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FOUR MAJOR SECTIONS:

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE Job Design Method Analysis Work Measurement


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INTRODUCTION
THE IMPORTANCE OF WORK SYSTEM DESIGN IS UNDERSCORED BY AN ORGANIZATIONS DEPENDENCE ON HUMAN EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH ITS GOALS.

IT IS NOW AN IMPORTANT KEY TO PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT AND TO CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT.

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QUALITY OF WORK LIFE


WORKING

CONDITIONS

 COMPENSATION
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Working Conditions:


Temperature and Humidity

 Work Time and Work Breaks  Occupational Health Care  Safety  Ethical Issues

 Ventilation  Illumination
 Noise

and Vibration

Noise is unwanted sound. Noise can be annoying or distracting, leading to errors and accidents.

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Work Time and Work Breaks

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Occupational Health Care

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Safety
Causes of Accidents:
 Worker

Carelessness Hazards

Unsafe acts  Accident

Unsafe Conditions Toxic Wastes The enactment of the Occupational Safety and Health Act in 1970 and the creation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), emphasized the importance of safety considerations in systems design.

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ETHICAL ISSUES

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COMPENSATION
IT IS IMPORTANT FOR ORGANIZATIONS TO DEVELOP SUITABLE COMPENSATION PLANS FOR THEIR EMPLOYEES.

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APPROACHES TO COMPENSATE EMPLOYEES:


A. TIME-BASED

B. OUTPUT-BASED (INCENTIVE) SYSTEM


C. INCENTIVE SYSTEM D. KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEM

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TIME-BASED SYSTEM
 KNOWN AS HOURLY AND MEASURED DAY WORK SYSTEM.  COMPENSATE EMPLOYEES FOR THE TIME THE EMPLOYEE HAS WORKED DURING DAY PERIOD.  IT IS MORE WIDELY USED THAN INCENTIVE SYSTEMS. ONE REASON FOR THIS IS THAT COMPUTATION OF WAGES IS STRAIGHTFORWARD AND MANAGERS CAN READILY ESTIMATE LABOR COST FOR A GIVEN EMPLOYEE LEVEL.

 ANOTHER REASON IS THAT IT MAY BE DIFFICULT OR IMPOSSIBLE TO MEASURE OUTPUT.


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OUTPUT-BASED (INCENTIVE) SYSTEM




COMPENSATE EMPLOYEES ACCORDING TO THE AMOUNT OF OUTPUT THEY PRODUCE DURING A PAY PERIOD, THEREBY TYING PAY DIRECTLY TO PERFORMANCE

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INCENTIVE SYSTEMS
REWARDS WORKERS FOR THEIR OUTPUT PRESUMABLY CAUSING SOME WORKERS TO PRODUCE MORE THAN THEY MIGHT UNDER A TIME-BASED SYSTEM.

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INDIVIDUAL INCENTIVE PLANS


STRAIGHT PIECEWORK- A WORKERS PAY IS A DIRECT LINEAR FUNCTION OF HIS OR HER OUTPUT. BASE RATE- THE MINIMUM AMOUNT PAID TO THE WORKERS REGARDLESS OF OUTPUT. INCENTIVES ARE PAID FOR OUTPUT ABOVE STANDARD, AND THE PAY IS REFERRED TO AS BONUS.

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TEAM APPROACH
EMPHASIS IS ON TEAM AND NOT INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE.

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KNOWLEDGE-BASED
BASED ON THE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL THAT THE WORKER POSSESSES.

3 DIMENSIONS:
A. HORIZONTAL SKILLS- REFLECT THE VARIETY OF TASKS THE WORKER IS CAPABLE OF PERFORMING B. VERTICAL SKILLS- REFLECT MANAGERIAL TASKS THAT THE WORKER IS CAPABLE OF DOING. C. DEPTH SKILLS- REFLECT QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY RESULTS.

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JOB DESIGN
INVOLVES SPECIFYING THE CONTENT AND METHODS OF JOB
FOCUSES ON:
 WHAT WILL BE DONE  WHO WILL DO THE JOB  HOW THE JOB WILL BE DONE  WHERE THE JOB WILL BE DONE

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TWO BASIC SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT:


EFFICIENCY

SCHOOL SCHOOL.
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BEHAVIORAL
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EFFICIENCY SCHOOL

It emphasizes a systematic logical approach to Job Design.

BEHAVIORAL SCHOOL
It emphasizes satisfaction of wants and needs.

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SPECIALIZATION
THE ABILITY TO CONCENTRATE ONES EFFORTS AND THEREBY BECOME PROFICIENT AT THAT TYPE OF WORK.

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ADVANTAGES OF SPECIALIZATION
FOR MANAGEMENT 1. SIMPLIFIES TRAINING 2. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY 3. LOW WAGE COSTS FOR LABOR 1. LOW EDUCATION AND SKILLS REQUIREMENTS 2. MINIMUM RESPONSIBILITIES 3. LITTLE MENTAL EFFORT NEEDED

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DISADVANTAGES OF SPECIALIZATION
FOR MANAGEMENT
1. DIFFICULT TO MOTIVATE QUALITY 2. WORKER DISSATISFACTION POSSIBLY RESULTING IN ABSENTEEISM, HIGH TURNOVER, DISRUPTIVE TACTICS, POOR ATTENTION TO QUALITY

FOR LABOR
1. MONOTONOUS WORK 2. LIMITED OPPORTUNITIES FOR ADVANCEMENT 3. LITTLE CONTROL OVER WORK 4. LITTLE OPPORTUNITY FOR SELF-FULFILLMENT

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BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES TO JOB DESIGN:


JOB ENLARGEMENT- GIVING A WORKER A LARGER POTION OF THE TOTAL TASK. THIS CONSTITUTES HORIZONTAL LOADING-- THE ADDITIONAL WORK IS ON THE SAME LEVEL OF SKILL AND RESPONSIBILITY AS THE ORIGINAL JOB.

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JOB ROTATION- MEANS HAVING WORKERS PERIODICALLY EXCHANGE THEIR JOBS. JOB ENRICHMENT- INVOLVE AN INCREASE IN THE LEVEL OF RESPONSIBILITY FOR PLANNING AND COORDINATION TASKS.

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MOTIVATION
y INFLUENCES QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY y CONTRIBUTES TO WORK ENVIRONMENT

TRUST
y INFLUENCES

PRODUCTIVITY AND EMPLOYEE-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS

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TEAMS

BENEFITS OF TEAMS
y HIGHER QUALITY y HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY y GREATER WORKER SATISFACTION

SELF-DIRECTED TEAMS
y TEAMS

EMPOWERED TO MAKE CERTAIN CHANGES IN THEIR WORK PROCESS y DESIGNED TO ACHIEVE A HIGHER LEVEL OF TEAMWORK AND EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT.

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ERGONOMICS
THE SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE CONCERNED WITH THE UNDERSTANDING OF INTERACTIONS AMONG HUMANS AND OTHER ELEMENTS OF A SYSTEM, AND THE PROFESSION THAT APPLIES THEORY, PRINCIPLES, DATA AND METHODS TO DESIGN IN ORDER TO OPTIMIZE HUMAN WELL-BEING AND OVERALL SYSTEM PERFORMANCE.

INCORPORATION OF HUMAN FACTORS IN THE DESIGN OF THE WORKPLACE


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THE END
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