Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 63

-,

,
-
.
,
, -. ,
.
:
e-mail: Inna.Starikova@mobicomk.ru
tel: +7 928 201 0152
:
e-mail: roman.kh@mail.ru
tel: +7 928 240 0011

- | 1 | -

2004 .

:
.




NMT450
AMPS
DAMPS
GSM 900
GSM 1800
CDMA











,
()


- | 2 | -

6
7
7
9
9
10
11
11
11
12
12
13
15
15
17
18
19
19
19
21
21
22
22
23
23
25
25










PDH ( )
SDH ( )


GSM

GSM
GMSK
GSM
GSM

o BTS, BSC
o MSC
o HLR
o VLR
SIM-

, ITU-T
o G.711
o G.723.1
o G.729
, ETSI
o FR (Full Rate)
o HR (Half Rate)
o EFR (Enhanced Full Rate)




GSM




- | 3 | -

25
26
26
27
27
27
27
28
29
32
32
32
34
35
35
35
37
40
41
41
41
42
43
43
44
45
45
45
45
46
46
47
47
47
48
48
48
48
48
48
49
50
51
51
51
51
52
53
54

SS-7
SS-7

GSM



,




()
- (PMP) WALKair
- ()

o
o
DSL
ADSL (Asymmetric DSL DSL)
DSL-Lite
HDSL (High-bit-rate DSL DSL )
VDSL (Very high-bit-rate DSL DSL
)
SDSL (Symmetric DSL DSL)
RADSL (Rate-Adaptive DSL DSL )
IDSL (ISDN DSL)
GSM
(Tele Services)
(Bearer Services)
(Supplementary Services)
(Network Functions)
GSM

o SMS
o EMS
o USSD
o MMS

o WAP
o
o

o CSD
o HSCSD

o GPRS

- | 4 | -

54
55
55
56
56
58
58
60
61
62
62
64
64
65
66
66
66
68
68
69
69
70
70
70
70
70
71
71
71
72
72
73
73
73
74
74
75
75
75
76
77
77
77
77
77
78

(Voice Mail)
IVR,
GSM




GSM
GSM
o , GSM
o , GSM


- (NiCd)
- (NiMH)
- (Li-Ion)
- (Li-Pol)

,








ATM
o ATM
o
o ATM

. ,

.

. ,

- | 5 | -

78
79
80
80
80
80
81
82
85
85
86
87
87
87
88
88
88
89
89
89
90
91
92
93
93
94
94
94
94
95
96
96
97
98
99
99
105
121
124


. ,
, , , ,
. ,
.

, .

,
.
.
,
? .
. -,
. ,
.
,
. - ,
.
,
. ,
. , ,
. , -
, - , -
, -
. ?
, ,
- | 6 | -

.
.
,
, ,
.
,
.
, , , .
, 9- ,
, , , .
.

.
-
..


.

, ,
..
,
.
,
. 1800 . .

. ,
, .
1809 . .
. .
1832 . .
.
, 1876 . . .
,
. 7 1895 .
. ,
.
1946 , . - ()
,
. ,
.
- | 7 | -

70-
5 : , , ,
, NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone)
450 . 1981
,
- . 1983 ,
, ,
AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service).
1992 .
,
NMT-450. ,
AMPS/DAMPS .
1996 ,
GSM-900 .
, 90-
, : NMT-450 (), AMPS\DAMPS
() GSM-900 ().
,
.
1998 ,
GSM,
.
1998 , ,
.
.
1999-2000 .
GSM ,
, , .
GSM
AMPS/DAMPS NMT-450.

,
, ,

XXI . ,
UMTS,
FPLMTS (Future Public
Land Mobile Telephone System)
.
FPLMTS .
1 - 3 , 60
170 - .
FPLMTS 1980-2010 2170-2200 2010 .

(ISO)
, (OSI Open Systems
Interconnection) TCP/IP.

- .
,
. OSI

- | 8 | -

,
.
2000 (.-),
,
GSM900\1800 89 .
,
GSM .
, , -,
3 2001 GSM
: , ,
.
-
GSM 900/1800. 2002
- - GSM
(), -, -,
-, -, -,
-, GSM .
, -,
Sonera () Telia ().
100% - 89 , 145
.


, ,

.
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
.


,
- .
. ,
, .
?
, . -
-

, ,
, .
,
- | 9 | -


.
.
, . ,
, .
20
,
, .
(generation) :
o (1G) (NMT, AMPS),

o (2G) ,
(DAMPS, GSM)
o (3G) ,
,

.
1G 2G .
NMT 450
NMT-450 (Nordic Mobile Telephone)
.
"". 453 - 468 .

, ,
, ,
. ,
.
-
( 100 ), ,
,
.
, ,
. -
, 800, 900 1800 . ,

.
. NMT-450 ,
- .
. , , ,
NMT-
, ,
, , .
:
NMT
- | 10 | -

EEPROM ( ) ,
. NMT SIS Subscriber Identity Security
, .
:
,
, .. , ,
, ,
, .

( ,
NMT450+), NMT450
, .

NMT-450
.
AMPS
, 825 - 890 .
AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service)
, .

o , NMT450, .
o .
o , NMT450, .
o ,
.
o .

AMPS , 1990 .
, DAMPS.
DAMPS
DAMPS (Digital Advanced Mobile hone Service) -
AMPS. , ,
, 1993 . . 825 - 890 .

, NMT-450 AMPS.
, .
, , ,
, , .
AMPS DAMPS,
. ,
, .

,
. DAMPS
.

D-AMPS/AMPS .
- | 11 | -

GSM 900
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications -
) , 890 - 960 .

, ,
. ,
,
, . ,
, .
.
.
,

.
35
-
, .
- 2.
SIM-.
GSM 900
SIM-. .

GSM
, MMS, GPRS EDGE.

GSM ,
, GSM.
GSM 1800
GSM 900, 1710-1880 .
DCS.

GSM 1800
1. .
, .
5-6 .
GSM GSM 900, GSM 1800.

GSM 1800
GSM 900.
CDMA
Code Division Multiple Access (IS-95) -
. CDMA - .
. QUALCOMM,
CDMA , ,

.
- | 12 | -

.
,
( ) , CDMA
-. ,

/ .
.
,
.

. ,
, .
. CDMA

.
, ,
.
,
" ", CDMA .
4,4 CDMA
.
CDMA ,
,

.
, - .

CDMA ,
, (SMS)
. .

CDMA
.
.


,
, . ,
, .
?
, ,
.
() .
I.

. U.
,
.
R.
:
- | 13 | -

I = U/R
1876 .
:
,
.
. ,
,
.
,
.
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
.
,

.
. ( ) .
,
. ,
,
.
,
.
. , (220 ) - 50
. , 220
50 . ,
50 .
+ -..

- | 14 | -




. ,
, .
, , ,
..


(International Telecommunications Union Telecommunication Services
Sector, ITU-T). , - ,

, (Consultative Committee on International Telegraphy and
Telephony CCITT). - ITU.
ITU-T
, .
,
, V.95, X.25, Q.931, H.323.
, , E
, G - , H - ,
, I - ISDN, Q -
, V - , X - .
ITU-T,
,
(ETSI, European Telecommunications Standards
Institute). ETSI ,
ITU-T, . ,
ETSI, ITU-T.
ETSI GSM, Euro-ISDN, V5, QSIG.
ECTF (Enterprise Computer Telephony Forum
) (..
, )
. ECTF H.100 ECTF S.100 (
ECTF ITU-T).
ECMA (European Computer Manufacturers Association
- )

- | 15 | -

. ECMA CSTA.

(ISO, International Standardization


Organization) ANSI (American National Standards Institute).
:
.

.
().


, ,
.
, ,
,
( ). ,

.

(FCC, Federal Communications Commission).


.

GSM
,

,
GSM.

GSM
. ,
.


, ,
. ,
- "", ,
, "" (
) ,
. , 1982 CEPT (Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs),
,
- | 16 | -

, GSM (Group Special Mobile).


:

GSM
,
. ,
,
/. 1989 GSM
ETSI (European Telecommunication Standards Institute), 1990
GSM. 1991
, 1993 22 36
GSM, 25 GSM .
1994 , , 1.3
, 1995 10 !
GSM Global System for Mobile communications.
GSM

,
.
GSM,
.
,
,
. , :

GSM 900
890-915 (

), 935-960 (

):

45
200

,

124

GSM 1800
1710-1785
(

), 1805-1880 (

):
95
200
124

.
.

25
- | 17 | -

13 (6,5 Half Rate) /


8 (16- GSM 1800)
0,3 GMSK
0,5...35 GSM 900, 0,15 GSM
1800

GSM ,
- (TRX`) (, BTS).
TRX .
8 (8, 16, 24, 32 ) TRX`,
. , ULTRASITE 12 .
8 TRX` .

, ,
.
, .
GSM :
(downlink), (uplink).
GSM
FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access).
,
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access).
8 0,577
(15/26 ). TDMA- 4,615 (120/26 ).
4,615
( ).
() .
GSM 900
45 , GSM 1800 - 95 .
, ,
.
GSM
, SFH (Slow Frequency Hopping),
TDMA-
45 .
1 .
.
SFH ,
.
GMSK
GSM -
(GMSK Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying).
"",
() ,
.
GMSK, ,
.
GSM
- | 18 | -

GSM :

,
, (NSS Net Service System);

, ,
(BSS - Base Station System);

,
(NMS Net Manager System);

, ..
( ).

GSM (IN), .
GSM .

GSM :

(BSS), (BTS) (BSC). BSS (TRAU),


.

, :

(MSC)

() (HLR)

(VLR)

(EIR)

(AUC)



BTS, BSC

BTS
(MS) (BSC). BSC (BTS)

(MSC) , BTS.
MSC

:

- | 19 | -

MSC

, ..

BSS

MS


( HLR , MS)


(, VLR, HLR, MSC)

DTMF

VLR BSS

( )

(SMS)

(
)
.
HLR
HLR :

MS;

(OMS).

VLR
VLR ,
,
VLR.
, HLR , MS, VLR MS.
VLR :

;
- | 20 | -



( - MSRN,
(TMSI),
);

, ;

MS;

/ IMSI;

.
SIM-

GSM
SIM- (SIM - Subscriber Identity
Module ).
SIM- - ,
, ,

GSM.
, SIM-
- PIN-, 4 ,
. PIN-
. PIN-, SIM-
. , 8- PUK- (Personal Unlocking
Key ), SIM .
, PIN (, PUK)
PIN1 ( PUK1) PIN2 ( PUK2):
, .
SIM

, .
, , .
. GSM -.
GSM ,
, , SIM-, .
SIM- , ..
SIM-. SIM-
. ,
. SIM- ,
, , ,
- | 21 | -

- , .
SIM- . ,
, ,
, (..
).
, SIM- ,
. SIM-
- (, ). SIM-
, ,
, . -
. , ,
,
.
, SIM- ,
.

.

. , ,
, , 64 \ ,
, .
, .
, ITU-T
G.711
G.711 - ,
ITU-T 1965 . . IP.
G.723.1
G.723.1 ITU-T 1995 .
IP-. : 6.3
/ ( 189 , 24 ) 5.3 / (
158 , 20 ).
. .
G.723.1
(.. ,
).
4 . ,
.
G.729
G.729 Frame
Relay. CS-ACELP (Conjugate Structure, Algebraic Code Excited
- | 22 | -

Linear Prediction), 10 8 /.
5 .
: G.729 ( ITU-T 1996)
G.729A ( ITU-T 1995).
15- ,
.
, ETSI

GSM.

ETSI

FR (Full Rate)

GSM Full Rate (FR),


GSM 06.10, 1987 .
, .
.
20 , 13 /.
.
HR (Half Rate)
HR ,
, FR (6 /). , .
GSM- .
EFR (Enhanced Full Rate)
EFR - .
Nokia , ,
/ GSM.
: EFR ,
- . EFR
.

, ,
,
GSM , .
, .
,
, "" ,

"" ""
, "" - ,
-.
,
, .
- | 23 | -

, ,
:
[+] [ ] [ ] [ ]

, SMS ,
.
,
, , .
-. ( ),
() ,
(, ). ,
. ,
(, )
:
= "" + ""
+ "" + +
- ,
"" . "" -
, , 10-15% .
,
"" ( ) ""
, / .
, ,
, , ,
.
.
GSM
.
, , ,
.

,
, . ,
.
SMS, ,
. ,
, ,
.
SMS-, .
, , ,
, , .
, ,

. , ,
, ,
. , .
- | 24 | -

, ,
, ,

. , , ,
, , ""
"", ,
. ,
.
, , ,
, /
.
,
.
, ,
/ ,
"" .

(
, ) .
, ,
: , .
- ,
GSM.
,
,
.
,
. , GSM-,
,
( , ) .

, ,
,
. NMT-.


, .
.

- | 25 | -

GSM
GSM
, .
, ,
,
.

.
:

A = n * T / 3600
:
A ,
n - ,
T .
, 90 ,
0, 025 , 25 .
1000 90 ,
25 .

,
, , ,
. ,

5. , 100 95
5 , .


()

7
7
7
7

0%
2%
5%
10%

1,05
2,94
3,74
4,67

84
84


()

0%
2%

55,96
72,55
- | 26 | -

,

90
,

70
196
249
311
,

90
,

3731
4837

84
84

5%
10%

78,91
86,57

5261
5771

,
, .
, , ,
, ,
.

.
. ,
, . , ,
,
, ().
() ,
( /
). ,
, .

, :

: ,
,
:
: ,
,
:
,
, ,
: ,

,
, 15
.



(BSS Base Station System) GSM
. ,
.
(, )
. 3 ()
- | 27 | -

,
, 3
:
o

: 1 35 ;
o

: 0,1 1 ;

: 100 .

GSM
, .
(GSM900 + GSM1800)
:
, , 900 ,
() ;

, , 1800 ;
-
1800 .
,
.
.


.
.
( )
, , ,
( )
(
, , .) - , ,
.

.
- | 28 | -

UltraSite, .
,
, ,
. (1-6 ),
( , MS)
.

(BTS) (BSC, Base Station


Controller), .. - Location Area. BSC, ,
(MSC) A-.
, .
(Coverage Area) (Operating Area)
,
.
, ,
.
:

2002 ;

- | 29 | -

2003

, GSM,
.
. .
GSM
:

BSC

, BSC,
MSC

, MSC

() BSC.
BSC, MSC,
. , ,
MSC.
, MSC (
).
, .
BSC MSC, , ,
.


, .
- .
, (
, )

. , : ,
,
(). GSM,
( , ..)

, ,
, ,
, , ,

,
,

- | 30 | -

. ( ,
, ) .

,
.
, .
.
?
, :
. :
,
, .
, , ,
.
.

, ,
, .
.
, .
.
,

. ,
. ,
.
.
,
. ,
.
? ,
, -.
.
GSM-, .
, .
. , ,
, , .
, , .
: -,
, ,
.
,
,
(), ,
. ,
, ,
( , ,
).
:

- | 31 | -

64


()

,
,
.

(),
,
(BTS)
(BSC) .

,

- ..
:



,


3 40 ( - : 7,257,55 , 12,75-13,25 , 17,70-19,70 , 37,00-39,50 ).
PDH SDH.
- | 32 | -


.
,
.

- () WALKair

- (point to point).
. ,
,
, . .
Siemens
WALKair.
-.
?
(BS) WALKair , .. ,

(TS). TS
(CDMA),
( . ).
WALKair 10 ,
7
.
WALKair IP, ISDN, Frame Relay, ATM, DSL, V.35, V.36,
X.21 Ethernet,
- | 33 | -

.
- ()
.

800-1600 . 850, 1300
1550 .
.
:

. ,

. 9

. ,

.
.
,
, .
: /.
: ,
.
: ,
, .
, ,
.

. (
) ,
. :
.
: .
.

,
. ,
.
, ..
- | 34 | -

.
0.4, 0.5, 0.63 0.9 .
. ,
.
2 3000 .
0,5 200 .

, ,
. :
, , ,
..

.. , ,
, . -,
, -, , ,
. :
.
,
,
.

,
,

.


.


, S
(. .).


. ,
.


- | 35 | -

. . . .,
.
, ,
.
.
,

.
50-100 .
,
. .
, ,
. 15.

DSL
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
, (
) ( ).
DSL, . .
, .

DSL
ADSL
Asymmetric DSL DSL
DSL Lite
DSL, DSL

HDSL
High- bit -rate DSL
DSL
VDSL
Very high- bit -rate speed DSL
SDSL
Symmetric DSL
DSL
RADSL
Rate-Adaptive DSL DSL

IDSL
ISDN DSL


(/)

0,176
1,54


()
5,5

0,64

6,14

3,6

0,384

5,5

1,54
0,64
3

1,54
13
52

3,6
1,3
0,3

1,1
0,128

1,1
0,64

7,2
6,4

0,176
1

1,54
14

5,5
3,6

0,128-0,144

0,128-0,144

5,5

- | 36 | -

ADSL (Asymmetric DSL DSL)


. , ..
.
0.176 0.640 / 1.540 6.140 /
( 5.5 )
.
( ADSL DSL).
DSL Lite
ITU G.Lite.
(universal) . , ADSL. ,
DSL Lite , ,
, .
.
: 0.384 / 1 / .
- 5.5 .

HDSL (High-bit-rate DSL DSL )


DSL IT-,
, - .. , ..
, .
HDSL :

HDSL ,

1,540 /,
3.6 .
VDSL (Very high-bit-rate DSL DSL )
,
, 1,3 , . VDSL .
: - 0.640 3 /, - 13 52 /
(0.3 1.3 ).
SDSL (Symmetric DSL DSL)
DSL-. ,
, , ADSL.
- | 37 | -

. 1.1 /,
7.2 .
RADSL (Rate-Adaptive DSL DSL )
ADSL,
. /
RADSL . : -- 0,128 0,176
1 /, -- 0,640 1,54 14 /, -- 6,4 5,5 3,6
. .
IDSL (ISDN DSL)
DSL, ISDN. .
ISDN.
, .. ,
. . :
0.128 0.144 /.
DSL , ..

.

GSM
GSM
(Tele Services), (Bearer Services),
(Supplementary Services) (Network Functions).
, GSM (GSM Association), ,
ETSI TS GSM.
(Tele Services)
:


/-
/-

/ 3
3

- | 38 | -

GSM 02.03
GSM 02.03
GSM 02.03, 03.40, 04.11
GSM 02.03, 03.40, 04.11
GSM 02.03, 03.40, 04.11
GSM 02.03, 03.45

(Bearer Services)
:




/
,

GSM 02.02
GSM 02.02, 09.06
GSM 02.02
GSM 02.02
GSM 02.02

(Supplementary Services)
GSM
. :




-
,
,









-

GSM 02.82, 03.82


GSM 02.83
GSM 02.83
GSM 02.84
GSM 02.86, 0.24
GSM 02.86
GSM 02.81
GSM 02.81
GSM 02.81
GSM 02.81
GSM 02.88, 03.88
GSM 02.85
GSM 02.72
GSM 02.91
GSM 02.95
GSM 02.87

(Network Functions)

CAMEL I
CAMEL II
CAMEL III

II
II+
I

II

- | 39 | -

GSM 09.02
GSM 02.78, 03.78
GSM 02.78, 03.78
GSM 03.12, 09.02
GSM 02.41, version 4.5.2, GSM 03.15
GSM 02.41, 03.15
GSM 02.79, version 5.0.0, GSM 3.79
GSM 02.90, 03.90

,
GSM.

GSM

SMS


. 90-
. (ETSI).
,

SMS (Short Message Service ) GSM,
, CDMA, D-AMPS PDC.
SMS (
) .
,
, . ,
. (
) ,
. ,

, -
.
SMS (Short
Message Service Center SMSC), ,
, .
SMSC ,
: (
,
) (
: HLR`,
, , SMS-
). ,
( SMS - ).
(
, ) SMSC ,
HLR .
() , ,
, .
- | 40 | -

SIM- .
, MSC SMSC ,
, .
,
SMSC,
.

, SMS (Cell Broadcast Short
Message Service CBSMS).
(Broadcast Control
Channel - BCCH). BCCH,
(BSC) .
GSM ,
16 , 80 .
-
,
.
EMS
EMS (Extended Message System) - ,
(
) . EMS-,
(, ) .
EMS- , ,
, .
EMS- ,
SMS, .
SMS.
.
USSD
USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Services Data
) - ,
( ..
), , , . USSD
GSM-. ,
.

. USSD- 182 .
USSD :
,

GSM,
,
.
USSD GSM
- | 41 | -

, .
SMS-.
. USSD, SMS,
GSM, .
, -
- .
SMSC
, USSD . .. USSD-
,
, , USSD- ( )
, ,
(.. , ) ,
.
USSD
,
2-4 .
USSD :

: USSD ,
, .. ,
.

USSD ,
SMS.

USSD- . SIM-
( ).

, SMS USSD ,
. USSD GSM-,

( -).
,
, . .
MMS
MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service)
, ,
, , , ,
.
, SMS: ,
WAP (. ). MMS SMS
USSD, ,
WAP. MMS ,
WAP.

WAP
WAP (Wireless Application Protocol - ) -
( ,
WAP )
. WAP Forum (www.wapforum.org)
- | 42 | -

,
.
, , .
, WAP.
, , WAP:
. - , .
- .. ,
, .
, ,
, . :
.
,
WML(Wireless Markup Language - ),
( HTML, DHTML, XML ..)
WML,
( ).
. .
( POP3 IMAP) HTTP ( , web-).
. (,
). IP-,
,
. ,
, ,
(ISO/OSI).
. , WAP
, ,
ICQ-, FTP SSH, .. , WAP
.
WAP ( , HTTP
, SMTP, POP3, IMAP, Telnet, SSH, AIM,
Jabber ..):

- | 43 | -

,
, HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol ),
, WAP- , .. WAP,
. , ,
.

WAP-,
, ,
. .. , WAP,
WML-.

GSM
, .. .
, ,
, .

WAP. ,

.
CSD
CSD (Circuit Switch Data ) ,
WAP- GSM-.
. 14400 /,
9600 /.
HSCSD
HSCSD (High Speed Circuit Switched Data
) CSD,
28800-57600 /. , HSCSD
, -,
. HSCSD
-
. ,
.
- | 44 | -

GPRS
, , ,
. CSD ,
, .
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service - )
,
171.2 /,
30-40 /.
, GPRS ..
, , ,
, IP- .
GPRS , ,
.
, ,
GPRS- . .. GPRS
, , , .
GPRS-:

SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node GPRS) ,


GPRS- .
GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node - GPRS) - ,
GPRS- .

(Voice Mail)
GSM
, , .
, .
Voice Mail`
.

Call Center
Call Center ,
, ,
,
. Call Center` ,
- | 45 | -

, , .
Call Center :


( "")

Call Center



( Call Center)

, , Call Center

"" Call Center ,


,
(), (IVR Interactive Voice
Response) .
Call Center
, ,
, .
IVR,
IVR (Interactive Voice Response )

,
(, ) . IVR`
, ..
. IVR ,
, , . IVR
Call Center`, : Call Center`
, IVR
,
Call Center`.

GSM

- | 46 | -

GSM
. ,
GSM.


6 :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

- (low end)
(middle range)
, (outdoors)
- (business class)
- (fashion models)
,

- ,
.
- , EMS
GPRS, .

, , - . ,
, ..
.
,
-,
. Siemens ME45.

GSM : 1-
20 ,
, 0.8 (. ).
4 2 .
GSM 1800 (. ).

GSM 900:

1
2
3
4


,
20
8
5
2
- | 47 | -

0.8
GSM 1800:


1
2


,
1
0.25

-
()

()

-
()


,

. ,

(, Bluetooth) .
,
( ,
, .).
- (RAM), ( , EEPROM)
-.
- | 48 | -


SIM- .
, SMS-, .. ( . SIM).
GSM

(.. ),
,
.
, SIM-
.

GSM
.
. SIM- (
(?) ),

.

. SIM-
,
. ,
, .
.
GSM ,
SIM-.
(RadioFrequency, RF)
(BaseBand, BB) .
IQ- (In-phase, Quadrature).
IQ- ()
, .
.
-
, .
,
, ,
,
.
( ) ,
, , ,
.
(
- | 49 | -

) (
), ,
.
().
13 26 .
,
,
() .
-
, , , (UART, IrDA), SIM,
, .
.
( 20 ),
13 / (
260 ).
, LCPLTP-RPE-. , GSM-
.

.
12,5% ,
900 1800 .
, , " " ( ),
( ).

(0,3 GMSK).
.
GMSK
( ) -
, .
,

DTX (Discontinuous Transmission) - .
, VAD (Voice Activated Detector) -
, , . VAD
,
.

- | 50 | -


,
.
GSM . GSM
, ,
-.

, .

.
, .
,
.

.
45315.5 .
,
- , -
4531
3.2.
,
, .
.
(pick-and-place machine)
.
0402 10.5,

0201
0.60.3.

.

,
- | 51 | -

ETSI TS 151 0101,


. ,
, ,
. ,

.
().
,
.

.

,
.
GSM

. ,
: , GSM-,
GSM , /
. !
, GSM
, . ,
.
, .
*#06# - IMEI ( )
**04*_PIN1*_PIN1*_PIN1# - PIN1-
**042*_PIN2*_PIN2*_PIN2# - PIN2-
**05*PUK1*_PIN1*_PIN1# - PIN1- (
)
**05*PUK2*_PIN2*_PIN2# - PIN2- (
)
*#33# -
*#331# -

*#332# -
,
*#351# -
*#43# -
*43*# -
*30*# - ,

*31#_ -

#31#_ -

- | 52 | -

*#31# -
, GSM

: Nokia, Siemens, Ericcson Sony .
Nokia
*#0000# -
*#92702689# -
Siemens
*#0000# -
*#0606# SIM , SP-lock`
(Service Provider lock
GSM-, -
Unbarred , SP-lock )
Ericcson
>*<<*<* - (< > - )
<000000> -
<**< - Network Lock
Sony
*#6664867# - NetMonitor
*#7465625# -
*#7533273# *#8377466# -


- (NiCad)
- , .
.
500-1000 . -
.

. , ,
, . , ,
, .
- ,
.
.
-
. , , ,
- | 53 | -

, .
,
.
. :
( , ),
.
.
-

.
- (Ni-MH)
- Ni-MH.
.
-
.
- , -
,
.
-
( 500) .
, -
, .
- .

- (Li-Ion)
- .
,
. , .
,
. ,
.
- ,
.
- (Li-Pol)

.
.
- ,
,
.

. , ,
.
,
- | 54 | -

.
- ,
. , ,
.


,
,
.
,
.

,
, , , , .
, ,
.

,
,
.
, ,
,
, .
, ,
,
, , ( )
.
,
, ,
, ..
.
,

,
,
20 .
:
o
20
o
o ,

o ,

- | 55 | -


,
.
.



, .

.

,
. .

,
, , ..
, ,
, !



, .
GSM
- .
GSM - ,

, , .
GSM -
.

GSM - .

GSM - ,
, ,
- | 56 | -


.
-
.
-
.

GSM , ,
,
, , .

GSM :

( , );

- (BTS);

(BSC);

(MSC);

(EIR) ;

(AUC) - -;

(HLR) ;

(VLR) ;

.

.
.

, ,
,
, ..
- | 57 | -

.

, , :

,
;

AUC, HLR, VLR;

,
;

, ;


, ,
- :

,
( ,

, ,
);


( );

SIM- ( )
();

,
( , , );

- | 58 | -

,
;


GSM;

()

;

, ;

,
;

GSM;

, ;

,
, ;


- | 59 | -


(Fraud , ) -
, .

Access Fraud- -
.
.
;
" ", "
", .
Stolen Phone Fraud ( ) -
, -
. , , ,
. - ,
- ,
.
Subscription Fraud ( ) ,
,
.
, ,
. -
, ,
, " " .
Technical Fraud ( )
, ,
. , SIM- (
GSM) ( ),
( ). ,
.


2001 ,
- GSM,
GSM-900,

GSM.
. ,
-
. -
,
.
- | 60 | -

.
GSM
().
- ,
.
(2001-2003) 23.
,
2003
GSM
.
, GSM ,
, . .


( ).

.
,
, GSM.
, -
,
,
GSM.

.
( GSM-K)
()

, .
GSM-K
( ) ).
, .
GSM-K ,
SIM .
.


.

(CSD, HSCSD, GPRS),
, , ,
Wireless LAN (WLAN);
GSM , , . ,
10 ,
.

- | 61 | -

, , UMTS.
, :
, , 60-
,
,


. 90-
,
,
, , .
. ,
100 ! ,
.
. ,
, GPRS CSD.

, STN-:
. ,
,
. :
, , , -
GPRS-. ,
,
. - ,
, ,
.
!
roman.kh@mail.ru.

:
1. : 3 , 1
( . ., . ., . .) //
, , 2003;
2. 2- . ( ) // , , 2001;
3. ( . .) // -,
, 2003;
4. . ( . .,
..) // , , 2000;
5. ( . ., . .) // , 2002;
- | 62 | -

6. ( . ., . ., ., .) //
, , 2001;
7. . ( ., ., .,
.) // -, -, 2003;
8. . . ( . ) //
, -, 2002;
9. (.) // , ,
2000;
10. ( , ) // ,
-XXI, 2002;
11. ( .., ..,
..) // , -, 2002
12. GSM System Survey // Ericsson Radio System AB, 1998;
13. . .. // ,
, 1984;
14. . .. // ,
, 1984;
-:

http://ixbt.com
http://3dnews.ru
http://osp.ru
http://sotovichok.h10.ru
http://berkut.ru
http://netracer.h11.ru
http://www.tayle.com
http://www.mobicomk.ru

- | 63 | -