x < a.
3

a
2

, h , ,

a
6 2
x = ,
a .
2
2

f ABCD

S
6
cos f =
, cos f =
.
S
3

2. h AA1 BD1 .
131

AA1 BDB1 , h A BDB1 , . . AP


ABD. :

1
2

h = AP = BD =
BD1 =

2
a.
2

3a,
S = BD1 AP =

6 2
a .
2

,
.
3. ,

p
S
S =
= a2 1 + tg2 f,
cos f
f ABCD.
, l,
D1 H l. DH l, ,
D1 HD = f, 0 < f < 90 . ,
f .
tg f =

DD1
a
=
, f , DH
DH

DH , . . DH = DB.

6 2
1
tg f = S =
a .
2
2

197. ) , AD BC, 2a.


) 2a, a < b < c. . , .
,
.
1
V1
3
V1
= , M N k BD;
= , KN k AB KM k AD.
V
3
V
8
SM
.
= x, ,
SB

198.

3x2
V1
=
,
V
4(3x 1)

1
6 x 6 1.
2

199. ) .
P0 P1 . . . Pn , ai , bi
#

Pi1 Pi .

P0 Pn = P0 P1 + P1 P2 + . . . + Pn1 Pn ,
132

a = a1 + a2 + . . . + an

P0 Pn # 
P0 Pn a, b,
b = b1 + b 2 + . . . + bn .

, :
#
 p
# 
|Pi1 Pi | = a2i + b2i , |P0 Pn | = a2 + b2 .
,
,
n
X
p

a2i + b2i 6 a2 + b2 ,
i=1

 #

, P0 P1 , P1 P2 ,
#

a1
a2
an
a
. . . , Pn1 Pn , . .
=
= ... =
= .
b1

b2

bn

) . AB = c, CH = h, AH = x, BH = y.
p

AC + CB = x2 + h2 + y 2 + h2 6 c2 + 4h2 ,
x = y, . . .
) . H
BC, CA AB x, y, z (x > 0, H A BC, x < 0,
). ABC, : a, b, c, p S.
H ABC :
2S = ax + by + cz,
p

2
2S = a h + x2 + b h2 + y 2 + c h2 + z 2 ,
h = DH S .
), :
p
2S > (ah + bh + ch)2 + (ax + by + cz)2 ,

S >

p
p2 h 2 + S 2 .

x = y = z. , H
, ABC.
200. ) . #
#
#
a b 6 | #
a | | b |.
) : ADM = a, BDM = b, CDM = g.
s = a sin a + b sin b + c sin g.
133

), :
q

s 6 a2 + b2 + c2 sin2 a + sin2 b + sin2 g.


, cos2 a + cos2 b + cos2 g = 1,
sin2 a + sin2 b + sin2 g = 2.
,
s6

p
2(a2 + b2 + c2 ).

sin a
sin b
sin g
,
=
=
,
a
b
c

sin2 a
sin2 b
sin2 g
2
=
=
= 2
.
2
2
2
2
2
a

a +b +c

, ,
a2 6 b2 + c2 , b2 6 c2 + a2 , c2 6 a2 + b2 .

, s = d 2, d = a2 + b2 + c2 ,
, AB, BC AC ABCD

a 2

b 2

c 2

sin a =
, sin b =
, sin g =
.
d
d
d

a = b = 6 c = 2 : d = 4, a = b = 60 g = 45 .
201. . BAC = f, AO = x. AOB AOC BOC ABC, cos f:
x2 + 2
.
x4 + 9x2 + 8

cos f =

1
2

f = 45 . =

x2 + 2
x = 1.
+ 9x2 + 8

x4

f, ,

6(x2 + 1) + (x2 + 8)
x2 + 2
2 6
2 6
cos f = 4
=
p 2
6
7
7
x + 9x2 + 8
2 6(x + 1) (x2 + 8)

, 6(x2 + 1) = x2 + 8, . .

2 6
x = 0,4. f arccos
.
7

1
202. (3 + 2 2)Q. .
4
2x, S
x r :
pr2 ctg2 x
S=
, 0 < x < 45 .
cos 2x

134

y =

ctg2 x
cos 2x

. , :
y=

cos2 x
.
(1 cos2 x)(2 cos2 x 1)

cos2 x = z. y :
1
1

,
y=
< z < 1.
3 2z +

1
z

1
1
6 2 2, 2z = , . .
z
z

1
1
1
= 3 + 2 2. , Smin = (3 + 2 2)Q
z = . , ymin =
4
2
32 2
2z +

cos 2x =

2 1.

1
3

203. 32r2 , arccos . . :


S =

4r2 ctg2 x(1 + cos 2x)


4r2 (1 + cos 2x)2
=
,
cos 2x
cos 2x(1 cos 2x)

2x .
cos 2x = z, :
S =

4r2 (1 + z)2
.
z(1 z)

:
y=

z 2 + 2z + 1
,
z z2

0 < z < 1.

:
(1 + y)z 2 + (2 y)z + 1 = 0.
:
(2 y)2 4(1 + y) > 0,

y 2 8y > 0,

, y > 8.
,
1
3

S = 32r2 , z = cos 2x = .
204. . r h , S ( ).
V = pr2 h,
S = pr2 + 2prh.
135

r. prh =
S = pr2 +

2V
,
r

V
,
r

r > 0.

S. :
2V

S 0 = 2pr 2 ,
r
r
r

S 0 = 0 pr3 = V , . . r =

h= 3 .
p
p
, r S

, Smin = 3 3 pV 2 .
205. .
r
206. : h = 2r =
1

4V

208. R3 h = R, h .
207. R.
6
3
3

a
3

209. a = 4V , h =
, a h
3
.

210. h = 3r, h .
211.

1
R. . x, 3

, s

s = 4(2 2R2 2x2 + x), 0 < x < R.


1

12R x = R.
3
4000p
212.
2 ; 10 . . AB
3

ABCD, B = 90 . DH x AH.

1
3

V = p(225 x2 )(15 + x),


213.

C
O

L
. 54

K
B

0 < x < 15.

64p
AB = 4 (AB
3

).

214. 10 5. . LM N
, AC, LM BD K (. 54).
LM k AC AC OB, LM KN .
136

, KN LM N , S = LK KN .
OK = x, LK = BK = r x. LM N :

S = (r x) h2 + x2 , 0 < x < r.
S S 2
x. :
y = S 2 = (r x)2 (h2 + x2 ),
y 0 = 2(r x)(2x2 rx + h2 ).
x 6= r, :
2x2 rx + h2 = 0.
h = 2 r = 9 : x1 =

1
x2 = 4.
2

S [0; 9] :

 

1
17 17
S(0) = 18; S
=
17,5; S(4) = 10 5 22,4; S(9) = 0.
2
4

, S 10 5 x = 4.
215. 96 2 .
216. .
ABDE ABC1 . C1 F DE.
p
a
C1 F = x, : S = (l + x) (l x)2 + h2 , 0 6 x < l.
2l

S 2x2 2lx + h2 = 0.
. 1) a = 2, h = 2 l = 3 ABC1 , .

2) a = 9, h = 4 l = 9 Smax = 20 5 45,

17 17
35 x = 1 x = 8 .
2

5
217. 1) a = h = l = 1 ,
,
8

Smin =

, D.

5
3

, .
8
8

2) a = 4, h = 2 l = 3 ,

5 5
, 3

, AD BD.

17 17
.
24

137

39
2 3
218.
6S<
. 6
3

, C1 . . ,
ABM N , M N k AB M N C1 ABC. C1 M = x,
C1

B1

N
A1
K

C
L

c
cx
MN
= , M N = .
x
a
a

M K BC M L AB
(. 55). M K
,
M L
AB, KL AB
. , BKL ABC
KL
AC
=
. BK = B1 M = a x,
BK
AB

, AC b, :

. 55

KL =

b(a x)
.
c

KLM M L ABM N :
r
ML =

b2 (a x)2
.
c2

h2 +

,
r


b2 (a x)2
c x
S(x) =
h2 +
, 0 6 x < a.
+1
2 a
c2

a = 1 c = 2 b = 3


3
y = S 2 (x) = (x + 1)2 h2 + (x 1)2 , 0 6 x < 1.
4

:
y 0 = (x + 1)(3x2 3x + 2h2 ).
x 6= 1, 0,
2
3

x2 x + h2 = 0.
1
3

h = :
x1 =

x2 x +

2
= 0,
9

1
2
x2 = .
3
3

3(1 x)2
1
1
+
x1 = ,
3 r 4
3
2
13
x2 = [0; 1]. : S(0) =
1,04 (
3
12

S(x) = (x + 1)

138

ABC1 ), S
2
3

2 3
39
,
6S<
.
6
r3
2Q
1
219. , arccos
.
3
3 3

1
4
=
3
3

 

2
1,08; S
3

2
5
53 1,07;
=
3
6

 

S(1) = 1,15.

220.

4
R.
9

221. 5.
. ABC
AB, BC = 21 AC = 4. 1
V = pCD2 AB, CD ABC.
3

AD = x, ,
1
3

V = p(16 x2 ) (x +

5 + x2 ),

0 6 x < 4.

,
3x4 + 52x2 256 = 0,
x = 2 , , Vmax = 20p.
9
222. , ,
4
, 3. . R ,
a h NABCD,
. AM N , M N
, ,
a2
(2R h)h = .
2

,
, 2 1 ,
2
h1
= ,
h
a

a =

2h
.
h1

R h, :
h3 3h2 + h 3 = 0,
h = 3.
223. . M ABC, K BC. AK DK ABC
2
BCD, DM ABCD, AM = AK.
3
AB = x, DK = y DAK = a.
ADM ADK , :
4
3

4
3

DM 2 = a2 + x2 ax cos a,
139

y 2 = a2 + x2 2ax cos a.

1
3

2
9

2
3

, cos a, : DM 2 = a2 x2 + y 2 .
:
x2 =

a2
b21 + c21
1,
2
4

y2 =

b 2 + c2
a2
1.
2
4

, :
DM 2 =

a2 + b21 + c21
a2 + b2 + c2
1
.
3
9

3 ( 5).
224. . DM CN ABCD
K AB. , CK = DK, CKN DKM .
, 4
9
1 2
2
225. M N = (a + a21 + b2 + b21 c2 c21 ), M N
4

m24 m23 = (a2 + b2 a21 b21 ).

AB CD. . N CD A B. , .
1p 2
226.
c + c21 . . , AB CD 2

c
2

. AC K. EK = ,
c1

FK =
EKF = 90 . 2
EKF .
, 225.

2
3
2
2 3
, S = 1 +
, R=
, r= .
12
2
2
2
r

3
1 2
a
2
1
3
229. ab 3a b2 ;
b = a.
230. Vmax = x =
.
12
12
8
2
1p
231. V =
1 cos2 a cos2 b cos2 g +2 cos a cos b cos g. .
6

228. V =

S ABC R
. : r
1
1
1
a2 b2 c2
1
V = Sh = S 1 R2 = S 1
=
16S 2 a2 b2 c2 ,
2
3

16S

12

a, b, c ABC. S
.
1 p
232. sin f =
1 cos2 a cos2 b cos2 g + 2 cos a cos b cos g,
sin g
f .
140

abc p
1 cos2 a cos2 b cos2 g +2 cos a cos b cos g. .
6
1
1
V = Sh, S = ab sin g, h = c sin f, 3
2

233. V =

232.

234. 10 2. . BCD, CAD ABD D 233.

5
5

.
, r=
235. V =
12
2 2+3 3+ 7

236. . DE , ABCD (. 56). DAE , ADE


. F DE ,
DE. ADE, BDE CDE ,
DA, DB, DC ( ) A0 , B 0 , C 0 .
: DA = a, DB = b, DC = c, BC = a1 , CA = b1 AB = c1 . DF A0 B 0 C 0 D h, V 0 .

D
ADE DA0 F :
DA0
DE
=
DF
DA0

2Rh
.
a
2Rh
, DB 0 =
DC 0 =
b
0
2Rh
DA
b
=
.
= ,
c
DB 0
a

DA0 =

ABD A0 B 0 D DAB = DB 0 A0 .
:
A0 B 0
DA0
=
.
AB
DB
2Rh
2Rhc1
, A0 B 0 =
.
DA0 =
a
ab

C0
F
F
F
F
A0

B0

. 56

F DE ,
:

abc
abc
= 1, h =
. A0 B 0 = cc1 , B 0 C 0 = aa1 , C 0 A0 = bb1
2Rh
2R
1
V 0 = T h.
3

DA0 = bc, DB 0 = ac, DC 0 = ab.


V
DA DB DC
V0
=
,

V
=
.
V 0 DA0 DB 0 DC 0
abc
1
T
abc = 2Rh V 0 = T h, V =
.
3
6R

141

. f CD ABD
ADB = g.
1
6

V = DA DB DC sin g sin f,

1
6

V 0 = DA0 DB 0 DC 0 sin g sin f,

DA DB DC
V
=
.
V0
DA0 DB 0 DC 0
2
237. V =
, R = 1.
12

239. ) . ABC , BC, AB AC B1 C1 .


ABC AB1 C1 :

r1
ha 2r
2r
=
=1 ,
r
ha
ha

r1 , AB1 C1 . ,
A

, :


r1 + r2 + r3
1
1
1
= 3 2r
+
+
= 1,

ha
hb
hc
1
1
1
1

+ + = (. 238, ).
ha hb hc r

D
B

D0

B0

2r r3
2r
r2
=1 ,
=1 .
r
hb r
hc

C0

240. ) . M ,
ABCD (. 57). ,
. 57
M , , M , .
, M , BCD, d1 , h1 C

3
d1
V1
= .
ABCD, A. :
3
h1
V

.
, , -

3
V1 + 3 V2 + 3 V3 + 3 V4
d1
d2
d3
d4

=
+
+
+
= 1.
, :
3
h
h
h
h
1
2
3
4
V

V = 3 V1 + 3 V 2 + 3 V 3 + 3 V 4 .
241. ) . 238, )
:


1
1
1
(a + b + c)
+ +
> 9, (a + b + c)2 6 3(a2 + b2 + c2 ),
a

142

a, b, c
a = b = c.
) . 238, ) :


1
1
1
1
(a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 )
+
+
+
> 16,
a1

a2

2
1

a3

a4

2
2

2
3

(a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 ) 6 4(a + a + a + a24 ),


a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 .
242. . 140 241.
243. ) .
245. )

1 2
a b tg a.
6

247. . , ABCD
1
abc,
6
1
S 2 = (a2 b2 + b2 c2 + c2 a2 ).
4
4
1 2
248. DH = 1, DA = 2, DAH = 30 .
249. m = R =
a + b2 + c2 .
3
3
a
a
250. R =
, DM =
.
2 sin a
3 sin a
1 2
251. a tg a. . DAB = b DAC = g.
2
a
a
AB =
, AC =
.
cos b
cos g

cos a = cos b cos g, ABC


1
2

1
2

S = AB AC sin a = a2 tg a.
252. . 247.
253. ) . , ABH ABD, sin g.
254. DA = c, DB =

2
1
2 3
c, DH = c, V =
c .
2
2
12

256. . ABCD
: LABD, LACD LBCD.
257. ) ,
.

h
259. ) . h 6 ( 2 + 1)r ,
r

a + b 6 2c.

h
a+b+c
a+b
2S = ch = 2pr, =
=
+ 1 6 2 + 1.
r

143


l > ( 2 + 1)r. :

ab
ab 2
, r=
.
a+b
a+b+c

(a + b + c) 2
l
c 2
, =
= 2+
> 2 + 1. r
a+b
a+b

a+b
ab 6
:
2

l
2 ab
6
6 1, l 6 S.
a
+
b
S
3V
3V
) . : h =
, r=
.
S
S
+
S
+ S3 + S
1
2

l=

S1 + S2 + S3 6 S 3 (. 257, ),

h
S1 + S2 + S3 + S
=
6 3 + 1.
r


l=

abc 3
.
ab + bc + ca


: ab + bc + ca > 3 3 a2 b2 c2 .
,

3
abc 3
abc
= .
2
2
2
3
3 a b c

l6
3

. ab + bc + ca 6 a2 + b2 + c2 ,
2
1 2
1
1p
R=
a + b2 + c2 >
ab + bc + ca =
2(S1 + S2 + S3 ).
3


, a = b = c.
260.
a = b = c = 2 3.
261. 48 6,9 (3 ).
262. . , AA1 BB1 H, CD ABH.
.
263. ) . ABCD AB CD
, AC BD .
DD1 . CD1 AB BD1 AC
. ABC , AD1 BC. AD1 AD,
BC AD. ,
.
. 135, ) .
144

) . , 262 . ,
. ,
. , .
264. ) .

#  # 

2AB CD = AD2 + BC 2 AC 2 BD2


263.
) . tAB , 1
4

AB CD. t2AB = (a2 + a21 + b2 + b21 c2 c21 ) (. 1


2

138). , t2AB t2AC = (a2 + b21 c2 c21 ).


266. 1. ABCD ,
BDC = a, ADC = b ACB = g.
cos a =

b2 + c2 a21
,
2bc

cos b =

a2 + c2 b21
,
2ac

cos g =

a2 + b2 c21
.
2ab

,
b2 + c2 a21 = a2 + c2 b21 = a2 + b2 c21 . , cos a, cos b, cos g
, . . a, b, g , , .
2. #  # 
#  #  # 
#  # 
, AB CD = 0, (DB DA) DC = 0. DB DC =
#  # 
#  # 
#  # 
= DC DA. , DB AD = 0 , DC DA =
#  # 
= DA DB. ,

#  # 

#  # 

#  # 

DA DB = DB DC = DC DA.
, ADB, BDC CDA ,
, , .
. ,
, , BDC > 90 , A, B,
C , ABC .
267. . ,
, ,
9s = (a2 + b2 c21 ) + (a2 + c2 b21 ) + (b2 + c2 a21 ).
268. ) . AA1 , BB1 , CC1
 
1
ABC. M
2

ABC A1 B1 C1 H ABC A1 B1 C1 ,
145

. ., , O , ABC. ,

# 

1#
2

# 

MO = MH

# 

OH = 3OM .

) . K L AB CD.
M ABCD KL. H
, CD
AB, O , K AB.
K L, M . ,
M .
H , . O
, .
, H O M .
(. 139, ).
269. ) . AM0 ABC. , M1 , H M0 , , ABC.
#  #  #  # 
BHCM1 , OB + OC = OH + OM1 ,
O , .
136, )

# 

# 

# 

# 

OH = OA + OB + OC.

# 

# 

OH, : OM1 = OA. ,


M1 A O
, AM1 .
H1 , H BC. AH1 M1 = 90 . , H1
.
, M1 H1 ,
AB AC , M1
H1 BC, ,
ABC.
1
H .
2

ABC , 146

, , ABC, , . O9 :

# 

1#
2

HO9 = HO. , , .
) .
, . AM0 AH0 ABCD, H , M1 H1 , ,
#  #  #  # 
HM1 = 3HM0 , HH1 = HH0 . , 136, ):
#  1 #  #  #  # 
OH = (OA + OB + OC + OD),
2

, M1 H1 , ABCD. H 1
3

k = .
, 12
, .
270. ) : a + c + b1 = b + c + a1 = a + b + c1 = a1 + b1 + c1 . , a + b1 = a1 + b, a + b = a1 + b1 .
, : a = a1 . , b = b1 , c = c1 .
273. ) . CM DN ABC ABD
(. 58). L CD LK AB. KM KN LC LD
CD, KM = KN , . . K A
M N .
ABC ABD N
, , CM = DN . K
D
CKM DKN ,
M
CK = DK, KL CD. ,
L
KL B
AB CD L C
CD.
. 58
) . ABC ABD,
ACD BCD . ,
. ), ,
AB CD CD, AB , , .
ABCD , , , 272, ),
ABCD .
147

277. ) . O , ABCD, M , M A = M B = M C =
= M D = R. M
3 : 1, . , :
4
3

m1 = m2 = m3 = m4 = R.
272, ).
279. . 112, ),

# 

# 

# 

# 

#

OA + OB + OC + OD = 0

, O ABCD.
, , , 277, ).
280. 2) . A, B, C ABCD , BC, CA AB ABC (. 59).
A1 , B1 , C1 ,
D
D. DA =
= BC = AB1 = AC1 , B1 DC1 = 90 . C1 DA1 = A1 DB1 = 90 . ,
A1
A1 B1 C1 D . C
B1
B
ABCD.
A
DA1 = x, DB1 = y, DC1 = z.
C1
. 59

1
6

V1 = xyz.

, :
x2 + y 2 = 4c2 ,

y 2 + z 2 = 4a2 ,

z 2 + x2 = 4b2 .

, x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2(a2 + b2 + c2 ). , x2 = 2(b2 + c2 a2 ), y 2 = 2(a2 + c2 b2 ), z 2 = 2(a2 + b2 c2 ).


1
4

ABCD: V = V1 =
V =

1
xyz, :
24

1p
2(a2 + b2 c2 )(a2 + c2 b2 )(b2 + c2 a2 ).
12

, , 275.
1p
282. tAB =
2(a2 + b2 c2 ), tAB AB
2
CD.
148

15 6
10
, tAB =
. . 283. V =
4
4

, , .
1p 2
284. 5 .
285.
2(b + c2 a2 ).
2

288. . ABCD . , AD
BC, ABC ABD DCB
DCA, AB DC. , . ,
BC AD, CA BD .
290. . 140, ):
OM 2 = R2

1 2
(a + b2 + c2 + a21 + b21 + c21 ),
16

O , , M .
1
, R2 > (a2 + b2 + c2 + a21 + b21 + c21 ),
16
, O M , . . (. 277, ).
291.
293.

1
.
6

292.

5 3
a .
48

abc
. . M
ab + bc + ca

ABC. ABCD : M ABD, M BCD M CAD. ABD 1

CD ABCD, abc.
2
.
x, : (ab + bc + ca)x = abc,
abc
.
ab + bc + ca
2
294. V .
9
3
295. . . ,
4

x=


.
(1+ tg a)3
8
296. ) k =
; ) k = : a1 =45 a2 = arctg(2+
3 tg2 a
3

9
+ 5); ) k = .
4
. ) a h. , ,
ah
1
a3 h3
. V = a2 h, V1 =
.
a+h
3
(a + h)3
(a + h)3
(1 + tg a)3
V
h

=
. = tg a, k =
.
2
V1
3ah
a
3tg 2 a

149

(1 + x)3
h
8
8
= x k = .
= .
a
3
3x2
3

x3 5x2 + 3x + 1 = 0.
2
: (x 1)(x
4x 1) = 0. x
5. x = tg a,
1 = 1 x2 = 2 +
: a1 = 45 a2 = arctg(2 + 5).
(1 + x)3
, x > 0,
) k =
2

. : kmin

3x
9
= x = 2, . . h = 2a.
4

16
V . . x, 81
1
, V1 = x2 (h 3x), h
2
h
0<x< .
3
a
.
298. a) R = 4 ; a = 60 . ) : 2 6 .
299.
3 sin 2a

297.

300. 2R2 (sin g + sin 2g), 0 < g < 120 ; (2 + 2)R2 g = 45 .


. NABC, N H , M N
(. 60).
N
HAN = a AN = b.
gg
gg

3
2

S = b2 sin g,

b = 2R sin a.

, S = 6R2 sin2 a sin g.


aaa
A a

C
K

H
B

2
3

cos a = sin

g
2

(. 1), :
sin2 a = 1 cos2 a = 1

4
g 1
sin2 = (1 + 2 cos g).
3
2
3

, S = 2R2 (1 + 2 cos g) sin g = 2R2 (sin g +


+ sin 2g).
. 60
3
d
3
302. R = h tg2 , d > 60 ; R = h
2
2
2
d = 90 .
1
d
303. . sin a = ctg , ctg a =
M

= 2 ctg b , a = 30 .

a 3
b
304.
ctg .
305. 1 .
306.

6
2
1
2
d
h. . sin b = ctg
4
2
3

(. 301, ).

307. b = 60 , V = 9 3.

d
308. 2R ctg2 , 90 < d < 180 .
2

150

309. V =

16 3
64
2
R (1 cos g) cos2 g, Vmax = R3 g = arccos .
3
81
3

310. : 15 75 .

g . . h r =
2
g
= cos b cos b = tg , r b

311.

1 + ctg

.
8 2
b . .
5
g 1
4
. , tg = sin g = . 2
2
5

312.

S = 2b2 sin g.
313. 2 . . a . h = 2R sin2 a. sin a,
cos b (b ).
h cos b
.
r =
1 + cos b

g
d 1 + tg
13
g
2 .
315. a.
314. r = d tg , r =
2
2 cos g
12
316. . .
N H , M N
, NAH = a (. 61).
N

h = 2R sin2 a = 2R(1 cos2 a).

gg
gg

cos a =
D

g
sin
2
h = 2R 1
p .

B
H

aaaa
A

p
k2
,
sin2 =
n
1 + k2
p
k = tg ,

= 1 cos g,

h :


(1 + k2 )(1 cos g)
h = 2R 1
,
2
2k

2
p -

:
2 sin2

. 61

sin

sin2

sin

(1 + k2 ) cos g + k2 1
h
=
.
R
k2

151


. AB , N K
(. . 61). AB = 2a, N H = h, N K = l, HK = m.
AM N AKN : b2 = 2Rh
2
b = a2 + l2 .
a2 + l2
R=
.
2h

D , ,
r
m
N H, KD HKN ,
= ,
hr

hm
. , :
r=
l+m
2h2 m
r
=
.
R
(l + m)(a2 + l2 )


a
h m. h2 = l2 m2 m = p ,
tg

:
2(kl a)a
r
= 2 2 2,
R
(a + l )k

p
k = tg .
n

, a
g
, l2 . , = tg , :

2 tg

l
2

g g
2 k tg
tg
r
2 2.
=
g
R
1 + tg2
k2
2

2 = sin g tg g = 1 cos g , :
g
2
sin g
1 + tg2
2
r
k sin g + cos g 1
=
.
R
k2

3k
2
; k = d = 90 .
2
3
n
2p
318. (2R h)h2 sin . . 6
n
1
V = S h, R1 ,
3
n
n
2p
2p
, S = R12 sin
= (2R h)h sin .
2
n
2
n
4
h = R ( n). 3

317. ctg

V ,
152

, (4R 2h) h h 4R,


h = 4R 2h.

3 2
.
7
p
1 + 5 + k2
, k = tg , b
320. cos b =
4 + k2
n

319. cos b =

. .
, 316. , h + r = R.
g
(2 + k 2 ) cos g + k sin g 2 = 0. tg ,
2
g
1
cos b = tg ,
k
2

1 + 5 + k2
.
cos b =
4 + k2

321. . N , J
O .
N J = h r,

NO = R

d = JO = |N O N J| = |R + r h|.

316.
322. 1. NA1 A2 . . . An n-
,
( . 62 ). O
OL NA1 A2 .
A1 L = A2 L = N L, N
OA1 , OA2 , ON . , L
,
L
1
2

NA1 A2 , A1 NA2 = A1 LA2 ( ,


). O
,
OH = OL. , A1 L =
= A1 H 4A1 LA2 = 4A1 HA2 . p
2p
, A1 HA2 = A1 LA2 = , A1 NA2 = .
n

A2
K

H
A1
. 62

.
2. 321 , d = 0


p
2p
p
, sin g
= 0, 0 < g < . , g = .
n

323. . 316:
R
k2
=
,
r
k sin g + cos g 1

153

0<g<

2p
.
n


(k sin g + cos g)2 + (k cos g sin g)2 = 1 + k 2 ,

R
k2
k sin g + cos g 6 1 + k 2 . ,
= 1 + 1 + k2 ,
6
2

r
1+k 1
R
1

61+
p , ,
r
cos
n

k cos g = sin g, tg g = tg

, , g =

, ,
(. 322).

324. ) : 45 arccos

2 2
. .
2

: , ,
, . a, R r.

R
a = 45
= ctg 22,5 = 1 + 2.
r

:
r
= cos a, 2r = R cos 2a,
R+r

2 2
R
2
2
R 2Rr r = 0,
= 1 + 2 cos a =
.
r
2

, d2 = R2 2Rr, d .

R
= 1 + 3.
) 30 60 ,
r

325. : h = 1 + 5 h = 3 + 5,
d = 1 .
327. . a
, b
, h . , :
tg b =

1
cos

p tg a,

h = 2R sin2 a,

r
= cos b.
Rr

:


1
1
1

1
=

1
.
p cos2 a
cos2 b
2
cos

2R h

: cos a =
. cos2 a cos2 b
2R

2

154

h:
r2

h2 2(R + r)h + 4Rr +

cos2

s
h = R + r (R r)2

p = 0,
n

cos2

p . n

d = |h R r|. ,
v
u
u
r2
2
2
2
2 p
d = t(R r)2
p , d = R 2Rr r tg n .
2
cos

, d = r, . . q
R
p
, = 1 + 2 + tg2 (r

326). , R r >

r
cos

1
R
>1+
p,
r
cos
n

p ,
n

,
.

a(2b a)
b 3
1
328. 2
.
329.
R
=
, R = b, h = b.
1
2
4

2 2b a

330. r = 2, h = 8. .



3
cos a
(. 3).
R1 = 2R cos a 1
2

g
a 1 sin
2 , 0 < g < 60 .
331.
2 2 cos g 1

332. h = 6, d = 2 (d ).

p
h cos a 1 sin cos a
p
2
333. R1 =
, 0 < a < . . O1
2
sin2 a
,
,

 R1 . p
R1 = b ctg a 1 sin cos a (. 1) R1
h = b sin a, N O1 =
.
cos a

p
h cos a 1 sin cos a
n
R1 =
,
sin2 a

p
h 1 sin cos a
n
N O1 =
,
sin2 a

155

p
0 < a < .
2

O1 N H ,
p
1 sin cos a
n
> 1,
sin2 a


p
p
p
p
p
sin < cos a, sin < sin
a , , a < .
n
n
2
2
n
p
p
a = , 2
n
p
p
; a > , .
2
n
g
g
h sin
1 sin
2
2 , 0 < g < 2p .
334.
p
n
sin
n 

r(1 + cos b)
p
335. R1 = h cos a 1 sin cos a , h =
n
cos b
1
cos a = r
.
p
1 + cos2 tg2 b
n

336. .


p
R1 = 2R cos a 1 sin cos a .

= 2 a = 45 ( , R1

, ).
338. . , ,
. N . d = |N O N O1 |.
b
2b a
p
, N O =
, N O1 =
, a = 2b sin cos a.
2 sin a
2 sin a
n
339. , n = 3, n = 4
n = 5 .

a sin cos a
a| ctg 2a|
n
340. )
, )
p
p .
2 sin sin a
2 sin
n

n
r
2 p
sin + sin
+4
n
n
341. cos a =
; n = 6, a 50 . .
4

. p
a : 4 cos2 a 2 sin cos a 1 = 0.
n

1
3

342. arccos .
343. 4,5. . ,
BD.
156

344.

(1 + sin b)a2
ap
2 + tg2 b;
.
2
cos b

1
345. 2 2 . . , cos b = (b
3
).
346. : h1 = 3 h2 = 6 . . : a b .
1
r
b
: V = a2 h, cos b =
, a = 2r ctg . 4r2 h2 3V h +
3
hr
2
+ 6rV = 0.
r = 1 V = 12 2 : h1 = 3 , h2 = 6 .
2l3 sin2 b cos b
a2
1
348.
.
349.
347. c3 sin 2a(sin a + cos a 1).
g.
4
sin a
4
cos

350. R = 3.
ap
a
;
352.
1 ctg2 a. . sin a 2
2r .
, 2r,
. a
b, : ab sin a = a2 , b =
.
sin a
AA1
AB AD , a. A1 H A1 K . H
, : A1 K = a, HK = AK = a ctg a. p
A1 HK : 2r = A1 H = a 1 ctg2 a.
353. R = 5.
356.

34
354.
1,9.
3

97
3,5. . , 8

ABC, m
ABC, . ,

9 2
.
4

A1 B1 C1 ,
A1 B1 C1 , , ,
m ABC A1 B
1 C1 .
, 2. ,
, R .
157

357. arccos

n1
; n = 3, a = 60 .
n+1

358. R = 5.

360. 1 : 5.
361. 1 : 3 : 9.
359. : 7 2 2.

h(2 + tg a)
2
362. ( 3 1) : 2 : 2.
363. R.
364.
.
3
2 tg a
4
365. . . R r , b
3

. , cos b =
Rr
R
1 + cos b
,
=
. tg b cos b.
=
R+r
r 1 cos b
82p(2 3 3)
V1
366.
=
. . R
V

243

O1 , O2 , O3 a .

O1 O2 O3 ,
a = 2R(1 + 3).
R
, r ,
4

82

V1 = 4pR3 + pR3 = 4pR3 .


81
81

a2 3
3
V =
2R = 4R 3(2 + 3).
4
82p(2 3 3)
V1

=
0,49.
V
243

158


I.
ABCD : AD = a, DB = b, DC = c,
BC = a1 , CA = b1 , AB = c1 ;
S1 , S2 , S3 , S4 ,
A, B, C, D;
S ;
h1 , h2 , h3 , h4 ;
m1 , m2 , m3 , m4 , , ,
A, B, C, D;
tAB , tAC , tBC ,
AB CD, AC BD, BC DA;
V ;
R ;
r ;
M ;
O ;
J .

abc p
1. V =
1 cos2 a cos2 b cos2 g + 2 cos a cos b cos g,
6

a = BDC, b = CDA, g = ADB;


3V
, i = 1, 2, 3, 4;
Si
2
a + b 2 + c2
a2 + b21 + c21
3. m24 =
1
;
3
9

2. hi =

4. t2AB = (a2 + a21 + b2 + b21 c2 c21 )/4;


5. r = 3V /S ;
6. R =

T
, T , 6V

aa1 , bb1 , cc1 .

II.
n- NA1 A2 . . . An N H, N K
; A1 A2 = a, NA1 = b, N H = h, N K = l (. 36 37).
S ;
S ;
R ;
r ;
R1 , .
159


p
2. b2 = 2Rh;
3. R12 = h(2R h);
1. a = 2R1 sin ;
n

4. b = 2R sin a;
7. h = l sin b;
n-

tg a = cos
cos a =

tg b

g
p sin 2
sin
1

cos b = ctg
sin a = ctg
sin b =

p
n

p
n

tg

ctg

g
2

d
2

d
p cos 2
sin
1

5. h = 2R sin2 a;
h cos b
8. r =
;
1 + cos b

6. R1 = R sin 2a;
9. S =

n=3

n=4

1
tg a = tg b
2

1
tg a = tg b
2

2
3

cos a = sin

g
2

g
1
3 2
1
d
sin a = ctg
2
3
d
2
sin b = cos
2
3
cos b = tg

cos a =

sin a = ctg
sin b =

n=6

2 sin

cos b = tg

n 2
b sin g.
2

g
2

cos a = 2 sin

cos b =

sin a =

2 cos

3
tg b
2

tg a =

d
2

g
2

3 tg

3 ctg

sin b = 2 cos

d
2

d
2

III.
S ;
S ;
S ;
V .

R ;
h .
1. S = 2pRh;
2. S = 2pR(R + h);
3. V = pR2 h.

R .
1. S = 4pR2 ;
2. V = 4pR3 /3.

r ;
h ;
l .
1. S = pRl;
2. S = pr(l + r);
3. V = pr2 h/3.

r1 r2 ;
h ;
l .
1. S = p(r1 + r2 )l;
2. S = p(r1 + r2 )l + pr12 + pr22 ;
2
2
3. V = ph(r1 + r1 r2 + r2 )/3.
160