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2010

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14 2010 , 6

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230201


....................................................................................................... 5
1. .................................. 6
1.1. .............................................................. 6
1.2. ......................... 7
1.3. ...................................................... 9
1.4. ................. 12
2. ............................................. 15
2.1. ..................................................................................... 16
2.2. ............................................................... 17
2.3. ................................................................. 19
2.4. - ........................................ 20
2.5. ............................................................... 21
2.6. ........................................................... 23
2.7. ....................................................... 24
3. z- .......................................................... 27
3.1. .................................................. 27
3.2. z- ....................................... 28
3.2.1. ....................................................... 29
3.2.2. ....................... 30
3.2.3. ...................................................................... 31
3.2.4. z- ............. 31
3.3. z- ........................................................ 32
3.4.
.................................................... 32
3.5. ....................................................... 34
3.6. ................................................................ 35
3.7. ......................................... 36
4. ......................................................................... 36
4.1. ................................................................. 37
4.2. ........................................................................ 40
4.3. ......................................................................... 43
4.4. ............................................................... 43
4.5. ..................................................................... 44
4.6. ......................................................... 44
5. ........................................................ 46
5.1. : - - ................. 46
5.2. - - .................................... 47
5.3. ......................................................... 48
5.3.1. .................................................. 49
5.3.2. ......................................................... 51
5.3.3. ............. 52
3

5.3.4. .............................. 56
5.3.5. .............................................................. 57
6.
(-) ................................................................................. 58
6.1. -.................................... 59
6.2. .................. 59
6.3. - . 60
6.4. - ............................................. 63
6.4.1. - .............................................. 63
6.4.2. - .............. 64
6.4.2.1. ......................................................... 64
6.4.2.2. ............................................. 68
6.4.2.3. .............................................. 71
6.4.2.3.1. ....... 71
6.4.2.3.2. ............ 73
6.4.2.3.3.
....................................................... 74
7.
(-) ..................................................... 74
7.1. -................................................. 74
7.2. - ........................... 76
7.2.1. ................................... 76
7.2.2. - .............. 77
7.2.2.1.
........................... 77
7.2.2.2.
............... 78
7.2.2.3.
z- ............................... 81
7.2.2.4.
z- .................................... 84
8. ............................. 87
8.1. ................... 88
8.2. :
............................................................................ 88
8.3. :
............................................................................ 90
8.4. ... 92
8.5. ..... 94
8.6. .............................................................. 95
8.7. ................... 96
..................................................... 98


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1
2

. 5.6. - 4-

. 5.7. - ( )
,
, .
, .
(), , .

, . , , . 54

-, -, ,
. 5.9.
0
-1

1/

1
/


(k) (k)

h(n)

. 5.8. ()
() -

. 5.9.
, N-
-, . 5.10, ,
- (. . ,
),
. 5.10.

55

. 5.10. N- - ()
-
()
5.3.4.
. ( 8 16 ), ,
, .
, .
(. . ) , (. . )
.

.
-. ,
.
. - -
-.
.
, 56

. ( ), . , -.
. ,
.
-.
:
1) , ,
2) ,
3) .
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
,
.
,
( 8,
12 16 ). .
5.3.5.
,
, ,
, , . ,

( ).
( (5.2) (5.3)),
( ) , / . , :
(, ) ;
( ) 1 ,
,
1 , ;
, . .
,
();
.
57

,
.
, ( ( )).
- . , ,
, , . ,
. ,
(
).
: 1)

(. .
), 2)
(, , ) , . ,
.
, DSP56000 (Motorola)
TMS320C25 (Texas Instruments).

, . , , - (, - )
.
6.
(-)
: , , ,
/
(. . 5.3).
,
/ .

58

, , h(m), . -: 1) (); 2) ; 3) .
6.1. -
1. - :
N 1

y (n) = h(k ) x(n k ) ,

(6.1)

k =0

H ( z) =

N 1

h( k ) z k ,

(6.1)

k =0

h(k), k = 0, 1, , N 1 ,
H(z) , N , . . . (6.1) .
- : (n)
(n).
- , . .
(6.1), . (6.1) , , , .
2. - .
3. - . . , - , -.
6.2.
-
.
/
. .
. (, ),
,
.
. 59

, ,
:
T p = () / ,
(6.2)

Tg = d() / d .
(6.2)

, . , , , . (,
, , ) , .
, ,
:

() = ,
() = ,

(6.3)
(6.3)

. (6.3),
. (6.3) ,
.
:
n = 01...( N 1) / 2( N ),
h( n ) = h (N n 1),
n = 01...( N / 2) 1( N ).
= ( N 1) / 2 .
(6.3) , .
:
h ( n ) = h (N n 1) ,
= ( N 1) / 2, = / 2.

- -.
, .
6.3. -
- (, N
). . 6.1 , -

60

.
. 6.1.
6.1
-

,
N

,
H ()

i( N 1) / 2

( N 1) / 2

a(n) cos(n)

n=0

h(n) = h( N 1 n)

i( N 1) / 2

N /2

b(n) cos((n 1 / 2))

n =1

i [( N 1) / 2 / 2 ]

( N 1) / 2

a(n) sin(n)

e i[( N 1) / 2 / 2] a(n) sin ((n 1 / 2))

n =1

h( n) = h( N 1 n)

N /2

n =1

a (0) = h[( N 1) / 2] , a ( n ) = 2h[( N 1) / 2 n ] , b(n ) = 2h( N / 2 n ) .

2 (- ) f = 0.5 ( , ). , . 3 4 (- ) 90, f = 0,
. ,
f = 0.5,
.
.
, ,
90.

61


(N-,
)
N=13 ()

10

12


(N-,
)
N=12 ()

10


(N-,
)
N=9 ()
6
0


(N-,
)
N=10 ()
6
0

8
n

. 6.1.

62

( 1 2)
( )
, , , ,
. ,
:
N 1
(6.4)
Tp =
,
2

N 1
(6.4)
Tg =
,
2

T .
6.4. -
-
5.3. ,

.

6.4.1. -
,
, (, ). -
- .
. 6.2.
p s ,
. 6.2. f s f p . N,
. -.
,
; , , ( , ,
).

63

H e 2 if

1+ p

1 p

F
s

fp

fs

0.5

. 6.2. -
.
:
20 lg 1 + p ; 20 lg( s )

6.4.2. -
( ) -
h(n ) , , , - , .
h(n ) . , . - .
6.4.2.1.
, H D () hD (n )
:

1
H D ()e in d .
(6.5)

2
D ,
. . H D () , hD (n ) ,
(6.5). , .
hD ( n ) =

64

,
. 6.3, , c ( T = 1 ).
H D ( )

-c 0 c

hD (n )

-2

()

. 6.3.
(). ()
, c c ,
:

1
1 c in
in
hD ( n ) =
e d =
1 e d =
2
2 c
=

2 f c sin(nc )
, n 0,
nc

n .

(6.6)

n = 0,
= 2 fc ,
( ( )).
,
(6.6) (. 6.2).

. 6.3, , hD (n ) n = 0 (. .
hD ( n) = hD ( n) ), (
) . . hD (n ) n = 0 , n = .
, -.

65

6.2

-

, hD (0)

hD ( n), n 0

2 fc

2 fc

sin(nc )
nc

sin(nc )
nc

sin( n2 )
sin(n1 )
2 f1
n2
n1
sin( n1 )
sin( n2 )
2 f2
2 f1
n1
n 2
2 f2

hD (0)
2 fc
1 2 fc
2 ( f 2 f1 )
1 2 ( f 2 f1 )

f c , f1 f 2 ; N
,
n = 0, , hD (n) = 0 n, ,
. ,
.
, . 6.4. ,
(. . 6.5).
hD ( n) , ,
( n) = 1, n = 0, 1, ..., ( M 1) / 2
= 0.

,
-
.

sin / ,
.

.

,
(. 6.5).
. 6.5, . . 6.5 . . 6.5

,
.

66

H 1 ( )

-c

H 2 ()

-c

H 3 ( )

-c

.6.4.
) 13 ;
) 25 ; )
H D ()

W ()

H ()

hD (n )

w(n )

h (n ) = hD (n ) w(n )

. 6.5.

, , ,
. , 67

. , . .
:
.
. ,
,
.
, , .
,
N. ,
. , .

, (6.5)
.
, .
6.4.2.2.

. , , (. 6.6). ,

, , , . 6.6,
.
1.2
1.0

1.2
1.0

0.8

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2
0

0.125

0.250 0.375

0.5

0.125 0.250 0.375

0.5

. 6.6. : ,
(), ()
68

. , . 6.7. 1
. 1
0 .

E ( ) = W ( )[H D ( ) H ( )],

(6.7)

H D () , W ()
, .
h(n ) ,
E () .
:
min[max E ( ) ].

|
max|
, ,
(. 6.6). , .
,
1
2 ,
1 /2 (

/2 ( 2). . 6.6
1)
.

1+ p

1 p

H ()
H D ()

69

E ()

p
p

. 6.7.
().
2 ) ()
(
, , (. .
/2), . ,
.
,
(Remez exchange algorithm) (. 6.8).


r + 1

| E() |

r + 1

. 6.8.

, ( , ).
(. . N
) :
,
;
70

, ;
.
6.4.2.3.

-, - ( , , ),
. , -, . -, ,
, ( , , , ).
6.4.2.3.1.
, -,
, . 6.9.
N
/ , k = 0,1, ..., N 1.
,
:
1
h( n ) =
N

N 1

H (k ) e

i ( 2 / N ) nk

(6.8)

k =0

, k = 0,1, ..., N 1
.
(6.8) :

1
h(n ) =
N
1
=
N

N 1

H (k ) e

i 2 k / N

i 2 kn / N

k =0

1
=
N

N 1

H (k ) e

i 2 ( n ) / N

k =0

N 1

H (k ) cos[2(n ) / N ] + i sin[2(n ) / N ] =
k =0

=
1 /2,

/ ,

1
N

N 1

H (k ) cos[2(n ) / N ],

(6.9)

k =0

,
.

71

H ()

H (k )

H( )

Fs

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

. 6.9. : )
; )
; ) ,


, :
h(n ) =

1 N / 2 1

[
]

+
2
H
(
k
)
cos
2
(
n
)
/
N
H
(
0
)

N k 0

(6.10)

1 /2 .
N ,
, .
,
(. 6.9).
.
( 2),
, ,
f k = ( k + 1 / 2) Fs / N , k = 0, 1, ..., N 1 .

(6.11)

. 6.10.

. ,
.

72

Im(z)

Im(z)

Re(z)

Re(z)

Im(z)

Im(z)

Re(z)

Re(z)

1, N -

2, N -

. 6.10.
( )

6.4.2.3.2.
, , .
-
:

1 zN
H ( z) =
N

N 1

H (k )

1 e
k =0

2 ik / N

z 1

= H1 ( z ) H 2 ( z ) ,

(6.12)

1 zN
H1 ( z ) =
,
N
N 1

H (k )
.
2 ik / N 1
z
k =0 1 e

H 2 ( z) =



, N ,
:
, N
.

/

. ,
, ,
().
,
,


().
r, ,
. :
73

1 r N zN
H ( z) =
N

N 1

H (k )

1 re
k =0

2i k / N

z 1

(6.13)


. , (6.12)
(6.13) . , , .
-
-
(- )

M

k =1

1 r N z N
H ( z) =

N
H ( k ) 2 cos(2k / N ) 2r cos[2k (1 + ) / N ]z 1 H (0)
+
, (6.14)
1 2r cos(2k / N ) z 1 + r 2 z 2
1 z 1
1 /2. N:

/2

1 /2, N:

1.

6.4.2.3.3.
-
, .
,
( ), , ,
(
). ,

( (6.14)).
: . , , ,
. , , .
7.
(-)
7.1. -
-
:
74

k =0

k =0

k =1

y (n ) = h (k ) x (n k ) = bk x (n k ) a k y (n k ) ,

(7.1)

h(k ) , , bk a k , x(n ) y (n )
.
- :
N

H (z ) =

b0 + b1 z + + bN z
=
1 + a1 z 1 + + a M z M

b z

k =0
M

1 + ak z

(7.2)

k =1

-
bk a k , , , ,
. -
(7.1) (7.2).
(7.1) y (n )
y (n k ) , x(n k ) , . . -
. - , . , -
, - , - ,
.
-, ,
, .
- H ( z ) , (7.2), :
H (z ) =

K (z z1 )(z z 2 )(z z N )
,
(z p1 )(z p2 )(z p M )

(7.3)

z1 , z 2 , H ( z ) , . . z, H ( z )
, p1 , p2 , H ( z ) , . . z,
H ( z ) .
. ,
( ). .
75

7.2. -
-
5.3.
.
7.2.1.
, . :
- , ,
.
- . 7.1.

1 / 1 + 2

fp2 fs2

fs1 fp1

Fs
2

. 7.1. -

. :
2 ; p ; s
; f p1 f p 2 ; f s1 f s 2
.
, . . ( f / Fs ),
, .
: ()
Ap = 10 lg(1 + c 2 ) = 20 lg(1 p ) ,
76

(7.4)

() :
As = 20 lg( s ) .

(7.4)

-
.
7.2.2. -
, a k bk
(7.2), ,
, .
- , . ,
, , , , ( ) . ,
, , . -
. ,
,
. , z- z-.
7.2.2.1.

, . ,
, (. 7.2). ,
, , , ,
. ,
- .

77

:
, ,
.
/4

/2
0

0
3 /4

/4

3 /4

. 7.2. ();
()
7.2.2.2.



.
,
(

) z- .


:
H (s ) =

C
,
s p

, .
p

:

(7.5)

C
h (t ) = L1 [H (s )] = L1
= Ce pt ,
s p

.

,
0, 1, 2, , . .

78

h(nt ) = h(t ) t = nT = Ce pnT .


h(nT )

z--

H ( z ) = h(nT ) z

n =0

= ce pnT z 1 =
n =0

c
1 e pT z 1

, , :
C
C

s p 1 e pT z 1

(7.6)


- (,
- ) , H (s )
(
):
H (s ) =

C1
C2
+
+
s p1 s p2

M
Ck
CM
,
=
s pM k =1 s pk

(7.7)

pk H (s ) .
(7.7) , (7.6), (7.7) . ,
M
Ck
Ck

pk T 1
z
k =1 1 e
k =1 s pk
M

(7.8)

-
. , M = 2 .
(7.8)
C1
C2
C1
C2
+

+
=
s p1 s p2
1 e p1T z 1 1 e p2T z 1
C1 + C 2 (C1e p2T + C 2 e p1T ) z 1
.
=
1 ( e p1T + e p2T ) z 1 + e ( p1 + p2 )T z 2

(7.9)

p1 p2 -, C1 C2
-, (7.9) :

C1

1 e p1T z 1

C1
1 e
79

p1T 1

2C re [C re cos( pimT ) + Cim sin ( pimT )]2e preT z 1


=
,
1 2e preT cos( pimT )z 1 + e 2 preT z 2

(7.10)

Cre Cim C1 , pre pim p1 , * -


.
-, ,
(7.6), (7.9) (7.10).
,
.
, :
1.
H (s ) , .
2. H (s ) ,
.
3. z- (7.8).
4. H ( z ) , . 3 , , .
, H ( z ) T.

:
1. h(nT )
h(t )
t = nT , n = 0, 1, ... (. 7.3). .
2. ,
, .
, .
3. , , H ( z ) , H (s ) ,
, ,
. 8.8, . ,

80

,
, .
h(t )

, t ()

h(nt )

0 2T 4T 6T 8T 10T 12T

, nT ()

. 7.3.
h(t ) () h(nT ) ()
, .
, ,

, .
, .
7.2.2.3.
z-
z-
.
s- z-
( ):

(s a ) (1 z 1e aT ) ,

(7.11)

T . (7.11)
( ), s = a s-, ( )
, z = e aT .
81

H( f )

H( f )

Fs

2 Fs

. 7.4. (); , , ()


/ , s- z.

:

(s z1 )(s z 2 ) (s z M )
(s p1 )(s p2 ) (s p N )
H (s ) .
H (s ) =

(7.12)

z k pk
z-:

(s zk ) (1 z 1e zk T ),
(s pk ) (1 z 1e pk T ).
-
. , , (8.13) M = N = 2 .

H (s ) =

(s z1 )(s z2 )
(s p1 )(s p2 )

(7.13)

z-,
82

(s z1 )(s z 2 ) 1 (e z T + e z T ) z 1 + e ( z + z )T z 2

(s p1 )(s p 2 ) 1 ( e p T + e p T ) z 1 + e ( p + p )T z 2
1

(7.14)

, p2 = p1* z2 = z1* (7.14)


1 2e zreT cos( zimT )z 1 + e zreT z 2

1 2e preT cos( pimT )z 1 + e preT z 2

(7.15)

zre zim , pre pim z1 p1 .


:

(
s z1 )(s z 2 ) A0 + A1s + A2 s 2
.
H (s ) =
=
(s p1 )(s p2 ) B0 + B1s + B2 s 2
H (s ) :

p1, 2 =

1
2

B1 B1 B0
,

2 B2 2 B2 B2

(7.16)

z1, 2

2
2
A0
A1 A1
.
=

2 A2 2 A2
A2

(7.16)

(7.16) (7.16) , ( , ). H (s ) ,
(7.14) (7.15) H ( z )
.
, z- :
1. H (s ) ,
.
2. H (s ) .
3. s- z-,
(7.11). (7.14)
(7.15).
83

4. , z-,
H (z ) .
z- .
1. z-
.
H (s ) .
2. z-

.
3.
( ),
. , ,
z-, . .
, z-, .
4. , , , ,
. ,
, . ,
.
5. z-
,
. ,
z = 1 (. . ).
7.2.2.4.
z-

H (s ) :
z 1
s=k
, k = 1 k = 2 / T .
(7.17)
z +1
H (s ) , s-, H (z ) , . 7.5.
, i s- 84

, s-
, .
Im (i)

Im

Re

s-

Re

z-

. 7.5. s- (z)
z-

,
s- .
,


, s H (s ) ,
(7.17)
. , (7.17)
z = e iT s = i . , ,
:
T
= k tg
, k = 1 k = 2 / T .
2

(7.18)

(7.18) . 7.6. ,
, ,
( ) .
,
. , ,
.
85

` ( )

k tg (T / 2 )

( )

. 7.6. ,

,
:
pT

p = k tg
2

(7.19)

p = ;
p = ;

k = 1 k = T / 2 ;
T .
- - z-.
1. - H (s ) .
2.
.
, ( p ).
p1 p 2 ,
( ):
pT
;
p = tg
2

86

(7.20)

T
T
p1 = tg p1 ; p 2 = tg p 2 .
2
2

(7.20)

3. -, s ( ):
s
,
(7.21)
s=
p

s=

p
s

s 2 + 02
s=
,
Ws
W
s = 2 s 2 .
s + 0

(7.21)
(7.21)
(7.21)

02 = p 2 p1 , W = p 2 p1 .

4. z-
H (z ) , s
(. . ) H (s ) :
z 1
s=
.
z +1
8.

,
(multirate processing). : , . ,
. , , .


. - ()
(over-sampling).

. ,
87

-
,

.
,
,
.
8.1.
, . -- ,
, . ,
,
.
,
. ,
,
, .
8.2. :
. 8.1 -
x(n ) .
h (k ) () , , , .
Fs Fs / M .

,
Fs / 2 M .
, w(n ) -1 . :

y (m ) = (mM ) =

h(k )x(mM k ) ,

(8.1)

k =

(n ) =

h(k )x(n k ).

k =

88

(8.1)




x(n)

w(n)

h(k)

y(m)

Fs

Fs

Fs
M

x(n)
0

10

12

w(n)
n
y(m)
0

. 8.1. - (),
= 3 ().

. 8.1
= 3, x (n ) . , ,
, .

. 8.2, ,
x (n ) . . 8.2 ,
, x (n ) .
x(n)

h(k)

w(n)

89

y(m)
2

X(f

)
0

H(f

5 f()

5 f()

5 f()

Fs / 2

Fs / 2 M

)
0

Y(f

)
0

W(f

Fs / 2 M

Fs / 2 M Fs / M 2 Fs / M

5 f()

8.2.
6 2
8.3. :
, , , .
x (n ) Fs L , .. LFs .
. 8.3, .
,
, , L,
, . x (n ) ( L 1 ) , w(m )
LFs . , ,
y (m ) .

x(n)

Fs



w(m)

LFs

90

y(m)

LFs

x(n)
0

w(n)
0

y(m)

. 8.3. L = 3
( L 1 )
L , . . L . , , y (n ) L. :

y (m ) =

h(k )(m k ) ,

(8.2)

k =

x (m / L ), m = 0, L, 2 L, ...
w(m ) =
0

(8.2)


. 8.3, L = 3. ,
x (n ) ( ).

. 8.4.
X(f

Fs / 2

W(f

f()

LF s / 2

f()

f()

f()

)
0

Fs / 2

Y(f

)
0

H(f

LF s / 2

LF s

)
0

. 8.4. 2 6
91

X ( f ) , W ( f ) Y ( f ) (n), w(m) (m) . H ( f ) .


, W ( f )
. , , . . .
, .
8.4.

. , ,
,
(, ). , - (44.1 ) (digital audio tape DAT) (48 ).
-
48/44.1 .
, . . , L ,
L / M .
: 1) L 2) (. 8.5).

x(n)

Fs

h1(k)

h1(k)

LFs

LFs/M

. 8.5.
(L = 3, M = 2)

, , . - 48/44.1
: L = 160,
= 147, . . - L = 160 7056 ,
= 147 48 .

92

. 8.5 h1 (k ) h2 (k ) , , , . 8.6.
x(n)

w(i)

Fs

h1(k)

v(i)

LFs

LFs

y(m)

LFs/M

. 8.6.
(L = 3, M = 2)

> L, , , , < L . M 1 , , , L 1 .
. 8.7 3/2.
3 ( x (n ) ),
, v (i ) .
, . .
v (i ) . . 8.8.
x(n)
0

w(i)
0

v(i)
i
y(m)
0

. 8.7.
(L = 3, M = 2)

93

X(f

)
0

W(f

V(f

Y(f

f()

Fs / 2
0

f()

f()

f()

LFs / 2 M

LF s / M

. 8.8. 2 3/2

x (n ) 2 3 6 , ,
, 2 3 .
8.5.
.
,
,
( ). . ,

.
M- . 8.9.
2

1
x(n)

Fs

h1(k)

M1

h2(k)

N
hN(k)

M2
Fs /M1M2

Fs /M1

. 8.9.
94

MN

y(m)
Fs /M

:
M = M 1M 2 M N ,

(8.3)

M N N- .
, . M >> 1 ,
, ,
, , ,
.

.
8.6.
.
. ,
- -, -.


- ( ) -. , :
0 f f p ,
(8.4)

Fs 2 M f Fs 2 ,

(8.4)

(8.4)

p ,
s ,

(8.4)
f p < Fs / 2 M , Fs . , f p
.
.
, Fs / 2 .
LFs LFs / 2 ,
Fs / 2 , x (n ) . , :
95

0 f f p ,

(8.5)

Fs 2 f L Fs 2 ,

(8.5)

p ,

(8.5)

s ,

(8.5)

f p < Fs / 2 .
, , , L .
8.7.

.
. N . , . . , , () ()
:
N

= Ki Fi ,

(8.6)

= K i ,

(8.6)

i =1
N

i =1

K i i- , .
N . , 3 4 .
, -. , , . . Mi . .
,
, :
M1 > M 2 > > M i ,

96

(8.7)

M N ( i = 1, ..., N ) . ,
, N (8.7) , , N = 3 M = 32 .
N = 2 (. . ) , ,
M 1opt =

2M
,
12
2 f + (2 Mf )

(8.8)

M
.
M 1opt

(8.8)

M 2opt =

N > 2 , , Mi
.

97


1. . . / . . .
. : , 2002. 603 .
2. . / . . . : , 2009. 654 .
3. . . / . . ,
. . . . : , 2007. 856 .
4. . / . , . , . . . : -,
2001. 464 .

1. . .
/ . . . : , 2007. 1104 .
2. . . / . . , . . . . : . 2007.
344 .
3. : . / . . [ .] . : , 1990. 256 .

98

.

-
:
,

04.05.2010. 6084/16. . . . 5,8.


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