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AHISTORYOFARCHITECTURE:SETTINGSANDRITUALS

SPIROKOSTOF

BOOKREVIEWPRESENTATION REVIEWEDBYMADHUMALUKANI(SA1103)

KOSTOFSAPPROACH
Kostofemphasizesonthestudyofarchitectureasawholeandsaid,"Allbuildingsofthepast,regardlessofsizeorstatus orconsequence,shouldideallybedeemedworthyofstudy."Hisapproachtoarchitecturalhistorystressesonurbanism alongwitharchitecturalworksandshowshowbuildingsareembeddedintheirphysicalandsocialcontexts.Kostofs bookAHistoryofArchitecture:Settingsandritualsembodiestheseideasandillustrateshisnewperspectivestowards architecturalstudy. Kostofsharesfourpointswhichhehasfollowedinhisstudy. f g p Theonenessofarchitecture whereinheregardsstructureandaestheticsasinseparable; Thesettingofarchitecture buildingscannotbestudiedinisolationfromimmediatecontext; Thecommunityofarchitectureculturalvaluesofthesocietywhichpreventarchitecturefrombeingmerelyabuildform; Themeaningofarchitecture whereinhediscussesthereason,timeandpurposebehindthebuildingbeingwhatitis.

ABOUTTHEBOOK
Thebookisdividedintothreesegments:Thefirstrevealstheoriginanddevelopmentofearlycitieswithreferenceto Mesopotamia,Egypt,Greece,Romeandotherrelevantcivilizations. Thesecondpartdiscussesthemedievalperiod,studyingtheurbanizationofEuropeancountriesuntilthe18th century andthethirdpartdiscussestheinfluencesofmodernism. Kostofhasnotfollowedastrictchronologicalpatterninhisdepiction.Thesequenceismerelyonthedegreeof evolution,yet,attimes,hehaslaidparallelstocomparethetimeframe.Forinstancehehaslinkedtheemergenceof g g g SumerwiththethirdrearrangementoftheStonehenge.Thisgivesthereadertheclearideaoftimeframeofvarious events andtherebycomparisonsbetweenvariouscivilizationscanbeestablished. Whileexplainingtheculturalandreligiousaspectsinrelationtothecity,Kostofhasnotneglectedotherdetailssuchas constructiontechniquesandmaterialsandtheiravailability,hencegivingacompleteoverviewofthecivilization. IhavefocusedmystudyonthefirstfewchapterswhichdiscusstheNeolithiceraandtheearlysettlementswhichset thefoundationsofurbanrevolutionandthecitiesofMesopotamiaandEgypt.

THERISEOFTHECITY:ARCHITECTUREINWESTERNASIA THE RISE OF THE CITY : ARCHITECTURE IN WESTERN ASIA


THEURBANREVOLUTION BEFORETHECITIES NEOLITHICSETTLEMENTS BEFORE THE CITIES NEOLITHIC SETTLEMENTS
JERICHO, KHIROKITIAAND CATALHOYUK

CITIES OF MESOPOTAMIA CITIESOFMESOPOTAMIA

URBANREVOLUTION
NearEast TheCradleOfCivilization ThisdatesbacktothesecondmillenniumB.C.,thetimeofthethirdrearrangementoftheStonehenge. WhileNeolithic Europecarriedonastoneusingpeasanteconomy,intwospotsofneareast,MesopotamiaandEgypt,therewere contemporaryliterateculturesthatknewhowtoworkmetal,ororganizefoodproduction,andkeepwrittenrecordsoftheir transactionsandbeliefs. BeingCivilized , y g p ThewordcivilizationderivesfromtheLatinwordcivitas,whichmeanscity.Thisgivesustheotheracceptedcharacterof civilizedhumanity thatithasforitstheatreofactivitiesanintricateartifact,thecity.ButKostofquestionsthefactthat civilizedlifecannotexistoutsideofcities andsays,incorrelatingurbanismandcivilizedhistory,wehaveimbuedthecity withpositivequalitiestheabsenceofwhichhastendedtodowngradeothersocialorganisms.Hevalidatesthiswith illustrationsofthreesettlementswhichqualifyasatown:Jericho,KhirokitiaandCatalhoyuk. illustrations of three settlements which qualify as a town: Jericho, Khirokitia and Catalhoyuk.

BEFORETHECITIES:NEOLITHICSETTLEMENTS

MAP: WESTERN ASIA, 8000700 B.C. 8000 700 B C

JERICHO,(ISRAEL),7500B.C.
Theearliestsurvivingtown. Thestorybeginswiththelifegivingsourceoffreshwater(nowcalledElishasfountain)wherehunterssettledfor agriculture. Theearliesthousesdatingbackto7500B.C.haddomedhousesofmudbrickwithanentranceporchandcurvedwalls, probablyan imitationofroundtentsofthenomadichunters. Thelaterhouses(6500B.C.)wererectangularwithroundedcorners,arrangedaroundcourtyardswhichwereusedfor cooking.Severalpublicbuildingssetasidewithforworshipwere interwoven withthehouses. Theclusterpatternwasdominantandhencethestreetsweremissing. The cluster pattern was dominant and hence the streets were missing Themostimportantfeatureofthissettlementwasfortification.

Thesettlementcoveredabout3hectaresandoncehaving reacheditsoptimumspread,was fortifiedbyastonewall. Thisdatesbacksto7500B.C.Thefortwasoverseenbya massiveroundtower,whichwasintimatewithaseriesof mudbrickenclosures,thathavebeeninterpretedas watercisterns,probablyactingascurtainofdefense.

JERICHO,TOWERBUILTAGAINSTSIDEOFSETTLEMENTWALL(FORTIFICATION),7500B.C.

KHIROKITIA,(CYPRUS),5500B.C.
Thissettlementshowsthepresenceoffirsttruestreet. Thestreetrunningfromtheriverbank,uphill,formsthe mainspine. UnlikeJerichowhichwasaclosedtown,Khirokita hadan opencompositionwithhousesoneithersideofthestreet. Hencegrowth wasnotrestricted. Thestreetalsoshowedapresenceofhaltingplaceinthe formofawidenedplatformwhichcanbeconsideredan antecedenttoacitysquare.

KHIROKITIA, NEOLITHIC SETTLEMENT, ca. 5500 B.C., PLAN SHOWING STREET SPINE AND HOUSES

Thestreetwasbuiltoflimestoneandraisedconsiderablyabovegroundlevel,hencepreventederosionandalso contributedstabilitytothehouses. Presenceofsuchathoroughfarehadbothorganizationalandsocialbenefits.Therewasasenseofcommonbelongingand henceasocialmaturityconcerningitsmaintenance.

KHIROKITIA , VILLAGE SQUARE, AN OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE AREA MARKED AS AN INSET.

CATALHOYUK,(TURKEY),7000B.C.
Besideshuntingandagriculture,thisNeolithicsettlement restsonanewrationaletrade. Obsidian(blackvolcanic glass)wasthemainarticlefortrade.Obsidiantoolswere probablytradedforseashellsandflintfromSyria. Anotherimportantskilltheypossessedwasworkingwith metal. Thiswastooearlyforsuchtechnicalknowledge,as metallurgywasnotfullypracticeduntiltheculturesof MesopotamiaandEgypt. Thesettlementisbelievedtobeenrichedwithshopsof merchantsofleatherandfur,smithsmakingornamentsand p toolsandpublicmarketsinthemidstofurbanfabric.

EXCAVATIONS AT CATALHOYUK IMAGE OF GODDESS POTTERY CATALHOYUK, GODDESS,

Thesettlementwasneitheropennorclosed.Thebuildings weregroupedintotightquartersandwhichopenedupan occasionalcourtyard.Acontinuousblankwallfacedthe y countryside. Streetswereabsent.Entryofthehouseswasthrougha holeintheflatroofreachedbyawoodenladder.Italso actedasasmokestack. Theshrineswerelaidonthesameschemeashouses. Plasterreliefsofmothergoddessresemblingtoimagery ofoldstoneage formedthesurfacedecor. of old stone age formed the surface decor

CATALHOYUK, NEOLITHIC SETTLEMENT, ca. RECONSTRUCTION VIEW OF RESIDENTIAL AREA

7000

B.C.,

THECITIESOFMESOPOTAMIA THE CITIES OF MESOPOTAMIA


LAYOUTOFCITIES TEMPLESANDZIGGURATS TEMPLES AND ZIGGURATS PALACES

THECITIESOFMESOPOTAMIA

MAP: MESOPOTAMIA

Mesopotamia(fromthefourthmillenniumB.C.)wasthefirstsettlementqualifiedasacity andthefirsttoexhibitthe writingtradition. Itshistoryisdividedintofourbroadsegmentsofchronology. Protoliterate Period(3500 3000B.C.) Battlementsofringwalls Templeandzigguratbegantogainarchitecturaldefinition Firstwrittendocument y y ( ) EarlyDynasticPeriod(30002350B.C.) Kingshipandestablishmentofhereditarykingship Monumentalpalaceasanadministrativecentre Raisingthedefensivesystemofthecity LaterSumerianPeriod(upto 1600B.C.) Riseofempire,collectiveruleofcitystates Highpointofbuildingtypeofziggurat(zigguratofUr Nammu) TheAssyrianPeriod(1350 612B.C.) ThenorthernregionflourishedattheexpenseoflowerMesopotamia imposingstatereliefsandpalacesaccompaniedbydeclineinpositionofziggurat

LAYOUTOFCITIES
HistorybeforetheEarlyDynasticperiodisstillblurred. Howeverbythenaboutadozencitieshadflourishedin b h b d h d fl h d SumerandtowardsnorthinBabylon. Thecitieswereenclosedbyawallandsurroundedby suburbanvillagesandhamlets. Thetwomonumentalcenterswerethezigguratcomplex overseenbythepalace.Theurbanfabricwasapromiscuous blendofresidentialandcommercialbuildings.AtUr,an exampleofabazaar wasfound:aconcentrationoflittle boothsalonganarrowpassagewithdoorsateitherends. Amplesquaresandpublicgardenswererare.

UR (IRAQ), SCHEMATIC PLAN OF THE CITY, ca. 2000 B.C.

Streetwidthforprinciplethoroughfareswasnotmorethan3 meters.Theseledtopublicbuildingsandwereborderedwith thehousesoftherich.Trafficwasmostlypedestrian,however servicecartsandchariotshavealsobeenexcavated. Housesweregroupedintocongestedblockssharingparty walls,againsttheorthogonalneatdesignofarchitects.Even whilereplacement,theplanoftheolderhousehadadirect bearingastheruinswereusedasfoundation. Thearchitecturalmetabolismconstantlytransformedthe makeupofthecityscapewhichwasheldtogetherbystiffer f skeletonofstreets. Thelevelofthestreetsroseduetothedumpingofrefuse leadingtosinkingfloorlevels.Whenthegroundlevelgot buriedconsiderably,thehousewasraisedtotheceilingusing thegroundasservicevault. the ground as service vault. Therewerenowindowstowardstheoutsideandeverything openedintothecourtyard.

UR, PLAN OF RESIDENTIAL AREA, 2000 B.C.

LEFT: UR, RESIDENTIAL QUARTER BETWEEN THE ZIGGURAT PRECINCT AND THE WEST HARBOR, PLAN ABOVE: UR COURTYARD OF RESIDENTIAL UR, QUARTER, RECONSTRUCTION DRAWING

TEMPLESANDZIGGURATS
Smallshrineswerescatteredthroughoutthefabric.They g y hadtwostandardfeatures:anicheofepiphanymarked bythestatueofdeityoranalter,andatableforofferings. By3500B.C.,theevolvedintomonumentaltemples. Thetemplecomplexwasthehubofaneconomicsystem thathasbeendescribedastheocraticsocialism. Itwassurroundedbyitsownprotectivewall,formingthe lastbulwarkagainstattack.Thetemplestoodona last bulwark against attack The temple stood on a tremendousplatformcalledthezigguratandwasfreeof thepressuresofdensityinitsampleprecinct.

UR, ZIGGURAT PRECINCT, THIRD DYNASTY, 21132006 B.C.

Theexperienceofziggurattemplerestedon reverentialclimbing.Howeverunliketheearliertemples,placedinopen Th i f i tt l t d ti l li bi H lik th li t l l di landscapeatthehighestofthecity,theurbantemple exhibitedadifferentapproach.Dedicatedtolesserdeities,itwasbuilt closertothelivingspaceofthecityandwassurroundedbycommonstructures. SintempleIIatKhafaje illustratestheresultofthiscondition.Thetemplebecametheinnermostofaseriesofenclosedspaces f f f f withasingleentranceinoneofitslongsides. ThisisincompletecontrasttowhitetempleatWarka, whichwasanopenloftedundisturbedstructure.

LEFT:KHAFAJE,OVALTEMPLE,ca.26502350B.C.;RIGHT:WARKA,WHITETEMPLE,35003000B.C.

PALACES
Thezigguratintimelostsomephysicalprominencetootherfocalpointsofthe gg p y p p urbanfabric,theprincipalonebeingthepalaceoftheking.
A

DuringtheAssyrianperiod,thezigguratbecameamereadjuncttothekings palace,whichthencompletelydominatedthecityscape. palace, which then completely dominated the cityscape.

SKETCH PLANS SHOWING RELATIONSHIP OF ZIGGURAT (RED) AND ROYAL PALACE (GREEN) : A. AT UR, ca. 2000 B.C. SSU , ca 800 C B. AT ASSUR, ca. 1800 B.C. C. AT ASSUR, ca. 1200 B.C. D. AT KHORSABAD, ca. 700 B.C.

Asimilarphenomenonwas observedaMariatabout1750B.C. Theproportionsgotreversedhere. p Thepalaceherebehavedasa microcosmofthecity,withits walls,residences,temples,offices, schools,andsoon.

ROYAL PALACE AT MARI, ca. 1750 B.C. , GROUND PLAN

ThefinaldebasementofthezigguratoccurredatKhorsabad. Th fi l d b f h i d Kh b d Thepalacehere,ratherthanbeingsurroundedbythefabricof thecity,showeditsbacktothecitywalls.Thepalacewhichhad startedoutasanaccessorytotheziggurat,nowgrewatthe expenseofit,intoatheatreofabsolutepowerandintimidation.

LEFT: KHORSABAD, THE POSITION OF ZIGGURAT IN THE PALACE COMPLEX. ABOVE: KHORSABAD, THE PALACE IN RELATION TO THE CITY

THEARCHITECTUREOFANCIENTEGYPT THE ARCHITECTURE OF ANCIENT EGYPT


THELANDOFEGYPT THEBURIALOFKINGS THE BURIAL OF KINGS THETIMEOFTHEGODS ENDURANCEOFTHECULT

ARCHITECTUREOFANCIENTEGYPT

MAP: ANCIENT EGYPT

Thissophisticatedcultureofriversettlementsisattributedwithconservatism,orratherthebalanceitsustainsbetween innovationandtradition. NeolithicvillagelifealongNiledevelopedintotwoindependentpolities:LowerEgypt,whichincludedtheDeltaregion Neolithic village life along Nile developed into two independent polities: Lower Egypt, which included the Delta region untilMemphisandUpperEgypt,southwardsuntilAswan. LaterKingMenesofUpperEgyptinvadedthenorthandunifiedthecountryandestablisheditscapitalatMemphis.This coincideswiththeProtoliterate PeriodinMesopotamia,about3000B.C. ARCHAICPERIOD,3000 2665B.C.:Architectureshowedgreatadvancesduringthisperiod;beginningwithbricktombs andpalacesitevolvedtostonemonumentslikethoseatSaqqara. Thiscoincideswiththeearlydynasticperiodin Mesopotamia. OLDKINGDOM,until2150B.C.:MarkedbytheemergenceofabsoluteKingship,theruleofPharaoh.Thearchitectural sequelwasfollowedbytruepyramidsasthoseatGiza. MIDDLE KINGDOM 2250 1570 B C Th MIDDLEKINGDOM,2250 1570B.C.:Theperiodofsocialandpoliticalchaos,towardstheendofthirdmillennium,came i d f i l d liti l h t d th d f thi d ill i toanendandthecapitalwasestablishedatThebes.Dominanceofreligionoverfuneraryarchitectureandpriesthood overkingship wasobserved. NEWDINGDOM,16001300B.C.:Monumentaltemplearchitectureflourishedasdistinctfromtheroyalburials.Thisera l l h fl h d d f h lb l h alsowitnessedalieninvasions.

LANDOFEGYPT
TheEgyptianriverwassubjecttounfailinglyregularandbenignfloodingwhichleftthedepositsofrichblacksoil.This gyp j gy g g g p narrowfertilestripofvalleywasrigidlydividedintofields,theboundariesofwhichhadtobereestablishedafterevery periodofflooding. ThingsranalongNile,mostlynorthandsouth,oratrightanglestoit.Orthogonalplanningcamenaturallybothinthefield divisionandinthedesignofcities.ThisaccountsasaremarkabledifferencebetweenMesopotamianandEgyptianorder. division and in the design of cities. This accounts as a remarkable difference between Mesopotamian and Egyptian order. ElKahun exhibitsafineexampleofthiswhereinthestandardizedbuildingsaregroupedintospecialzones brickrow housesforworkersandcraftsmen,oftenbacktoback,aquarteroflargemansionsforgovernmentofficials,andanenclosed compoundortheking. compound or the king

EL KAHUN, PLAN SHOWING WORKERS HOUSING TO THE LEFT, AND AMPLER GOVERNMENT QUARTERS TO THE RIGHT

Nileaxisconnectedandunifiedthewholeregion.Italsoactedasamajorhighway. Nile axis connected and unified the whole region It also acted as a major highway Thislinearcharacterisevokedinroyalburialsandtemplesalsowhichappearlikeaseriesofepisodesalonga predeterminedpathbuiltovertime.Incontrasttothis,asseeninMesopotamianzigguratcomplexes, anumberof buildingswithindependentboundarywallsweregroupedtogetherbutwithnounifyingaxis. buildings with independent boundary walls were grouped together but with no unifying axis Therepetitivecycleoffloodingoftheriverprojectedaneternalorder.Thebeliefthatdeathwasnotafinalthing but merelythepassagetoanotherregion,wasmanifestationofthesame.Onestombwaslikeoneshouse,builttolastfor eternitytosustainthetheatresofafterlife. t it t t i th th t f ft lif

AMARNA (UPPER EGYPT), DIAGRAMMATIC PLAN OF LAYOUT, SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP TO THE NILE AND THE COURSE OF THE MAIN STREETS.

THEBURIALOFKINGS
EARLYBURIALS Atfirst,asaresultofunificationofEgypt,thePharaohwasgivenadouble burial;symbolicallyatAbydos,sacredsiteofOsirisandtheactualbodyat Saqqara. AtSaqqara,inadditiontotheBurialchambers,thereseveraladditional roomsholdingkingspossessions.Inlateryears,additionalfeatureswere added;smallmortuarytempleonthenorthside,andawoodenboat added; small mortuary temple on the north side and a wooden boat alongsidethetombtocarrythepharaohacrossheaven.

ABOVE: CENOTAPH AT ABYDOS (UPPER EGYPT), ROYAL TUMULUS TOMB OF FIRST DYNASTY, 3100 2890 B.C. 3100 BELOW: SAQQARA (LOWER EGYPT), MORTUARY COMPLEX OF FIRST DYNASTY

ZOSERSPYRAMIDCOMPLEX
11 9 8

TheSaqqaratombofZoser,thisisexceptionallynotorganizedonthe Egyptianprincipleofaxialsequence.DesignedbyarchitectImhotep,this wasthefirstinterpretationofbrick,timberandplantformsofEgyptian architectureinhardmediumofstone.


7 1. Enclosingwall 2. Entrancegate 2 Entrance gate 3. Colonnadeentryhall: withaliftedroof,earliestexampleofclearstoreylighting 4. Grandcourt 5. SouthernMastaba andOfferingroom: arepresentationofroyalcenotaphatAbydos,burialplaceofkingsentrails 6. HebSed court: fortheritualofHebSed,acelebrationofthereconsecrationofhisreign 7. Houseofthesouth 8. Houseofthenorth 8 H f th th 9. Courtoftheserdab 10. Serdab: roomholdingaseatedstatueofZoser asasubstitutefortheking'sbody 11. Mortuary temple Mortuarytemple 12. Steppyramid 13. Sarcophaguschamber 14. Mastaba Thebodylaybeneaththepyramid,inagranitesarcophaguschamber. Initially,asimplestonemastaba wasplacedoveritwhichenlargedinthe courseofconstruction,intoasixsteppedpyramid.

10 12 13 14

5 3 1

2 SAQQARA, MORTUARY COMPLEX OF KING ZOSER, THIRD DYNASTY, ca. 2680 B.C.

Thedesiretomonumentalizethetombandmakeitstandoutabovetheperimeterofthewall,isobvious.Sixunequal Th d i li h b d k i d b h i f h ll i b i Si l stagesalsogiveasenseofclimbing,ofaspiration,aneffectvisuallyclosetotheMesopotamianziggurat. ThekingwasidentifiedwithsungodRe,andthepyramidwasarepresentationofthesame.Itprobablystoodforthe moundofcreationwhosesummitwastherestingplaceofSun.Itwasalsothoughtofasthestaircaseofdivineascent whichledthekingtoheaven.

RIGHT: STATUE OF KING ZOSER IN SERDAB LEFT: ZOSER COMPLEX DUMMY CHAPEL, PYRAMID

THEPYRAMIDSOFGIZA ToetherealizethestaircaseandtomaketheroyaltombaworthsymbolofSun,aftersubsequentattempts,thetrueformof pyramidwasarrivedat. AtGiza,therearethreeseparatepyramidcomplexes,thatofMykerinos (thelatest),Chefren andCheops.

GIZA (LOWER EGYPT), THE PYRAMID GROUP, THIRD ( ), , DYNASTY, ca. 25702500 B.C.

The Th pyramid of Ch f id f Chefren i k is known f the noble f for h bl form of S hi f Sphinx, a l leonine i body with portraithead of the king. At the east of the complex, in front of the Sphinx, stands temple of Harmakhis. Another valley temple stands next to it, glorified with statues of Chefren. From here, the body is transferred to the mortuary temple via a covered causeway that bridges the sphinx group and the pyramid. The mortuary temple begins with a T shaped hall followed by an open court. The innermost sanctum, that follows, is reserved for offerings for the sustenance of the body. This is then followed by the stone mountain of the pyramid where the body lays.

1 4 5

LEFT: G GIZA, PLAN O C OF CHEFREN CO COMPLEX S O SHOWING THE G MORTUARY TEMPLE (1), THE CAUSEWAY (2), THE VALLEY TEMPLE (3) AND THE SPHINX(4) WITH THE TEMPLE OF HARMAKHIS (5) ABOVE: REMAINS OF THE MORTUARY TEMPLE BELOW: REMAINS OF THE SPHINX GROUP

THETIMEOFGODS
AfterthetermofthreeGizakings,theimmediatesuccessorfeltitnecessarytoenhancethepyramidsettingsatAbusir with g, y py g separatesuntemples inthehonorofRe.Themainfeatureofthesetempleswereopencourtcontaininganobelisk mountedonapodium. Thetomb sscaleshrankandthemortuarytemplegrewbiggercompetingwiththeproperpyramidform.Thepyramid The tombs scale shrank and the mortuary temple grew bigger competing with the proper pyramid form. The pyramid nowdidnotevenholdtherealtomb,whichhadmovedelsewherewithinthecomplex.Theemphasishadshiftedfromthe visualglorificationoftherulertothepiousritesoftheburialcult, andthesewerenowdominatedbythenewchiefdeityof thenationalreligion,sungodAmon.BythetimeoftheNewKingdom,thepyramidwasnolongeraroyalprerogative.

DEIRELBAHRI MENTUHOTEP STOMB DEIR ELBAHRI MENTUHOTEPS TOMB TheentireschemeofMentuhotep wasorientedtowardsthenewlystartedtempleofAmon acrosstheriver,themodern Karnak.Ittakesthecompromisedsupremacyofthepharaohalittlefurther,intendingtosatisfytheprovincialaristocracy andthepriesthoodofAmon.Hissuccessor,QueenHatshepsut,marchedforwardwiththesamescheme.Beingawoman, and the priesthood of Amon His successor Queen Hatshepsut marched forward with the same scheme Being a woman herunusualandprecariouspositioncreatedanaddedurgencytodemonstratenearnesstogod.

THEBES, PLAN SHOWING RELATIONSHIP OF , TEMPLES AT DEIR ELBAHRI AND KARNAK

Thevalleytemplehasdisappeared,sohastheunroofedcausewaylinewithstatuesofking.Thecomplexnowconsistsofa The valley temple has disappeared, so has the unroofed causeway line with statues of king. The complex now consists of a largeforecourtplantedwithtrees,aterracecutoutoftherock,onwhichthemortuarytemplestood,anarrowunit comprisingofacourtandahypostylehall. Theking sshareofthecentralspacewasmarkedonlybyacenotaph.Hisrealtomblaydeepinthecliff,approachedbya The kings share of the central space was marked only by a cenotaph His real tomb lay deep in the cliff approached by a longundergroundtunnelthatstartedinthesmallcourtbehindthetemple.Thepyramidwasaltogetherabsentfromthe queenscomplex.

DEIR ELBAHRI (UPPER EGYPT), THE MORTUARY TEMPLES OF MENTUHOTEP 2050 B.C., AND QUEEN HATSHEPSHUT, , , 1500 B.C.

DEIR ELBAHRI, PLAN: THE MORTUARY TEMPLES OF MENTUHOTEP AND HATSHEPSHUT

KARNAKANDLUXOR KARNAK AND LUXOR Thetwotemplecompoundswerelinkedwith oneanotherbyanavenueoframheaded sphinxes;betweenthetwostoodthepalaces sphinxes; between the two stood the palaces andadministrativebuildings.They functionedlikesocialandeconomiccenters whoseadministratorsexercisedpowerin accordancewiththewealthoftheirholdings. d ith th lth f th i h ldi

MONTU

KARNAK,TEMPLE OFAMON

MUT MUT

LUXOR

KARNAK, TEMPLE OF AMON, SITE

Thetemplesareendowedwithmultiplepylonsandcourts.Theprogressionemergesasaritualpath,fromthemost publicspacestotheholyofholies,andahistoricpath,fromthemostrecentreignsoftheNewKingdom,theEthiopian andPtolemaicdynasties,totheoldestfoundationthatmarkedthesacredsite.

KARNAK, TEMPLE OF AMON, STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

Thewholecomplexbecameactiveduringtheyearlymysticmarriageof Amon andMut,whenaprogressiontookplacestartingfromLuxor, crossingMut ,crossingthepylonsofthekarnak precinctfinallytowards Amon temple.

TOP: LUXOR RAMSES II PYLON; RIGHT: THE AVENUE OF RAM HEADED SPINXES LUXOR, RAMHEADED LEADING TO THE AMON TEMPLE; LEFT: AMON TEMPLE, THE GREAT HYPOSTYLE HALL

ENDURANCE OFTHECULT
TheprimacyofAmon wasneversuccessfullychallengedintheNewKingdom.Thepriesthoodcontinuedtogrowinstrength p y y g g p g g attheexpenseofpharaonic supremacy. Thelaterperiod,aroundfirstmillenniumB.C.,observedthesuccessionofforeigndominations;aperiodofEthiopianrule followedbyPersian,GreekempireofAlexandertheGreatuntiltheRoman. followed by Persian, Greek empire of Alexander the Great until the Roman. Therewerenosignificantmodificationsinthetempletype;itcontinuedtogrowunderthebenevolentapprovalofalien rulersanxioustogainthesupportoftheconservativeAmon priesthood.

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