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# Charged Rod and Aluminum Can

You will be asked to use your knowledge of physics to predict the outcome of an experiment.

Part A Consider the situation in the figure below, where two charged rods are placed a distance either side of an aluminum can. What does the can do?

on

Hint A.1

How to approach the problem. This problem asks you to think about induced charge on the surface of an object and the resulting polarization force.
To get started, draw a diagram. Draw the induced surface charges on the outside of the can. Next, draw a force diagram (free-body diagram) to show the forces exerted on the can. Aluminum is a conductor.

## Stays still Rolls to the right Rolls to the left

Correct The positively charged rod induces a negative charge on the left side of the can, creating an attractive force between the rod and the can. However, the negatively charged rod induces an equal positive charge on the right side of the can, which creates an attractive force between the can and that rod. The net force acting on the can is zero. Part B Now, consider the situation shown in the figure below. What does the can do?

## Rolls to the right Stays still Rolls to the left Correct

The polarization force is always attractive, so the can does not move.

Part C Using the setup from the first question, imagine that you briefly touch the negatively charged rod to the can. You then hold the two rods at equal distances on either side of the can. What does the can do? Hint C.1 How to approach the problem. This problem asks you to consider what happens to a conductor after being touched by a charged object. What charge will the can have after being touched? Negative

Rolls away from the positively charged rod Does not move Rolls toward the positively charged rod

Correct The can acquires a net negative charge after being touched, so it is then attracted to the positively charged rod.

Charging an Insulator

This problem explores the behavior of charge on realistic (i.e. non-ideal) insulators. We take as an example a long insulating rod suspended by insulating wires. Assume that the rod is initially electrically neutral. For convenience, we will refer to the left end of the rod as end A, and the right

end of the rod as end B . In the answer options for this problem, "weakly attracted/repelled" means "attracted/repelled with a force of magnitude similar to that which would exist between two balls, one of which is charged, and the other acquires a small induced charge". An attractive/repulsive force greater than this should be classified as "strongly attracted/repelled". Part A A small metal ball is given a negative charge, then brought near (i.e., within a few millimeters) to end A of the rod. What happens to end A of the rod when the ball approaches it closely this first time? Hint A.1 What is an insulator? An insulator is a material which does not allow charge/current to flow easily through it.

Hint A.2 Charge at end A Keeping in mind that like charges repel each other, and opposite charges attract each other, what sort of charge is induced at end A of the (non-ideal) insulating rod?
Top of Form

## A small negative charge

Bottom of Form

Select the expected behavior. ANSWER: strongly repelled strongly attracted weakly attracted

weakly repelled neither attracted nor repelled Correct Currently, you can think of this in the following way: When the sphere is brought near the rod, a positive charge is induced at end A (and correspondingly, end B acquires a negative induced charge). This means that some charge must have flowed from A to B. Since charge flow is inhibited in an insulator, the induced charges are typically small. Later you will learn how to model insulators more accurately and formulate a slightly more accurate argument. Now consider what happens when the small metal ball is repeatedly given a negative charge and then brought into contact with end A of the rod Part B After several contacts with the charged ball, how is the charge on the rod arranged? Hint B.1 What is an insulator? An insulator is a material which does not allow charge/current to flow easily through it.

Select the best description. ANSWER: positive charge on end B and negative charge on end A negative charge spread evenly on both ends negative charge on end A with end B remaining almost neutral positive charge on end A with end B remaining almost neutral

none of the above Correct When the sphere is touched to end A, some of its negative charge will be deposited there. However, since charge cannot flow easily through an insulator, most of this charge will just sit at end A and will not distribute itself over the rod, as it would if the rod was a conductor. Part C How does end A of the rod react when the ball approaches it after it has already made several contacts with the rod, such that a fairly large charge has been deposited at end A? Select the expected behavior. ANSWER: strongly repelled strongly attracted

## weakly attracted weakly repelled neither attracted nor repelled Correct

More on insulators: You may have learnt that any material is made of atoms, which in turn consist of a

nucleus and electrons. In the atoms of some materials, some of the electrons are "bound" to the nucleus very weakly, which leaves them free to move around the volume of the material. Such electrons are called "free" electrons, and such materials are called conductors, because the charge (i.e. electrons) can move around easily. In insulators, all the electrons in the atom are bound quite tightly to the nucleus, i.e. there are no free electrons available to move through the insulator.

## Charging a Grounded Conducting Rod

Learning Goal: To understand interactions between a grounded conductor and a charged ball that is repeatedly brought into contact with it. This problem explores the behavior of charge on grounded conductors. We take as an example a long conducting rod suspended by conducting wires that are connected to ground. Assume that the rod is initially electrically neutral. For convenience, we will refer to the left end of the rod as end A,

and the right end of the rod as end B . In the answer options for this problem, "strongly attracted/repelled" means "attracted/repelled with a force of magnitude similar to that which would exist between two charged balls." Part A A small metal ball is given a negative charge, then brought near (i.e., within about 1/10 the length of the rod) to end A of the rod. What happens to end A of the rod when the ball approaches it closely this first time? Hint A.1 The key property of a conductor is that the charges are free to move around inside in response to internal electric fields; in a static situation, they will arrange so that the internal field is zero.

Hint A.2 How much charge moves to end A? It is stated that the ball approaches the end of the rod much closer than the length of the rod. Therefore, if points down the rod several times

the distance of approach (but still much closer to end A than end B) are to experience no electric field, the charge on end A of the rod must be comparable in magnitude to the charge on the ball (so that their fields will cancel).

Select the expected behavior. ANSWER: strongly repelled strongly attracted weakly attracted weakly repelled neither attracted nor repelled Correct Now consider what happens when the small metal ball is repeatedly given a negative charge and then brought into contact with end A of the rod. Part B After a great many contacts with the charged ball, how is any charge on the rod arranged (when the charged ball is far away)? Hint B.1 The rod is grounded, and the charged ball is far away (i.e., it produces a negligible electric field in the vicinity of the rod). Any charge previously transferred to the rod has been conducted to ground, and there are no electric fields around to induce any charge in the rod.

Select the best description. ANSWER: positive charge on end B and negative charge on end A negative charge spread evenly on both negative charge on end A with end B remaining neutral both ends neutral

## positive charge spread evenly on both

Correct Part C How does end A of the rod react when the (re)charged ball approaches it after a great many previous contacts with end A? Hint C.1 The rod is a grounded conductor Any charge previously transferred to the conducting rod has been conducted to ground.

Select the expected behavior. ANSWER: strongly repelled strongly attracted weakly attracted weakly repelled neither attracted nor repelled Correct

Part D How does end B of the rod react when the charged ball approaches it after a great many previous contacts with end A? Hint D.1 The rod is a grounded conductor Any charge previously transferred to the conducting rod has been conducted to ground.

Select the expected behavior. ANSWER: strongly repelled strongly attracted weakly attracted weakly repelled

## Electric Force of Three Collinear Points Ranking Task

In the diagram below, there are three collinear point charges: and due to is the same as that between and . and , , and . The distance between

## . You will be asked to rank the Coulomb force on

Part A Rank the six combinations of electric charges on the basis of the electric force acting on . Define forces pointing to the right as positive and forces pointing to the left as negative. Rank positive forces as larger than negative forces. Hint A.1 Definition of electric force The electric force between a pair of charges is proportional to the product of the charge magnitudes ( and ) and inversely proportional to the square

of the distance ( ) between them. This result is summarized mathematically by Coulombs law:

. The direction of the force is such that opposite charges attract and like charges repel each other.

Hint A.2 Determine the net force for one combination of charges For combination of charges ( , to the other charges? , ), what is the direction of the net electric force on due

due to

## ), what is the direction of

the electric force on due to ? Remember that like charges repel each other and opposite charges attract each other.
Top of Form

## to the right to the left There is no force in any direction.

Bottom of Form

Rank from largest to smallest, placing the largest on the left and the smallest on the right. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. ANSWER:

Correct

## PSS 21.1 Coulomb's Law

Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 21.1 Coulomb's Law. Three charged particles are placed at each of three corners of an equilateral triangle whose sides are of length 2.8 . Two of the particles have a negative charge: = -6.4 and = -12.8 . The

remaining particle has a positive charge, = 8.0 . What is the net electric force acting on particle 3 due to particle 1 and particle 2? Problem-Solving Strategy: Coulomb's law IDENTIFY the relevant concepts: Coulombs law comes into play whenever you need to know the electric force acting between charged particles.
SET UP the problem using the following steps:

1. Make a drawing showing the locations of the charged particles, and label each particle with
its charge.

2. If three or more particles are present and they do not all lie on the same line, set up an xy
coordinate system. 3. Often you will need to find the electric force on just one particle. If so, identify that particle.
EXECUTE the solution as follows:

1. For each particle that exerts a force on the particle of interest, calculate the magnitude of that

force using

2. Sketch a free-body diagram showing the electric force vectors acting on the particle(s) of interest due to each of the other particles. Recall that the force exerted by particle 1 on particle 2 points from particle 2 toward particle 1 if the two charges have opposite signs, but points from particle 2 directly away from particle 1 if the charges have the same sign. 3. Calculate the total electric force on the particle(s) of interest. Recall that the electric force, like any force, is a vector. 4. As always, using consistent units is essential. If you are given non-SI units, dont forget to convert! 5. If there is a continuous distribution of charge along a line or over a surface, divide the total charge distribution into infinitesimal pieces, use Coulombs law for each piece, and then integrate to find the vector sum.

6. In many situations, the charge distribution will be symmetrical. Whenever possible, exploit
any symmetries to simplify the problem-solving process.
EVALUATE your answer: Check whether your numerical results are reasonable, and confirm that the direction of the net electric force agrees with the principle that like charges repel and opposite charges attract.

IDENTIFY the relevant concepts To determine the angle of the force vector on a single charged particle, you will need to calculate the vector sum of all the forces on that particle due to the presence of other charged particles. To do this, you will need to use Coulomb's law. SET UP the problem using the following steps Part A Identify the most appropriate xy coordinate system. ANSWER:

Correct You are asked to find the net force acting on particle 3. Centering the xy coordinate system on particle 3 will make this easier. EXECUTE the solution as follows

## Part B Find the net force

acting on particle 3 due to the presence of the other two particles. and a direction measured from the positive x axis.

## Report you answer as a magnitude

Hint B.1 How to approach the problem To calculate the electric force acting on particle 3, you should begin by drawing a free-body diagram indicating the forces acting on particle 3 due to particle 1 and particle 2. You know that

. Use Coulomb's law to calculate the magnitude of each of these forces. Apply vector algebra to find the component forces in the component forces for each direction: and the directions. Then, sum the

. From and force vector. you can find the magnitude and direction of the resulting electric

Hint B.2 Draw a free-body diagram Identify the forces on the positively charged particle 3.

Hint B.3 Using the equation for Coulomb's law, calculate the magnitude of the force on particle 3 due to particle 1. Keep in mind that

## . Express your answer in newtons using three significant figures. =5.87104

Hint B.4 Calculate the component forces on particle 3 due to particle 1 Calculate the x component and the y component forces acting on particle 3 due to particle 1, using simple trigonometry. The angle between particle 1 and particle 3 is 60 :

## Enter the components of the force in newtons separated by a comma.

=2.93104,5.08104

Hint B.5 How to calculate the component forces on particle 3 due to particle 2 Because particles 2 and 3 both lie on the x axis, there will be no y component to calculate. The x component of force will therefore be equal to the value calculated from Coulomb's law, and the y component will be zero.

Hint B.6 How to determine the magnitude and direction of a vector from its components If a

vector

has components

and

, the magnitude

## and direction are given by

, where

Express the magnitude in newtons and the direction in degrees to three significant figures. ANSWER: , = 1.55103 ,19.1 , Correct

EVALUATE your answer Part C Assume that particle 3 is no longer fixed to a corner of the triangle and is now allowed to move. In what direction would particle 3 move the instant after being released? Draw the velocity vector for particle 3 below. The orientation of your vector will be graded, but not its length.

Correct

Specifically, from Newton's 2nd law, , you know that a mass accelerates in the same direction as the net force acting upon it. Therefore, at the instant after being released, particle 3 accelerates in the same direction as . Moreover, since particle 3 starts from rest, its velocity at that instant will be . In other words, the initial direction of particle 3 is the same direction as its acceleration, and therefore the same direction as the applied net force.

Let us interpret this result in terms of electric forces. In general, like charges repel and unlike charges attract. If particle 3 were free to move, it would move toward the negative charges and . If and

were the same size, particle 3 would start to move toward them along a direction equidistant from each charge, that is, at an angle of from the positive x axis. Instead, , so particle 3 will .

be more strongly attracted toward particle 2 and will move off in a direction less than

## Charge Distribution on a Conducting Shell - 1

A positive charge is kept (fixed) at the center inside a fixed spherical neutral conducting shell. Part A The positive charge is equal to roughly 16 of the smaller charges shown on the surfaces of the spherical shell. Which of the pictures best represents the charge distribution on the inner and

outer walls of the shell? Hint A.1 Effects of symmetry The charge is centered, and the shell is of uniform thickness in all directions. Hence the charge distribution must also be the same in all directions.

1 2 3 4 5 Correc t

## Electric Fields and Forces

Learning Goal: To understand Coulomb's law, electric fields, and the connection between the electric field and the electric force. Coulomb's law gives the electrostatic force force between two charges and acting between two charges. The magnitude of the

## distance between the charges:

where . The direction of the force is along the line connecting the two charges. If the charges have the same sign, the force will be repulsive. If the charges have opposite signs, the force will be attractive. In other words, opposite charges attract and like charges repel.
Because the charges are not in contact with each other, there must be an intermediate mechanism to cause the force. This mechanism is the electric field. The electric field at any location is equal to the force per unit charge experienced by a charge placed at that location. In other words, if a charge field at that point is experiences a force , the electric

The electric field vector has the same direction as the force vector on a positive charge and the opposite direction to that of the force vector on a negative charge.

An electric field can be created by a single charge or a distribution of charges. The electric field a distance from a point charge has magnitude

. The electric field points away from positive charges and toward negative charges. A distribution of charges creates an electric field that can be found by taking the vector sum of the fields created by individual point charges. Note that if a charge is placed in an electric field created by . , will not significantly affect the

## (many times larger than the charge on a single

Part A There is a single electron at a distance from the point charge. On which of the following quantities does the force on the electron depend? Check all that apply. ANSWER: the distance between the positive charge and the electron the charge on the electron the mass of the electron the charge of the positive charge the mass of the positive charge the radius of the positive charge the radius of the electron Correct According to Coulomb's law, the force between two particles depends on the charge on each of them and the distance between them.

Part B For the same situation as in Part A, on which of the following quantities does the electric field at the electron's position depend? Check all that apply. ANSWER: the distance between the positive charge and the electron the charge on the electron the mass of the electron the charge of the positive charge the mass of the positive charge the radius of the positive charge the radius of the electron Correct The electrostatic force cannot exist unless two charges are present. The electric field, on the other hand, can be created by only one charge. The value of the electric field depends only on the charge producing the electric field and the distance from that charge.

= 1.62106 = 1.53

## caused by this charge at point P, a distance

Part D What is the direction of the electric field at point P? Enter the letter of the vector that represents the direction of ANSWER: G Corre ct .

Part E Now find the magnitude of the force on an electron placed at point P. Recall that the charge on an electron has magnitude .

Hint E.1 Determine how to approach the problem What strategy can you use to calculate the force between the positive charge and the electron?
Top of Form

Use Coulomb's law. Multiply the electric field due to the positive charge by the charge on the electron. Do either of the above. Do neither of the above.
Bottom of Form

## Part F What is the direction of the force on an electron placed at point P?

Enter the letter of the vector that represents the direction of ANSWER: C Corre ct

## PSS 21.2 Electric-Field Calculations

Learning Goal: To practice Problem-Solving Strategy 21.2 Electric-Field Calculations.

## are spaced equally along the y , and = 4.00 and at , which is

. Find the x and y components of the total electric field located on the x axis at . Problem Solving Strategy 21.2: Electric-Field Calculations

at point

IDENTIFY the relevant concepts: Use the principle of superposition whenever you need to calculate the electric field due to a charge distribution (two or more point charges, a distribution over a line, surface, or volume, or a combination of these). SET UP the problem using the following steps:

1. Make a drawing that clearly shows the locations of the charges and your choice of coordinate axes.

2. On your drawing, indicate the position of the field point (the point at which you want to
calculate the electric field ).

## EXECUTE the solution as follows:

1. Be sure to use a consistent set of units. Distances must be in meters and charge must be in coulombs.

2. When adding up the electric fields caused by different parts of the charge distribution,
remember that electric field is a vector, so you must use vector addition.

3. Take advantage of any symmetries in the charge distribution to simplify your calculations.
4. Most often you will use components to compute vector sums. Be certain the components are consistent with your choice of coordinate axes. 5. The field produced by a point charge always points from source point to field point if the charge is positive; it points in the opposite direction if the charge is negative.

6. In some situations you will have a continuous distribution of charge along a line, over a
surface, or through a volume. Then you must define a small element of charge that can be considered as a point, find its electric field at point charge elements.
EVALUATE your answer: Check that the direction of is reasonable. If your result for the electric-field magnitude is a function of position (say, the coordinate x), check your result in any limits for which you know what the magnitude should be. When possible, check your answer by calculating it in a different way.

## and find a way to add the fields of all the

IDENTIFY the relevant concepts The target variables are the x and y components of the electric field, three point charge configuration. SET UP the problem using the following steps and , at point due to the

Part A Classify these (x,y) coordinate pairs as a source point or a field point. Drag the appropriate items to their respective bins. ANSWER:

Correct The source points are the three point charges along the y axis, representing where the electric field emanates. The field point is located at point calculate the x and y components of . , and represents the location where you will need to

## EXECUTE the solution as follows

Part B Find the x and y components of the total electric field at point at Hint B.1 .

## , which is located on the x axis

How to approach the problem Use the equation for an electric field due to a point charge and the geometry of the charge distribution to solve for the x and y components of the individual electric fields produced by each point charge. Finally, make use of the superposition principle of electric fields

to calculate the total electric field components and at the field point due to the three charges. Identifying any symmetry in the problem can reduce the number of steps to the solution.

Hint B.2 Sketch the electric field vectors at On the graph below, adjust the angles of , ,

and to match the relative electric field vectors produced at point by the corresponding point charge. Note that you will not be graded explicitly on vector lengths since the graph is set in units of distance. However when adjusting the relative lengths of the vectors, electric

## fields with equal magnitudes should have equal lengths.

Hint B.3 Identify any symmetry Choose the appropriate statement concerning any symmetry present in the components of the electric field vectors , , and about point , where symmetry implies equal magnitudes but opposite directions in similar components of two vectors.
Top of Form

There is symmetry in the x components of There is symmetry in the y components of There is symmetry in the x components of There is no symmetry present about point
Bottom of Form

## and and and .

. . .

Hint B.4 Calculate Calculate the x component of the electric field at point due to .

## due to a point charge Write the expression for the magnitude of

due to a point charge. Express your answer in terms of the charge , the

distance from the charge , and the constant , where Hint 2. Determine the expression for component of , using the magnitude

Enter the expression to determine the x and angle from the x axis .

= Hint 3. Calculating the angles angle between the x axis, point and and , and Calculate the angles and and , where is the ,

## is the angle between the x axis, point

. Use the convention that angles measured counterclockwise are positive and , =-53.1,53.1 degrees

at point

due to

=2160

## in newtons per coulomb separated by commas.

Part C Due to the symmetry in the y components of and , this problem essentially reduced to a one dimensional problem in the x direction. What would the affect be on the y component of the totoal electric field ANSWER: would have be unchanged (i.e., would have a negative value. ). at if the charge on is increased?

would have a positive value. The affect on needed. Correct cannot be determined, because more information is

The electric field is directly dependent upon charge. If charge increases, then the magnitude of the electric field due to that charge will increase also. An increase in the symmetry in the y components of component in the positive y direction. and results in an increase in , losing

## will have a net y

Charged Ring
Consider a uniformly charged ring in the xy plane, centered at the origin. The ring has radius and

positive charge distributed evenly along its circumference. Part A What is the direction of the electric field at any point on the z axis? Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Approach 1 In what direction is the field due to a point on the ring? Add to this the field from a point on the opposite side of the ring. In what direction is the net field? What if you did this for every pair of points on opposite sides of the ring? Approach 2 Consider a general electric field at a point on the z axis, i.e., one that has a z component as well as a component in the xy plane. Now imagine that you make a copy of the ring and rotate this copy about its axis. As a result of the rotation, the component of the electric field in the xy plane will rotate also. Now you ask a friend to look at both rings. Your friend wouldn't be able to tell them apart, because the ring that is rotated looks just like the one that isn't. However, they have the component of the electric field in the xy plane pointing in different directions! This apparent contradiction can be resolved if this component of the field has a particular value. What is this value? Does a similar argument hold for the z component of the field?

## parallel to the x axis parallel to the y axis parallel to the z axis

in a circle parallel to the xy plane Correct Part B What is the magnitude of the electric field along the positive z axis? Hint B.1 Formula for the electric field You can always use Coulomb's law, , to find the electric field (the Coulomb force per unit charge) due to a point charge. Given the

## force, the electric field say at

due to

is

. to the

In the situation below, you should use Coulomb's law to find the contribution electric field at the point from a piece of charge

## on the ring at a distance . Consider an

away. Then, you can integrate over the ring to find the value of infinitesimal piece of the ring with charge of the infinitesimal figure.

## . You may also use some or all of the

variables

, , and .

Hint B.2 Simplifying with symmetry By symmetry, the net field must point along the z axis, away from the ring, because the horizontal component of each contribution of magnitude exactly canceled by the horizontal component of a similar contribution of magnitude from the other side of the ring. Therefore, all we care about is the z component of each such contribution. What is the component on an infinitesimally small portion of the ring of the electric field caused by the charge in the z direction? is

## , the infinitesimally small contribution to the

electric field; , the coordinate of the point on the z axis; and , the radius of the ring.

Hint B.3 Integrating around the ring If you combine your results from the first two hints, you will have an expression for , the vertical component of the field due to the infinitesimal

charge

## If you are not comfortable integrating

the total charge is distributed evenly about the ring, convince yourself that

Notice that this expression is valid for both positive and negative charges as well as for points located on the positive and negative z axis. If the charge is positive, the electric field should point outward. For points on the positive z axis, the field points in the positive z direction, which is outward from the origin. For points on the negative z axis, the field points in the negative z direction, which is also outward from the origin. If the charge is negative, the electric field should point toward the origin. For points on the positive z axis, the negative sign from the charge causes the electric field to point in the negative z direction, which points toward the origin. For points on the negative z axis, the negative sign from the z coordinate and the negative sign from the charge cancel, and the field points in the positive z direction, which also points toward the origin. Therefore, even though we obtained the above result for postive and , the algebraic expression is valid for any signs of the parameters. As a check, it is good to see that if is much greater than the magnitude of is

approximately

, independent of the size of the ring: The field due to the ring is almost the same

## . The ball is released from

rest at the point and constrained to move along the z axis, with no damping. If what will be the ball's subsequent trajectory? ANSWER: repelled from the origin attracted toward the origin and coming to rest

and

## circling around the z axis at Correct

Part D The ball will oscillate along the z axis between What will be the angular frequency your calculation; that is, assume that

and

## of these oscillations? Use the approximation .

Hint D.1 Simple harmonic motion Recall the nature of simple harmonic motion of an object attached to a spring. Newton's second law for the system states that

, leading to oscillation at a frequency of (here, the prime on the symbol representing the spring constant is to distinguish it from

). The solution to this differential equation is a sinusoidal function of time with angular frequency order to find the . Write an analogous equation for the ball near the charged ring in term.

Hint D.2 Find the force on the charge What is , the z component of the force on the ball on the

ball at the point ? Use the approximation . Hint 1. A formula for the force on a charge in an electric field

The formula for the force Therfore, in particular, You have already found

## on a charge in an electric field .

is

in Part B. Use that expression in the equation above to find on the ball at the point . Don't

Corr ect

## Visualizing Electric Fields

Learning Goal: To understand the nature of electric fields and how to draw field lines. Electric field lines are a tool used to visualize electric fields. A field line is drawn beginning at a positive charge and ending at a negative charge. Field lines may also appear from the edge of a picture or disappear at the edge of the picture. Such lines are said to begin or end at infinity. The field lines are directed so that the electric field at any point is tangent to the field line at that point.

The figure shows two different ways to visualize an electric field. On the left, vectors are drawn at various points to show the direction and magnitude of the electric field. On the right, electric field lines depict the same situation. Notice that, as stated above, the electric field lines are drawn such that their tangents point in the same direction as the electric field vectors on the left. Because of the nature of electric fields, field lines never cross. Also, the vectors shrink as you move away from the charge, and the electric field lines spread out as you move away from the charge. The spacing between electric field lines indicates the strength of the electric field, just as the length of vectors indicates the strength of the electric field. The greater the spacing between field lines, the weaker the electric field. Although the advantage of field lines over field vectors may not be apparent in the case of a single charge, electric field lines present a much less cluttered and more intuitive picture of more complicated charge arrangements.

Part A Which of the following figures correctly depicts the field lines from an infinite uniformly negatively charged sheet? Note that the sheet is being viewed edge-on in all pictures. Hint A.1 Description of the field

A B C D Correc t

Part B In the diagram from part A figure B? (Pick only those statements that apply to figure B.) Check all that apply. ANSWER: Field lines cannot cross each other.

## , what is wrong with

The field lines should be parallel because of the sheet's symmetry. The field lines should spread apart as they leave the sheet to indicate the weakening of the field with distance. The field lines should always end on negative charges or at infinity. Correct

Part C Which of the following figures electric field lines for an electric dipole? ANSWER: A B C D Correc t

## shows the correct

This applet shows two charges. You can alter the charge on each independently or alter the distance between them. You should try to get a feeling for how altering the charges or the distance affects the field lines.

Part D In the diagram from part C figure D? (Pick only those statements that apply to figure D.) Check all that apply. ANSWER: Field lines cannot cross each other.

## , what is wrong with

The field lines should turn sharply as you move from one charge to the other. The field lines should be smooth curves. The field lines should always end on negative charges or at infinity. Correct

In even relatively simple setups as in the figure, electric field lines are quite helpful for understanding the field qualitatively (understanding the general direction in which a certain charge will move from a specific position, identifying locations where the field is roughly zero or where the field points a specific direction, etc.). A good figure with electric field lines can help you to organize your thoughts as well as check your calculations to see whether they make sense.

Part E In the figure system of two point charges, signs of and ? and

, the electric field lines are shown for a . Which of the following could represent the magnitudes and

In the following, take to be a positive quantity. ANSWER: , , , , , Correct Very far from the two charges, the system looks like a single charge with value . At large enough distances, the field lines will be indistinguishable from the field lines due to a single point charge .

## Charge Distribution on a Conducting Shell - 2

A positive charge is kept (fixed) off-center inside a fixed spherical conducting shell that is electrically neutral, and the charges in the shell are allowed to reach electrostatic equilibrium. The large positive charge inside the shell is roughly 16 times that of the smaller charges shown on the inner and outer surfaces of the spherical shell. Part A Which of the following figures best represents the charge distribution on the inner and outer

walls of the shell? Hint A.1 Symmetry inside shell The field inside the conductor must be zero. The charge inside the shell is off-center, and hence the charge on the inner surface of the shell will arrange itself asymmetrically to cancel the field of the large positive charge.

Hint A.2 Symmetry outside shell The field inside the conductor must be zero. To the charges on the outer surface, it is as if the inside of the conductor were completely neutral. Thus, the charges on the outer surface will feel no force other than their own mutual repulsion, and will therefore have no preferred direction.

1 2 3 4 5 Correc t

Exercise 21.16

is located at

= 0, = 0.30

## , point charge -3.5

is located at

= 0 = -0.30

. What are (a)the magnitude and (b)direction of the total electric force that these charges exert on a third point charge = 5.0 at = 0.40 , = 0? Part A Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: = Part B ANSWER: 90.0 Corre = ct 0.76 Corr ect

## clockwise from the direction

Exercise 21.27
A proton is traveling horizontally to the right at 4.20106 .

Part A Find (a)the magnitude and (b) direction of the weakest electric field that can bring the proton uniformly to rest over a distance of 3.10 ANSWER: = Part B ANSWER: 0 Corre = ct 2.97 106 Corre ct .

## counterclockwise from the left direction

Part C How much time does it take the proton to stop after entering the field? ANSWER: 1.481 08 Corre = ct

Part D What minimum field ((a)magnitude and (b)direction) would be needed to stop an electron under the conditions of part (a)? ANSWER: = 1620 Corr ect

## counterclockwise from the left direction

Exercise 21.36

Part A Calculate the magnitude of the electric field = (-11 +14 ) Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: = 18 Corr ect

Part B Calculate the direction (relative to the -axis ) of the electric field Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: 130 Corre = ct counterclockwise from the -axis

= (-11 +14 )

Part C Find the magnitude of the force that the -8.0 charge at the origin exerts on the -2.5 point charge is placed at the point P in Fig. 21.19. Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: = 4.5 108 Corr ect

Part D Find the direction of the force that the -8.0 charge at the origin exerts on the -2.5 charge is placed at the point P in Fig. 21.19. Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: 52 Corre = ct below the -axis

point

Part E Find the magnitude of the force that the -2.5 charge exerts on the -8.0 Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: = 4.5 108 Corr ect

charge.

Part F Find the direction of the force that the -2.5 charge exerts on the -8.0 Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: 130 Corre = ct counterclockwise from the -axis

charge.

## Operation of an Inkjet Printer

In an inkjet printer, letters and images are created by squirting drops of ink horizontally at a sheet of paper from a rapidly moving nozzle. The pattern on the paper is controlled by an electrostatic valve that determines at each nozzle position whether ink is squirted onto the paper or not. The ink drops have a mass = 1.001011 each and leave the nozzle and travel horizontally

## . The drops pass through a charging unit that gives each

drop a positive charge by causing it to lose some electrons. The drops then pass between parallel deflecting plates of length = 2.45 , where there is a uniform vertical electric field with

magnitude

= 7.55104

## Part A If a drop is to be deflected a distance

deflection plate, what magnitude of charge must be given to the drop? Assume that the density of the ink drop is 1000 , and ignore the effects of gravity.

Hint A.1 How to approach the problem First, find the amount of time spent by the drop between the plates and use the result to find the acceleration needed for the drop to have a vertical deflection of 0.300 . Next, using Newton's 2nd law, find the force needed for this vertical deflection. Finally, calculate the charge by setting the electric force equal to this required force.

Hint A.2 Calculate the time spent between the plates How much time does it take for the ink drop to travel horizontally from the start to the end of the deflection plates? Hint 1. Relating horizontal distance and velocity The ink drop has no acceleration in the horizontal direction. Therefore, the distance traveled by the drop is equal to the product of the horizontal velocity and the time traveled. Use this relation to calculate the time the ink drop spends between the plates. Express your answer in seconds. =1.23103

Hint A.3

Calculate the vertical acceleration Calculate the acceleration needed for the ink drop to be deflected vertically by 0.300 during its trip between the deflection plates. Hint 1. How to calculate the vertical acceleration

Since the ink drop initially has zero velocity in the vertical direction, the vertical deflection 0.300 is related to the vertical acceleration by . Once you know the amount of time the ink droplet spends between the plates, you can use this equation and solve for the vertical acceleration . =400

Hint A.4 Calculate the force that must be acting on the drop using Newton's law Calculate the force needed to deflect the ink drop vertically by a distance of 0.300 Hint 1. How to approach the problem Recall Newton's 2nd law: .

## . Once you know the droplet's mass and its vertical

acceleration, you can compute the force needed to deflect the ink droplet vertically. =4.00109

Hint A.5 Relating the electric force and the electric field By definition, the magnitude of the electric field is the absolute value of the ratio of the magnitude of the force acting on a charged particle in the field to the magnitude of the charge of the particle: .

Here is something to think about: Is it reasonable to ignore the effect of gravity on the droplet in our calculations? For an average inkjet printer, the magnitude of the acceleration due to the electric field will be over ten times larger than the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity. However, gravity will still cause a small deflection of the droplet and hence should not be ignored if the accuracy of the placement of the ink droplet is particularly important.

Exercise 21.55

## has a total positive charge

= 0.121

uniformly

distributed around it. Part A What is the magnitude of the electric field at point P, which is on the positive x-axis at 40.0 ? 6.77 Corr ect =

Part B What is the direction of the electric field at point P? ANSWER: +x-direction -x-direction Correct

Part C A particle with a charge of 3.00 is placed at the point P described in part A. What is the magnitude of the force exerted by the particle on the ring? ANSWER: = 2.03 105 Corre ct

Part D What is the direction of the force exerted by the particle on the ring? ANSWER: +x-direction -x-direction

Correct

Problem 21.34

Part A A thin, circular disk of radius The disk carries a total charge of

cm is oriented in the

## -plane with its center at the origin.

C distributed uniformly over its surface. Calculate the cm along the -axis. (

magnitude of the electric field due to the disk at the point C2/N m2) ANSWER: N/C

N/C

N/C

N/C

N/C Correct

Problem 21.82
Two tiny spheres of mass = 8.20 carry charges of equal magnitude, 72.0 , but opposite sign.

They are tied to the same ceiling hook by light strings of length 0.530 electric field

## . When a horizontal uniform

that is directed to the left is turned on, the spheres hang at rest with the angle

## in the following figure.

Part A Which ball (the one on the right or the one on the left) has positive charge? ANSWER: The one on the left The one on the right Correct

Part B What is the magnitude of the field? Express your answer with the appropriate units. ANSWER: = 3750

Correct

Problem 21.89
Positive charge is distributed uniformly along the x-axis from to . A positive point .

## , a distance to the right of the end of

Part A Calculate the x-component of the electric field produced by the charge distribution points on the positive x-axis where . , , , and and appropriate constants.

at

Correct

Part B Calculate the y-component of the electric field produced by the charge distribution points on the positive x-axis where . , , , and appropriate constants.

at

Part C Calculate the magnitude of the force that the charge distribution Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: =

exerts on .

## , , , , and appropriate constants.

Correct

Part D Calculate the direction of the force that the charge distribution ANSWER: to the left to the right Correct

exerts on .

Part E Show that if the magnitude of the force in part C is approximately . Explain why this result is obtained. Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum, including spaces). ANSWER: My Answer: F=[(kqQ)/ax]*[((1-a/x)^-1)-1] kqQ/x^2 k*qQ/r^2 The force takes the form of a force between a pair of point charges due to the charge distribution looking like a point charge from a great distance.

Problem 21.90
Positive charge is distributed uniformly along the positive y-axis between lies on the positive x-axis, a distance and .A

## from the origin (the figure

). Part A Calculate the x-component of the electric field produced by the charge distribution on the positive x-axis. Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = , , , and appropriate constants. at points

Correct

Part B Calculate the y-component of the electric field produced by the charge distribution on the positive x-axis. Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = , , , and appropriate constants.

at points

Correct

Part C Calculate the x-component of the force that the charge distribution Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = , ,

exerts on .

## , , and appropriate constants.

Correct

Part D Calculate the y-component of the force that the charge distribution Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = , ,

exerts on .

## , , and appropriate constants.

Correct

Part E Show that if and . Essay answers are limited to about 500 words (3800 characters maximum, including spaces). ANSWER: My Answer: 1/sqrt(x^2+a^2)=1/x(1+a^2/x^2)^-1/2=1/x(1-a^2/2x^2)=1/x-a^2/2x^3 Fy=k*qQ(1/x-1/x+a^2/2x^3)

Problem 21.107

and

## . Each rod has positive charge

Part A Calculate the electric field produced by the second rod at points along the positive Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = , , , and appropriate constants.

-axis.

Correct

Part B Find the magnitude of the force that one rod exerts on the other. Express your answer in terms of the variables ANSWER: = , , , and appropriate constants.

Correct

Part C Assuming

, find the magnitude of this force reduces to. (Hint: Use the expansion , valid for . Carry all expansions to at least order and appropriate constants. .)