Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18

..

..

20082012
: 8 2012 .

a.naziev@rsu.edu.ru


1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
1.8.
1.9.
1.10.
2.

1.
1.1.
1.1. 10 . 12 .
,
?
. - . 1- 10
. 10 2-
. 10 10, . . 102 .
102 10 3- .
102 10, . . 103 .
9 , , 12 1012
.
1.2. n . k .
,
?
. - . 1- n
. n 2 . n n, . . n2 .
n2 n 3- .
n2 n, . . n3 .
k 3 , , k nk
.
1.3. k- ?

. .

Toc

Doc

Doc

1:

. . S1
S S ,
S1 , . , H0 H1 .
H1 S1 , H0 . , ,
k , , , 2k .
1.2.
1.4. 10 . 7 .
,
?
. 1- 10 .
9 , , 9 2-
. 10 9, .. 10 9 10
.
8 , , 8
3- . 10 9 8, . . 10 9 8
10 .
...
6 10 9 8 . . . 5 .
4 , , 4 7- .
10 9 8 . . . 5 4, .. 10 9 8 7 . . . 4
7- 10 .
1.5. n , k .
,
?

. .

Toc
Doc Doc

1:

. Akn ( A n
k ). 1- n : A1n = n.
n 1 , , n 1 2- .
2-x A1n n 1 ,
A2n = A1n (n 1) = n (n 1).
, 3- n 2
, , n 2 . 3-x A2n
(n 2) ,
A3n = A2n (n 2) = n (n 1) (n 2).

k- , (k 1) n ,
n (k 1) , , n (k 1) .
k Ak1
n (k 1) ,
n
Akn = Ank1 (n (k 1)) = n (n 1) . . . (n (k 1)).
,
Akn = n (n 1) . . . (n (k 1)) .
. :
, k > n. 7 5 ,
?
. (, , 5,
5.)
( !).
. .

Toc

Doc

Doc

1:

1.3.
Ann , n n,
: n-, Pn . k = n, n (k 1) =
n (n 1) = 1. n 1 (
1 n, ).
n! -.
,
Pn = Ann = n (n 1) . . . 2 1 = n!.

1! = 1,

0! = 1.

:
0! = 1; 1! = 1; 2! = 1 2 = 2;
3! = 1 2 3 = 2! 3 = 2 3 = 6;
4! = 1 2 3 4 = 3! 4 = 6 4 = 24;
5! = 1 2 3 4 5 = 4! 5 = 24 5 = 120.
1.1. 10!.
1.6. k ?
. k . k 1 .
k k 1, k (k 1) .
k 2 . k (k 1) (k 2)
. . , k-,
. .

Toc

Doc

Doc

1:

, . k (k 1). . .1 = k!
.
1.2. 1 2; 1, 2, 3; 1, 2, 3, 4.
1.4.

, k n. , k n.
n k 0. , (n k)! :
Akn = n (n 1) . . . (n (k 1))
=
=

n (n 1) . . . (n (k 1)) (n k) . . . 1
(n k) . . . 1
n!
(n k)!

, :
Akn =

n!
(n k)!

. n . k
: , , . . . , k-.
, n k , .

. .

Toc

Doc

Doc

1:

,
n k

,
k n.

(1)

n k.

,
k- ,
k .
1.5.
1.7. n , k .
n k
?
. (1). ,

Akn =
k n
k
( ) k n
Ckn , k k!. :
Akn = Ckn k!,

Ckn =
. .

Toc

Akn

k!

Doc

Doc

1:

k
n n
n
k Ckn ( ) k ( ).
,

n
n!
k
=
Cn =
.
k
k!(n k)!
1.6.
1.1. A B 6 , B C 4
. , B, A C?
1.2. . 16 .
?
1.3. 16 .
. ?
1.4. . 323 .
?
1.5. .
156 . ?
1.6. ,
?
1.7. ,
. ?
1.8. 7 5 :
. .

Toc

Doc

Doc

1:

10

, , , , . ,
?
1.9.
, , . , 11 ? ,
?
1.10. ,
?
1.11. ,
?
1.12. ,
?
1.13. ,
, ?
1.14. ,
, ?
1.7.
Ckn . ,
, . Ckn , .

. .

Toc

Doc

Doc

1:

11

1.1. n k:
0 C0n = Cnn = 1;
1 C1n = n;
;
2 Ckn = Cnk
n
k+1 ( ).
3 Ckn + Cnk+1 = Cn+1

3.

Ckn + Cnk+1 =

n!

n!

=
(k + 1)!(n (k + 1))!

1
1
+
=
=
k!(n (k + 1))! n k k + 1
n!
n+1
=

=
k!(n (k + 1))! (k + 1)(n k)
(n + 1)!
(n + 1)!
=
=
=
(k + 1)!(n k)!
(k + 1)!((n + 1) (k + 1))!
k!(n k)!
n!

= Ck+1
.
n+1
1.15. .
, 1.2, Ckn
:

. .

Toc

Doc

Doc

1:

12

C00
C01
C02
C03
C04

C14

C15

C05

C13

C12

C24

C25

C11

C23

C22

C34

C33
C44

C45

C35

C55

......................................................
. , ,
3, ,
( ) .

. .

Toc

Doc

Doc

1:

13

1
1

1
+

1
1

3
+

2
+

3
+

10

10

......................................................
.
1.3. 10 .
1.8.
1.2. m, n p, p min{m, n},
:
p
P
p
1 Cm+n =
Ckm Cpk
;
n
2 Cn2n =
. .

k=0
n
P

k=0

(Ckn )2 .
Toc

Doc

Doc

1:

14

. 1 . p
m + n. - m , S1 , , S2 . p p + 1 : 0) 0 S1 , p
S2 , 1) 1- S1 , p 1- S2 , . . . , p 1)
p 1- S1 , 1- S2 , , , p) p
S1 , 0 S2 . : 0) C0m Cp0
n
; 1) C1m Cp1
;
.
.
.

n
k) Ckm Cpk
; . . . p 1)
n
Cp1
Cnp(p1) ; p) Cpm Cpp
m
n
.
C0m Cp0
+ C1m Cp1
+ . . . Ckm Cpk
+ . . . + Cp1
C1n + Cpm C0n
n
n
n
m
, .
1.9.
1.3. b n,
n n
X
n
( + b) =
nk bk =
n

k
k=0




n n 0
n
n 2 n2
n
n 0 n
n1
n1
=
b +

b+...+
b
+
b
+
b =
n
n1
2
1
0
n(n 1) n2 2
n(n 1) 2 n2

b +...+
b
+ nbn1 + bn .
= n + nn1 b +
2
2
. .

Toc

Doc

Doc

1:

15

. ,
( + b)n = ( + b) ( + b) . . . ( + b),
( + b) n .
. n,
b, . nk bk , n k , b.
?
, n k n,
n 
.
,
, nk bk
nk 
n
. .
nk
1.10.
, n k n:
n
P
n
1.16.
= 2n .
k
1.17.
1.18.
1.19.
1.20.
1.21.

k=0
n
P

(1)k

k=0
n
P
k=0
n
P

n
k

= 0.

(1)k 2nk
9k

n
k

n
k

= 1.

= 10n .

k=0
n
k k
n
P

n1
= n k1 .
n
k k = n2n1 .

k=0

. .

Toc

Doc

Doc

16

1.22.
1.23.

n
P
k=0
n
P

n
k

(1)k1 k
(k + 1)

n
k

= 0.

= (n + 2)2n1 .

k=0

2.
2.1 ( ). N , K
. n . ,
k ?
. n N CnN . .
.
k K CkK . n k
. N K. n k
N K Cnk
NK . ,
CkK Cnk
NK ,
CkK Cnk
NK
CnN

2.1. 10 , 6 . 5 . , 3 ?
2.2. 10 . 2 . ,
2
, 15
. ?
. .

Toc

Doc

Doc

2:

17

2.2 ( ). k .
, ?
. , k . 365k (?).
A ,
. , A, ,
k .
? , k 365 ( ). , ,
Ak365 . , , k
,

P(A) =

Ak365

365 364 . . . (365 (k 1))

365k
365k
:

P(A) = 1 P(A) = 1

365 364 . . . (365 (k 1))

.
365k
P(A) , , k
. P(A) k :
k
5
10
22
23
30
60
P(A) 0,027 0,117 0,476 0,507 0,706 0,994
( , , ). ,
23 ,
, , , ,
60, !
. .

Toc

Doc

Doc

2:

18

,
2.3. k , 10 .
, ?
A :
k
P(A)
P(A)

10

11

12

...

( k > 10 Akn ( )).


2.4. : , , , , , , , .
,
?
2.5. : , , , , , . ,
?
2.6. 4 6 .
3 . ,
? ? ?
2.7. 60 , , 50. . , ?

. .

Toc

Doc

Doc