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Example of normal EEG from


EdEEG

Example of normal EEG

Maxim

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,


(LORETA)

F K J c BW J
2

LORETA

Top - ERDs are computed for a healthy


adult subject performing a two stimulus
GO/NOGO task. Pairs of visual images
of animals and plants in different
combinations are presented with the
task to press a button in response to
two animals. Note a left-side mu-rhythm
desynchronization accompanied by
ERS at the right side during preparation
to make a movement. Bottom ERS
are computed for the same subject
performing an auditory oddball task.
Strong ERD are observed to
movements in response to targets.
Note the desynchronization in one area
is accompanied by an opponent
reaction synchronization in the
adjacent area

Top spectra (for eyes


open and eyes closed
conditions) and spectra
map (for eyes closed
condition) of EEG recorded
in a patient with the right
parietal lobe stroke.
Bottom asymmetry map
for eyes closed condition

Example of abnormal EEG

ADHD spindling
beta

Averaged data from a group


of 13-14 years old healthy
subjects. Top superimposed EEG power
spectra computed in the
mathematical (difficult) and
two stimulus GO/NOGO
(easy) tasks in comparison
to the eyes open condition.
Middle difference spectra
with vertical bars (p<0.05)
indicating the confidence
level of difference. Bottom
maps of the difference for
14-16 frequency band

GABA-

Left a fragment of EEG recorded in a 32 years old patient after 5


days from the closed brain injury. Right, top spectrum at F3,
deviation from normality at F3. Below maps of deviations from
normality at theta and beta frequencies and s-LORETA images of
generators of theta rhythm

Example of abnormal EEG

FMT
ADHD

19-
:
1) 7 17 300 .
2) 18 60 500
.
3) 60 120 .
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Example of abnormal EEG


ADHD
examples
of EdEEG

Example of ICA on ERPs in


VCPT

Normal data

Medline:
1) Quantitative EEG, and diagnosis
2) Event related potentials and diagnosis

ERP diagnosis

1991-1995

QEEG
diagnosis
44

1996-2000

54

216

2001-2005

67

281

2006-2010

70

335

107



Publications in PubMed
400

Number/5years

350
300
250
Series1
Series2

200
150
100
50
0
1

3
Years

simultaneously presented multiple stimuli


compete for a selected neural
representation. This competition is difficult
at the left Fig (a sequential search for the
target) and easy at the right Fig (a parallel
search for the target). One can speculate
that in the first case the top-bottom
controlled search finds a target, while in
the second case, the bottom-up process
pops up the target. Middle - shifts of
attention are marked by grey lines with
arrows. The shifts can be overt and
measured by recording eye movements,
namely position of the fovea of the eyes on
the scene while a subject is viewing a
picture in a search of the target. The
technique of measuring eye movements
during observation of pictures was first
applied by a Russian scientist Alexander
Yarbus. Shifts of attention may be also
covered, i.e. occur without any visible
movements of eyes. Bottom three
operations of attention after Michael
Posner (Posner et al, 1988)
engagement, disengagement and shift
operations.

P3a P3b


The executive functions
include:
action selection,
action suppression,
preparation to perform
action,
detection of conflict
between different actions,
All functions are
performed via the corticalbasal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits with the
striatum playing critical
role in these operations.

ERPs are extracted from scalp


recordings by computer averaging
epochs of EEG time-locked to
repeated occurrences of sensory,
cognitive, or motor events.

The spontaneous background


EEG fluctuations, which are
random relative to when the
stimuli occurred, are averaged
out, leaving the event-related
brain potentials.

The ERP thus reflects, with high


temporal resolution, the patterns
of neuronal activity evoked by an
event.

Different ERP waves were used for discriminating healthy brain responses from
abnormal brain responses in various psychological tasks. The most frequently
used of the ERP waves are:
P3b wave elicited in the active oddball paradigm in response to rare targets,
MMN wave elicited in the passive auditory oddball paradigm in response to
deviant acoustic stimuli,
CNV wave elicited during expectancy period after the warning stimulus
presentation in the paired stimulus paradigm,
P3 novelty wave elicited in the three stimulus oddball paradigm in response to
rare unexpected novel stimuli,
N2 and P3 NOGO waves elicited in response to NOGO stimuli in GO/NOGO
paradigm.
Most of studies show decrease of amplitude or longer latencies of these
components in different brain disorders such as ADHD, schizophrenia,
Parkinsons disease etc. Few studies compared two or more groups of
brain disorders (such as ADHD vs schizophrenia). Few studies
investigated more than one ERP wave. Consequently, the decrease of the
P3b wave in ADHD, schizophrenia and Parkinsons disease found in many
independent studies may look like unspecific.
See: Duncan et al., 2009, Event-related potentials in clinical research:
Guidelines for eliciting, and quantifying mismatch negativity, P300 and N400.
Clinical Neurophysiology,:120: 1883-1908.


To resolve this controversy we
Collected the reference database for healthy controls
(more than 1000 subjects) as well as for different brain
disorders such as ADHD (more than 1000 ADHD
patients), schizophrenia (about 30 unmedicated and 50
medicated schizophrenic patients), We continue
collecting data for other brain dysfunctions.
Decomposed ERPs into several independent component
with different time dynamics, different location of
generators, and different functional meaning.
Using the above mentioned approach we were able to
characterize a given brain disorder by a profile of ERP
component and a profile

GO/NOGO

Left a fragment of raw EEG with eye blinks, ICA topographies are
presented below.
Right the result of filtration of raw EEG by a spatial filter based on the
topography of vertical eyes movements..

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Currents induced
by dendritic cation
channels depend
on location the
channel on the
dendrite,
Synapses located
near the soma
produce surface
positivity, while
synapses located
in upper parts of
the apical
dendrites produce
surface negativity

sLORETA


GO/NOGO

GO/NOGO

Theoretically three operations are associated with the late ERP waves: 1)
attended sensory mismatch, 2) action inhibition, and 3) conflict monitoring.
To associate the independent components with these operations the sensory
mismatch and action suppression are independently manipulated in the three
experiments.
Experiment 1: MismatchNOGO condition.
Experiment 2: MatchNOGO condition.
Experiment 3: Mismatch and Mismatch GO condition with two hands.

GO/NOGO

Visual inspection of grand average ERPs to the second stimuli in GO, NOGO, and Ignore trials shows that
GO and NOGO stimuli in comparison to Ignore trials evoke late positive fluctuations with different peak
latencies, amplitudes and distributions.
In Experiment 1 N250 and P350 waves are separated.
In Exp 2 the N250 wave was selectively reduced, while in Exp 3 the P350 wave was selective reduced

Note that this component does not decay with


age.

, , -


X-axis amplitude of ERP
independent components in
GO/NOGO task and
behavioral parameters in
the same task.
Y-axis average parameter
for the group with brain
disease in comparison to
healthy controls.
One can see that ADHD
and schizophrenia show
quite different profiles.


()

NOGO

J.D. Kropotov et al. / International Journal of Psychophysiology 55


(2005) 2334

NOGO 20

J.D. Kropotov et
al. / International
Journal of
Psychophysiolog
y 55 (2005) 23
34

NOGO 20
,

J.D. Kropotov et al. /


International Journal of
Psychophysiology 55 (2005)
2334

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Depolarization of
Basal membrane

Hyperpolariztion of
Basal membrane

10%