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World Religions

Edited. Jeffrey Patten

Presented by the Diversity Committee: Making World Connections

The five major religions of the world


Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism

All religions have a story of CREATION

Buddhist Creation Story


The queen of the kingdom of Sakyas dreamt that a silver elephant entered her womb through her side, which priests predicted she would give birth to a son, who would become a Buddha. Siddhartha was born ten months later and when he became a man, certain incidents that he witnessed, led him to renounce his princely life and later become the Enlightened One.

Christian Creation Story


In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. And God said, "Let there be an expanse between the waters to separate water from water. So God made the expanse and separated the water under the expanse from the water above it. And it was so.
Taken from the King James Bible

Hindu Creation Story


When Purusha (man as primeval being), who had a thousand heads, eyes, and feet, was sacrificed, from his clarified butter beasts were made to inhabit the earth. This also produced the gods Indra (king of gods), Agni (Fire), Vayu (Wind), the Sun and the Moon. The atmosphere was born from Purushas navel; from his head the heavens were produced; from his feet, the earth; and from his ear, the sky.

Islamic Creation Story


Your Guardian-Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days, then He established Himself on the throne [of authority]: He draweth the night as a veil oer the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession: He created the sun, the moon, and the stars, [all] governed by laws under His command. Is it not His to create and to govern? Blessed be Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds!
Translation of the Quran (Al-A`raf 7:54)

Jewish Creation Story


In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without form and void and darkness was upon the face of the deep: and the Spirit of God was moving over the face of the waters. And God said, Let there be light; and there was light. And God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness. God called the light Day and the darkness Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day. Taken from the Book of Genesis (1:1-5)

Judaism
The Ark of the Covenant

History
Judaism traces its origins to the beginning of man, as told in the Old Testament. More specifically it began with Abraham and the Hebrews around 1300 BCE, who came from a town in Mesopotamia (now known as Iraq). Abraham was called by God to migrate to Canaan (what is roughly Israel and Lebanon today). Many years passed when a great famine occurred. The Hebrews, who were semi-nomadic, migrated to Egypt, where they were enslaved by the Pharaoh's command. The Prophet Moses, who was also Hebrew but was adopted by the Pharaoh's queen, was exiled for killing a slave-master after witnessing how the Hebrews were treated. Soon after, God called upon Moses to free his people. After they fled Egypt, they once again settled in Canaan. Jews have been persecuted throughout their history, including the time of the Holocaust, which took place during the 1930s and early 1940s. Jews were forced to move from country to country, acquiring different aspects of cultures along the way. However, Jews have also experienced golden ages, acceptance, and cultural growth. It is recorded in the Hebrew Bible that God made the Jews his chosen people and promised Abraham that his descendants would become a great nation.

The Western Wall, Israel

Important Facts about Judaismreligious foundation for Christianity and Islam. Judaism was the
Jews have their own ethnicity and culture. History is the most important aspect of Judaism and is centered on historical narrative. Holidays are meant to connect Jews with their historical ancestors and traditions. The Western Wall (also known as the Wailing Wall) is Judaisms most sacred place on earth. It is what is left of The Temple of Jerusalem, where the Ark of the Covenant was stored (the Ark contained the commandments and many other laws sent by God).

Major Jewish Sects Orthodox Designated as the most traditional form of the
religion, Orthodox Jews believe in the Torah, which was revealed at Sinai and is concerned with oral and written versions of the law. Households are very strict regarding food and utensils. Meat and dairy are never eaten together. The two food groups have separate storage areas and utensils, which are also washed separately. Segregation of women and men in synagogues is still continued. Hasidic: Are considered to be ultra-Orthodox. A Zaddik or righteous man was believed to have a direct line to God. They are recognized today by their distinct appearance; men dressed completely in black with wide-brimmed hats, long coats, beards, and extended rope-like sideburns.

Conservative: The Torah and Talmud are taught to be constant authorities but that historical and textual studies both could set apart cultural ideas from permanent religious laws. Rabbis are trained, along with women (Orthodoxy strictly prohibits this), who are also allowed to pray together with men. Jewish Conservatism upholds the importance of Jewish nationalism is very important and supports of Zionism (modern political movement that supports the creation of a Jewish state). Reform: The main distinctions are that many beliefs, laws, and practices were either abandoned or modified from Orthodoxy. The central principle is that they have the right to decide which beliefs and practices to follow. Conversion to Judaism is also much simpler. Today, Reform Judaism is moving toward embracing more of the rituals and dietary laws as Orthodox and Conservative Jews do.

Moses on Mt. Sinai receiving the 10 Commandments from God

Beliefs
Ethics are the foundation of Judaism. The backbone of Judaism is the Five Books of Moses (Torah), which contain 613 commandments and should be read each Sabbath (shabbat). God is all powerful. The sacred name of God is YHWH (sometimes pronounced as Yahweh). The 13 Articles of Faith were created by a 12th century rabbi, Maimonides, and are accepted as a general summary of religious Judaism.

The 13 Articles of Faith


1. God exists. 2. God is one and unique. 3. God is incorporeal. 4. God is eternal. 5. Prayer is to God only. 6. The prophets spoke truth. 7. Moses was the greatest of the prophets. 8. The Written and Oral Torah were given to Moses. 9. There will be no other Torah. 10. God knows the thoughts and deeds of men. 11. God will reward the good and punish the wicked. 12. The Messiah will come. 13. The dead will be resurrected.

Rituals & Practices


mezuzah (parchment inscribed with religious texts attached in a case) Placed on every door post in their home to remind them to keep Gods laws. Bar/Bat Mitzvah: All 13/12 year-old boys and girls are considered to be of marriageable age (today it is almost unheard of that children marry this early) Must now obey Jewish laws (children are not held to Jewish laws up until this age). A ritual is not needed in order to signify their new status. It is only
recently that these elaborate ceremonies were invented.

The Menorah (candelabrum): One of the oldest symbols of the Jewish faith. Menorahs in synagogues and homes represent the eternal lamp that was left burning in front of the Ark of the Covenant. The Jewish Star (magen david): This six-pointed star appeared around the 1600s (roughly) and was first used to adorn synagogues. The Zionists adopted the symbol in the 19th century, it became popular among the Jewish culture. Today it is part of the flag of Israel. Chai: Consists of two Hebrew letters chet (life) and yud (living), which represents the value that Judaism places on life. This symbol is mainly used in jewelry.

Symbolism

Torah (also known as the Pentateuch or the Five Books of Moses): Most important section of the Jewish Bible (Tanakh). It consists of narratives and laws that have been recorded, in historical order, the beginning of the world all the way through to the death of Moses. To study the Torah is considered to be an act of worship. The five books are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Talmud (means study or learning): A reference to the interpretations of the Torah. It is the ultimate authority of law and is used mostly by rabbis. It uses the rules of Torah and describes how to apply them to different circumstances. Tanakh (acronym for Torah, Neviim, and Ketuvim): The Hebrew Bible is the same as the Christian Old Testament and consists of the historic writings of rabbis. The books are arranged in a slightly different order along with other minor variations from the Christian version. The Tanakh consists of the Torah, Nevi'im (law) and Ketuvim (writings).

Sacred Texts

Worshi p
Jews gather at synagogues (center of Jewish community life) for worship. There are three traditional functions of a synagogue: House of Prayer (where services are held on the Sabbath and festival
days) House of Study (where the Torah and Talmud are studied)

House of Assembly (people can meet for any purpose) Synagogues were developed after the destruction of The Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE, when the Jews dispersed all over the Roman Empire. A rabbi (teacher) runs the synagogue and helps settle disputes regarding Jewish law, although they can be run without one. In traditional Judaism, Jews recite prayers three times a day. Although private praying is accepted, it is ideal if praying takes place in a synagogue with a minyan (quorum of 10 adult males).

Christianity

Historical Events
Christianity arose from Judaism Christianity is based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Early Christians were persecuted for their beliefs, which led many to worship/gather in secret until Constantine I legalized the religion in 313. Using the formation of the Jewish Diaspora (dispersion), Christians were able to reach Gentile (non-Jewish) communities, thus spreading Jesus philosophy Became the dominant religion over the Roman Empire by the late 4th century

Sermon on the Mount

Three largest branches of Catholicism: Distinctive differences Christianity of the Pope, include special authority
ability of saints to intercede on behalf of believers, the concept of Purgatory (purification of the elect before entering heaven), and that bread used in the Eucharist (Mass) becomes the true body of Christ when blessed by a priest. Protestantism (Anglicans, Baptist, Methodist, Lutheran, Calvinist etc. are within this branch): Emphasizes that Christians can communicate directly with God, instead of through saints and or priests. Praying directly from the heart instead of reciting fixed prayers are encouraged. Their theology demonstrates that there is justification

Piet
(pity)

Beliefs
The Eucharist (Holy Communion or The Lords Supper) is the central symbol of the death of Jesus on the cross and established the new covenant (formal alliance/agreement). Jesus resurrection is central to Christian belief. Jesus is the son of God and represents the person that all Christians strive to be like. God, is the all-powerful creator and everything he created is an expression of his power and love. The Holy Trinity means that God is the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Christians follow ten commandments.

The Ten Commandments


You shall have no other Gods before me. You shall not make for yourself any carved image. You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Honor your father and your mother. You shall not murder. You shall not commit adultery. You shall not steal. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. You shall not covet your neighbors house, wife,

(summarized from the Bible):

You shall have no other Gods before me. You shall not make for yourself any carved image. You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Honor your father and your mother. You shall not murder. You shall not commit adultery. You shall not steal. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. You shall not covet your neighbors house, wife, etc.

Resurrection

Customs
Prayers are used to thank God for his gifts, for forgiveness, and for blessings and favors. Baptism is an important ritual because it marks the beginning of a persons life as a Christian and symbolizes the washing away of all past sins.

Baptism of Jesus

Facts To The term Christ originated from the Greek Know:


word Xristos, meaning the anointed one and is a title applied to Jesus to indicate status. The term catholic means universal. Born again refers to the belief that God forgives the sins of all who repent and wish to lead a new life. The title Pope originated from papa in Latin and pappas in Greek, which means father

The Holy Bible is the text that Christians use. It is divided into two books; the Old and New Testaments. The Old Testament consists of Abrahams relationship with God and the people of Israel. The New Testament refers to early Christians and their new covenant with God through Christ. Note: Catholic and Orthodox Bibles sometimes include the Apocrypha (hidden books), which were written between the Old and New Testaments.

Symbolis The fish symbol is a well known icon m among Christians and non-Christians
alike. Note: Some scholars believe that it was a symbol used to
recognize other believers when early Christians were persecuted for their faith. When meeting a stranger they identified themselves by drawing an arc in the sand. If the other person was a Christian, they would draw a second arc, completing the fish. If the person was not a Christian, then the one arc would not reveal who they were.

Alpha and Omega, the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, which together signifies that God is the beginning and the end.

Islam

History
The founder and prophet of Islam is Muhammad. Born in 570 CE, Muhammad experienced a revelation when he was forty years old and began to teach the word of God.

The first Islamic community was formed after Muhammad fled from persecution and migrated to Medina. The main principle of Islam is the submission to God. The word Islam literally means to submit.

Medina, Saudi Arabia

Mecca is the birthplace of Muhammad the Prophet. During daily prayers, all Muslims must face Mecca, where the Kaba is located. The Kaba or house of God contains a meteorite that is believed to have been put there by Abraham and Ismail. The Kaba symbolizes the first house of worship. Muslims follow a different calendar which does not keep in step with the solar year. This calendar year consists of 354 days. Figurative art of Muhammad is not acceptable and is actually considered offensive to Muslims. Muhammad instructed his followers not to draw his likeness for fear that they would worship him instead of God.

Fact s

Major Sects
Sunni: This is the largest sect in Islam, with 940 million adherents. Sunnis follow the sunnah, which means custom and tradition. This means that they follow the teachings of Muhammads successor, Abu Bakr, instead of Muhammads sonin-law, Ali. Shia: Shiites follow Ali, who was the closest relative of Muhammad and is the main difference that separates them from Sunnis. Shiites also see Ali as the first Imam or spiritual leader; one who can interpret the inner workings of the Quran in addition to being a political leader. Sufism: This mystical aspect of the Islamic faith is based in orthodox Islam and the Quran. Sufis believe in the purity of life, strict obedience to Islamic Law and emulating Muhammad the Prophet.

Beliefs
To be considered a Muslim, you must follow the six

articles of faith: Belief of one God, angels of God, books of God, prophets of God, day of judgment, and the supremacy of Gods will. The most important belief is that there is only one God, Allah (which means the God). Prophets are messengers of God and are to be revered not worshiped. As in Christian faith, Muslims believe that the soul will continue on with the ultimate path being Paradise or Hell.

Rituals & Practices


The Five Pillars of Islam are the focus of a Muslims
faith. Confession of faith (shahada): There is no god but God and Muhammad is the prophet of God. Ritual Prayer (salat): Performed five times a day and always in the direction of the Kaba shrine in Mecca. Alms Tax (zakat): All adult Muslims of sufficient means are to pay this tax, which goes to the needy. Fasting During the Month of Ramadan (sawm): Muslims abstain from food, drink, and sex during daylight hours. There is also more praying and more acts of devotion. Pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj): During the last month

Pilgrimage to Mecca

Sacred Texts
The two most important texts in the Islamic faith are the Quran and the Hadith. The Quran is Islams most sacred text because it is believed to be the actual word of God as told to Muhammad. Note: (Although the Judeo-Christian bible is respected by Muslims, it is understood by Islam that it has been incorrectly translated). The Hadith (narrative or report) consists of words and deeds of Muhammad, his family and his followers. Muslims use the Hadith for moral guidance and religious law.

The Quran

Pray 5 times a day pointed toward Mecca

Worship
Muslims are summoned to worship/prayer by a man

(muezzin) who calls out from rooftops. Sometimes a megaphone is used to reach long distances. Prayers consist of recitations glorifying God, accompanied by several movements, including bowing, kneeling and touching ones forehead to the ground. It is preferred that this is practiced together in order to show brotherhood, equality, and solidarity.

Symbolism
Officially there are no Islamic symbols. However, the star and crescent is accepted as symbolism due to the long reign of the Ottoman Empire, which lasted from 1299 1922 and covered three continents. Itulitimately became associated with Islam. The color green is used to represent vegetation and life. Some believe that Muhammad favored this color and wore green robes and a green turban. In the Quran it states that the inhabitants of paradise wear garments of green silk. Note: Green is also one of the colors on Saudi Arabias flag.

It is your own conduct which will lead you to reward or punishment, as if you had been destined therefor.

-Muhammad

Hinduis m

Indus Valley, India

History
Hinduism comes from the region of the Indus Valley in India. It is referred to as sanatama dharma or eternal religion or eternal truth. Hinduism has no exact date of origin or founder but is said to be the oldest surviving religion/major tradition that goes back more than 1500 years BCE. Since India regained its independence in 1947 from British Colonial rule, there has been much political controversy over the religions origins. Understandably, Indias people feel strongly about this subject, as their religion is an

Facts
The Hindu prayer may good thoughts come to us from all sides reinforces the concept of embracing other religions without giving up being a Hindu. Hinduism is not only a religion to its believers but a way of life. It is a continuous, eternal existence. Brahman in Sanskrit means spirit, which is thought to be what is present in everything and what keeps the universe going. Ones station in society (caste), determines ones dharma or ones duty in life. This caste system offers some a strong sense of belonging and identity.

Major Sects
Vaisnavism: Based on the worship of the blue sky-god
Visnu is known as the protector of the embryo in the womb. This sect has the largest followers. There are ten avatars that Visnu can appear as (more or less , depending on the text). The main doctrine is rooted in fidelity to tradition and rules of life and ritual.

Saivism: Saivites worship Siva as the highest god.

This sect is supposed to be the oldest of all. Saivism focuses on selfrealization with the ultimate goal being moksha but also includes legends, mysticism and yogic practices. Divine Female or Devi Goddess. She represents motherhood and bestows boons upon her followers. The Devi Goddess manifests many forms, such as Lakshmi, consort to Visnu and Parvati, and also wife to Siva. The Ganges river in India, represents Devi, which draws many Hindus to her waters to wash

Saktism: This denomination centers on worshipping the

Visnu

Devi, the Mother Goddess

Ganges River

Beliefs Instead, they believe Hindus do not believe in just one god.
that a higher being takes many forms. These deities can take on the image of human-animal forms, such as the deity Ganesha, who has a human body with the head of an elephant. Ganesha clears away lifes obstacles. All Hindus believe in reincarnation. How you live your life determines who or what you become in the next life. Reincarnation continues until you leave all material things behind you and attain moksha liberation. Karma means deeds or actions in Sanskrit. It refers to the intentional actions and what effect it has on a persons fortunes in life and in the next. It explains the evil and misfortunes of the world and is a fundamental law of nature.

Ganesha

Siva

Path & Purpose


Hindus follow three paths:
karmamarga (works and action), jnanamarga (knowledge or philosophy), bhatkimarga (devotion to God)

There are four purposes in life that a Hindu follows:


dharma (fufill moral, social, and religious duties), artha (attain financial and worldly success), kama (satisfy desires in moderation), moksha (attain freedom from reincarnation)

Sacred Texts
The Hindus most sacred scriptures are called the Vedas, which means knowledge in Sanskrit. They represent unchallenged authority and tradition. The Upanishads contains the wisdom of Hindu teachers and sages and forms the basis of Indian philosophy. These writings are known as the conclusion of the Veda. Bhagavad-Gita or Song of the Lord is read in the form of a dialogue between two characters and is considered to be the sixth book of the epic poem Mahabharata

Veda Scriptures

Upanishads

Worshi Puja is a combination of ceremonial practices that ptemple. Most either take place in the home or in a
practices are conducted in the home. Almost every Hindu home has a shrine with images of their gods and goddesses. Ceremonial practices vary according to which sect they belong to. Offerings can be modest or elaborate, depending on the circumstance. Offerings may include rice, flowers, fruit, incense, and milk water.

Hindu Temple

Symbolis A tilak, or symbolic mark on the forehead of a Hindu m man, is usually that of a line/s that represent which
religious sect he belongs to. This mark, made commonly from vermillion, is traditionally a womans symbol that represents female energy. The bindi that Hindu women wear on their foreheads accentuates the third eye, where attention is focused when meditating. It is also worn as protection for women, which extends to their husbands. The Aum (Om) symbol is a sacred sound and consists of several triads, including: the three worlds (earth, atmosphere, heaven), the three major Hindu gods (Brahma, Visnu, Siva), and the three sacred

Buddhism

The Historical Buddha


Originated in the 6th century BCE with Siddhartha Gautama (also referred to as Skyamuni, the Sage of the Sakya People) After experiencing the Four Sights (old age, sickness, death, and a begging monk), Gautama left his family and became a wandering monk While meditating under a Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya, he grasped the Four Noble Truths and became Buddha (Enlightened

Three Subdivisions of Buddhism: of the Elders): Focus is the Theravada (Way


monastic community and the need for self-discipline in order to attain nirvana Mahayana (Greater Vehicle): Focuses on compassion in the bodhisattva form (holy person who postpones nirvana in order to help people). This subdivision has the most followers, since it is geared towards the layman. Vajrayana (Diamond Vehicle): Dominant form of Buddhism in Tibet. It is known for its mystical rituals, which include, tantras, mantras, and mandalas

The lotus represents a pattern of growth that signifies the progress of the soul from the primeval mud of materialism, through the waters of experience, and then into the sunshine of enlightenment.

Beliefs
(Buddha is a title. When referring to the Buddha, it is assumed to mean Buddha Gautama)
Buddhists believe in reincarnation but as a reconfiguration of basic energies, not as self The Pancasila or Five Precepts, are fundamental ethical principles that all Buddhists should follow. They are:
1. Abstaining from harming any living being, 2. Taking anything when not given, 3. Sensual misconduct, 4. False speech, and 5. Losing control thru intoxication.

Liberation is attained by embracing the Four Noble Truths

Craving for things that will not last is the root of suffering Nirvana is the end of suffering and reincarnation In order to reach Nirvana, one must follow the Noble Eightfold Path

The Four Noble Truths: Suffering is universal

Meditating under a sacred Bodhi Tree

The Noble Eightfold Path


(interdependent practical principles seen in relationship with each other)

Right View Right Intention Right Speech Right Action Right Livelihood Right Effort Right Mindfulness Right Concentration

A Dharma Wheel
Represents the Noble Eightfold Path

Cover from the Tibetan Book of the Dead

Sacred Texts
Dhammapada (Pali canon): Recorded conversations of the Buddha in the Pali Indian dialect. The Tipitaka (Three Baskets): A collection of Buddhas sayings, the monastic rule, and a philosophical system (most important text in Theravada Buddhism. Bardo Thdol or Tibetan Book of the Dead: Describes the consciousness experience of the interval between death and rebirth.

Buddhis t Temple

Worship
A Buddhist devotion to the religion is a natural part of their life that can include their diet, job, trade, or profession. They conduct daily meditations, give offerings at shrines, temples, or monasteries. Many Buddhists have shrine rooms in their homes. As part of their devotions, Buddhists recite the three refuges or the Three Jewels (Buddha, Dharma; truth or teachings, and Sangha; monastic community), some Buddhists also chant. Practicing meditation frees the mind from everyday emotions.

Symbolism
Buddhapada: Buddhas footprints are early representatives of the Buddha. They are highly revered in all Buddhist countries. They symbolize many things. The most popular meaning is the grounding of the transcendent. The Color Yellow: During Gautamas lifetime, saffron was found to be the cheapest and easiest way to dye cloth. Criminals were designated to wear this color to signify their state. Gautama Bhudda chose to wear this color as a sign of humility and separation from materialistic society. It has the highest

We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thoughts. With our thoughts, we make the world.
Siddhartha Gautama

Holly Library maintains many resources relating to Buddhism, including:


Buddhism: a Short History (Edward Conze) A History of Buddhist Philosophy (David J. Kalupahana) Women in Buddhism (Diana Y. Paul) The Awakening of the West (Stephen Batchelor) The Art of Happiness, (the Dalai Lama) Buddhist Symbols in Tibetan Culture (Loden Sherap Dagyab Rinpoche, translated) Discovering Buddhism, DVD The Long Search, DVD (BBC series)

Bibliography
Couliano, I; Eliade, C.; Wiesner, H. (1991). The Harpercollins Concise Guide to World Religion. Harpercollins Publications Klostermaier, Klaus K. (1999). Buddhism: A Short Introduction. Oneworld Publications Conze, M.; Conze, E. (2000). Buddhism: A Short History. Oneworld Publications Pollock, Robert (2002). The Everything Worlds Religions Book: Discover the Beliefs, Traditions, and Cultures of Ancient and Modern Religions. F + W Publications, Inc. Religionfacts website (www.religionfacts.com)

Image Sources
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Bibliography
Couliano, I; Eliade, C.; Wiesner, H. (1991). The Harpercollins Concise Guide to World Religion. Harpercollins Publications Pollock, Robert (2002). The Everything Worlds Religions Book: Discover the Beliefs, Traditions, and Cultures of Ancient and Modern Religions. F + W Publications, Inc. Klostermaier, Klaus (2000). Hinduism: A Short History. Oneworld Publications (Berne Convention). Religionfacts website (www.religionfacts.com)

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Bibliography
Couliano, I; Eliade, C.; Wiesner, H. (1991). The Harpercollins Concise Guide to World Religion. Harpercollins Publications Pollock, Robert (2002). The Everything Worlds Religions Book: Discover the Beliefs,Traditions,and Cultures of Ancient and Modern Religions. F + W Publications, Inc. Esposito, John L. (2002). What Everyone Needs To Know About Islam: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions, From One of Americas Leading Experts. Oxford University Press, Inc. Religionfacts website (www.religionfacts.com)

Image Resources
3: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f6/Masjid_Nabawi._Medina%2C_Saudi _Arabia.jpg 5: http://media.photobucket.com/image/sufism/amonraeyes/whirlingdervishes.jpg 7: http://media.photobucket.com/image/islamic%20women/green_lover_4ever/Beauty/The purityofIslam.jpg, http://farm1.static.flickr.com/167/421158364_0c17ea7350.jpg 9: http://photos.upi.com/slideshow/lbox/65c11197a81bb96ab91064f9c964aefd/HajjMuslim-pilgrimage.jpg 11: http://wmazmi.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/quranlarge.jpg 13: http://islamzpeace.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/prayer-in-mosque.jpg 15: http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/symbols.htm 17: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2010/03/14/AR2010031402122.html 19: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b3/Rub_al_khalid_sunset_nov_07.JP G

Resources Available in Holly Library


The unauthorized version : truth and fiction in the Bible by Robin Lane Fox The Oxford illustrated history of Christianity, edited by John McManners Science and creationism, edited by Ashley Montagu The Western tradition, video, WGBH, Boston ; in association with the Metropolitan Museum of Art ; executive producer, Fred Barzyk World Christian encyclopedia : a comparative study of churches and religions in the modern world, AD 1900-2000, edited by David B. Barrett The HarperCollins encyclopedia of Catholicism , general editor, Richard P. McBrien The Gospel of Judas, DVD, produced by National Geographic Television & Film ; produced & directed by James Barrat ; written by John Bredar, James Barrat

Bibliography
Couliano, I; Eliade, C.; Wiesner, H. (1991). The Harpercollins Concise Guide to World Religion. Harpercollins Publications Pollock, Robert (2002). The Everything Worlds Religions Book: Discover the Beliefs, Traditions, and Cultures of Ancient and Modern Religions. F + W Publications, Inc. Parrinder, Geoffery, Editor, (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, Newnes Books, 1983. Religionfacts website (www.religionfacts.com)

Image Resources
Slide 3: http://powerspectaclememory.files.wordpress.com/2008/10/sermon-onthe-mount.jpg Slide 5: http://crazymindseye.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/pieta4.jpg Slide 7: http://freechristimages.org/images_Exodus/Moses_with_Ten_Commandments_ Champaigne_1648.jpg Slide 9: http://www.whiteheadcarvings.com/images/gallery/Resurrection_of_Jesus.jpg Slide 11: http://www.christusrex.org/www1/stanzas/L51b-Baptism.jpg Slide 13: http://samuelatgilgal.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/holy-bible.jpg Slide 15: http://z.about.com/d/christianity/1/0/f/2/Christian_Fish.png , http://alphayomega.com/&usg=__iLY6Za5eED87vOzcYzD59iZO2jE=&h=400&w=400&sz=12 &hl=en&start=7&um=1&tbnid=UWdjkEIYLJRdeM:&tbnh=124&tbnw=124&prev=/i mages%3Fq%3Dalpha%2Band%2Bomega%26hl%3Den%26rls%3Dcom.micros oft:en-us%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1 Slide 17: http://jahdai.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/church.jpg , http://www.saintpetercatholic.com/images/main-church.jpg , http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2009/12/13/nyregion/13indonesians_CA0.h tml , "First Church" article

http://scrapetv.com/News/News%20Pages/usa/images-3/orthodox-jew.jpg Slide 8 http://www.religionfacts.com/judaism/images/people/hasidim-jerusalem-ccpremasagar.jpg

Slide 10 http://people.westminstercollege.edu/faculty/mmarkowski/212/2/Moses-Firenza.jpg

Slide 12 http://www.religionfacts.com/judaism/images/people/maimonides-autograph-200.jpg Slide 14 http://www.mezuzahshop.com/images/mezuzah-2012-01.jpg http://trustearthpulse.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/297px-mezuzah2c_taken_by_tamara11.jpg Slide 16 http://paulhill.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/torah1.jpg

Image Resource s

Slide 18 http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://blog.bibleplaces.com/uploaded_images/Hurvah_ Synagogue_arch,_tb010200207794097.jpg&imgrefurl=http://blog.bibleplaces.com/2006/11/jewish-quarterexcavations.html&usg=__xvY9V81H3HmbAtkiZq0g2rzvOw=&h=768&w=1024&sz=263&hl=en&start=75&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=L1QTpSkO6LT8SM:&t bnh=113&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsynagogue%26start%3D63%26um%3D1%26hl %3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:enUS:official%26ndsp%3D21%26tbs%3Disch:1 Slide 20 http://www.santaandthemrs.com/Hanukkah/menorah_titus_mncr.jpg chai http://www.judaic.com/jewish-jewelry/chai-pendants/chai-pendant-images/chai-pendantS100C-L.jpg star http://spiritual-fashions.com/images/categories/jewish%20star.jpg Slide 22 http://lubavitch.com/news/article/2028965/Dutch-Government-Acknowledges-FailureTo-Protect-Jews.html http://lubavitch.com/news/article/2026172/Lag-BOmer-Of-Mystics-andMerriment.html Slide 24 http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_hD5SOh3qDP0/SxPobv2YH wI/AAAAAAAAATA/hPcRcUkB9_0/s1600/100_2631.JPG&imgrefurl=http://ppcegypt.blogspot.co m/&usg=__ogR_q4gnAmfNHGBCZL5q9I9d9M=&h=1200&w=1600&sz=296&hl=en&start=48&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=rMKG5HTuFGhLo M:&tbnh=113&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbeautiful%2Bpictures%2Bof%2Bjerusalem %26start%3D42%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-

Image Sources:
Slide 5: http://mech.ioe.edu.np/pragati/Gautama%20Siddhattha%20Buddha_f iles/buddhadream.jpg Slide 7: http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2593/4018250989_cdecfe78ee.jpg Slide 9: http://www.irfwp.org/content/archives/indra.jpg , http://www.chennaimuseum.org/draft/gallery/03/01/012/images/vayu.j pg , http://www.eprarthana.com/images/gallery/others/agni.jpg Slide 11: http://www.dhikrullah.com/lectures/images/lectures/qadhi/angels.jpg Slide 13: http://www.ucdesigners.co.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2009/03/stockxpertcom_id21589-world11024x794.jpg Slide 15: http://www.majikalwishes.com/picts/religions_earth.jpg

Bibliography
Park, M. (2009). Introducing Anthropology: An Integrated Approach. 4th edition. Boston et al: McGraw-Hill Conze, M.; Conze, E. (2000). Buddhism: A Short History. Oneworld Publications Cohn-Sherbok, L.; Cohn-Sherbok, D. (1999). Judaism: A Short Introduction. Oneworld Publications. Couliano, I.; Eliade, C.; Wiesner, H. (1991). The Harpercollins Concise Guide to World Religions. Harpercollins Publishers. Religionfacts website, (www.religionfacts.com)

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