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--

. .




--

-- 2007

532.5: 629.12
22.253 7
594
:


-
,
. , . . . ;
. . , - . , . . .


( )

, . .
594 : . / . . . -- : , 2007. 106 .
ISBN 978-5-7765-0516-4
, .

Flow-3D.
180100 .

2.1.2.1809
(2006-2008).

22.253 7

ISBN 978-5-7765-0516-4


--

, 2007


.5
1. .......................................................................7
1.1. -................................... 7
1.2. ................................................................................... 8
1.3. ......................................................................10
1.4. .

1.5. ,
..........................................................14
2. ................................................................18
2.1. ....................18
2.2. . ..................................................................20
2.3. .
................................................................23
2.4. ...................................................................25
2.5. . . ........................................................26
2.6. . .......................................27
2.7.
....................................................................................29
2.8. . .........................................35
2.9. ..........................................................36
3. ......................................................................39
3.1. ............................39
3.2. .
.....................................................40
3.3. , ......................................42
3.4. ....................................44
3.5. ...............................46
3.6. ...........................................47
3.7. .
. .......................................................51
3.8. .
...............................................55
3.9. .
.............................................58

4.
FLOW-3D ....................................60
4.1. .........................60
4.2. ...............................64
4.2.1. ......64
4.2.2. .....66
4.2.3.
()..66
4.2.4. ......70
4.2.5. ...71
4.2.6. ..73
4.2.7. . ...76
4.2.8. .79
4.3. ............................................................................81
4.4. ......................................................89
4.5. ....................................................101
...........................................................................106


,

. ,
, , , ,
, . . , . .
.
. ,
. 1788 .:

/1/. ,
(, , , .).
, ,
, .
, ,
, :
, , , , , ; ,
, /1/.
, : .
. , . .

. , .

: , , .
, , . (CFD Computer Fluid Dynamics).
, .
5

,
, . ( , ,
), .
.
,
,
, .
, , ,
, , .
.
- , .
, , - , .
. ,
, .

, , .
,
.
( ), .
,
.
, , .
, ,
.

. , ,
.
6

1.
, . . , , , , ,
, , .
.
1.1. -

: p, T, /16/ (. 1.1).

. , ,
T = 647 , p =22 , = 0.4 /3.
p

T = const

O
T

()

()

1/

. 1.1.
T .
7

( . 1.1) (
). , .
= 373 (100 ) 1 /3 ( ), 5.8 .10-6 /3
( ). 98 .
.
= 288 (15 ): 1 /3,
1.28 . 10-5 /3; 1.7 . , , 1,7 , .
.
,
, .
, , .
.
1.2.
() . ,
, .. , . ( ) .

v
,
n

(1.1)

- , ; v - , /; n - , ,
.
.

(. 1.2) , .
() (. 1.2, )
,
8

. (. 1.2, ), "" , ,
.
,
.
, . v0 .

r
n

r
v0

r
n

r
v0

. 1.2.
. .
-

2
: =
, /.
, . . 1.1.
1.1

, 2/

, 2/

273

1,792 10-3

1,792 10-6

1,709 10-5

1,32 10-5

293

1,005 10-3

1,007 10-6

1,803 10-5

1,5 10-5

, (1.1), . ,
(, , , , .).
1.3.
, , , ,
. ,
, , .
, ,
. ( ) = 293
= 72,810-3 /.
. -
(), .
:
- (. 1.3).
. < /2, c;
> /2 - .

. 1.3.

10


p, .
:

1
1
p =
+
,
R
R
y
x

(1.2)

Rx Ry . (1.2) ,
.
. , .
1.4. .

. , .
,
. /16/.
(
):

l = L1

= const .

L2


.
.

= t 1 t - .
2
v1

v2

=l ;

a1

a2

= l

2,

v1, v2 - , a1, a2 - .
:

11

m V
m1
1
1
= 1 2 =
3 ,
m 2V 1
m2 l
2

m1 m2 - V1 V2 .

.

( ):
F1
F2

m1 a1
m

a2

F1

1v S 1
2
1

F2

2 v 22 S 2

(1.3)

S1 S2 - . :

F = cF v 2 S ,

(1.4)

cF - , .
, , . (1.3) -.
, (1.4) (1.1)

cF =

F
v S
=
= idem
2
2
n

v S
v S

F =

v
.
2
L v

idem cF .

Re =

vL
1
vL
=
=
.
F

Re .

cF

mg
L3 g
=
=
= idem
v 2 S
v 2 L2

12

F =

gL
.
2
v

v
.
gL

1
=
cF

Fr =

.

:

Eu =

p
.
2
v

p p

( ):

2
p pk - .
.
:

M = v

.
, ,
:

We

.
2
v L

, 3
, L v t . :

Sh

L
vt


: Re, Fr, We, Sh, M, Eu, .
.
, . .
.
13


, -. .
n (,
, , ..), k ( : ,
, ). -, (n-k)
( ),
.
, , . .
.
, ,
.

1.5. ,


, .
. .
,
, . , .
() .
( ).
. /8/
, ,
() , .

14

,
. , 100
0.5 % .
. ,
( 70 /) . , ( 1500 /, 340 /),
.
, , () , .
, ( , , , .) , .
(). .
,
.
.
.

, .

.
,
.
, ,
( ). . .
, , () . , () , .
(FV = gV = mg ) (FV = ma ) . () :

r
g = lim

V 0

15

r
FV

r
V ; FV - . .

V
(. 1.4).
, S .
:
. : ,
; , .

r
n
S

r
F

r
pn

r
s

r
p
r r
ps =

S
. 1.4.

r
F :
r
r
F
p = lim
.
S0 S
(/2).
r
r
p : n r
s S S. . . , ,
(). .
r

. . () = 0.
16


(. 1.5), , 9 .
, () :

pxx pxy pxz


xy xz
pxx

p
p
p
p

=
yx yy yz

yy
yz .
p

p
p

zx
zy
zz
zz

(
): yx = xy ; yz = zy ; zx = xz .
, , : pxx = pyy = pzz .
,
. , . ,
,
pxx = pyy = pzz = - p. p .

r
p zz

z
dy
pxx
dz

pzx

pzy
pyy

pxy
pxz

pyz

pyx

pyy

pyx

pzx

pzy

pxz

pyz pxy

pxx

pzz

dx

. 1.5.

17

2.
, ,
, , .
(
).

2.1.

: .
: (, ); ( , ); (, ); ( ).
( ) ( ).
:
, .
. t0 ""
. - , . . ( , , , t ) .
() .

r
r = f (, , , t ) .

r
r
dr
r
r
v (, , , t ) =
=
,
dt
t
r
r
r
dv
2 r
v
r
.
a (, , , t ) =
=
=
2
dt
t
t


, d/dt
/ t .
18

,
(
). . , , .

, .
.

x,
y, z t.
, ,
. , (), (, , .). - ,
, .

x, y, z, t:
r
v = f ( x, y , z , t ) .

r
r
r
r
r
dv
v v d x
v d y
v d z
r
a=
=
+
+
+
.
dt
z dt
t x d t
y dt

(2.1)

()
. ()
. , ,

r
r
r
v
v
v
r
r
v z = (v )v .
vy +
vx +
x
y
z
,
, (). , . . , .

19

2.2. .

.
,
.
,
. , -
.
,
,
(. 2.1, ). . 2.1, . . 2.2 , . .
, (. 2.2, ). (. 2.2, ).

r d l ,
r
Oxyz. v - (
r
). d l
r
v :

v x = v cos ( x , l );

dx = d l cos ( x , l );

dy = d l cos ( y , l );
dz = d l cos ( z , l );

v y = v cos
v z = v cos

dx dl
= ;
:
vx
v
dx
dy
dz
=
=
,
vx
vy
vz

dx v x
= ;
dy v y

dx v x
= ;
dz v z

( y , l );
( z , l ).

dy dl
= ;
vy
v

dz dl
= .
vz
v

dy v y
= .
dz v z

20

(2.2)

. 2.1. () ()

)

. 2.2. ()
() /2/
, . . (. 2.3).
,
. ,

21

. , , .
. ,
.

. . (2.2) . , .
().

r
v

. 2.3. .

,
. .
.
.
(. 2.4).

. 2.4.

22

S , :

Q =

dS

(2.3)

- 3/.
,
, Q ( - ).

2.3. .

,
,
. .
, .

(. 2.5).
(x,y,z) ,
, vx(x,y,z); vy(x,y,z); vz(x,y,z).
M1 (x+x1, y+y1, z+z1)

v x1 = v x ( x + x1 , y + y1 , z + z1 );
v y1 = v y ( x + x1 , y + y1 , z + z1 );
v z1 = v z ( x + x1 , y + y1 , z + z1 );

z1

x1, y1 z1
.

vx, vy vz x1, y1, z1
(x,y,z). ,

23

M1
M

y1

y
. 2.5.

x1

x1

= v

y1

= v

z1

= v

vx
vx
y1 +
x1 +
x
y
v y
v y
y1 +
+
x1 +
y
x
vz
vz
y1 +
+
x1 +
y
x
+

vx
z1 ;
z
v y
z1 ;
z
vz
z1 ,
z

, vx(x,y,z) vx . .
:

v x1 = v x + x x 1 + y z 1 + z y 1 + y z 1 z y 1 ;
v y1 = v y + y y 1 + z x 1 + x z 1 + z x 1 x z 1 ;
v z1 = v z + z z 1 + x y 1 + y x 1 + x y 1 y x 1 ,

(2.4)

x =

vx
;
x

v y

v y
vz

+
z
y
1 vx
vz
+
=

2 z
x

v y
vx

+
y
x

1
2

1
2

z =

vz
;
z

v y
vz

z
y
1 vx
vz

2 z
x

v y
vx

y
x

1
2

1
2

(2.5)

(2.4):
- vx, vy vz - ;
- (yz1 - zy1 .)
, . , x, y, z -
(). (2.5) ,

=
r

rot v

r
1
rot v ,
2

- ;
24

(2.6)

- (2.4) . x , y , z () ,

x , y , z - ().
: , , , , .

2.4.
() .
. .
1. (. 2.6)
. :

v1 dS1 = v 2 dS 2 .
2.


,
(. 2.7):

v1 dS 1 = v 2 dS 2 ,

v1 , v2

dS 2

r
v2

r
v2

S2

r
v2 .

r
v1
r
v1

dS1

. 2.6.

S1

r
v1 .

. 2.7.

.
(2.3).
3.
. .
(. 2.8).
( ) 4 dxdy:
25

v y

v x

v x dy v x +
dy dx = 0.
dx dy + v y dx v y +
y
x

v x v y
+
= 0.
x
y

v y
vz
vx
= 0.
+
+
z
y
x

(2.7)

r
div v = 0 .

r
r
vy + d vy

r
r
vx + d vx

r
vx
dy

dx

r
vy

. 2.8.

, . V
. , ,
. ,
. ().

2.5. .
, , xOy. (2.7):

v y
v x
+
= 0.
x
y
( x, y , t ) ,

vx =

;
y

vy =

.
x

(2.8) (2.7),
26

(2.8)

2
2
= 0.

xy
xy
, ( x, y , t ) .
.
:

dx
dy
=
,
vx
vy

v x dy v y dx = 0 .

(2.8),

dy +
dx = 0
d = 0 .

y
x
, = const . .

(. 2.9).
:
B

Q = d = B A .

,
, ,
.

. 2.9.

2.6. .
- . , , ,
,
r
r
: 2 = rot v = 0 . ,
x = y = z = 0 . (2.5)

v y
v x
=
;
x
y

v x
v z
=
;
x
z

v y
z

v z
.
y

, ,
, ..

27

r
v

r
v = grad = ,

(2.9)

vx =

;
x

vy =

;
y

, n:

vz =

vn =

.
z

(2.10)

.
n

, ,
, . , . .
(2.10) (2.7), , (x,y,z,t)

2
2
2
= 0
+
+
z 2
y 2
x 2

2 = 0 ,1

(2.11)

. ,
, . ,
, , ( ). .
, :
z = 0

v x v y

= 0.
y
x

(2.8),

2
2
= 0.
+
y 2
x 2
, .
(). (2.8)
(2.10) ,
.
(. 2.10).

28

2.7.


.
/3, 7, 8, 9/.
1. , :

= ax + by + cz ,

(2.12)

a, b, c - , (
). (2.12) (2.11), , .
, (2.12),
. ,
(vy = vz = 0; vz = v0),
:

dy v y
=
= 0;
dx v x

dz v z
=
= 0.
dx v x

y = const , z = const ,
= v0 x .
2. ,

= a r,

(2.13)

- , ,

r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 - .
, ,
. : r - ; - , ; - . :

vr =

;
r

v =

1
;
r

v =

29

.
r sin

= 0 .

(2.13), vr = a r 2 , v = v = 0 .
, , ,
-, ,
, , . - , - , .. (. 2.4).
, ,
. (r 0)
. , .
() R.

Q = v r S = 4R 2 a

R ,

a =Q

4 ,

, . Q (),
. ,

Q 1
4 r

(2.14)

,
( ) ( ).
, () ,

Q
ln r .
2

3. , , 1
, ,
1 , Q (. 2.10).
(2.14), :

1
Q
Q
Q 1

=
.

4 r1
4r
4 r1
r

30

)
r1

r
s

r
s
Q

AA 1 0


(=const)

(=const)

. 2.10. :
; ()
1

|A1|. , (. 2.10) M = Q AA1 = const .

s . , ,

M cos

.
4
r2

, . 2.10, .
31

,
( ) .
,
,
, . , ,
(. 2.11). , ( : = const).
,
,
.

= const vn =

= 0 , (2.15)
n

vn - n .

,
, , - . 2.11. ,

, (2.15) .

= vn
n

(2.16)

v n - .


: ( ) ( ). () ,
(2.15) (2.16).

32

, ,
(2.12) (2.14)

= v0 x +

1 q
dS ,
4 S r

(2.17)

q - ( ) , . (2.17) , . .
, N ( ) .
N , .

. (. 2.12). :
.
y
d=2

x
b=4

vx = 1 /

vx = 1 /

. 2.12.

, . 2.13, ( ). ,
. ,
, ,

33

. = 0,

= v x dy = y ,
y

= 2.

=2
2

=0
=0

=1

=0

=0

=0

. 2.13. :
;
, . 2.13, . (2.15).
,
( = 0 , ). , (2.16):

= vx = 1 /.
n

. 2.14.
(2.8) (2.10). .
=5
4
= 1.9
1.5

2.4

1.7

0.9

=0

1.0
0.5
= 0.1

. 2.14.
34

2.8. .

rot v 0 , .
, ,
r r
r
1 , 2 , n ,
. , (. (2.2)):
dy
dx
dz
.
=
=

, , (. 2.15).
. ,
. .


: 2 n S .

.
,
.
r
(. 2.16). d r r
, v - .
B

AB =

r r
v dr =

(v

dx + v y dy + v z dz ).

2
r

. 2.15.
35

r
v

():

r
dr

r r
v
dr .


:

( ).

+
. 2.16.

2.9.
, - (. 2.17)
/8/. ,

v y

v
dx dy v y dy v x + x dy dx =
d z = v x dx + v y +
y
x

v y v x
r

dxdy = 2 z dS = rot z v dS .
=
x y
r

n :

r
d n = rot n v dS .

(2.18)

,
. S , (. 2.18).
(2.18).
(),

d = rot
S

36

r
v dS .

vx +

vy

v x
dy
y

vy +

v y
x

dx

vx
S
. 2.17.

. 2.18.

,
(. 2.18),
, . ,

r r
rot v n dS .

(2.19)

(2.19)
: , 1, , .
: .
: () ( ).
:
. :
- ( );

(. 2.19, );

,
.
.

37

- ; , , (. 2.19, );
- ,
;
, , (. 2.19, ).

. 2.19. :
; , , ( ); /2/

38

3.

,
, , , .

3.1.
, /8/. V S (. .
3.1). dV ,
M = dV dS.
r
r
() FV g r
r
F
S p n .

r d vr
a =

dt

r
r r
Ma = FV + FS
r
r r
dv
dV
= dV g + p n dS .
dt

S
V

dS

r
r
dv
dV = g dV +
dt
V

r
p n dS .

(3.1)

dV

. 3.1.


-:

r
p n dS =

r
(
p

r
r
cos( n , x ) + p y cos( n , y ) + p z cos( n , z ) ) dS =
r
r
r
p x p y p z
+
+
=
z

x
y
V

dV .

(3.1),

r
r
r
r
dv
p y
r p x
p z
V dt g x + y + z
39

dV = 0 .

V ,
.
:

r
r
r
r
r
dv
1 p x p y p z

+
+
= g +
z
y
dt
x

(3.2)

yx
zx
dv x
1 p xx

;
+
+
= gx +
z
y
dt
x
dv y
p yy
zy
1 xy
;

= gy +
+
+
dt
y
z
x
(3.3)
yz
dv z
p zz
1 xz

,
+
+
= gz +
dt
z
y
x
v x , v y , v z - , g x , g y , g z - x, y z .
.

3.2. .

, , ,
. (3.2).
.

dv
dt
dv
dt
dv
dt

= g

= g

= g

1 p
;
x

1 p
;
y
1 p

,
z

:
40

(3.4)

r
1
dv
r
= g
grad p .

dt
.
. (3.4) (2.7):

v y
v x
v z
+
= 0.
+
x
z
y
C (2.1), (2.5) (2.6) (3.4) , :
r
v2
r r r
v
1
+ rot v v = g
+ grad
grad p .
(3.5)

t
2

.
, , r r
r
( rot v v ), ( v t ),
.

, . .
.
, ,
.
()
, . .
. (,
, ), (, ).
, , , .
:
41

vn = 0 ,
, :

vn = vn

v n - .


, . ,
pa. z = ( x, y, t ) ,
p = pa
z = .

3.3. ,
, . r
g = grad U , U - , r
g
g x = U ;
g y = U ;
g z = U .
z
x
y
, gx = gy = 0, gz = -g,
U z = g ,
U = - gz.
(3.6)
(3.6) (3.5),
:

r r
v2
p
v
.
+ (rot v v ) = grad U

2
t

(3.7)

.
.
. (3.7) :

v2
p
grad U
= 0

2

.
v2
p
+
U = C,
C = const
(3.8)

2
.
42

(3.8) ,
m , /2/.
mv2/2 , mp/ ()
, mU
. ,
. (
C ).
,

v 2
2

+ p + gz = C 1 ,

C1 .
: v2/2 - ; p
; gz . .
,
.
. r
, rot v = 0 . (x,y,z,t),
r
r
v (2.9): v = grad = .
(3.7)
,

v2
p

grad = grad U
t

grad t grad ,


v2
p
grad
+
+
U = 0 .

t
:
1
p

2
(3.9)
+ ( ) +
U = .
2

t

, : = (t), .

43

. :
2

1

+
+

2 x
t
y

2
2

p

+ gz = .
+
+

.
.
t = 0 ,
(3.9)
v2
p
+
U = ,
2

,
.
, ,
:
, . ,
, .

3.4.
.
(, ,
) ( ).
(. 3.2):

v 02
2

+ gz 0 =

v12
2

+ gz 1 .

, , , 1

v1 =

v 02 + 2 g ( z 0 z1 ) .

44

. 3.2.

.
, ,
(. 3.3). ,
. : v0 = 0. :

v12
2

+ gz 1 = 0

v1 =

2 gz 1 .

. ,

v1 (. 3.4). ,
,
:

1 =

v 02
2

+ 0 .

z0=0; v0=0

(3.10)

z1

v1

. 3.3.
v1

45

. 3.4.

0 , 1 - .

.
, , . 3.5. 1 ( ) 0 (
) , .
v0 (3.10). , (, ).

. 3.5.

3.5.
,
.
1 .
() (.. U), (..
), (3.4)

p
dv
= grad U
.
dt

,
( ):

d
d
=
dt
dt
1

r
r r
dv r .
( v d r ) = d r
dt

46

, :

d
p r
p
= grad U - d r = d U - = 0

dt

(t ) = const .

, : , ,
, , .
: , .

(, ). , , . . .
.

.
. , . -, , , .,
. ,
. , ,
. , , .

3.6.
(3.3) ,
/8/.
(2.7) 6 3 . .
, .
1. ,

47

p xx = p + xx ,
p yy = p + yy ,

(3.11)

p zz = p + zz ,
p - ,
; xx , yy , zz - , .
2. (1.1)
(2.5), , :

xx

xy

xz

yx
yy
yz

zx
zy
zz

= 2

z
y
x

x .
z

(3.12)

(3.11) (3.12), :

vx
x
v y
= p + 2
y
v z
= p + 2
z
v y
vx
+
=
x
y

p xx = p + 2

yy

p zz

xy

xz

yz

= yx ;

vz
vx
+
= zx ;
x
z
v y
vz
+
= zy .
y
z

(3.13)

v y v z
v
+
p xx + p yy + p zz = 3 p + 2 x +
z

x
y

48

(2.7).
, :

p= 1

(p

xx

+ p yy + p zz ) .

(3.13)
(3.3) . :

dv x
= g
dt

dv y
= g
dt

dv z
= g
dt

2vx
2vx
2vx
p
;
+
+
+

2
2
2
x

x
y
z

2v y
2v y
2v y
1 p
;
+
+
+

2
2
x 2
y
z
y

2vz
2vz
2vz
1 p
.
+
+
+

2
2
2
z
z
y
x
1

(3.14)

r
dv
1
r
= g
grad p + v .

dt

(3.15)


= 0 , (3.4). (3.14) (2.7),
p v x , v y , v z . (3.14) -
.
, . .
-
(3.14) (2.7),
.

1.2
. ,
, , S, r
r
v = 0 , v - . r
v ,

r r
v = v S.

49

(3.15) , (3.5):

r
v2
v
+ grad
t
2

r r r 1
r
+ rot v v = g grad p rot rot v . (3.16)



. , , ( (3.16)).
(
(3.16)). ,
- :

v =

grad p .

(3.17)

. r v0 (3.17)
: R x = 6 v 0 r .
,
/6/:

1
9
3

R x = 6 v 0 r 1 + Re
Re 2 ln
,
Re
40
8

Re = vr .
.
v0 , 1, x. (3.14),
, p y = p z = 0 , . . . - (3.17)
/6/:

2v
y 2

2v
z 2

1 dp 1 p
=
,
dx L

, , . .
. .

50

p L.
R , , r

v=

p 2
R r2 .
4 L

Q =

p 4
R .
8 L

,
.

3.7. .
.
. , . , ,
, , ,
.
. -. , .
Re
, ,
.
.
.
,
, Re . (Re = Dv/, D ) 2000 3000. Re = Lv 10 6 (L - ).
,
.
.
.

51


.
, , x,

v x (t ) = v x + v x (t ),

v x - ; v x - .

,
.
.

(3.2) ,
, ,
,
. , (3.2)
x,

p xx = p xx + p xx ;

yx = yx + yx ;

zx = zx + zx ,

(3.22)
, /8/.
(3.2) (3.18)
.
(3.2) - (3.14)
, . . .
,
. , , (. 3.6).
, ,
. , ,
-,
.

52


.
,
, ,
. .
, .
( )
, , , , . ,
, - .
, .

: , .
,
, (. 3.7). , .
. 3.8.

r
n

r
v0

r
n

r
v0

r
n

r
v0

. 3.6. : ;
;

53

dp/dx>0

dp/dx=0
dp/dx<0

. 3.7.

. 3.8.
, , . , .
.
, (. 3.9). , 54


. .

.

. 3.9. () () /2/

3.8. .

.
r
v0
.
,
. ,
r
v0 .
, ..
(. 3.10).
, ,
. ,
.

55

. 3.10.
, ,
r
, v0 , p0

, v1 , p1,

1
1
p0 + v02 = p1 + v12 .
2
2
(3.10):

v12 v02
p1 = p 0 + 1 2
v0 2

p1 p 0 = c p

v02
2

v 02 2 .

c p . c p , ,
(3.10), , , c p

. , ,
, .

, ,

= 0l

l - dS . , S , :

56

r
r
r
R = p n dS + 0 l dS .
S

(3.19)


v 02 2 (3.10).

( v

2
0

),

. S0 (, ). (3.19)

r
r dS

v 02
r dS
,
R =
S 0 c p n
+ c l
S
S
2
S
S
0
0
1
v 02 S 0 , 2

:

r dS
r
r dS
r
r
+ c l
= cR p + cR ,
cR = c p n
S0
S0
S
S
r
- , c R - .

c R p
,
,

r
r v 02
R = cR
S0 .
2

r
r v 02
M = cM
S0 L ,
2

c M - ; L - , , .

r
r
c R c M .

57

3.9. .

. ,
/8/.

, .
dV

dT = v 2 2 dV ,
v - . (2.10).
, ,

T =

v 2

dV .
2
V
, V , ,
, , .

. v0 (t ) - .

v 02
T =
2

v
0

dV

= 0

v 02
;
2

(3.20)

0 = (v v0 )2 dV .
V

0 , , ,
, V . ,
, ,
, 0
, .
, ,
. R.
,
, : dT = Ru ds , ds - , .

58

Ru =

dT
dT dt
1 dT
=

=
ds
dt ds
v 0 dt

(3.20)

Ru =

dv 0
1
v dv
.
2 0 0 0 = 0
v 0 2 dt
dt

(3.21)

,
, .
dv0 dt = 0 .
, m,

r
R (, )
r
dv0 dt ,

r
r
dv0
m
= R .
dt


(3.21).

r
r
d v0
(m + 0 )
= R .
dt

,
, . , . , , .

.
( ,
, )
,
.
36 .

, ,
( , ) /10, 14, 15/.

59

4.
FLOW-3D
4.1.
, .. .
. , ? . , , .

.
, .
,
. ,
(. 1.4), ..
, ,
,
.
, . , :

Fr =

v
;
gL

Re =

vL


,
.
, , .
,
,
,
.
- (CFD computer fluid dynamic). -.

60

CFD
, FLOW-3D, Flow
Vision, ICEM CFD, ANSYS, SHIPFLOW . /17 21/. FLOW-3D Flow Science.
, , . FLOW-3D ()
(VOF volume of fluid), Hirt
C.W. Nichols B.D. /17, 18/
( ) , . . , .
. ,
.
, , , . ,
, ,
.
, , , .
,
, . ,
.
, .
, , . . : ;
; ;
; . ,
: , .
, , , 61

. , , . , .
,
. FLOW-3D

.
, (, .).
FLOW-3D . FAVOR, .
,
.
FLOW-3D
. ,
.
,
. .

,
, , .
FLOW-3D
: -, - ;
;
; ;
; ; () ; -
.
:
1. ( ), , ,
..
.
62

2. ,
( , ,
.). ,
.
3. .
.
4. .
5. ,
.
6. ( ).
7. ( ) .
8.
.
FLOW-3D :
, , .

,
. ,
, , . , , namelist. , ,
,
. , ,
.

. ,
;
.

. , , , ,
. .
,
.

63

, .
, ,
.
.
. : , , , ,
, ..
, , .
.
, , , .

4.2.


FLOW-3D
(. 4.1). . 14
30
2 .
:
,
. 4.1 .

Z
X

g = 980 /2

. 4.1.

4.2.1.
,
Project / New. Model
Building. Global ,
. 4.2.

64

:

. , (Finish Time). (Fill Fraction - ).
, , . , . Finish Fraction (1.0
). Finish Time
, ,
, ,
( ) .

( ), .
(
), Free
Surface or Sharp Interface. , .

(compressible)
( ) (incompressible) . ( , ) . RCSQL
.

. 4.2. Global

65


: .
, (One Fluid).
() , ( ). (Two Fluids), .
, , . , , .
4.2.2.
. - ,
. , .
Meshing & Geometry (. 4.3).
: Meshing Geometry. Meshing (Cartesian), (Fixed Pt.(i)),
(Cell Size) (# of Cells).
, . 4.3. XZ
Show Mesh XZ.
Add Point. (Total Cells) : 20 - 43 - Z.
, Save As.
Save. - prepin.inp.
, , .
prepin.fill.
".fill". ,
FLOW-3D.

4.2.3. ()
(obstacle) (regions).
, . Geometry. Add.

66

. 4.3. Meshing & Geometry



Add New Geometry (. 4.4), Flow-3D, (Type Source Type):
- Stereolithography (STL) File I-DEAS File -
, ,
- File Name;
- Other Non-CAD Data Flow-3D Primitives (, ).
, . 4.4, Add.
Edit Region Region Limiters (.
4.5) Z High, 1.0 ( 1 ). Solid , Region 1 .
.
Geometry Obstacle 1 Region 1 (. 4.6). , Region 1
Edit.
67

Region 1.
Obstacle 1 Add.
,
. 4.7.

. 4.4. Add New Geometry 7 8 Flow-3D

. 4.5. Edit Region

. 4.6. Geometry

Add (Region 2) Obstacle 1. Edit Region (. 4.8), (X Low: -1.0; X High: 1.0)
(Z High: 2.0). ,
, , Z High = 2.0,
. , (Hole), OK.
68

Save .

. 4.7. - ( 7 8 Flow-3D)

. 4.8. Edit Region

69

4.2.4.
Physics (. 4.9).
Physics , , , ..
, , , .., , .
, ,
, ,
. ,
, .
0.1, .
, .

. . -, . ,
, . -, , , . ,
, ,
( ) .

. 4.9. Physics
70


Re = 24500,
, , .
Viscosity Viscous
flow.
,

. , ,
, , , ,
: Laminar (. 4.10).

, ,
.
Gravity
Z:
-980 /2 (. 4.11).



Physics.

Props
.

. 4.10. Physics

. 4.11.

4.2.5.

, Fluids Database Props.
, . 4.12. Water at 20
degrees C (CGS) Load, . (. 4.13), , .
20 . . Fluids
Database Close, (. 4.14).

71

Props, . Units Name.


Save ,
.

. 4.12. Fluids Database

. 4.13.

. 4.14.

72

4.2.6.
Flow-3D
: (Symmetry); (Wall); (Continuative , , , ,
, ); (Periodic , ,

. 4.15). , (Specified Pressure, Specified Velocity).
Boundaries (.
4.16). , .
X min Wall (
) X min Boundary Boundary Type (. 4.17). Wall (X max) (Z max)
.
(Z min) (Specified
velocity). X, Y Z u velocity, v velocity, w velocity. w velocity : 175. , . ,

.
, (Y min) (Y max)
(Symmetry).
.
(Velocities Pressure)
.

r
v

r
v

Periodic

Periodic

. 4.15. Periodic

73

. 4.16. Boundaries

. 4.17. Wall ( )

74

Initial.
, Void Initial State. Pressure : 1.013e6 (. 4.18). ,
. , .
( ) ,
: hydrostatic pressure in z direction (. 4.18).
,
Output (. 4.19). Fill Fraction Basis for
Output ,
, .
Fractional Data Data Interval 0.1, , 0.1 (10 %)
, 11 .

. 4.18.

75

. 4.19. Output

4.2.7. .
( Save). . Model
Building . Preview.

(. 4.20).
, Successful completion of preprocessor. , ,
Modify. , (estimate solver output file size).
Done. .
.
Results. FLOW-3D Re76

sults (. 4.21). prpplt.fill . prpplt.fill


.
, , , ( ).
(.
4.22).
4
Enter.
Enter. .
0 Enter.
,
Diagnostics (. 4.23).

. 4.20.

. Run Solver. : ; ; . FLOW-3D Solver (. 4.24): ; (time
step size); (stability limit); (epsi & max. residual); (iteration count);
(volume error); -

77

(mean kinetic & fluid thermal energy)


.
, Done.
. . .

. 4.21. FLOW-3D Results

. 4.22.
78

. 4.23.

4.2.8.
Results, FLOW-3D Results (. 4.21).
.
.
Existing (. 4.21). flsplt.fill OK. (.
4.22). , , ,
,
GRAFIC ( , ).
.
FLOW-3D Results Custom,
flsgrf.fill OK.
( 4.25). , : 3D FLOWVU.

79

. 4.24.

. 4.25. 2-D
80

4.4.
,
, .
Render. ( 4.22), . . 4.26.

. 4.26. 2-D

4.3.

. 1
1 /.
, Project New. (. 4.27).
, . Global ( ) : ( "" (Sharp) (Free)
); (Incompressible) ; 1 (One Fluid).
(,
, ), 1 - .
81

. 4.27.
Meshing & Geometry ,
. 4.28. , Show Mesh.
( ).
Geometry Add.
Add New Geometry (. 4.29) : ( STL), File Name, .
Other or Non-CAD Data Add. (=1) ,
. 4.30. Edit Region OK.

"Obstacle 1" "Region 1"
. , "Edit", "Edit Region".

( Boundaries). Xmin, Xmax, Ymin, Ymax, Zmin Zmax.
Xmin . 4.31. Xmax
. Z (Symmetry), Y (Wall).
Numerics ( )
(Maximum Time Step = 0.02).

82

. 4.28.

. 4.29.
83

. 4.30.

84

. 4.31. Xmin
prepin.inp,
Flow-3D.
Edit
File Model Building. :
Title
This is a sample input file
$xput
remark='units are ...',
twfin=1.,
itb=0,
ifvis=0,
dtmax=0.02,
apltdt=0.2,
$end
$limits
$end
$props
rhof=1.0,
$end
$scalar
$end
$bcdata
wl=1,
wr=6,
wf=2,
wbk=2,
wb=1,
wt=1,
ubc(1)=1.,
ubc(2)=1.,
$end
$mesh
nxcelt=40,
px(2)=5.,
nycelt=40,
nzcelt=1,
pz(2)=1.0,
py(2)=5.,
$end
$obs
avrck=-3.1,
nobs=1,
iob(1)=1,
ioh(1)=1,
rah(1)=1.,
trnx(1)=2.5,
trny(1)=2.5,
$end
$fl
$end
$bf
$end
$temp
$end
$motn
$end
$grafic
$end
$parts
$end

85

Documentation: general comments, background, expectations, etc.

, . $< > $end . , .


Help Flow-3D.
. ()
,
, . ,
.
, , .
grafic :
$grafic
nvplts=2,

contpv(1)='vel',

contpv(2)='p',

$end

( Save)

.
Preview (
). Results
prpplt.dat.
(. 4.22) "4" Enter.
Enter. "0" .
Run Solver.
. flsplt.dat. . 4.32
.
() . OBS prepin.inp
IFRCO(m) = 1, m (obstacle).
FLOW-3D prepin.inp, , .

86


Model Building.
prepin . ,
, prepin , .
(Namelist) , , BCDATA,
PROPS, .. Namelist- . 4.1
, prepin. namelist- ( ,
).

. 4.32.

87

4.1

Namelist- prepin.inp

XPUT

LIMITS

PROPS

SCALAR

CHM

BCDATA

PCAP

(
IDRG = 5 XPUT)

RBDATA ( IACCF = 2
XPUT)

USRDAT


( IUSRD = 2 XPUT)

MESH

OBS

FL

BF

(baffle)

TEMP

MOTN


(reference frame)

GRAFIC

PARTS

USRDAT


( IUSRD = 1 XPUT)

88

4.4.
(. 4.33).
. 4.33 .

,
. , Model Building ( ),
. 4.34 4.40.

. 4.33.

. 4.34. Global

89

. 4.35. Physics

. 4.36. Props

. 4.37. Meshing & Geometry


90

. 4.38. Meshing & Geometry

. 4.39. Boundaries

. 4.40. Initial
91

prepin.inp :
3-D flow over a standard rectangular weir.
$xput
remark='units are ...',
twfin=1.25,
itb=1,
gz=-980.,
ifvis=0,
ipdis=1,
$end

$obs
avrck=-3.1,
nobs=1, iob(1)=1, iob(3)=1,
ioh(1)=1, ioh(3)=1,
xl(1)=0., xl(3)=0.,
xh(1)=0.5, xh(3)=0.5,
yl(3)=5., yh(3)=10.,
zh(1)=10.,
zh(3)=16.,
$end

$limits
$end
$props
rhof=1.,
units='cgs',
mu1=0.01,
$end

$fl
nfls=2,
remark=' 2 :',
fzh(1)=14.5, fxh(1)=0.0,
fxl(2)=0.5, fzh(2)=1.7,
ui=20.,
$end

$scalar
$end
$bcdata
wl=5, wr=5, wf=1, wbk=1,
wb=2, wt=3, flhtl=14.5, flhtr=1.7,
ipbctp(1)=1, ipbctp(2)=1,
$end

$bf
$end
$temp
$end
$motn
$end
$grafic
$end
$parts
$end

$mesh
nxcelt=60, px(2)=20.,
nycelt=20,
nzcelt=34, pz(2)=17.,
px(1)=-10., py(2)=10.,
py(1)=0.0,
$end

fl ,
(nfls=2), . fxl, fxh fzh fluid , (x, y z) ,
(l low, h high).
Preview.
Done.
. , - prpplt.dat , .

92

Results , - . (.
4.22) "4" Enter. . 4.41 .

. 4.41.
Run Solver, (. 4.24).
, , ,
. , .
.
1.
(,
) (
) . , , . : Finish Time Global
Model Building, Time Step
Size Numerics.

93

2.
(Time Step Size)
(Stability Limit), .
, .
,
, ( ).
epsi & max residual 3.
. Epsi (convergence
criterion) .

, (max residual) psi (convergence criterion), , ITMAX. ITMAX,
(error message).
4.
volume of fluid . mean kinetic energy .
.
,
5.
( ) .
:

,
, . ;

(cells) ,
.
, , , .

. ,
;

( ) , . ,
. , .
94

,
, Terminate, .
flsgrf.dat flsplt.dat.
, . flsgrf.dat

().
Results. Custom flsgrf.dat k. Results .
Custom
, Existing, . , Results.
Custom.
Custom flsinp.dat.
, .
.
, (
Results) .
,
Render flsinp.tmp. ,
Custom, flsinp.tmp , Save as...
.
, -
Custom .
flsinp (namelists) .
ontrl .
(pltreq) .
pltreq. ,
flsinp , Help.
Probe.
(I, J, K)
(. 4.42). , ,
Data Variables. :
95


fraction of fluid
(0 ; 1 );

pressure ;

x, y, z velocity .

Data Point Time Frame ( 7- Flow-3D Time
Frame ,
).

Render.

. 4.42. Probe Results

1-D.
. , (. 4.43). Data Variables 96

pressure. Plot Location (Xdirection), (Y, Z). Time


Frame .
2-D.
(. 4.25 8- Flow-3D, . 4.44 7-
) .
( ) Contour
Variable.

. 4.43. 1-D Results



Vector Type.
, Particle Type.

97

Plane
Limits, Time Frame. Contour Type : B/W
contour lines ; color
contour lines ; shaded .
- Scaling.
.
,
(Y=0). ,
. ,
Symmetry Reflection Vertical (. 4.45).

. 4.44. 2-D Results

98

. 4.45.

3-D.
. . 4.46 3-D 7- Flow-3D ( 8-

).
.
2-D .
Iso-Surface .
fraction of fluid . EyePoint (Auto)
(
).
Iso Surface Options , Color Variable: Wireframe
, ; Solid
Surface (Shaded Surface) .
: No obstacles ; Transparent obstacles
99

; Solid obstacles -
.

. 4.46. 3-D Results

FlowVU STL Viewer.


3-D,
. ,
Render STL Viewer, OpenGL (. 4.47).
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Xmax:
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Ymin, Ymax, Zmin Zmax: Specified Pressure; Pressure = 500;
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. 4.54 .

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1. , . / . . - . : , 1963. - 244 .
2. -, . / . -. . : , 1986. 184 .
3. , . . / . . ,
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4. , . . /
. . , . . , . . . . : , 1984.
5. , . . / . . , . . . . : , 1977. 408 .
6. , . . : . : 10 . . 6.
/ . . , . . . . : , 1988. 736 .
7. , . . :
/ . . . . : , 1987. 840 .
8. , . . / . . . . : , 1990. 192 .
9. -, . . / . . . . : , 1964. 660 .
10. , . / . . . : , 1985. 368 .
11. , . / . . :
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12. / . .. . . : , 1975. 352 .
13. , . / . . . : , 1967.
392 .
14. : . 1. / .
. . . . : , 1985. 768 .
15. , . . /
. . . : - . -, 1999. 182 .
16. , . . : . /
. . . . : . ., 1990. 384 .
17. http://www.cad.ru/flow3d/flow3d.htm ( FLOW-3D)
18. http://www.flow3d.com ( FLOW-3D
FLOW SCIENCE)
19. http://www.flowvision.ru ( FLOW VISION )
20. http://www.cadfem.ru/program/icem/icem.htm (
ICEM CFD)
21. http://icemcfd.com ( ICEM CFD)
22. http://xoptimum.narod.ru/rus/index.html ( -).
107

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