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..

, 2011
. 112011


1
1.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 . .
2
2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1 . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2.3 m n . .
2.3 : . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4
4
17
20
20
20
21
26
35
35
37
40
45
48
48
52

3 ,
55
3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
3.2.2 . . . . 61
3.2.3 . 62
3.2.4 . 65
3.2.5 . . . . . . . 71
3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
3.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
3.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
1

4
81
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
4.3 . . . . 86
4.3.1 . . . . . . 86
4.3.2 89
4.3.3 . . . . . . . . . 92
4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
4.5 . . . . . 108
5
5.1 . . . . . . . .
5.2 . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 . . . . .
5.4
5.5 . . . . . . .

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113
113
116
120
122
124

6
6.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1 . . . . .
6.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

132
132

7
7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.1 . . . . . .
7.1.2 . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1.4 . . .
7.1.5
7.2 . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

170
170
170
173
176
179
183
185
185
187
189

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132
135
139
139
140
144
153
160
160
165

8
195
8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
8.1.1 . . . . . 195
8.1.2 196
8.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
8.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
8.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
8.2.2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
8.2.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
8.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
8.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
8.3.2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
8.3.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
8.4 . . . 235
8.4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
8.4.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
9 240
9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . 241
9.2 , . . . . . . . . . 242

245

, , .
( ,
, ) :
,
, ,
,
, ,
.
. ,
, - .

1.1

, , 4

( )
, .
1 .
, , , , , , ..

, - ,
,
,
,

, .
.
2 .
a b
(a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2 ,
(a b)2 = a2 2ab + b2 ,
a2 b2 = (a + b)(a b),
(a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2 b + 3ab2 + b3 ,
(a b)3 = a3 3a2 b + 3ab2 b3 ,
a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 ab + b2 ),
a3 b3 = (a b)(a2 + ab + b2 ).
,
a b

a + b 2 ab, ,
[

a, a 0,
a2 = |a| =
a, a < 0.
, |a| a, a.
3 .

ax + b = 0,
x , a = 0 b ,
x = ab .

4 .

ax2 + bx + c = 0,
x , a = 0, b c ,

D > 0

b + D
b D
x1 =
x2 =
,
2a
2a
D = b2 4ac
D = 0
x=

b
;
2a

D < 0 .
, ( )
x1 + x2 =

b
a

x1 x2 =

c
.
a

5 .
a k (k , , 2),
ak , a
... a a} .
| a a {z
k

a , k .
k 2 :
1) an+m = an am ;
m
2) (an ) = anm .
a
,
p = m
n , m n = 0 . (
) , a > 0 a = 1

a1 = a ;

a0 = 1 ;

am =

1
;
am

am =

a.

1) 2):
1) ap+q = ap aq ;
q
2) (ap ) = apq .
, 1) 2)
p q,
, a. y =
6

. 1.1:
ax , a > 0, a = 1 . .1.1
a = 3.
6 .
a b (b b = 1), logb a, , b, a.
b . ,

blogb a = a,

a > 0,

b > 0,

b = 1,

.
(
10) log10 a lg a.
e ( e 2.72 . . .), , loge a ln a.
a, b, c c = 1
, , :
1) logc ab = logc a + logc b;
2) logc a = logc a logc b;
b
3) logc ab = b logc a;
logb a
4) logc a =
, b = 1.
logb c
4) lg 17
. , log2 17 =
.
lg 2
y = loga x, a > 0, a = 1 .
.1.2 a = 3.

. 1.2:
7 . ,
, ,
. , 1
, 360
.
, , . 2r, 360o 2 .

.1.3.

. 1.3:
y- A


r = OA.
x- A
8


r = OA.
y- A
x-.
,
1) (
1) .
+,

2 + n, n = 0, 1, 2, . . .,
90o , 270o , 450o , . . ..
2) , ,
, .
2 , .
x ( ) y = sin x, y = cos x
y = tg x. 1.4 1.6.

. 1.4:
, . .
1)
sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 ,

tg x =

sin x
,
cos x

1
= 1 + tg2 x .
cos2 x

2) ()
sin( ) = sin cos cos sin ,
cos( ) = cos cos sin sin ,

. 1.5:

. 1.6:

10

tg( ) =

tg tg
,
1 tg tg

3)
sin 2 = 2 sin cos ,

cos 2 = cos2 sin2 ,

tg 2 =

2 tg
.
1 tg2

3) ()
sin sin = 2 sin

cos
,
2
2

cos
,
2
2
+

cos cos = 2 sin


sin
,
2
2
sin( )
tg tg =
,
cos cos
cos + cos = 2 cos

-
. : y = arcsin x , y = arccos x y = arctg x. .
x , |x| 1, y ,
|y|
2 sin y = x.
x , |x| 1, y
, 0 y cos y = x.
x ( x) y ,
|y|
2 tg y = x.
( )
arcsin x + arccos x =

.
2

, , .
1.7 1.9.
. , ,
sin x = a |a| 1 x = (1)n arcsin a + n ,

cos x = a

tg x = a

|a| 1 x = arccos a + 2n ,
a x = arctg a + n ,
11

. 1.7:

. 1.8:

. 1.9:

12

n , , n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
8 . .
(
), , ,
.
, x X
x X. x X,
x
/ X. , , . ,
X Y , ,
, X = Y .

, . x X Y , x X,
Y, .
, x X Y , x
X, Y .
, X ,
. x,
a x b, [a, b]. ,
a < x < b, (a, b). ,
, ,
(a, b] [a, b). , x, .
, n . , k ,
n k ( :
n k). , 0 k n.
n k Akn . , k = 0
,

[
1, k = 0,
k
An =
n(n 1)(n 2) . . . (n k + 1), k > 0.
1 n n-,

1 2 3 . . . n = n!
( - ).

Akn =

n!
.
(n k)!

, A00 = 1, ( ) 0! = 1.
0 k n.
13

n n n . n Pn = n!.
,
, .
, k n n k
( : n k). Cnk
n k
Cnk =

n!
.
(n k)!k!

, : Cnk = Cnnk
(a+b)n = Cn0 an +Cn1 an1 b+Cn2 an2 b2 + +Cnk ank bk + +Cnn1 abn1 +Cnn bn .

,
2 .
9 .
, ,
, () n
xn , n- .
{xn }.

{an }, , , , d, . ,
, n an+1 = an + d.
n- an = a1 + (n 1)d. ,
a1 + a2 + + an1 + an =

a1 + an
n,
2

n .

{bn }, , , , q, .

, n
bn+1 = bn q.

14

n- bn = b1 q n1 . ,
[
b1 n, q = 1,
b1 + b2 + + bn1 + bn =
1 qn
b1 1 q , q = 1,
n .
, |q| < 1,
,
n. ,
, 1 b1 q .
, , .
10 .
, , . ,
.
1)
, ,
, , . , : {xn } ,
C , n
|xn | C,
: {xn } ,
C 0 : n : |xn | C .
2)
, ,
,
n


ak , k=1

. ,
ak k 1 n .
,
sin 1 + sin 2 + sin 3 + + sin(n 1) + sin n

sin k,

k=1

15


1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+ +
+
12 23 34
(n 2)(n 1) (n 1)n

k=2

1
(k 1)k

,
(a + b)n =

Cnk ank bk .

k=0

, n = 4
(a + b)4 = a4 + 4a3 b + 6a2 b2 + 4ab3 + b4 .
. n

, 1 2 3 . . . n = n!
k = n! .
k=1

,
,
1 + 2 + 3 + + (n 1) + n =

k=

k=1

1 + 2 + 3 + + (n 1) + n =
2

k2 =

n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
;
6

k3 =

n2 (n + 1)2
;
4

k=1

13 + 23 + 33 + + (n 1)3 + n3 =

k=1

n(n + 1)
;
2

(n + 2)
n
sin
2
2 .
sin + sin 2 + sin 3 + + sin n =
sin k =

sin
k=1
2
,
( n )2
n

3
k =
k
.
n

k=1

sin

k=1

11 .
a b
a+b
ab ,
2
16

: x y
x2 + y 2 2|xy| .
:
a1 + a2 + a3 + . . . + an1 + an

n a1 a2 a3 an1 an .
n
,

v
u n
n
u
1
n
ak t
ak .
n
k=1

k=1

,
x a > 1,
(1 + a)x 1 + xa .

1.2

, .
( ) , - .
.
1 . . ,

2 = |a|.
,

: , a2 = a ?
,
: x y
x2 2xy + y 2 = y 2 2yx + x2 ,
2
2
x) ,
(x y) = (y
2
(x y) = (y x)2 .

a2 = a,
xy =yx
17

x = y,

|x y| = |y x| 0 = 0,

a2 = |a|

x y.
2 . ?
), ) ):
) ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
) .
) , ,
(x )(x )
(x )(x )
(x )(x )
+
+
=1
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
)
x1 = , x2 = , x3 = .
, ), ) ) . , , , ). ,
, ). , ax2 + bx + c = 0, a = 0.
). , )
, A), x2 . , 1 = 1,
x (
x1 = , x2 = , x3 = ).
3 . ?
.
. , .
, ,
A = 1 + 2 3 + 1 + 2 3 + 1 + 2 3 + 1 + 2 3 + 1 + 2 3 + ...

A = (1 + 2 3) + (1 + 2 3) + (1 + 2 3) + (1 + 2 3) + (1 + 2 3) + . . .
, A = 0,
. ,
A = 1 + (2 3 + 1) + (2 3 + 1) + (2 3 + 1) + (2 3 + 1) + (2 3 + . . .
A = 1.
.
18

, . ,
, .

19

2.1
2.1.1

2.1.1.1. m n
, m n
.
: A,


a11 a12 . . . a1n


a21 a22 . . . a2n



,
..
...
. ...
...


am1 am2 . . . amn

a11 a12 . . . a1n


a21 a22 . . . a2n

.
..
...
. ...
...
am1

am2

...

amn

aij A, i j
aij .
i aij , j
.
, ,
20

, n, n n ;
m- , (m = 1) n ;
n- , m (n = 1)




a11 a12 . . . a1n
a11




a21 a22 . . . a2n
a21





a11 a12 . . . a1n


..
... ,
...

.
.
.
.
.
.
.




am1
am1 am2 . . . amn
, ,
( O),
;
: , n,


1
0 ... 0


0
1 ... 0


E =
.
. . . . . . ... . . .


0
0 ... 1

2.1.2

: (
), , , , .
.
2.1.2.1. . A B ( A = B),

.
2.1.2.1. C :



sin cos 1 0
2
2



;
)
=
cos 2 sin 2 0 1



1 1 1



2 2 2



,
)
=

3 3 3
4 4 4
.
2.1.2.2. . C
A B ( A + B = C),
21

mn
C
A B, cij = aij + bij
i = [1, m], j = [1, n].
2.1.2.2. C :



7 3 2 5 (7 + 2) (3 5)





(0 + 7)
7
0
a)
= (4 4)
+ 4
4
(5 + 1) (1 + 3)

5 1 1
3

b)


lg 7 lg 6

lg 9 lg 5

lg 4 lg 3



lg 8 lg 18
lg 2

lg 15 3 lg 2 +
lg 2
2 lg 5 lg 11 lg 20

lg 14 2 lg 6 lg 24

lg 5
=
lg 18 lg 25
lg 5 lg 12 lg 75

lg 6
lg 5
lg 4
lg 6
0
lg 33



9 8


= 0
7
.

6
2

lg 3
lg 3
lg 3

lg 3
lg 8
lg 3

(. 1.1, .6 .)
2.1.2.3. . B k A (
k A), B k A, bij = k aij
i = [1, m], j = [1, n].
2.1.2.3. :

2 0 5
a) 3
3 1 0

b)



1
(3 2)
=

(3 (3))
6

6 0 15
=
9 3
0
5

1
2
3

3
2 34

3

1
3
3
3


4
3
6 =

3
3
9 3
3
32
33


(3 0) (3 5) (3 (1))
=
(3 1) (3 0)
(3 6)

3
.
18

27
33
1

34 9
3
.
32
35 81

1
1
3
3

(. 1.1, .5 .)
2.1.2.4. . A ,
T
A , A,
.
22

2.1.2.4. :

3


T 1
3 1 4 7 7




2 8 5 6 6 = 4
7

7

2
8
5
6
6

2.1.2.5. . C m n
A m l
B l n ( A B = C),
C
cij = ai1 b1j + ai2 b2j + ai3 b3j + + ai(l1) b(l1)j + ail blj
cij =
(. 1.1, .10 .)

aik bkj i = [1, m], j = [1, n].

k=1

2.1.2.5. :

B
=


1



3
2 2


1 1
3
3 1

0 2
3
0
2
A =
2
.
0 3 1
5 4
0

0
3
1
A 2 5, B 5 3.
2.1.2.5 C
. , , m = 2, n = 3 l = 5.
c11

=
=

33 +
18,

c12

=
=

32 +
7,

c13

=
=

c21

(1) 1 +
(1) (1)

03 +

00 +

3 (2) +
11,

(1) 3 +

=
=

23 +
2,

c22

=
=

22 +
3,

c23

=
=

2 (2) +
9.

25 +

(2) 3 =

02 +

20 +

(2) 1 =

01 +

(3) 3 +

15 +

10=

0 (1) +

(3) 0 +

0 3 + (3) 2 +

23

2 (4)

(2) 0 =

1 (4)

13=

10 +

11=

C = A B =





3 1

0 2 2
=

2
0 3 1
1



3
2 2


1 1
3
18

3
0
2
=
2
5 4
0

0
3
1

7
3


11
.
9

,
,
(
5);
( , 2),
( , 3).
.
1.
.
2. ( !) .
3. ABC , . ,
(
)
(
)
A B C = A B C .
.
,
( ) , , ,
. .
2.1.2.5.
,


3
2 2


1 1


3

3 1
0 2 2
3



0
2

2
0 3 1
1
5 4

0

0
3
1
,
() ().
. ,
A = a1 a2 a3 B =

24



b1


b2 . , ,

b3
1 1, , , .


b1



A B = a1 a2 a3
b2 = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 .
b3
, , , . ,




b1
b1 a1 b1 a2 b1 a3







B A =
b2 a1 a2 a3 = b2 a1 b2 a2 b2 a3 .
b3
b3 a1 b3 a2 b3 a3
, , :
1. ( ).
2. , (
, ).
3. -
2.1.2.5.
,
. , c

x2 + 5x3 2x4 =
5
3x1
x1 + 2x2 x3 x4 = 1

2x1 + 3x2 + x3 x4 =
5
A X = B ,




x1
3 1



5
2




; X = x2 ;
1
2
1
1
A =


x3
2


3
1 1
x4



5



B =
1 .
5

.
2.1.2.6. . A , 1
A A ,

A

A = A A

25

= E ,

E - (. 2.1.1) , A .
2.1.2.6. :
)

2 0

0 3

0 0

0
0
4

1 1


2

= 0


0

0
1
3

0
0
1
4

) , , , (.1.1, .7 ).




cos sin 1 cos sin
=


sin
sin cos .
cos
,



cos sin cos sin


=
sin
cos sin cos


cos2 + sin2
=
sin cos cos sin



1 0
cos sin sin cos



= 0 1 .
cos2 + sin2

2.1.2.6 .
, .
, . , ,
, .

2.1.3

,
, ()
.
()

.
2.1.3.1.



a11 a12

A =
a21 a22
,
a11 a22 a12 a21
26



a11 a12

.
det A = det
a21 a22
2.1.3.2.


a11 a12 a13



A =
a21 a22 a23 a31 a32 a33
,
a11 a22 a33 + a13 a21 a32 + a12 a23 a31
a12 a21 a33 a13 a22 a31 a11 a23 a32


a11 a12 a13



det A = det
a21 a22 a23 .
a31 a32 a33
, . , , , 2.1.3.1 2.1.3.2.
.
2.1.3.1.
:
) n = 2

3
7
det
5 1

5

det
0
0



= 3 (1) 7 5 = 38.

) n = 3

2 3

6 11
= 567+300+(2)110(2)073605110 = 210.
0
7

: , ,
.

, ,
2.1.3.1




a11


a11
a12
a13
a13
a12




a21

,

a22
a23
a22
a23

, a21

a31



a32
a33
a31
a32
a33



a11
a12
a13


,
a21
a
a
23
22



a31
a32
a33
27

. 2.1:




a11


a12
a13




a21

a
a
,
22
23



a31


a32
a33





a11
a21
a31

a12
a22
a32

a11
a21
a31
a13
a23
a33

a12
a22
a32

a13
a23
a33

. 2.1.

. 2.2:
2.1.3.2. :


3
0 2


8 1
det
1
=
5 4 0
=

(3) 8 0 +
285

2 (1) (4) +
015
0 (1) 0 (3) 1 (4) = 84.

, . ,
28



a11

det
a21
a31

a12
a22
a32


a22
= a11 det
a32

a13
a23
a33




a23
a12 det a21
a31

a33




a23
+ a13 det a21
a31

a33


a22
,
a32

2.1.3.2.
, ,
1) ,
;
2)
, ,
, .
. , n n 1.
, ( ) , ( )
. , 2.1.3.1. , , , .


5 2 3


6 11
det
0
=
0
0 7



5 2 3
5



0 det 0

0
6
11
= 5 det



0
0
0
7

6
= 5 det
0




11
0 det 2 3
0 7
7

2
3
6 11
0
7





5 2
3



+ 0 det 0
6 11


=

0 0 7





+ 0 det 2 3

6 11

= 5 (6 7 11 0) 0 ((2) 7 3 0) + 0 ((2) 11 3 6) = 210;


,
.


5 2
3


6 11
det
0
=
0
0
7

2 3
= 0 det
6 11





0 det 5 3

0 11
29







+ 7 det 5 2 = 210.

0
6

, ,
.
.
-
;
- ( ),
;
- () ;
- : C = A B,
det C = det A det B;
- ,
- ( );
- ( , ) ();
, , , .
.
, , ,
.
,


a11 a12

A =
a21 a22 ,

A

1
=
det A


a22

a21


a12
;
a11


a22
1

det A a21

a11 a22 a12 a21
1

=
det A a21 a22 a22 a21

det A
1
0

=

0
det
A
det A
1

A =

30



a12
a11

a21
a11


a12
=
a22

a11 a12 + a12 a11
=
a11 a22 a12 a21


1 0
=

0 1 = E .

(2.1.3.1)

= A A

= E . .



7 6 1

, 2.1.3.3.
6 5
2.1.2.6.


7 6

.
. ,
6 5



7 6

det
6 5 = 7 5 6 6 = 1 = 0.
, , .
(2.1.3.1). , 2.1.2.3,






7 6 1


6

= 1 5 6 = 5
.
6 5
7 6 7
(1) 6
1

, A A = A A = E .







7 6 1 7 6 5


6


=
7 6 =
6 5
6 5 6 7 6 5



(5) 7 + 6 6 (5) 6 + 6 5 1 0



= E .
=
=
6 7 + (7) 6 6 6 + (7) 5 0 1
,



7 6 7 6 1



6 5 6 5 = E .
.
2.1.3.4. X ,

2 3
a) AX = B , A =
1
2


7 5

b) XA = B , A =
4 3 ,





9
, B = 4 2

3
1
5


5
4



B =
30 12 .
7
5

.
a) ,
. ,
A X A X , X
. ,
, X ,
31

B , . ,
23.
, A , , , , (
(2.1.3.1))


2 3
1

A =
1 2 .
1

A A X = B,

1
1
A A X = A B .
, 2.1.2.6
1
, A A = E E X = X ,

(
)
1
A A X = E X = X .
, , X .




2 3 1 4 2
9



=
X = A B =

1
2
3
1 5




2 3 4 2

9
3

= 1 1
.
=
1 2 3
1 5 2
0 1
1

b) , ,
1
A , .
,

1
X = B A



1
3



X =
2 4 .
1
0


, . , .
A m n.
( ) k k ,
, k- . k-
A.
32

2.1.3.4.


2

0

2

1
2
3

1
1
2

2- .
. . 2-
, 2- . ,
, , .
,
, . , , -, , , , .
, i j,
k l, 2- kl
Mij
.
.
.


2 1 1




2 1
12
0 2 1 ,


1)
M
=
det
12


0 2 =4,
2 3 2


2 1 1




2 1
13



=2,
2)
M12 = det
0 2 1 ,
0 1
2 3 2


2 1 1




1 1
23



= 1 ,
3)
M12 = det
0 2 1 ,
2 1
2 3 2


2 1 1




2 1
12



=4,
4)
M13 = det
0 2 1 ,
2 3
2 3 2


2 1 1




2 1
13



=2,
5)
M13 = det
0 2 1 ,
2 2
2 3 2


2 1 1




1 1
23
0 2 1 ,


6)
M
=
det
13


3 2 = 1 ,
2 3 2


2 1 1




0 2
12



= 4 ,
7)
M23 = det
0 2 1 ,
2 3
2 3 2
33

8)

9)




,



2 1 1

0 2 1
,
2 3 2

2 1
0 2
2 3

1
1
2

13
M23


0 1
= det
2 2


2
23
M23
= det
3



= 2 ,


1
=1,
2

, 2-

4 + 2 + (1) + 4 + 2 + (1) + (4) + (2) + 1 = 5 .
2.1.3.3. A
. rg A .
, , , , rg A
min{m, n}.
2.1.3.5. :
)



3 5

= 2.
rg
2
4





rg


1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1





= 1.


)

0

3
rg
0

2

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
4
0
5





= 2.


. )

, ,
3 4 (5) (2) = 2 = 0. ,
) 2.
) . , , 3. , ,
, . 1.
34

, ) , , .
,
. 2.
, ,
k , k + 1 ( )
.
.

2.2
2.2.1



. n c n

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + . . . + a1n xn = b1

a21 x1 + a22 x2 + . . . + a2n xn = b2


(2.2.1.1)
...
...
...
... ... ...
...
... ...

an1 x1 + an2 x2 + . . . + ann xn = bn


, .
,
xn x1 , x2 , . . . xn1 . n 1 .
n 1 n 1 .
x1 , ,
( ) .

(2.2.1.1), . ,

A X = B ,





A =


a11
a21
...
an1

a12
a22
...
an2

. . . a1n
. . . a2n
... ...
. . . ann





X =



35

(2.2.1.2)

x1
x2
...
xn





B =


b1
b2
...
bn

A, (2.2.1.1),
. A|B,

B. A|B .
, A ,
2.1.3.4, ,
1
(2.2.1.2) A ,
1

A X = A

X = A

A = E

B ,

(2.2.1.3)

E A = A .

2.2.1.1. :
{

2x1
3x1

3x2
+
x2

= 1,
= 7.

.






2 3




, X = x1 , B = 1 .
A =
3




1
x2
7
,


2 3
= 2 1 (3) 3 = 11 = 0.
det
3
1
(2.1.3.1).




2 3 1



= 1 1 3 .
3
1
11 3 2
, (2.2.1.3)






x1 2 3 1 1

=

= 1 1
X =
x2 3



1
7
11 3






1
11+37
= 1 22 = 2

=



(3) 1 + 2 7
11 1
11
11





3
1 =


2
7


.

, x1 = 2
x2 = 1 .

36

2.2.2

(2.2.1.1) (2.2.1.3) , ax = b x = a1 b ,
- .
,

{
a11 x1 + a12 x2 = b1 ,
(2.2.2.1)
a21 x1 + a22 x2 = b2 ,
{x1 , x2 },






a11 a12




, X = x1 , B = b1 .
A =
a21 a22
x2
b2
, x1 x2 .
, a22 , , a12 , c
(a11 a22 a12 a21 )x1 = b1 a22 b2 a12 ,
, a11 , , a21 ,
(a11 a22 a12 a21 )x2 = b2 a11 b1 a21 .
, , (2.2.2.1),
x1 = 1

x2 = 2

(2.2.2.2),


a11
= det
a21


a12
,
a22


b1
1 = det
b2


a12
,
a22


a11
2 = det
a21


b1
.
b2

(2.2.2.2) , a11 , a12 , a21 , a22 , b1 , b2 .


1 . = 0, x1 x2 , (2.2.2.2)
x1 =

37

x2 =

2
.

(2.2.2.3)

,
(2.2.2.1) , = 0
(2.2.2.1) .
2 . = 0, 1 = 0 2 = 0 , (2.2.2.2)
x1 x2 . ,
(2.2.4) .
3 . , = 0 1 = 2 = 0, (2.2.2.2)
x1 x2 .
(2.2.2.1) , .
, ( ).
n n (2.2.2.3) ,
det A =
0.
2.2.2.1. :
{

2x1
3x1

3x2
+
x2

= 1,
= 7.

. .


2 3
= 2 1 (3) 3 = 11 = 0,
= det A = det
3
1
, , , (2.2.2.2) 1 2 .


1 3
= 1 1 (3) 7 = 22 ,
1 = det A = det
7
1


2 1

= 2 7 1 3 = 11 .
2 = det A = det
3 7
, (2.2.2.3)
x1 =

1
22
=
=2

11

x2 =

2
11
=
=1.

11

n n .

.
2.2.2.2. :
38


2x1
3x1

2x1

x3
+ 2x3
2x3

+ x2
x2
+ x2

=
1,
= 3,
= 2.

. ( , ) ,


2
1 1


2
det A = det
=
3 1
2
1 2
= (2) (1) (2) + 1 2 2 + (1) 3 1 (1) (1) 2 1 3 (2) (2) 2 1 =
= 4 + 4 3 2 + 6 + 4 = 5 = 0.
, , :
x1 =

1
,

x2 =

2
,

x3 =

3
,

= det A = 5, 1 , 2 3



1 = det

1
3
2


1 1

1
2
= 5 ;
1 2

2
1

3 = det
3
1

2
1


2

2 = det
3
2
1
3
2

1
3
2

1
2
2




= 10 ;




= 5 .

, 1 , 2 3



2
1 1


2
A =
3 1

2
1 2


1



B =
3
2
( ).
1 , 2 3 , ,
x1 =

1
5
=
= 1 ,

x2 =

2
10
=
= 2 ,

39

x3 =

3
5
=
= 1 .

2.2.3

m n

,
, , m
n

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + . . . + a1n xn = b1

a21 x1 + a22 x2 + . . . + a2n xn = b2


(2.2.3.1)
...
...
...
... ... ...
...
... ...

am1 x1 + am2 x2 + . . . + amn xn = bm


m n.
, ,






x1
b1
a11 a12 . . . a1n






x2
b2
a21 a22 . . . a2n





,
X =
, B = . . . , A = . . .
... ... ...
...




xn
bm
am1 am2 . . . amn




A|B =


a11
a21
...
an1

a12
a22
...
an2

. . . a1n
. . . a2n
... ...
. . . ann

| b1
| b2
| ...
| bm

(2.2.3.1) ( ,
) (
-).
, m n , ,
.
, , rg A = rg A|B.
(2.2.3.1) , ,
rg A , ( , ) , :
1 - ;
2 - : ,
( rg A), ,
;
3 - ,
.

40

2.2.3.1.
:

{
3x1 + 2x2 + x3 7x4 +
x1 + x2 + x3 4x4 +

x5
x5

= 0,
= 0



3

1

2
1

1
1

7
4






1

1


x1
x2
x3
x4
x5








= 0
0




(2.2.3.1) m = 2 n = 5. .


3 2 1 7 1 | 0


A|B =
1 1 1 4 1 | 0
-, , , 1, , ,
2, m = 2.
,
.
24. , , ,
. ,


3 2

= 3 1 2 1 = 1 = 0.
det
1 1
, rg A = 2.
, rg A|B 2, . ,
.
, -,
: x1 = x2 = x3 = x4 = x5 = 0. ,
, .
- ,

. .
rg A = rg A|B = 2 = m,
41

, 1 , .
2 .
rg A = 2 , ,
. , , n rg A = 5 2 = 3.
.
. ,
( )
. , , x1 x2
, x3 x5 .
, :
{
3x1 + 2x2 = x3 + 7x4 x5 ,
x1 + x2 = x3 + 4x4 x5 .
:
x3 = t , x4 = p , x5 = q .
. , , ,
{
x1 =
t p + q,
x2 = 2t + 5p 2q.
,

x1 =
t p + q,

x2 = 2t + 5p 2q,
x3 =
t,
t, p, q.

x
=
p,

x5 =
q,

.




x1

t p + q




x2
2t + 5p 2q




x3 =

t




x4


p




x5

q

42

x1
x2
x3
x4
x5









1
1
1








2
5
2







= t 1 + p 0 + q 0








0
1
0








0
0
1

t, p, q.

2.2.3.2. :

2x1 x2 + 2x3 =
3

x1 x2 + 2x3 =
2

3x1 + 3x2 6x3 = 6


(2.2.3.2)

2x

2x
+
4x
=
4

1
2
3

x1 + x2 2x3 = 2


2 1
2

1 1
2

3
3
6

2 2
4

1
1 2




3



x1
2



x2 = 6



x3
4



2


.
, (2.2.3.2) (2.2.3.1)
m = 5 n = 3. A|B
, A.


2 1
2 |
3


1 1
2 |
2


3 6 | 6
A|B =
3

2 2
4 |
4


1
1 2 | 2
, ,
3. ,
(2.2.3.2)
.
,
2 1.
, ,



2 1


1 1 ,
43



2 1

= 2 (1) 1 (1) = 1 = 0.
det
1 1
, rg A = rg A|B = 2 , , (2.2.3.2)
, .
1 3 . ,
{
2x1 x2 + 2x3 = 3
(2.2.3.3)
x1 x2 + 2x3 = 2
. rg A = 2, . :
. , . {x1 , x2 }
{x1 , x3 },
{x2 , x 3 },
1 2

det
1 2 = (1) 2 2 (1) = 0.
{x1 , x2 }, x3 , t . (2.2.8)

{
2x1 x2 = 3 2t,
(2.2.3.4)
x1 x2 = 2 2t,
x3 = t, t (, +), , t .
(2.2.3.4) .
, 1 2 .


2 1

= det
1 1 = 2 (1) 1 (1) = 1;


(3 2t) 1

= (3 2t) (1) (2 2t) (1) = 1;
1 = det
(2 2t) 1


2 (3 2t)

= 2 (3 2t) 1 (2 2t) = 1 2t.
2 = det
1 (2 2t)
2
1
, , x1 =
= 1 x2 = = 2t 1 (
), :
(2.2.3.4)

x1 = 1,
x2 = 2t 1,
t (, +)

x3 = t.

44

,

x1

x2

x3

2.3




1


= 1



0

,



0


+ t 2



1

t (, +)


.
,
:
, . , :
- , , ,
,
, , ,
;
- , , ,

;
- , , ,
.
, , :
1) , , 30% ,
- 10% , 60%.
2) , , , 45% ,
- 15% , 40%.
. 1) {x1 , x2 , x3 } : ,
( ), {y1 , y2 , y3 } .
, , :
y1 = 0.3 x1 + 0.5 x2 + 0.4 x3
y2 = 0.4 x1 + 0.1 x2 + 0.2 x3
y3 = 0.3 x1 + 0.4 x2 + 0.4 x3
45

(2.3.1)

, y2 - :
- (,
40% x1 ),
- ( ,
10% x2 ),
- , , (, 20% x3 ).
, y2 .
y1 y3 .
, (2.3.1) x1 = 10%, x2 = 65% x3 = 25%, : y1 = 45.5%, y2 = 15.5%
y3 = 39%.
, ,
,




x1
y1







X =
x2 ; Y = y2 ,
x3
y3
, ,


0.3 0.5 0.4



A =
0.4 0.1 0.2 .
0.3 0.4 0.4
, , , .
, - 2.1.2.5,
(2.3.1) Y = AX





y1 0.3 0.5 0.4 x1




y2 = 0.4 0.1 0.2 x2 .
(2.3.2)




y3 0.3 0.4 0.4 x3
, , (2.3.1), . , (2.3.2)
x1 = 10%, x2 = 65% x3 = 25%, 2.1.2.5.





y1 0.3 0.5 0.4 10 45.5





y2 = 0.4 0.1 0.2 65 = 15.5 ,





y3 0.3 0.4 0.4 25 39.0
,
(2.3.1.)
.
Y = A X,
46

X, Y y1 =
45%, y2 = 15% y3 = 40%.
X Y (2.3.1)
, , , .
, ,
2.1.3.2.


0.3 0.5 0.4



(2.3.3)
det A = det
0.4 0.1 0.2 = 0.01 = 0,
0.3 0.4 0.4
, ,




1
A =

A ,
0.3
0.4
0.3

1

4
0.5 0.4



10
0.1 0.2 =

13
0.4 0.4

4
0
3

6
10
17

, (2.3.3), 1
1
A A = A A = E , E (.
2.1.1.)
, det A = 0,
1
A X = Y X = A Y ,






x1 0.3 0.5 0.4 1 y1





x2 = 0.4 0.1 0.2 y2 .





x3 0.3 0.4 0.4
y3
1

A
Y , ,





x1



4
4 6


45 0
x2 = 10




0 10 15 = 50


.
x3 13 3
17 40 50

: ,
50% .

47

2.4

2.4.1

,
,
.
, n A


a11 a12 . . . a1n


a21 a22 . . . a2n
.

A =

... ... ... ...
an1 an2 . . . ann
2.4.1.1. A
n- X ,
A X = X ,

(2.4.1.1)

,
A.
, (2.4.1.1), X ,
X.
A
.
X


x1


x2

,
X =

...
xn
(2.4.1.1)

a11 a12 . . . a1n

a21 a22 . . . a2n

... ... ... ...

an1 an2 . . . ann

48

x1
x2
...
xn

x1
x2
...
xn

(2.4.1.2)

,
,

a11 x1 + a12 x2 + . . . + a1n xn = x1 ,

a21 x1 + a22 x2 + . . . + a2n xn = x2 ,


(2.4.1.3)
...
...
...
... ... ...
...
... ...

an1 x1 + an2 x2 + . . . + ann xn = xn .


, {x1 , x2 , . . . , xn } ,
(2.4.1.3). , n n+1
, x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ,

x1 , x2 , . . . , xn .
,
n, ( ) n = 2,
(2.4.1.2)





a11 a12 x1




= x1 , (2.4.1.3),
a21 a22 x2
x2
{
a11 x1 + a12 x2 = x1 ,
a21 x1 + a22 x2 = x2 .


a11

a21
{



a12
x1
a22 x2

(a11 )x1
a21 x1



0
=

0

+
a12 x2
+ (a22 )x2

= 0,
= 0.

(2.4.1.4)

,
(2.4.1.4), , .
{x1 , x2 }.
, ( ) x1 = x2 = 0.


0

X =
0 .
,
. , n
n , . ,
,
(2.4.1.4), ,
49

. ,
.
(2.4.1.4) ,
, 2.2.2, , . (2.4.1.4) ,
, .
(2.4.1.4) ,



a11
a12

= 0.
det
a21 a22
(a11 )(a22 )a12 a21 = 0. ,
, (2.4.1.4) x1 x2 ,

2 (a11 + a22 ) + a11 a22 a12 a21 = 0,

(2.4.1.5)

.

.

1) (2.4.1.5).
, , , , .
,
.
2) ,
(2.4.1.4) , .

2.4.1.1.


2 1

A =
1 2 .
. 1)


2
1
= 0.
det

1 2
2 4 + 3 = 0. 1 = 1 2 = 3.
50

2) 1 = 1 (2.4.1.4)




{
2 1
x1 0
1
x1 + x2 = 0,


=


1
2 1 x2 0
x1 + x2 = 0,


t

, t .
X =
t

1 = 1

1

X = t
1 t = 0.
, 2 = 3 (2.4.1.4)





{
2 2
x1 0
x1 +
x2 = 0,
1
=



x1 + x2 = 0,
1
2 2 x2 0

t

X =
t , t .

2 = 3

1

X = t
1 t = 0.
2.4.1.2.


1 1

.
A =
0 1
. 1)


1
1

= 0.
det
0 1
(1 )2 = 0. : = 1.
2) = 1 (2.4.1.4)
{
0x1 +
x2 = 0,
0x1 + 0x2 = 0,


t

X =
0 , t .

= 1

1


X = t
t = 0.
0
2.4.1.3.

A =


1 1

.
1 1
51

. 1)


1
1

= 0.
det
1 1
2 2+2 = 0, . ,
.

, - A . , , (2.4.1.5)
2 (a11 + a22 ) + det A = 0,
det A = 0 , 1 = 0 2 = a11 + a22 .

2.4.2

(. .2.3)
,
, .



x1



X =
x2
x3
,



A =




0.3

0.4

0.3

,

0.3 0.5 0.4

0.4 0.1 0.2
.
0.3 0.4 0.4

A X = X






x1
0.5 0.4
x1






0.1 0.2
(2.4.2.1)
x2 = x2 .




0.4 0.4
x3
x3

, (2.4.1.1),
A ,
= 1. ,
238.
, = 1
A . , ,
det (A E) = 0.
52



0.3 0.5

det
0.4 0.1
0.3 0.4

0.4
0.2
0.4




1 0 0


1 0 1 0



0 0 1

7

3
= 10 det
4
3




0.7
0.5


= det 0.4 0.9



0.3
0.4

5
4

9
2
=
4 6

0.4
0.2
0.6


(
)
= 103 (7)(9)(6)+523+4444(9)354(6)(7)24 =
(
)
(
)
= 103 378 + 30 + 64 + 108 + 56 + 120 = 103 378 + 378 = 0 .

0.3x1 + 0.5x2 + 0.4x3 =


0.4x1 + 0.1x2 + 0.2x3 =

0.3x1 + 0.4x2 + 0.4x3 =

0.7x1
0.4x1

0.3x1

+ 0.5x2
0.9x2
+ 0.4x2

+ 0.4x3
+ 0.2x3
0.6x3

(2.4.2.1) = 1.

=
=
=

x1 ,
x2 ,
x3 ,
0,
0,
0.

(2.4.2.2)

(2.4.2.2.)
,
( )


0.7
0.5
0.4


0.2
det
0.4 0.9
= 0.
0.3
0.4 0.6
2, ( ),

. , (2.4.2.2.) .
, x1 + x2 + x3 =
238, , .

0,
0.7x1 + 0.5x2 + 0.4x3 =
0.4x1 0.9x2 + 0.2x3 =
0,
(2.4.2.3)

x1 +
x2 +
x3 = 238,

53


,


92



X =
60 .
86
, (2.4.2.3) , , ,

.

54

3.1

, , , . . ,
: , , ,
IQ .. , . , , ,
..
, , ,
,
. ,
, , .
, , . - , 55

. 3.1:
, .
3.1.1.

, , , ,
x, X, y, Y .
X , Y - .
y = f (x), x X, y Y.

, x - , , y - , , , .
: ,
, . (. . 3.1).
, . :
, , y x . ,
.
,
. , , 56

.
, .
,
, X, , y = x 3,
, 3,
( , . .2 1.1) . Y
.
:
X : {x 3}, Y : {y 0} X : {[3, +)}, Y : {[0, +)}.
, . .
3.1.1.
:
+3
) y = 2x
x2
[
x 32
2x
+
3
: x 2 0 ,
x > 2,
,
{
}
3
X : (, ] (2, +) ,
2
. , 2 , x 0 , .

: ,

2x
+
3
y=
x 2 x y . ,
y x 2y 2 + 3
. x = 2
, y 2
x y = 2 . ,
, , .
y , ,
{
}

Y : [0, 2) (2, +) .
1
) y = x + x
: X : {x = 0} , ,
{
}

(, 0) (0, +) .
57

:
. x > 0.
x
(

1
x
x

)2

(
)
1
1
0 , x 2 x +
0 ,
x x

x+

1
2.
x

x < 0 ,
(
)
1
1
(x) +
= x+
,
(x)
x

x+

1
2 x > 0
x

1
2 x < 0.
x
,

Y : {(, 2] [2, +)} .
x+

2
) y = 2x2 + 2x + 1
x + 3x + 2
:
[
x = 2
2
x + 3x + 2 = 0
x = 1,

. ,

{
}

X : (, 2)
(2, 1)
(1, +) .
: , ,
( 2 1.) 2
y = 2x2 + 2x + 1 x ,
x + 3x + 2
y .
,
(y 2)x2 + (3y 2)x + (2y 1) = 0 ,

x1,2

(3y 2) D
=
2(y 2)
58

y = 2 ,

(3.1.1)

D = (3y 2)2 4(y 2)(2y 1).


x D 0, , ,
(3y 2)2 4(y 2)(2y 1) =
{
}

= y 2 + 8y 4 0 y (, 2 5 4]
[2 5 4, +) .
,
x

y 2 5 4 8.4, y 2 5 4 0.4 . , y,
, 2.
, ,
y = 2, (3.1.1) , 4x + 3 = 0, 2 ,
x = 43 ,
2. ,
{
}

Y : (, 2 5 4]
[2 5 4, +) .
,
.
3.1.2.

y = f (x) ,
T = 0 , x X
x T X f (x + T ) = f (x). T
y = f (x).
3.1.2. :
y = sin x
y = cos 3x
y = tg x

T = 2,
T = 2
3 ,
T = .

3.1.3. X y = f (x), x = 0, :
, x X f (x) = f (x),
, x X f (x) = f (x),
3.1.3. :
y
y
y
y
y

= x2
= x3
= sin x
= cos x
= 3x

,
,
,
,
, .
59

, ,
, ,

. , ,
f (x) =

f (x) + f (x) f (x) f (x)


+
.
2
2

y = 3x

3x + 3x
3x 3x
y=
+
.
2
2

3.2

3.2.1

, ,
, () n xn , n-
. {xn }.
, ,
.

:
1) . ,
{xn }, 1,
1, {1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, . . .}
2) , . , 1) ,

)
(
+ n , n = 1, 2, . . .
xn = (1)n xn = sin
2
3) ,
60

. ,
1) ,
xn+1 = (1) xn ,

3.2.2

x1 = 1 ,

n = 1, 2, . . .


. ,
,
,
, , ,
.
, , (. .10 1.1.) , {xn } ,
C 0 : n : |xn | C ,
, C , n |xn | C.
xn C ( xn C), (,
, ) .
, ,
. , C , . . . ,
, , ( !).
, , : {xn } ,
C 0 : NC : |xNC | > C ,
, C NC ,
|xNC | > C.
. ,
, 1
, ,
, n xn+1 > xn , xn+1 < xn .
61

.
1 ,
1) xn = 1 n
n : 0 xn < 1. ,
(
) (
)
1
1
1
1
1
1
=
+ =
> 0 n.
xn+1 xn = 1
n+1
n
n+1 n
n(n + 1)
n

2) xn = n(1) ,
1
1
1
, x4 = 4, x5 = , x6 = 6, x7 = , . . . ,
3
5
7
( ),
, .
x1 = 1, x2 = 2, x3 =

3.2.3

,
,
. ,
.
.
3.2.3.1. A {xn },
N , n N |xn A| < .
, A {xn }, lim xn = A.
n

{xn } A. , n
.
, , .
{
}
3.2.3.1. 1, 12 , 13 , 41 , . . . ,
1 , , . , lim 1 = 0.
xn = n
n n
, 3.2.3.1. -, , 1 > 1 , x >
n n
n
n+1
xn+1 . ,


1

1
|xn A| = 0 = .
n
n
62

, 1 <
N > 1 , N


1

1

|xN 0| = 0 =
< .
N
N

, , n N
|xn 0| =

1
< .
n

1.
, 0 xn = n

. 3.2: .
3.2.3.1 ,
( ) ,
, ( ) N , n N
(A , A + ) (. . 3.2, A = 0) ,
, A < xn < A + ,
|xn A| < . , A
{xn }.
, N (
3.2.3.1) , . ,
63

, N , ,
(, ).
{xn }
,
3.2.3.2. A {xn }, 0 , N
n0 N, |xn0 A| 0 .
, 0 ( ,
lim xn = 0), . n
, , , ( )
, , . xn = (1)n ,
{1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, . . .}, xn = n. lim xn = .
n

. 3.3: .
, ,
. {xn } {yn } , C ,
1 . lim (xn + yn ) = lim xn + lim yn .
n

2 . lim (C xn ) = C lim xn .
n

3 . lim (xn yn ) = lim xn lim yn .


n

lim xn
n = n
4 . , lim yn = 0, lim x
.
lim yn
n
n yn
n

5 . () (), .
6 . lim xn = lim yn = A n xn zn yn , lim zn = A.
n

, 5 ,
, 64

, . , ,
, , ,
( ) , , ,
, . ( !) ,
2R.
, 6 ( 3.3).

3.2.4

,
.
, , .

1 6 :
)n
(
1
1
1
lim
=0;
lim n sin = 1
lim 1 +
=e.
n n
n
n
n
n
3.2.3.1. , .

1 = 1.
. 3.4: lim n sin n
n

65

, 1 (. 3.3),
( ) = n
OAB OCD. ,
OAD, , OAB,
OCD. ,

SOAB S OAD SOCD .
1
SOAB = 1
2 |OB| |AB| , SOCD = 2 |OD| |CD| ,
S OAD = 12 |OD| , |OD| = 1

1
sin cos
2

1
1
2

1
1
1
sin cos
2
n
n
,

1
1
1
2
n

1
1 cos 1
sin n
n

1
1 tg .
2

1
n

1
1
1 tg
2
n
1
n.
1
sin
n

cos

, , ,
1

1
cos n

n sin

cos

1
.
n

. ,
xn =

1
1
cos n

zn = n sin

1
;
n

yn = cos

1
.
n

1 = 1 , lim cos n
n
1 =1.
6 , , lim n sin n
n
(

)n
1
lim 1 + n
, n
.
100%
,
. 1 ,
1

, , .

66

. ,
: 1 100%, 1 .
,
S1 = 1 + 1 = 2 .
:
(
, 30 )
1
1 + 2 , .

)
(
) (
)2
(
1
1
1
1
1
+ 1+
= 1+
=2 .
S2 = 1 +
2
2
2
2
4
,
. :
(
)
, 1 1 + 13 ,
1
(
)
(
) (
)2
1
1
1
1
1+
+ 1+
= 1+
.
3
3
3
3

(
)2
(
)2 (
)3
1
1
1
1
10
S3 = 1 +
+ 1+
= 1+
=2 ,
3
3
3
3
27
, S2 .
, , n ,

(
)n1
(
)n1 (
)n
1
1
1
1
Sn = 1 +
+ 1+
= 1+
.
n
n
n
n
(
)n
1 .
Sn = 1 + n
-, , n : Sn+1 > Sn . ,
)n+1
)n+1
(
(
1
1
(
)
1+
1+
1
Sn+1
n+1
n+1
(
)
=
=
= (
)n+1 1 +
n
Sn
n
1
1
1+
1+
n
n

n+1
n+2
) [
]n+1 (
)
(
n(n + 2)
1
1

n
+
1
=
=
=
1+
1+

n+1
n
n
(n + 1)2
n
]n+1 (
]n+1 (
[ 2
) [ 2
)
1
1
n + 2n
n + 2n + 1 1

1
+

1
+
=
=
=
n
n
(n + 1)2
(n + 1)2
67

, (. .11 1.1),
[
= 1

1
(n + 1)2

]n+1 (
) (
) (
)
1
1
1
1+
> 1
1+
=
n
n+1
n
(
) (
)
n
1
=
1+
= 1.
n+1
n

Sn+1
> 1 Sn , S
n
, .
, ,
.
(. .8 1.1),
(
)n
1
Sn = 1 +
=
n
1 n(n 1) n2 1
n(n 1)(n 2) n3 1
+
1
2+
1
3 +...
n
2!
3!
n
n
1
1
1
1
1
1+1+
+
+ ... 1 + 1 + + 2 + + 3 + ...
12 123
2 2
2
,
(. .9 1.1),
= 1n + n 1n1

1+

1
1

1
2

= 3.

, {Sn }
, .
5 , {(
. ),
{Sn } . n}
1

1+ n

( 2) , e
e 2.718281828459045 . ,
(
)n
1
lim 1 +
= e.
n
n
.
, 3 , , ,
1 .
xn = n yn = sin n
0, .
0
68

.
, , 1 .
00 ,
.
,
1 6 , .
.
(3n + 2)2
.
5n2 + 3
,
4 ,
(
)
lim (3n + 2)2 = + lim 5n2 + 3 = + .
3.2.4.1. lim

. ,
( !)
, ,
n2
12
4
9+
+ 2
(3n + 2)2
9n2 + 12n + 4
n
n
lim
= lim
= lim
.
3
n 5n2 + 3
n
n
5n2 + 3
5+ 2
n
1 = 0 lim 1 = lim 1 lim 1 = 0, ,
, lim n
n n n n
n
n n2
,
4 , 2 1 .
(
)
12
4
12
1
4
1
lim
9
+
+
9+
9 + 12 lim
+ 2
+ 4 lim 2
2
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n =
n = 9.
)
(
lim
=
3
1
n
3
5
5+ 2
5 + 3 lim 2
lim 5 + 2
n
n
n
n
n
3.2.4.2. lim

(
)
4n2 + 3n 2n .

an = 4n2 + 3n 2n , 1
,

lim
4n2 + 3n = + lim 2n = +
n

. ,
,

69


4n2 + 3+2n,
(a b)(a + b) = a2 b2

(
)
( 4n2 + 3n 2n)( 4n2 + 3n + 2n)

lim
4n2 + 3n 2n = lim
=
n
n
4n2 + 3n + 2n
(4n2 + 3n) 4n2
3n
= lim
= lim
.
n
n
4n2 + 3n + 2n
4n2 + 3n + 2n

, n.
lim

4n2

3n
= 3 lim
n
+ 3n + 2n

3 = 2.
4+ n
n

1
4+

3
+2
n

3
,
4

lim

3 2, ,
, , 4 + n

3
3
9
9
4+ = 4+22
+

=
n
4n 16n2
16n2
(
(
)2
)2
3
9
3
3
=
2+

2
+
=2+
.

2
4n
4n
4n
16n

3
3
2+
,
n
4n
,
3 =2.
4+ n
, lim
n
(
)3n
+2
3.2.4.3. lim n
.
n+1
2

4+

n + 2 = 1 lim 3n = , lim n
+1
n
n
1 . ,
.
[(
)3n
)3n
)k+1 ]3
(
(
1
n+2
1
lim
= lim 1 +
= lim
1+
=
n n + 1
n
k
n+1
k
k = n + 1 n = k 1 lim k =
n

[
=

(
lim

1
1+
k

)k ]3

)3
(
1
= e3 1 = e3 .
1+
k
k

lim

70

3.2.5

,
,
, , . .
3.2.5.1. yn (x) = 2 1 2 ,
x +n
n .
Xn : {(, +)}

{(
]} ,
Yn :
0, 12
n.
n
n ,
, x Xn yn (x) = 2 1 2
x +n
.
, lim 2 1 2 = 0 x Xn . n x + n
y (x), 0 x
yn (x)
lim yn (x) = y (x).
n

. , , , ,
.
3.2.5.2.




a11,n a12,n

An =
a21,n a22,n

a11,n =

n
,
n+1

a12,n =

1
,
n+2

a21,n =

1
,
n+1

a22,n =

n
,
n+2

1, 2, 3, . . .

1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1

2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6
,
,
,
,









1 1 1 1 1 3 1 2

{a11,n }, {a12,n }, {a21,n }, {a22,n }


lim

n
=1,
n+1

lim

1
=0,
n+2

lim

71

1
=0,
n+1

lim

n
=1,
n+2

, An
,


1 0

.
lim An = E =
0 1
n
3.2.5.3.
.


x1,n



Xn =
x2,n
x3,n
n- . ,
n+1- , (2.3.2)
Xn+1 = A Xn ,


x1,n+1

x2,n+1

x3,n+1


0.3 0.5

= 0.4 0.1

0.3 0.4

0.4
0.2
0.4


x1,n

x2,n

x3,n

,
{Xn }, ,
, n- .

. ,
n , .
, 238
,
. , -
, , , , .
:





238



0
0



79







0 238
0 79

.





0
0
238 80

.3.4.
, ( ) -

72

. 3.5:

73

, A , = 1, (. 2.4.2)


92


60 .


86

3.3

3.3.1

f (x) x = a, ,
A, x a. A f (a)
, a
f (x).
x
f (x) = sin
x , x = 0,
, x.
A , f (x)
x a,
lim f (x) = A.
xa
.
3.3.1.1. A f (x) x
a, {xn } , lim xn = a xn = a,
n

{f (xn )} A,
lim f (xn ) = A.
n

: lim f (x) = A,
xa

{xn } a : {f (xn )} A.
n
n
, 3.3.1.1 , a
,
, + .
: x a (
f (a) )
74

, a.
, ,
:
, , ,
. .
2x .
x2 + 1
{xn } ,
lim xn = 3, n- {f (xn )}
n
2xn . ,
x2n + 1
.
3.3.1.1. , 3.3.1.1, lim

x3

lim 2xn
2xn
n
=
=
n x2 + 1
lim (xn )2 + 1
n

lim f (xn ) = lim

2 lim xn
n

( lim xn ) ( lim xn ) + 1
n

23
3
= .
33+1
5

2x ( x2 + 1
x, x = 3.

, f (x) =

)
f (3) = 22 3 = 3
5,
3 +1
x = 3 .
, x , . , f (x) = 22x
x +1
, x = . ,
, lim xn = ,
n

lim f (xn ) = lim

2xn
1
2
= lim
=

1
n
x
+1
n
1+ 2
xn

x2n

1
lim
n xn n

= lim

1+

1
x2n

=02=0.

, x , 0, f (x) 0 ,
x = .
3.3.1.2. , , y = sgn x (.
.3.5)

1, x > 0,
sgn x = 0, x = 0,
1, x < 0.
75

. 3.6: y = sgn x
x = 0 , sgn 0 = 0, lim sgn x . ,
x0
1 y = 1 .
xn = n
n
n
( )
1 =1
0. , , lim sgn xn = lim sgn n
n
n
(
)
1 = 1, 3.3.1.1,
lim sgn yn = lim sgn n
n
n
sgn xn {xn } 0.
n
, , . , 1 x = 0.
f (x) = x
. , , ,
, .
1 . lim (f (x) g(x)) = lim f (x) lim g(x) .
xa

xa

xa

xa

2 . lim (C f (x)) = C lim f (x) .

xa

3 . lim (f (x) g(x)) = lim f (x) lim g(x) .


xa

xa

xa

lim f (x)
f (x)
= xa
.
lim g(x)
xa
xa g(x)
xa
5 . : x, a, f (x) h(x) g(x)
lim f (x) = lim g(x) = A, lim h(x) = A.
4 . , lim g(x) = 0, lim

xa

xa

xa

,
:
x
1) : lim sin
x =1.
x0

2) :
76

(
lim

3.3.2

1
1+ x

)x

=e

1
lim (1 + x) x = e .

x0

,
, :
0 ,

00 ,

1 .

.
2
3.3.2.1. lim x 3 3x + 2 .
x2
x 8
00 .

1
x2 3x + 2
(x 1)(x 2)
x1
= lim
= lim 2
=
.
3
2
x2
x2
x2
12
x 8
(x 2)(x + 2x + 4)
x + 2x + 4
lim

3x2 + 2 .
(2x + 1)2

.

3.3.2.2. lim

2
3+ 2
3x2 + 2
3
3x2 + 2
x
lim
= lim
= lim
= .
1
4
x (2x + 1)2
x 4x2 + 4x + 1
x
4
4+ + 2
x x
3.3.2.3. lim

x+

(
)
x2 + 3x x .

(
)
x2 + 3x x
2
lim
=
x + 3x x = lim
x+
x+
1

( x2 + 3x x)( x2 + 3x + x)

= lim
=
x+
( x2 + 3x + x)
x2 + 3x x2
3x

= lim
=
x+
x+
2
2
( x + 3x + x)
( x + 3x + x)

= lim

77



x :
3

= lim
x+

1+

3
+1
x

3
.
2


.
3.3.2.4. lim sinx5x .
x0
00
t = 5x, ,
x . ,
lim

x0

sin 5x
sin t
sin t
sin t
= lim ( ) = lim 5
= 5 lim
=51=5.
t0
t0
t0 t
t
x
t
5

)x
(
3 .
3.3.2.5. lim 1 x
x

1 . , t = x
3 x = 3t.
,
((
(
)x
(
)3t
)t )3
3
1
1
lim 1
= lim 1 +
= lim
=
1+
x
t
t
x
t
t
(
=

3.3.3

(
lim

1
1+
t

)t )3

= e3 =

1
.
e3

3.3.3.1. f (x) x = a,

lim f (x) = f (a).


xa

, , f (x) x = a.
f (x) x = a,
xn a
lim f (xn ) = f ( lim xn ) = f (a).

78

, , f (x) x = g(a), g(x) x = a ,


lim f (g(x)) = f ( lim g(x)) = f (g(a)),

xa

xa

(3.3.3.1)

3.3.3.2. f (x)
,
. f (x) ,

.
3.3.3.1. f (x) = sin x X : (, +),
1 X : (, 0),
f (x) = x
X : (0, +), X : ((, +)) .
3.3.3.3. , f (x)
x = a, lim f (x) , lim f (x) =
xa

xa

f (a). lim f (x) , x =


xa

a f (x),
x = a
f (x).
3.3.3.2. :
1) y = sgn x .
x = 0 ,
(. . 3.5).
2) y = | sgn x| .
x = 0 , , lim | sgn x| = 1,
x0

: | sgn 0| = 0 = 1 .
3)

[
y=

sin x ,
x
a ,

x = 0,
x = 0.

x =1
x, a = 1 , lim sin
x0 x
x = 0 a = 1 .
4)

sin(x 1)
x2 3x + 2
x = 1 , x = 2
. ,
y=

79

sin(x 1)
1 , x = 1,
y = x 1 x
2
,
lim

x1

sin(x 1)
1
sin(x 1)
1
1

= lim
lim
=1
= 1,
x1
x1
x1
x2
x1
x2
1

sin(x 1)
1
x = 2, lim x 1 = sin 1, lim x
2
x2
x2
, .

.
ln(1 + x)
3.3.3.3. lim
.
x
x0
00 .
,
(. (3.3.3.1) ) ,
(
)
(
)
1
1
ln(1 + x)
x
x
= lim ln(1 + x)
= ln lim (1 + x)
= ln e = 1 .
lim
x0
x0
x0
x

80


.
,
.

4.1

4.1.1.

AB , ( A)
( B). AB A B,
AB . , , .
4.1.2. ,
.
4.1.3. AB CD AD,
B C .
81

, ,
, , . (
4.1.3) AC,
(. 4.1.)

. 4.1:
4.1.4.


AB A1 B1 ,




A1 B1 = || AB ,
AB, > 0, AB, < 0.

. 4.2:
. 4.2. .
:
- ;
- .
82

4.1.5.

,
, .
.
, ,


. , AB a . a .
,
, -
.
, .
,
.
, ,
, . ,
, , .

. 4.3:
, , 45 (.
4.3). ,
500 ./.
, . ,
,

4.1.3 500 2 700 ./., 1000 ./.
, , ,
(4.1.5.)
,
.
4.1.6. ,
83

.
, . (


)
a b a , b
,
, 4.1.6,

(
)

cos
a
b ,
a =
o b = o ,




a, b =

0,
a = o b = o .
,

.
(

) (

)

1 . a, b = b, a ,
(
(

)

)
2 . a , b = a , b ,
(


) (

) (

)
3 . a1 + a2 , b = a1 , b + a2 , b ,
(

)


4 . a =
a, a ,
(

a,b

5 . a = o b = o , cos a b =

,
a b
(

)

6 . a , a = 0
a = o .

4.2

,
: .

,
. .
.

4.2.1. { a 1 , a 2 , . . . , a k }
,
, , . ,

1 a 1 + 2 a 2 + . . . + k a k = o ,
84

4.2.2.

1 , 2 , . . . , k .

{ a 1 , a 2 , . . . , a k }
,

1 a 1 + 2 a 2 + . . . + k a k = o ,

, 1 = 2 = . . . = k = 0.

4.2.1. AB, AD BD, A (.4.4.a), .

, AB + BD = AD.
,


1 AB + (1) AD + 1 BD = o ,
, 4.2.1
.

. 4.4: .
4.2.2.

,

AB AD, .


1 AB + 2 AD = o .

(4.2.1)

a ,

A D, a . (4.2.1)
(
)

1 AB + 2 AD = o ,
,
.
(. . 4.4b),

1 AB + 2 AD = o ,
85

, ,

AD = AD ,


AB = o ,

o = o ,


1 o + 2 AD = o ,

2 = 0. , 2 = 0 (4.2.1),
1 = 0.
, (4.2.1) 1 = 2 = 0,
4.2.2 AB AD.

4.3

4.3.1

, , ,
,
- .
,
.
.
O, . M

OM ,
O, M.

,
1) ;
2) ;
3) O.
x y ,

OM = x + y .

86

4.3.1.1. O , ( ), , x y ({ )


}
M O, , .

4.3.1.2. OM
M
{ -


}
O, , ,

OM = x + y

OM .
, , , - M,
, , M
-.

. 4.5: M .
{

}
1) O, , M.

O Ox Oy
. 4.5. , O ,

A B +1.
M Ox Oy,
Mx My , x y.
, {x, y}. ,
( ), x y M
.
2) : - M
87

{

}
O, , . x y

M, OC OD , OC = x

OD = y . . . 4.6.

. 4.6: M .

OM = x +y ,

- OM ,
M.
( )

, x


y , x-
M, ,
y-, . , , ( ). ,






a OM .
. -, .
, (
.) , , .
-, .
/ . , , 88

. ,
.

, , , 4.2.2.

4.3.2

(
, ) ,
. , ,
,
.
, , , ,
,
.

.





x1
x2






,
1) . a 1 =
a 2 =
y1
y2





x1 x2






.
a 1 = a 2 a 1 = a 2
=
y1 y2

, a 1 = a 2 ,

x1 + y1 = x2 + y2

(x1 x2 ) + (y1 y2 ) = o .

( , ) ,
x1 x2 y1 y2 .






{
x1 y1 0
x1 x2
x1 y1 = 0







.

=

=
x2 y2 = 0
x2 y2 0
y1 y2
2) .

a 1 + a 2






a 1 + a 2 = a 1 + a 2 .
89




x1



, a 1 =
y1




x2


,
a 2 =
y2

a 1 = x1 + y1 a 2 = x2 + y2 .






a 1 + a 2 = (x1 + y1 ) + (x2 + y2 ) =



= (x1 + x2 ) + (y1 + y2 ) ) =





x1 + x2 x1 x2





=




+
a
+
=
=


a 2 .
1
y1 + y2 y1 y2
3) . , ,






a = a .
,

,
.
, ,
, OB = OA + AB = ax + bx OD = OC + CD = ay + by .
.4.7.

. 4.7: .

, -
r M,

r =x +y ,
90

r =x +y







x





=x 1 +y 0 ,
y
0
1


1



= 1 + 0 =
0


0



.
= 0 + 1 =
1

. 4.8: .
- , , , ( ,
) -
.
, L (. . 4.8)

A -
r 0

, a . r -

B ,
r0 a
(
) .

r =
r 0 + AB

AB = a ,


a AB.
-
L

r =
r 0 + a , .
,






x
x0
ax

,




r =
r
=

a
=
0
y
y0
ay ,
91

L , {x, y} ,
,







x x0
ax







r = r 0 + a ,
y = y0 + ay ,
{
x = x0 + ax ,
.
y = y0 + ay .
, , ,
Ax + By + C = 0, A = ay , B = ax C =
ay x0 ax y0 ,
. , A
B .

4.3.3

,
,
.
,
Oxy.


1



a = 1 + 2
, , a =
2


1

b = 1 + 2
b =
2 .

a b .
(

) (

)
a , b = 1 + 2 , 1 + 2 =
= 1 1

(
(
(
(

)

)

)

)
, +1 2 , +2 1 , +2 2 , = 1 1 +2 2 ,

, 4.1.6 4.3.1.1,
(
(
(

)

)

)
, =1,
, =0,
, =0,

(

)
, =1.

, ,
(

)
a , b = 1 1 + 2 2
(4.3.3.1)
92




(
1

)


T


.
a , b = a b = 1 2
2

, 4 (. 4.1) , a


)

=
a
a
,
a
=
12 + 22 .
(4.3.3.2)

?
, , ,
. ,

a = 1 + 2

,
(
(
(

) (

)

)

)
, a = , 1 + 2 = 1 , + 2 , ,

(
(

)

)
, = 1 , = 0 , ,
1 =

(

)
, a .

, 2 =

(

)
, a .


4.3.3.1. OA OB,





3
1







OA =
OB =

,
3
3
, (. 4.9).
. 4.1.6
. (4.3.3.2)


OA

= 32 + ( 3)2 = 9 + 3 = 12 = 4 3 = 2 3 ,


OB = 12 + ( 3)2 = 1 + 3 = 4 = 2 .
93

. 4.9: ( 4.3.3.1)
. 4.9, OAN
OBM, , = 60 , = 30 .

OA OB, 30 . , 4.1.6,



(
)

OA, OB = OA OB cos = (2 3) 2 cos 30 = (2 3) 2


=6.
2
()(4.3.3.1)


:
OA, OB = 3 1 + 3 3 = 3 + 3 = 6 .

4.4

, . , .
4.4.1. y = f (x) Oxy, -
94



x


f (x) .
, , , , , .
-
.
,
x, , y, y = f (x). ,
F (x, y) = 0, x , y, .
. ( )
Ax + By + C = 0, A B .
, y = f (x)
, B = 0. ( !)
, ( ,


x0

k
y0 )
y = k(x x0 ) + y0 . B = 0, Ax + By + C = 0
Oy - .
. , , ,
O1 , O2 , ,
M
, . -
.
,
, ,
, . ,
. ,
, .
.
,
{O, x, y}
y=

2x 1
.
x1

(4.4.1)

{O , x , y }, ,
95



1

,
O
2


.
x
x



,
y y M
(. . 4.10a )
{
x = x + 1,
(4.4.2)
y = y + 2.

(4.4.1) .
(4.4.1) (4.4.2),
y + 2 =

2(x + 1) 1
2x + 1
1
=
=2+

(x + 1) 1
x
x

y =

1
.
x

.
(. . 4.10 ).
,
(. . 4.10 ).

. 4.10: (4.4.1).
, .
, (4.4.1)
y=

2x 1
2(x 1) + 1
1
=
=2+
x1
x1
x1

y2=

1
.
x1

, ,
.
,
: Ox
Oy.
96

, ,
, ,
y = Af (a(x b))+B y = f (x).

(. 1.1) , ,
y = xa , y = ax , y = loga x, y = sin x, y = cos x, y = tg x,
y = arcsin x, y = arccos x, y = arctg x
.
, A, B, a b,
1 . y = f (x) + B y =
f (x) Oy |B| ,
B > 0 |B| , B < 0.
2 . y = f (x a) y =
f (x) Ox |a| ,
a > 0 |a| , a < 0.
3 . y = Af (x) y = f (x)
A > 0 ( ) Ox
|A|. A < 0,
-
Ox.
4 . y = f (ax) y = f (x)
a > 0 ( ) Oy
1 |. a < 0,
| a
-
Oy.

,
3 4 , 1 2 .

y = x2 , . 4.11. ,
.4.124.21 , . ,
Ox Oy .
. 4.12 y = x2 y =
2
x + 3, 3 Oy.
. 4.13 y = x2 y =
(x 2)2 , 2 Ox. . 4.14
, y = (x 2)2 + 3.

97

. 4.11: y = x2 .

. 4.12: y = x2 y = x2 + 3.

98

. 4.13: y = x2 y = (x 2)2 .

. 4.14: y = x2 y = (x 2)2 + 3.

99

y = x2 y = 12 x2 , .
4.15, Ox 21 .

. 4.15: y = x2 y = 12 x2 .
. , y = x2
y = (3x)2 Oy
31 Oy 9, y = (3x)2 y = 9x2 .
. 4.16.
y = x2 y = 3x2 :
Oy 3 -
Ox. . 4.17.
. 4.18 y = x2 y = 3x2 + 5,
5 Oy.
. 4.19 y = 2(x 3)2 + 1,
y = 2x2 : Ox 3
Oy. (. . 4.20) y = (x2)2 +3 y = x2 :
Ox 2
Oy.
, y = x2 y = 3x2 + 4x + 2
y = 3x2 + 4x + 2
100

. 4.16: y = x2 y = (3x)2 .

. 4.17: y = x2 y = 3x2 .

101

. 4.18: y = x2 y = 3x2 + 5.

. 4.19: y = x2 y = 2(x 3)2 + 1.

102

. 4.20: y = x2 y = (x 2)2 + 3.
y = 3(x+ 32 )2 + 32 .
. 4.21 .
, , ,
( ) . , .
,
, .
4.4.2. , y = f (x) x ,
, ,
x f (x) f (x ). f (x) f (x ) , x , x
.
.
4.4.3. y = f (x) ,
a, b
)
(
f (a) + f (b)
a+b

f
2
2
,
103

. 4.21: y = x2 y = 3x2 + 4x + 2.
a, b

(
f

a+b
2

f (a) + f (b)
.
2

, ,
.
4.22.
C AB y = f (x), C,
b
x = a +
,
2 .
C C .
,
,
, . ,
y = sin x x0 = 0
y = x.
, x .

lim

x0

sin x
=1,
x

104

. 4.22:
y = f (x) y = g(x) x0 ,
lim

xx0

f (x)
=1.
g(x)

, , , .
, , ,
. :
, .
.
4.4.4. y = f (x) x0 , lim f (x) = .
xx0

4.4.5.

y = f (x) ,
lim f (x) = a , a .
x

4.4.1.

1
y = 3x
x + 2 x0 = 2 a = 3 ,

1
3
3x 1
x =3,
lim
= lim
2
x x + 2
x
1+
x
. 4.22. ,
, .
105

1
. 4.23: y = 3x
x+2 .

106

4.4.6.

y = f (x)
y = ax + b ,

lim f (x) = a ,
x x
lim f (x) ax = b ,
x

a b .
4.4.2.

x3

(x 2)2
x0 = 2 y = x + 4 ,

x3

=1,
lim

x (x 2)2 x

(
)

x3 (x 2)2 x

lim
=
lim
x
2 1 x = x
(x 2)
(x 2)2
4

4
2

4x

4x
x

= lim
= lim (
)2 = 4 .

x (x 2)2
x

1
x

y =

. 4.23.

. 4.24: y =

x3
(x2)2 .

x + x .
y = arctg x, (107

. 1.9) x + a =
2,
x a =
.
2
, , 5.4.

4.5

4.3.1 ,
. .
O,
. ( )

M (. .4.25) - OM ,
, O,
M.

. 4.25: M .

() ,

k ,
1) ;
2) ;
3) O.
108

x, y z ,

OM = x + y + z k .
.
4.5.1.

() , k , , x, y z
{


}
M O, , , k .

( -)
,


x




y , z
x- M, ,
y-, . z-,
. , , -






a OM .
, 4.3.2 4.3.3, ,

. a

b


1






a = 1 + 2 + 3 k ; a =
2
3

b = 1 + 2 + 3 k ;




1



b =
2 ,
3

a b
(

)
a , b = 1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 .



1
T
(



)



a , b = a b = 1 2 3
2 .
3

109

(4.5.1)

, 4 (. 4.1) ,


)

a , a = 12 + 22 + 32 .
(4.5.2)
a =
.

, a

(

)
1 = , a ;
(

)
, a ;
(

)
3 = k , a .
2 =

4.5.1.


a = 4 +3 k

b = 3 + k
.

.


4





a = 1

3




0





b = 3
.
1

(4.5.2)

2
a = 4 + (1)2 + 32 = 16 + 1 + 9 = 26 ,

2
b = 0 + 32 + 12 = 0 + 9 + 1 = 10 .
(4.5.1)
(

)
a , b = 4 0 + (1) 3 + 3 1 = 0 + (3) + 3 = 0 .
,

, a b .
, , , z = f (x, y).
4.5.2.

z = f (x, y) , -
110

. 4.26: .

111


Oxyz



x



.
y


f (x, y)
, ,
, .4.26 .

2
2
z = e(x xy+y ) ,
8.3.3.

112

5.1

,
,
. , ,
.
. .
5.1.1.

, , .
: y = f (x) x0 , f (x0 ) yx (x0 ),
f (x0 ) = lim

t0

f (x0 + t) f (x0 )
.
t

(5.1.1)

, x0 , x0 + t ,
(x0 + t) x0 = t. ,
f (x0 ) , f (x0 + t) ,
f (x0 + t) f (x0 ) .
113

, y = f (x)
x0 ,
x0 . ( !) ,
. , (5.1.1) 00 , ( )
.
5.1.1 .
5.1.1. y = x3 x0 = 2.
x0 .
x0 t,
, .2 1.1,
(
)
f (x0 +t)f (x0 ) = (x0 +t)3 x30 = x30 + 3x20 t + 3x0 t2 + t3 x30 = 3x20 t+3x0 t2 +t3 .

(
)
3x20 t + 3x0 t2 + t3
= lim 3x20 + 3x0 t + t2 = 3x20 .
t0
t0
t

f (x0 ) = lim

x0 = 2, ,
yx (2) y = x3 2, 12.
5.1.2. y = |x| x0 = 0.
, x0 = 0
|x0 + t| |x0 |
|t|
= lim
= lim
t0
t0 t
t0
t

f (x0 ) = lim

1 , t > 0,
1 , t < 0.

(5.1.2)

,
,
{ }
{
} 1 0 = 1 0 ,
, , tn = n
n
n n
n
( )
(
)
1
1

f n 1 f n 1 , (5.1.2) .
n
n
5.1.1 ,
. ,

dy
yx (x)|x=x0 ;
; f (x)|x=x0 .
dx x=x0
, .
114

,

y = f (x)
x0

A
y0 . B ,


x1

.

y1
( 4.4.1) ,
y0 = f (x0 ) y1 = f (x1 ). AB ,
(. . 5.1.) , ,
, y = k(xx0 )+y0 ,
y y
k = x1 x0 = tg .
1
0
, , B A .
x1 x0 , , t = x1 x0 0 .
,
k = lim

xx0

y(x) y(x0 )
f (x0 + t) f (x0 )
= lim
= f (x0 ) ,
t0
x x0
t

t = x x0 .
, ,

.

. 5.1: .
, , (, , ).

115

5.2

( 5.1.1) , .
,
.
5.1.1
t, , x0
f (x), , . x0 ,
(5.1.1), , . x0
, , .
5.1.1 , x0 ,
y = f (x), f (x0 ) , , , x0 f (x0 ) .
y = f (x)
f (x) , f (x) . , f (x) f (x) , ,
f (x) . , y = F (x)
, F (x) = f (x), y = f (x).
.
, 5.1.1, ,
y = x3 y = 3x2 , x0 . y = x3
x0 x x0 3x2 .
dy
yx ;
; y (x) .
dx
, , , ,
. , f (x, p) x
p, fx (x, p) x,
p .
,

, ,
, . , ,
,
derivation, derivative.
, ,

116

5.1.1. : ?
:
1) ,
5.1.1,
2) , .
, 5.1.1
, .

f (x)

f (x)

xa

axa1

ex

ex

a > 0, a = 1

ax ,

ax ln a

1
x

ln |x|

loga |x|,

( 5.2.1)

1
x ln a

a > 0, a = 1

sin x

cos x

arcsin x

1
1 x2

arctg x

1
1 + x2

(5.2.1), ,
, ,
, , 117

,
,

( f (x) + g(x) ) = f (x) + g (x)

( C f (x) ) = C f (x) , C const

( 5.2.2)

( f (x) g(x) ) = f (x) g(x) + f (x) g (x)

( f (g(x)) )x = fg (g) gx (x)

5.2.1 5.2.2 .
5.2.1.

3
x2 + x + 1
sin x
y=
, y=
y = earccos x .
x
x
.
1) 1 3 5.2.2 , , , ,

(
)

3
( 1
)
1
x2 + x + 1
= x 3 + x 2 + x1 =
x
, 5.2.1 5.2.2,
4
3
1
1
1
1
1
= x 3 x 2 x2 =

.
3
2
3x 3 x 2x x x2

2) 5.2.2 (
), ,
3 5.2.2
(
)
(
)
sin x
= (sin x) (x1 ) = (sin x) (x1 ) + (sin x) (x1 ) =
x
= (cos x) x1 + (sin x) (x2 ) =
118

cos x sin x
x cos x sin x
2 =
.
x
x
x2

3) , (. 1.1 .7 )
g(x) = arccos x =

arcsin x ,
2

, 5.2.2
5.2.1,
1
gx (x) =
.
1 x2
,

(
)

yx = (earccos x )x = eg(x) = (eg )g gx (x) =


x
)
(
1
earccos x
g

g
= e gx (x) = e
=
.
1 x2
1 x2

,
, x0 .
, , .


d2 y

yx=x0 ;
; y (x)|x=x0 ,
dx2 x=x0


f (x0 + t) f (x0 )
f (x0 ) = lim
.
(5.2.1)
t0
t
( ) , , , (5.2.1).
( )
y = f (x). , . , y = ln |x|,
1 , , , , 5.2.1, y = x
1 = x1 5.2.1 (1)x2 = 1 . ,
x
x2
(ln |x|) = 12 .
x
5.4.

119

5.3


, .
x0 y = f (x) , x0 . y = f (x)
.
, ( , ) y = f (x) ,

x0 ,

y = a + b(x x0 ) + c(x x0 )2 + r ,

(5.3.1)

a, b c , r ,
|x x0 |.
a, b c, , , () r,
. .
, x = x0 . (5.3.1)
f (x) = a + b(x x0 ) + c(x x0 )2 + r ,

(5.3.2)

x = x0 f (x0 ) = a + r ,
, r = 0 a =
f (x0 ).
, ,
x = x0 . ,
, , (5.3.2)

f (x) = b + 2c(x x0 ) + r .

(5.3.3)

x = x0 , r = 0 b = f (x0 ).
, r = 0 x = x0 .
(5.3.3),
f (x) = 2c + r ,
x = x0 , r = 0 ,
c = 21 f (x0 ).
120

, y = f (x), ,
y = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ) +

f (x0 )
(x x0 )2 + r .
2

(5.3.4)


, f (x0 )(x x0 ) y = f (x) x0 , dy, df df (x0 ),
f (x0 )(x x0 )2 ,
d2 y, d2 f d2 f (x0 ).
, , , dx = x = x x0 .
(5.3.4)
y = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )dx +

f (x0 )
(dx)2 + r
2

(5.3.5)

1
y = f (x0 ) + df + d2 f + r .
2
, x0
(x x0 )2 .
5.3.1.
1

d (f (x) + g(x)) = df + dg

d (C f (x)) = C df , C const
( 5.3.1)

d (f (x) g(x)) = df g(x) + f (x) dg

df (g(x)) = fg dg = fg (g(x)) gx dx

121

5.4

, y = f (x) x = x0 ,
, .
(5.3.4) , f (x0 ) = 0
. , x = x0 + t ,
f (x0 )(x x0 ) = f (x0 ) t > 0.
f (x0 + t) > f (x0 ), f (x0 t) <
f (x0 ). , ,
f (x0 ) = 0 x = x0 .
f (x0 ) = 0. ,
y = f (x) x0
y = f (x0 ) +

f (x0 )
(x x0 )2 + r .
2

(5.4.1)

(x x0 )2 , x
x0 f (x) > f (x0 ), f (x0 ) > 0, f (x) < f (x0 ), f (x0 ) < 0. , f (x0 ) > 0
x = x0 , f (x0 ) < 0
.
, ,
f (x0 ) = 0 f (x0 ) = 0 y =
f (x) x0 , .
, y = x3 y = x4 x = 0
,
, .
(5.3.4).
r(x, x0 ) , x x0 ,
lim

xx0

r(x, x0 )
=0,
(x x0 )2

, x x0 r(x, x0 ) , (x x0 )2 .
, , .
, , , (5.1.1) (5.1.2)
t.
f (x0 )

f (x0 + t) f (x0 )

t
122

f (x0 + 2t) f (x0 + t) f (x0 + t) f (x0 )

t
t

=
t
f (x0 + 2t) 2f (x0 + t) + f (x0 )
=
.
t2
, ( 4.4.2)
f (x0 + t)

f (x0 + 2t) + f (x0 )


2

y = f (x) x0 + t, , f (x0 ) > 0


. , f (x0 ) < 0 ,
y = f (x) x0 . ,
(5.1.1) (5.2.1) ,
.
, 00 .
f (x) g(x)
x = x0 . , , f (x0 ) = g(x0 ) = 0, g (x) = 0.

lim

xx0

f (x)
f (x0 )
=
.
g(x)
g (x0 )

, x0
f (x) = f (x0 ) + f (x0 )(x x0 ) + r ,

g(x) = g(x0 ) + g (x0 )(x x0 ) + q ,

r q

r
q
lim
=0,
lim
=0.
xx0 x x0
xx0 x x0
, , f (x0 ) = g(x0 ) = 0,
r
f (x)
f (x0 )(x x0 ) + r
x x0
lim
= lim
= lim
=
q
xx0 g(x)
xx0 g (x0 )(x x0 ) + q
xx0
g (x0 ) +
x x0
f (x0 ) +

r
f (x0 )
xx0 x x0
=
.
=
q
g (x0 )
g (x0 ) + lim
xx0 x x0
f (x0 ) + lim

123

.
x
27
5.4.1. lim 3x
3 .
x3

. 00 , , (3x 27) = 3x ln 3 (x 3) = 1 = 0,
3x 27
3x ln 3
= lim
= 27 ln 3 .
x3 x 3
x3
1
lim

5.5

y = f (x) (
!) .
1 . .
2 . .
3 . y = f (x)
.
4 . ( ,
x ,
.)
5 . , , .
6 . ,
( ) (. 5.4).
7 . ( )
(. 5.4).
8 .
.

y = x3 2x + 1.
1 . : , , x. X : x
(, +) .
2 . : , x3 2x + 1 = p
p, (, )
, .
124

. 5.2: y = x3 2x + 1 () y = x3 ()
3 . y = f (x) , .
4 .
(
)
x3 2x + 1
2
1
lim
= lim 1 2 + 3 = 1 ,
x
x
x3
x
x
( , x)
y = x3 . . . 5.2.
5 . :
y = x3 2x + 1 = (x3 x) (x 1) = (x 1)(x2 + x 1) =
= (x x1 )(x x2 )(x 1) ,

1
1
5
5
1.6
x2 = +
0.6 .
x1 =
2
2
2
2
, ,
[
[
x1 x x2
x < x1
y 0,

y < 0,
x1
x2 < x < 1 .
6 . : (5.3.4) , , 125

, . .
y = 3x2 2, ,

2
2

y 0,
x , x
3
3

2
2

y < 0,
<x<
.
3
3

2 7 . : x3 = 23 x4 =
3
, .
,
y = 6x. , x , , x = 0
,
.

2
, , x3 = 3

, x4 = 23 .
8 . :
x

x1

x3

x2

x4

max

0
.

min

. 5.3.
y = (2x + 5)ex .
1 . : , , x, X :
x (, +) .
2 . : , x 0 y
. x 0, lim (2x + 5)ex = 0 x

x,
126

. 5.3: y = x3 2x + 1
. ,
, x.
3 . y = (2x + 5)ex , .
4 . lim (2x + 5)ex = 0 , x

Ox x .
5 . : ex > 0 x , y = 0
x = 25
y < 0, < x <

5
2

y > 0,

5
< x < +
2

6 . :
y = 2ex + (2x + 5)ex = (2x + 7)ex ,
,
y = 0, x =

7
2

7
7
y > 0, < x < + .
2
2
7 . : , y = (2x + 9)ex .
y < 0, < x

127

, < x < 9
2 ,
9
2 < x < + . , x = 72
, x = 29
.
8 . :
x

92

72

52

min

y = (2x + 5)ex . 5.4.

. 5.4: y = (2x + 5)ex


3
2.
y = x + 6x
2
x
1 . : x = 0.

128

2 . : y.
3 . ,
.
4 . x 0, 3
2 = . ,
lim x + 6x
x0
x2
6 2 , ,
y = x + x
x2
y = x .
6 2 , 5 . : y = x + x
x2
, y < 0 x < 0. x > 0 y


x3 +6x 2, x < 3 4 3 2
x > 3 4 3 2.
, ,
, , , MathCAD MAPPLE.
, x3 + 6x 2 = 0.
x = u + v.
,
( 3
)
(u + v)3 + 6(u + v) 2 = 0 =
u + v 3 + 3uv(u + v) + 6(u + v) 2 = 0
=

)
u3 + v 3 2 + (u + v)(3uv + 6) = 0 .

: x
, u v
{ 3
u + v 3 = 2,
uv = 2,

{
2,
v = u
8
3
u 3 = 2.
u
t = u3 , :
[
8
t1 = 4,
t 2 = 0 = t2 2t 8 = 0 =
=
t2 = 2
t
[
=

4,
u1 = 3
u2 = 3 2

[
=

3
2,
v1 =

v2 = 3 4

x3 = u + v =

3
3
4 2.

6 . :

x3 6x + 4
(x 2)(x2 + 2x 2)
(x 2)(x + 1 3)(x + 1 + 3)

y =
=
=
,
x3
x3
x3
129

x = 2,

y = 0, x = 1 + 3,
x = 1 3
, ,
y > 0, x (, 1



3) (0, 1 + 3) (2, +)

y < 0, (1

3, 0) (1 + 3, 2) .

7 . :
12(x 1)
y =
. x < 1
x4
, x > 1 . ,
x = 2
, x1 = 1 3

x2 = 1 + 3 , x = 1
.
8 . :
x

x1

x3

x2

max

..

max

0
.

3
2 . 5.5.
y = x + 6x
x2

130

min

+0

3
2
. 5.5: y = x + 6x
x2

131

6.1
6.1.1


( , ) . , , .
b a
, , a b .
. f (x) F (x),
F (a), F (b) b.
[a, b] N x1 , x2 , . . . xN 1 . , , x0 = a xN = b.
xk = xk+1 xk =

ba
N

k = 0, 1, 2, . . . N 1. , k = 0, 1, 2, . . . N 1 , ,
[a, b].
132

F (x) [xk , xk+1 ]


Fk = F (xk+1 ) F (xk ) ,
, ,
,
F (b) F (a) = F (xN ) F (x0 ) =
= F (xN ) F (xN 1 ) + F (xN 1 ) F (xN 2 ) +
|
{z
} |
{z
}
FN 1

FN 2

+ F (x2 ) F (x1 ) + F (x1 ) F (x0 ) =


|
{z
} |
{z
}
F1

N
1

F0

Fk .

k=0

F (b) = F (a) +

N
1

Fk .

k=0

N
1

Fk .

k=0

F (x) = f (x), , (. 5.3)


F = F (x) F (x0 ) dF (x0 ) = F (x0 ) (x x0 ) = F (x0 ) x,

Fk dF (xk ) = F (xk ) (xk+1 xk ) = f (xk )(xk+1 xk ) = f (xk )xk ,

F (b) F (a) +

N
1

f (xk )xk .

k=0

, a N.
[xk , xk+1 ], b N
, N
N
1

f (xk )xk ,

(6.1.1.1)

k=0

N 0 . (6.1.1.1) .
,
N
1
lim
f (xk )xk , f (x) N k=0

[a, b].
133

6.1.1.1. , lim

N
1

N k=0

f (xk )xk , -

f (x) a
b
b
f (x) dx .
a

F (x) x =
b ,
b
F (b) = F (a) +

f (x) dx ,
a

:
b
f (x) dx = F (b) F (a) .

(6.1.1.2)

b

f (x) dx = F (x) .

(6.1.1.3)

(6.1.1.2) -.
F (x) ,
f (x) ,
F (x) = f (x),
F (x) , . , , f (x)
, x ,
(a, b) .
6.1.1.1 f (x) = x3 [0, 1],
,
1
x3 dx .
0

1 x = k.
, xk = N
k
N
(6.1.1.1)
N
1 (

k=0

k
N

)3

1
N

N 1
1 3

k
N 4 k=0

N .
134

, 10 1.1,
N
1

k3 =

k=0

(N 1)2 N 2
,
4

(
)2
1
1

(N 1)2 N 2
1
N
x3 dx = lim
= lim
= .
4
N
N

4
4
4N

. -, , . , x t. ,
b

b
f (x) dx

f (t) dt

-, f (x) F (x),
(6.1.1.1)
-. , f (x) = x3
4
, , F (x) = x4 .
1
x3 dx = F (1) F (0) =
0

1
x4
04
1
1
14

= 0= .
=

4 0
4
4
4
4

, dx ,
x.

6.1.2

. .
6.1 y = f (x) [a, b] N
x1 , x2 , . . . xN 1 .
, . 6.1, (6.1.1.1)
N
1

f (xk )xk ,
k=0

135

. 6.1:
, N , k xk = xk+1 xk
f (xk ).
N S
, Ox,
, x = a x = b,
y = f (x).

b
S = f (x) dx .
(6.1.2.1)
a

, ,
, y = f (x).

. ,
Ox
0 (. . 6.2.)
(6.1.2.1)

S=

sin x dx .
0

136

. 6.2: ,
6.1.1.1, ,
6.1.1.1. xk = N
xk = k
N . (6.1.1.1)
N
1

k=0

sin
N
N

N .
, 10 1.1,
N
1

k=0

sin
k
sin
=
N

(N + 1)
(N 1)
sin
2N
2N
,

sin
2N

sin
sin x dx = lim

N N

(N 1)
(N + 1)
sin
2N
2N
=

sin
2N


( (
))
( (
))

1
2N

sin
1+
sin
1
=2.
= lim 2

N
2
N
2
N
sin
2N
, - y = sin x,
- sin
2 = 1 , , ,

137

sin
2N
lim
=1.

N
2N
, (6.1.1.2), , F (x) = f (x)
f (x) = sin x F (x) = cos x.



sin x dx = cos x = ( cos ) ( cos 0) = ((1)) (1) = 2 .
0

( )
, .
1 . :
b (

)
f (x) + g(x)

dx =

b
f (x) dx +

g(x) dx .
a

2 . :
b (

b
)
k f (x) dx = k f (x) dx .

3 . ,
:
b

c
f (x) dx +

c
f (x) dx =

f (x) dx .
a

4 . , :
b

a
f (x) dx =

a
f (x) dx

f (x) dx = 0 .
a

138

6.2
6.2.1

, f (x) = F (x) f (x) F (x), F (x) f (x). C f (x) = F (x)


, ,
.

x
F (x) = f (t) dt ,
(6.2.1.1)
a

a f (x).
(6.2.1.1) .
, (6.2.1.1) F (x) = f (x) ,
f (x) . ,
x0 f (x)
F (x0 + ) F (x0 )
1
F (x0 ) = lim
= lim

0
0

x
0 +

f (t) dt =
x0

f (x0 )

= lim
0

x
0 +

1 dt = lim f (x0 )
0

1
= f (x0 ) ,

x0

- 2 3 . ( ,
[x0 , x0 + ] f (x) f (x0 ).) , ,
x
F (x) =

f (t) dt
a

f (x)
f (x) .
f (x). , (6.2.1.1)
( a) x,
f (x) . , a b,
.
139

F1 (x)
F1 (x) F (x).
x
F1 (x) =

f (t) dt =
b

C =

x
f (t) dt +

f (t) dt = F (x) + C ,
a

f (t) dt . , -

f (x)
.

f (x).
6.2.1.1. f (x)
f (x) dx .
,

f (x) dx { F (x) + C , C } .

6.2.2

6.1.1 6.1.2 ,
-
b
f (x) dx
a

, 6.1.1.1. ,
, F (x) - f (x).
: f (x) F (x)? , , ? ,
, F (x) f (x) (.
5.2) . !
, , . ,
,
x
F (x) =

f (t) dt .
a

140

f (x), 2
x 1
, ex , sin
x , ln x .

dx
sin x
x2
dx ,
e dx ,
x
ln x
.
, , ,

{
}
F (x) dx = F (x) + C , C ,

F (x) f (x). ,
, . ,
6.2.1. .
f (x).
( ) 6.2.1. ,
F (x) , F (x) = f (x). ,
[
ln x + C1 ,
x > 0 ,
F (x) =
ln(x) + C2 , x < 0
x > 0, x < 0
1 , , C = C .
x
1
2
,
d (ln x + C1 )
1 , x > 0 ,
=x
dx
d (ln(x) + C2 )
1 , x > 0 .
= 1 (1) = x
dx
(x)
1 : x = 0
, f (x) = x
0
, (6.2.1.1.) , 1
. , f (x) = x
x > 0 x < 0 . (6.2.1.1)
, x > 0,
.

141

( 6.2.1)

f (x)

f (x) dx

xa , a = 1

xa+1
a+1 +C

ex

ex + C

ax ,

ax + C
ln a

a > 0, a = 1

1
x

ln |x| + C

cos x

sin x + C

sin x

cos x + C

1
1 x2

arcsin x + C

1
a2 + x 2

1
x
a arctg a + C , a = 0

1
x 2 + a2

10

a2 x2

x a2 x2 + a2 arcsin x + C , a > 0
a
2
2

11

x 2 a2

x x2 a2 a2 ln x + x2 a2 + C
2
2

ln x + x2 + a2 + C , a > 0

, 142

, .
6.2.2.

1
2
3
4

( f (x) + g(x) ) dx =

( k f (x) ) dx = k

f (x) dx +

g(x) dx

f (x) dx , k const

f (x) g(x) dx = f (x) g(x)


f (g(x)) g (x) dx =

( 6.2.2)
f (x) g (x) dx

f (u) du , u = g(x)

,
3 ,
. 3 5.1.2

(f (x) g(x)) = f (x) g(x) + f (x) g (x)

(f (x) g(x)) dx = (f (x) g(x) + f (x) g (x)) dx

f (x) g(x) =

f (x) g(x) dx +

f (x) g (x) dx ,

( !) .

f (x) g(x) dx = f (x) g(x) f (x) g (x) dx .


4 , , ,
u = g(x) du = g (x) dx . ,
(, g(x) ) 4

f (g(x)) g (x) dx = f (g(x)) d(g(x)) .

143

6.2.3

, :
A) , 6.2.1 6.2.2;
B) 6.2.1 6.2.2
( - );
C) -.

6.2.2,

f (x) dx , f (ax+b) dx .
6.2.2.1.

cos(2x 7) dx .
. , 6.2.1 ( 5 )

cos x dx = sin x + C .
u = 2x 7 , ( 5.3.1
),
du = d(2x7) = d(2x)+d(7) = 2 dx+0 = 2 dx

dx =

du
.
2

6.2.2 ( 2 )

du
1
1
1
cos(2x7) dx = cos u
=
cos u du = sin u+C = sin(2x7)+C.
2
2
2
2
, C
2 C . , , .
, , ,

1
1
dx
e3x+1 dx = e3x+1 + C

= ln |5x + 2| + C .
3
5x + 2
5
, ,
, ,
. ,
144

, - ,
, ,
, ,

x2 + 4x + 3
dx .
x3 3x2 + 8x 6
-
,
.
6.2.2.2.

(x 4) dx
.
x2 5x + 6

. x2 5x + 6 = (x 2)(x 3) ,

A
x4
B
=
+
,
x2 x3
x 5x + 6
2

A B , .
x4
B
A(x 3) B(x 2)
(A + B)x (3A + 2B)
A
+
=
=
=
.
x2 x3
(x 2)(x 3)
x 5x + 6
x2 5x + 6
2

, ,
A B ( x)

{
{
A + B = 1
A =
2

3A + 2B = 4
B = 1 .
, 6.6.1 6.6.2,
)

(
(x 4) dx
2
1
=

dx =
x2 x3
x2 5x + 6

dx
dx
(x 2)2
=2

= 2 ln |x 2| ln |x 3| + C = ln
+C .
x2
x3
|x 3|
, .
,
-
.
145

6.2.2.3.

2
3

dx
.
x +4
2

. 2 ( 6.2.2)

dx
1
=
2
4
x +4

1
dx
( x )2 =
2
1+
2

dx
2
( x )2 =
1+
2

2 5.1.2,
4 6.2.2, u = x
2 .
=

1
2

(x)

x
1
2
( x )2 = arctg + C .
2
2
1+
2

8 6.2.1.
, - .

2
3

23

dx
1
x
1
1
1 1

= arctg
= arctg( 3) arctg(1) = =
.
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
4
24
x +4
2

6.2.2.4.

x2 + x + 1
dx .
x2 + 1

.
x2 + x + 1
x
=1+ 2
,
2
x +1
x +1
1 4 6.2.2,
)
2
(

x +x+1
x
x
dx =
1+ 2
dx = x +
dx =
2
2
x +1
x +1
x +1


1
1
1
d(x2 )
d(x2 + 1)
=x+
= x + ln x2 + 1 + C .
=x+
2
2
2
2
2
x +1
x +1
, 4 u = x2 + 1 ,
: d(x2 + 1) = d(x2 ) = 2x dx .
146

.
(
)
3 2
) 3
x +x+1
1 ( 2
dx = x + ln x + 1 =
2
x2 + 1
2
2

(
) (
)

1
1
1 10
= 3 + ln 10 2 + ln 5 = 1 + ln
= 1 + ln 2 .
2
2
2
5
, 6.2.2.
6.2.2.5.

( x + 1)3 dx .

. 1 2 6.2.2, , (. 1.1, .2 ),

(
)

( x + 1)3 dx =
( x)3 + 3( x)2 + 3 x + 1 dx =

( x)3 dx + 3

( x)2 dx + 3

x dx +

1 dx =

6.2.1
.

2
3
3/2
1/2
= x
dx + 3 x dx + 3 x
dx + 1 dx = x5/2 + x2 +2x3/2 +x+C .
5
2
, - .
4

( x + 1)3 dx =

(
=

) 4

2 5/2 3 2
3/2
x + x + 2x + x =
5
2
1

) (
)
2 5/2 3 2
2 5/2 3 2
519
3/2
3/2
4 + 4 +24 +4
1 + 1 +21 +1 =
.
5
2
5
2
10

6.2.2.6.

x cos x dx .
0

147

.
, 3 6.2.2.
, f (x) = sin x, g(x) = x. .

x cos x dx = x (sin x) dx = x sin x (x) sin x dx =


(x) = 1, 6.2.1

= x sin x sin x dx = x sin x ( cos x) = x sin x + cos x + C .


-



x cos x dx = (x sin x + cos x) =
0

= ( sin + cos ) (0 sin 0 + cos 0) = (1) (1) = 2 .


6.2.2.7.

1
arctg x dx .
0

. 3 ,
(x) = 1,

1
arctg x dx = 1 arctg x dx = x arctg x x
dx =
1 + x2
4 6.2.2, u = x2

d(x2 )
1
1
= x arctg x
dx = x arctg x ln(1 + x2 ) + C .
2
2
2
1+x
, -,
1
0

(
=

1 arctg 1

) 1
(

1
2
arctg x dx = x arctg x ln(1 + x ) =
2
0
) (
)

1
ln(1 + 12 ) 0 arctg 0 ln(1 + 02 ) = ln 2 .
2
2
4

, .

148

6.2.2.8.

ex sin x dx .
0

. ,

ex sin x dx = ex ( cos x) ex ( cos x) dx ,


, .

x
x
x
e sin x dx = e cos x + e sin x ex sin x dx ,

2 ex sin x dx = ex cos x+ex sin x+C

ex sin x dx =

1 x
e (sin xcos x)+C .
2

-
(

e sin x dx =
0

)

1 x
e (sin x cos x) =
2
0

) (
)
1 0
e + 1
1
e (sin cos )
e (sin 0 cos 0) =
.
2
2
2
, -,
A), B) C) ,
. , , . , u = sin x ,
(

1

u

1
e

sin x

e du = e = e 1 .
u

cos x dx =

, (x u) : [0,
2 ] [0, 1] ,
u = sin x sin 0 = 0 sin
2 =1.
-,
,
a

a
f (x) dx = 2

f (x) dx ,
0

f (x) ,
a
f (x) dx = 0,
a

149

(6.2.3.1)

f (x). .
, .
6.2.2.9. , (. 6.3)?
L, , , F
,
.

. 6.3: , ?
. ( ) (. . 6.3a.)
,
.
x, (. . 6.3b) x , F (x) = F L L
dx dA = F (x) dx .
, x L,
L
A = F (x) dx . ,
0

)
L (
L
L
Lx
F
A=
F
dx = F 1 dx
x dx =
L
L
0

( )
( )
L
L
F x2
1
F L2

= F x

= FL .
=
F
L


L
2 0
L 2
2
0
6.2.2.10. H = 1.5 R = 0.5
r = 1?
150

. 6.4: ?
. S = R2 , s = r2 . dt
dh, S dh = sv dt,
.
, ,

, h, v = 2gh.

( )2
S
1
R
dh
dt =
dh =
.
sv
r
2g
h
, H, ,
T, ,
H
T =
0

2g

R
r

)2

dh
1
=
2g
h

R
r

)2 H
dh
=

h
0

1 6.2.1 a = 12 ,
1
=
2g

R
r

) ( )2
)2 (
H
2H
R
2 h
.
=
r
g
0

H = 1.5, R = 0.5, r = 1 , g 10 c2 , T 1370c


, , 23.
6.2.2.11. ( ) F (x) ,
F (x) = e2x + cos 3x

151

F (0) =

3
.
2

. F (x), F (x) = e2x + cos 3x,


( 2x
)
1
1
e + cos 3x dx = e2x + sin 3x + C .
2
3
x = 0
32 ,
3
1 20 1
e + sin(3 0) + C = ,
2
3
2
, C = 1.
F (x) =

1 2x 1
e + sin 3x + 1 .
2
3

, .
6.2.2.12. ,


{
0 y x(x 3)2 ,
0x3.

. 6.5: ?
. 6.5, , , , ,
y = f (x), y = 0, , , Ox.
152

. (6.1.2.1)

3
S = x(x 3)2 d x .
0

, 6.2.1 6.2.2.

( 3
)
x(x 3)2 d x =
x 6x2 + 9x d x.
, 6.2.1 6.2.2

( 3
)
x4
9x2
x 6x2 + 9x d x = x3 d x 6 x2 d x + 9 xd x =
2x3 +
+C .
4
2
, -
( 4
) 3 ( 4
) ( 4
)
x
9x2
3
9 32
0
9 02
3
3
S=
2x3 +
=

3
+

0
+
.
4
2 0
4
2
4
2

S=

6.3

81
81
27
2 27 +
=
.
4
2
4

: .
, .
, (a, B) (6.1.1.1), N ,
b
f (x) dx a b ,
a

a < b < B.
6.3.1.

f (x) a B
b
lim

f (x) dx ,

bB
a

153

(
, )
B
f (x) dx .
a

B ,
.
:
b

b
f (x) dx = lim

f (x) dx ,

aA
a

, 6.3.1 , , ( ) .
6.3.1.
+

dx
.
x2 + 1

. , 8 6.2.1
+

dx
= lim
b+
x2 + 1

b
0

(
b )

dx
arctg x
= lim arctg b = .
= lim
2
b+
b+
2
x +1
0

, .
6.3.2.
1
0

dx

.
3
x2

. 1 6.2.1,
1
0

dx

= lim
3
a0
x2

1
a

(
1 )

(

)
dt
3

= lim 3 x
= lim 3 3 3 a = 3 .
3
a0
a0
x2
a

.
154

,
: ( 6.3.1)
,
6.3.2.
6.3.3.

, p

dx
xp
1

.
. 6.3.1 6.2.1.
p = 1
(
b )
b
dx
x1p
lim
=
= lim
b+
b+
xp
1 p 1
1

(
= lim

b+

b1p
1

1p 1p

1
1 p , p > 1 ,
,
p < 1 ,

p = 1,
b
lim

b+
1

b

dx
= lim ln |x| = lim (ln b ln 1) = lim ln b = +.
b+
b+
b+
x
1

, . ,
p > 1 p 1 .
6.3.4.

, p

1
dx
xp
0

.
. 6.3.1 1 6.2.1, p = 1
1
lim

a0

dx
= lim
a0
xp

(
= lim

a0

1
a1p

1p 1p

)
=

155

1 )
x1p
=
1 p a

1
1 p , p < 1 ,
,
p > 1 ,

p = 1,
1
lim

a0
a

1

dx
= lim ln |x| = lim (ln 1 ln a) = lim ( ln a) = +.
a0
a0
a0
x
a

. p < 1
p 1 .
, . .
f (x) g(x), x a B ,
0 f (x) g(x).
b

b
f (x) dx

g(x) dx

(.
), ,
B
g(x) dx

f (x) dx ,

f (x) dx

g(x) dx .

, , , f (x)
g(x) .
.
6.3.5.

dx
,

1
x x+ 4
x

, .
. [1, +)
1
1
0
,
1
x x
x x+ 4
x
156

dx

x x

(. 6.3.3, p = 23 > 1)
+

dx
.

1
x
x
+
1
x4
6.3.6.

2
0

dx

,
x x x4

, .
. (0, 12 ]
1
1
0,

4
x x
x xx

1

dx

x x

(. 6.3.4, p = 23 > 1)
1

2
0

dx

.
x x x4

:
6.3.7.

,
y = xex :
) 0 x 3 ,
) 0 x < + .
. ) y = xex (. . 6.6,) ( 6.1.2) 0 x a
a

xex dx .

157

. 6.6: , y = xex .

, ex = (ex ) . , 3 6.2.2 ,
a
xe

dx = x e


a
) a
( x )

e
dx =

0

a

= xex +
0


(
) a
ex dx = xex ex = 1 (a + 1)ea .
0

, a = 3
S =1

4
.
e3

) x
+
)
(

a
a+1
x
x
xe dx = lim
xe dx = lim
1 a
=1.
a+
a+
e
0

6.3.8.

M
) L, H M. ,
) , .

. ) , ,
Ox, M Oy B (.
158

.6.7.) dx, A, {x, 0}.


dx,


M dx
M dF =
,
(AB)2

( ) (AB)2 = x2 + H 2 . dF
.

. 6.7: M
?

Oy
Ox , dFy ,
Oy.
M L
L

M cos dx
, (6.2.3.1) 2M H
x2 + H 2

L
2

2
0



dFy = dF cos ,

dx

,
(x2 + H 2 ) x2 + H 2

.
cos = H
x2 + H 2

,
L

2
F = 2M H
0

(
= 2M

(x2

dx

H 2)

x2 + H 2

) L
2
= 2M L

.

2
2
H
H x +H
L2 + 4H 2
0
x

) ,

159

F = 2M H
0

dx

=
(x2 + H 2 ) x2 + H 2

2M
L
1
2M
2M
lim
lim
.
=
=
(
)
L+
L+
2
2
2
H
H
H
L + 4H
2H
1+
L

6.4

6.4.1

, ,
.
6.4.1.1.
{an }.
a1 + a2 + a3 + . . . + an + . . . =

ak

k=1

, a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . an , . . .
.

ak
6.4.1.2. n
k=1

Sn = a1 + a2 + a3 + . . . + an =

ak

k=1

.
6.4.1.1 :
- "" ?
- "", ?
.
[0, 1]
:

160

,
.

.
:
1
L1 = ;
2
1 1
3
L2 = + = ;
2 4
4
1 1 1
7
L3 = + + = ;
2 4 8
8
1 1 1
1
15
L4 = + + +
=
;
2 4 8 16
16

, ,
,
1
1 1 1
1
.
+ + +
+ =
2 4 8 16
2k
+

lim L(N ) =

N +

k=1

,
. , ,
. , ,
( )
.

1
1
N +1
2
2
L(N ) =
1
1
2

lim L(N ) = 1 .

N +

6.4.1.3. lim Sn = A,
n+

ak

k=1

, A .
.
.
(. .9 1.1) , n bn = b1 q n1 . |q| < 1
( , ,)

+

b1 q k1 = b1 + b1 q + b1 q 2 + b1 q 3 + b1 q 4 + . . . ,

k=1

161

A = 1 b1 q .
, , .
,
+

q k1 = 1 + q + q 2 + q 3 + q 4 + . . . =

k=1

1
1q

,
+

k q k = q + 2q 2 + 3q 3 + 4q 4 + . . . =

k=1

q
.
(1 q)2

(6.4.1.1)

:
1 .

k=1

2 .

k=1

3 .

k=1

4 .

1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + ... = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + ... ,
4 9 16
k2
22
32
42
1 = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + ... ,
2 3 4
k
kek = 1 + 22 + 33 + 44 + . . . ,
e
e
e
e
cos k = 1 + cos 1 + cos 2 + cos 3 + . . . ,

k=0

5 .

sin k = sin 1 + sin 2 + sin 3 + sin 4 + . . . .


2
3
4
k
k=1

, 1 , 3 5 ,
2 4 .

(),
.
+

1 .
ak , lim ak = 0.
k+

k=1

2 . 0 an bn n,

k=1
+

ak ,

bk

k=1

ak

k=1

bk .

k=1

3 . f (x) 0 x [1, +).


+

f (x) dx
f (k) .

k=1

162

4 . ( .) k : ak 0 ,
+

(1)k ak , k : ak ak+1 lim ak = 0.


k+

k=0

, , . (, .4 , A).
+

(1)k
k=0

k+1

=1

1 1 1 1 1
+ + + = A .
2 3 4 5 6

.

(
) (
)
(
)
1 1
1
1
1 1 1
1
1
+

+ +

+ .
2 4
3 6 8
2n 1 4n 2 4n
,
(
) (
)
(
)
1 1
1 1
1
1

+ +

+ =
2 4
6 8
4n 2 4n
1
=
2

)
+
1 1 1 1 1
1 (1)k
A
1 + + + =
=
.
2 3 4 5 6
2
k+1
2
k=0

,
.
, .
6.4.1.1.

sin k = 0 + sin 1 + sin 2 + sin 3 + . . . ,

k=0

1 , lim sin k = 0.
k+

6.4.1.2.

1
1
1
1
1
= 1
+ 2
+ 3
+ 4
+ ... ,
k
2
+
1
2
+
2
2
+
3
2
+4
2
+
k
k=1
, k
1
1
k .
2k + k
2
163

1
1
1
1
1
= 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ...
k
2
2
2
2
2
k=1

b = q = 12 ,
2 .
6.4.1.3. a

1
1
1
1
= 1 + a + a + a + . . . ,
2 2 3 3 4 4
k
k=1 k
a

k
k=1 k
a

1
dx =
a
x x

dx
.
a+ 1
x 2

6.3.3, ,
a + 12 > 1 ,
1
a> 1
2 , a 2 .
a > 21 a 12 .
6.4.1.4.

(1)k+1
1
1
1

= 1 + + ...
2
3
4
k
k=1

{ } (4 ), ak = 1

k
k + .

164

6.4.2

3.2.5 ,
{fn (x)} f1 (x), f2 (x), . . . fn (x), . . . , fn (x), x [a, b]. ,
F (x) {fn (x)},
lim fn (x) = F (x), x [a, b] .

n+

,
, .
6.4.2.1. {fn (x)}.
f1 (x) + f2 (x) + f3 (x) + . . . + fn (x) + . . . =

fk (x)

k=1

,
f1 (x), f2 (x), f3 (x), . . . fn (x), . . .
.
6.4.2.2. n

fk (x)

k=1

Sn (x) = f1 (x) + f2 (x) + f3 (x) + . . . + fn (x) =

fk (x)

k=1

.
6.4.3.3. lim Sn (x) = F (x), x [a, b],
n+


fk (x) k=1

, F (x) .
,
, x0 [a, b]
.
.

( , , ) ,
165

, ,
.
:
) ( ,
) ;
) ( , )
.

. 6.8: arctg x .
.
6.4.2.1. F (x) = arctg x x
(1, 1)
arctg x =

(1)k x2k+1
k=0

2k + 1

,
(
)
arctg x =

= x

x3
x5
x7
+

+ ... .
3
5
7

1
1 + x2

x (1, 1)
1 q = x2 .
(
arctg x

= 1 x2 + x4 x6 + x8 . . . =

k=0

166

(1)k x2k .

,
arctg x =

(1)k

x2k dx = C +

k=0

(1)k x2k+1
k=0

2k + 1

arctg 0 = 0, C = 0.

arctg x =

(1)k x2k+1

2k + 1

k=0

.6.8,
F (x) = arctg x x (. 6.4.1.2)
, n = 1
S1 (x) = x

x3
3

n = 5
x3
x5
x7
x9
x11
+

.
3
5
7
9
11
, , . , x

xk
x2
x3
F (x) = ex = 1 +
=1+x+
+
+ ... ,
(6.4.2.1)
k!
2!
3!
S5 (x) = x

k=1


F (x) = ln(1 + x) =

(1)k+1 xk
k=1

=x

x2
x3
+
+ ... ,
2
3

(6.4.2.2)

, |x| < 1 .

[
0 , < x < 0 ,
6.4.2.2. : F (x) =

1 ,
0<x<,

x (, 0) (0, ) ( )

F (x) =

2 sin(2k 1)x
1
+
=
2
2k 1
k=1

1 2
2
2
+ sin x +
sin 3x +
sin 5x + . . . .
2
3
5

167

. 6.9: .
.6.9, F (x) x
n = 2,
1
2
2
S2 (x) = + sin x +
sin 3x
2
3
n = 8,
S8 (x) =

2
2
2
2
1
+ sin x +
sin 3x +
sin 5x +
sin 7x+
2
3
5
7

2
2
2
2
sin 9x +
sin 11x +
sin 13x +
sin 15x .
9
11
13
15
, , , x = 0, 21 . , 6.4.2.2 (
6.4.2.1), :
(, 0) (0, ).
, : ,
, .
6.4.2.3.
+

(x) =

x
0

168

t2
2

dt ,

(6.4.2.3)

,
.
(
, ), (x)
, , , , (6.4.2.1).

(x) =

t2
2

dt =

1 +

0

k=1

( 2 )k
t

dt =
k!

x
)
(

2
(1)k
2
(1)k 2k
2k
2k+1

dt +
t dt = C+
x+
x
.

(2k + 1) k!
k! 2k
0

k=1

k=1

(0) = 0,
. ,
)
(
(
)

2
2
(1)k 2k
1 3
1 5
2k+1
(x) =
x+
x
=
x x + x ... .

(2k + 1) k!

6
40
k=1
(6.4.2.4)

169

7.1

7.1.1

, XVII , ( ) . ,
- , ,
.
. (,
) ( ) , (). .
,
() .
, . , - .
.
170

, ,

. , ,
-
:
- ;
- ;
- ;
- ,
, , ..
( ) : ,

- ;
- ,
.
, , , .
, (, .)
, ,
, , :
, . .
.
7.1.1.1. , A ( ) B,
A B.
A B A B. , , A
B. , , A B (A = B), A B
B A, ,
.
7.1.1.2. ( ) A B A + B ( A B), A
B.
. (
) A1 , A2 , . . . An n
n

Ak (
Ak ), k=1

k=1

171

A1 , A2 , . . . An .
7.1.1.3. ( ) A
B A B ( A B,) A, B.
( )
n

A1 , A2 , . . . An
Ak (
k=1

Ak ),
k=1
A1 , A2 , . . . An .

7.1.1.4. A A ,
{
AA=,
A+A=,
,
A A.
7.1.1.5. A B
A\B ( AB), A
B. ,
A\B = A B.
7.1.1.6. A B ,
.
, A B = . ,
A A.
A , B . . 7.1
.

. 7.1: .
:
-
A B , A B =
( A B = ).
- {Ak k = 1, 2, . . . n}
n

,
Ak = .
k=1

172

- A : (A) = A .
.
7.1.1.7. ,
. , ,
{A1 , A2 , . . . An } ,

Ai Aj = , i = j ,
n

Ak = .

k=1

7.1.1.1. , .
A1 , A2 , . . . AN
A1 + A2 + . . . + AN = A1 A2 . . . AN .
, B (A1 + A2 + . . . + AN ) , B (A1 + A2 + . . . + AN )
k = [1, N ] : B Ak

B A1 A2 . . . AN .

, B A1 A2 . . . AN , k = [1, N ] : B Ak
B (A1 + A2 + . . . + AN )

B (A1 + A2 + . . . + AN ) .

A1 + A2 + . . . + AN A1 A2 . . . AN .

7.1.2

: , , , ,
,

.

. .
, ,
-
.
173

. , , . ( )
(),
. A, .
7.1.2.1. A

m
P (A) =
n
m , A, n
.
7.1.2.1. () , : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 6.
,
. A,
.
,
A. ,
P (A) =

3
1
= .
6
2

, , .
X L(X) ( S(X)
, V (X) ) ,
, A
( ) Y , ( , Y X),
L(Y ) (, S(Y ) V (Y ).)
A
P (A) =

(Y )
L(Y )
=
,
(X)
L(X)

P (A) =

S(Y )
(Y )
=
,
(X)
S(X)

P (A) =

(Y )
V (Y )
=
.
(X)
V (X)
174

(7.1.2.1)


A. .
7.1.2.2. X : [2, 5] () . , x,
, 3?

. 7.2: x 3.
. , , x 3, ,
(. .7.2) Y : [3, 5], L(Y ) = 2.
, , , L(X) = 7. ,
(7.1.2.1),
L(Y )
2
P (A) =
= .
L(X)
7
7.1.2.3. 17 18 .
20 . ,

?
. : t1 ( ), , 17 , ; t2
, , . . 7.3
, , t1 , t2 , (t1 , t2 ).
A , ,
|t2 t1 |

1
.
3

X 1, Y . X
1.

175

. 7.3: .
- , S .
, (7.1.2.1),
P (A) =

7.1.3

S(Y )
1 2 S
1 2 2
5
=
=12 = .
S(X)
1
2 3 3
9

, . . , , :
...?
, .
7.1.3.1. , n .
,
k ,
n k ( : n k).
176

, 0 k n . n k Akn . , k = 0
,
[
1,
k = 0,
Akn =
n(n 1)(n 2) . . . (n k + 1), k > 0.
, 1 n

1 2 3 . . . n = n!

Akn =

n!
.
(n k)!

, A00 = 1, 0! = 1
0 k n .
7.1.3.1. ?
. , ,
20 3,
A320 =

20!
20 19 18 17 16 3 2 1
=
= 20 19 18 = 6840.
17!
17 16 3 2 1

7.1.3.2. n n n .
n Pn = n! .
7.1.3.2. 10 10
?
.
10 ,
P10 = 10! = 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 = 3 628 800 .
7.1.3.1,
, .
7.1.3.3.
, k n
n k
( : n k).
Cnk n k
Cnk =

n!
.
(n k)! k!

, Cnk = Cnnk .
177

7.1.3.3.
?
. ( 7.1.3.1),
,
20 3 ,
20!
20 19 18
=
= 1 140 .
17! 3!
123
, , - . ,
:
- Akn n k ;
- Pn n ;
- Cnk n k ;
n k Akn = nk , , k
, n k .
n k , i
ni ,
ni ! i = 1, 2, . . . k ,
.
3
C20
=

Pn =

n!
.
n1 ! n2 ! . . . nk !

, n k
k
. , ,
Cnk = Cn+k1
n k ,
n , k 1 , ( ) n + k 1
k.
7.1.3.4. 1000 .
?
.
, A710 = 107 .
7.1.3.5. , 0 1 ?
. 0 1 ,

P6 =

720
6!
=
= 20 .
3! 3!
66

7.1.3.6. . 178

,
, ?
.
12!
12 11 10
3
3
3
C10
= C10+31
= C12
=
=
= 220 .
9! 3!
6

7.1.4

7.1.2.1 .
1 . A 0 P (A) 1 .
2 . P () = 0 .
3 . P () = 1 .
, ,
.
7.1.4.1. .

: P (A + B) = P (A) + P (B) .
, A B , n A mA , B mB .
, A + B mA + mB n. ,
7.1.2.1,
P (A + B) =

mA + mB
mA
mB
=
+
= P (A) + P (B) .
n
n
n


, . ,
.
7.1.4.1. A, ,
B, A PB (A) .
,
PB (A) =

P (A B)
.
P (B)

n , m B, k

179

A, k A B .
7.1.2.1
P (B) =

m
,
n

PB (A) =

k
m

P (A B) =

k
.
n

(7.1.4.1)

(7.1.4.1),
P (B) PB (A) =

k
= P (A B)
n

, , ,
7.1.4.2. .

,
, :
P (A B) = PB (A) P (B), P (B) > 0
P (A B) = PA (B) P (A), P (A) > 0 .
, ,
A B. P (AB) = P (A)P (B)

7.1.4.2. A B ,
P (A B) = P (A) P (B) .
, 7.1.4.1,
, . , , .

7.1.4.3. .
:
P (A + B) = P (A) + P (B) P (A B) .
.
7.1.1.2 7.1.1.3 A
, : A B A B .
7.1.4.1 P (A) =
P (A B) + P (A B) . , P (A B) = P (A) P (A B) .
, B , : A B A B .
7.1.4.1, P (B) = P (A B) + P (A B) ,
P (A B) = P (B) P (A B) .
, A+B , : A B, A B A B .
P (A + B) = P (A B) + P (A B) + P (A B) .
180

P (AB) = P (A)P (AB)


P (A B) = P (B) P (A B) ,
P (A + B) = P (A) + P (B) P (A B) .
, (, N )

(
)
P (A1 + A2 + A3 + . . . + AN ) = 1 P A1 A2 A3 . . . AN
, ,
(
P

)
Ak

(
=1P

k=1

)
Ak

k=1

(. 7.1.1.1).
7.1.4.1 7.1.4.3
.
7.1.4.1. N
, A, ,
, ,
2
3 ?
. Ak , k
. A = A1 + A2 + A3 + . . . + AN .
B = A1 A2 A3 . . . AN , , N
.
, ,
(
)
P (B) = P ( A1) A2 ( A3) . . . ( AN) =
(
)
= P A1 P A2 P A3 . . . P AN = (1 p)N ,
p = 16 . P (A) + P (B) = 1, N,
P (B) < 13 . ,
( )N
1
5
1
N
(1 p) <

< .
3
6
3
(. .6 1.1)
1
ln
1
3 = ln 1 ln 3 (1.097) 6.036 .
N > log 65 =
5
3
ln 5 ln 6
(0.182)
ln
6
, , N , ,
, ,
23 N 7 .
181

. 7.4: 7.1.4.2.
7.1.4.2.
L1 , L2 L3 , . 7.4. ()
31 , 14 25 .
,
?
. Ak , k
. Ak ,
k . Ak Ak
. ,
, , , ,
, . , , L1 , L2 , , .
k = 1, 2, 3
Ak , Ak . 7.1.4.1 ,
.
, , ,
4, 6 8. 7.1.4.1,
P ( ) =

1
1
1
1
+
+
= .
15 10 30
5

, ,
. ,
P ( ) = 1

182

1
4
= .
5
5

( 7.1.4.1)

7.1.5

A1 A2 A3

233= 3
3 4 5
10

A1 A2 A3

232= 2
3 4 5
10

A1 A2 A3

213= 1
3 4 5
10

A1 A2 A3

212= 1
3 4 5
15

A1 A2 A3

133= 3
3 4 5
20

A1 A2 A3

132= 1
3 4 5
10

A1 A2 A3

113= 1
3 4 5
20

A1 A2 A3

112= 1
3 4 5
30

B1 , B2 , . . . BN ,
, .
A ( !) . , ,
,
A = A B1 + A B2 + . . . + A BN =

A Bk .

k=1

, (. 7.1.4.1)
P (A) = P (A B1 ) + P (A B2 ) + . . . + P (A BN ) =

P (A Bk ) .

k=1

7.1.4.2, ,
PBk (A)

183

A, , Bk .
P (A) = PB1 (A) P (B1 ) + PB2 (A) P (B2 ) + . . . + PBN (A) P (BN ) =
N

=
PBk (A) P (Bk ) ,
k=1

7.1.4.2
.
Bk , A . , PA (Bk ).
7.1.4.2 ,
P (A Bk ) = PBk (A) P (Bk ) = PA (Bk ) P (A) .
P (A) > 0 k = [1, N ]
PA (Bk ) =

PBk (A) P (Bk )


,
P (A)


PA (Bk ) =

PBk (A) P (Bk )


PB1 (A) P (B1 ) + PB2 (A) P (B2 ) + . . . + PBN (A) P (BN )

PA (Bk ) =

PBk (A)
N

P (Bk )

PBi (A) P (Bi )

i=1

.
, PBk (A) PA (Bk ) . , () , ().
.
7.1.5.1. 1)
. 12 ,
13 16 . 14 , 41
1 . 2)
2
,
?
184

. B1 , B2 , B3 , . A
.
:
P (B1 ) =

1
1
1
1
1
1
, P (B2 ) = , P (B3 ) = , PB1 (A) = , PB2 (A) = , PB3 (A) = .
2
3
6
4
4
2

1 1 1 1 1 1
7
+ + =
.
4 2 4 3 2 6
24
.
7 ,
P (A) = 24
P (A) =

PB3 (A) P (B3 ) =

1 1
1
=
,
2 6
12

( , !)

1
2
12
PA (B3 ) =
= .
7
7
24

7.2
7.2.1

- , . .
n ,
A p, q = 1 p.
.
(. 7.1.2.1 7.1.4.1), A ,
, .
Pn (m) , A
m . , A
185

m n m .
, (
, 7.1.4.2) pm q nm .
, , ,
n m A , m.
,
, A m
n m .
, ,
n!
,
(. 7.1.3) Cnm =
(n m)! m!
, , 7.1.4.1,
Pn (m) = Cnm pm q nm =

n!
pm q nm .
(n m)! m!

(7.2.1.1)

. m , 0 m n .
(7.2.1.1)
.
1 . , A
m ,
Rn (m) =

Pn (k) =

k=0

k=0

n!
pk q nk .
(n k)! k!

(7.2.1.2)

k . , m = n,
(. , .8 1.1)
Rn (n) =

k=0

Pn (k) =

k=0

n!
pk q nk = (p + q)n = 1 ,
(n k)! k!

.
2 . , m A , n ,
(n + 1)p 1 m < (n + 1)p .
3 . N , ,
, A r,
,
N

ln(1 r)
.
ln(1 p)

7.1.4.1.
.
186

7.2.1.1.
, : 1)
; 2)
, ,
, ?
. 1) , p = q = 12 . , (7.2.1.1)
( )3 ( )1
4!
1
4321 1
1
1
1
P4 (3) = C43

=
4 =

= ,
2
2
1! 3! 2
1 3 2 1 16
4

( )5 ( )3
1
7
1

=
.
P8 (5) = C85
2
2
32
, ,
.
2) ,
(7.2.1.2)
1
1
5
+
=
,
4 16
16

7
7
1
1
93
R8 (5) = P8 (5) + P8 (6) + P8 (7) + P8 (8) =
+
+
+
=
.
32 64 32 256
256
,
.
R4 (3) = P4 (3) + P4 (4) =

7.2.2

7.2.1.1
, n .
n
Pn (m).

7.2.2.1. .
p A,
, n ,
Pn (m)

m e
,
m!

= np .
187

.
. p = n
p ,
( )m (
)nm

Pn (m) = Cnm n
1 n
=
)n (
)m
m n(n 1)(n 2) . . . (n m + 1) (

=
= m
1 n
1 n
m!
n
(
)n (
)m
m
1 n 2 ... n m + 1 1

= n
1 n
=
n
n
n
m! ( n
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
)m
n(
m
1 1 2 ... 1 m 1 1

1 n
.
= 1 n
n
n
n
m!
, m
(
)
k
lim 1
= 1 , k : 0 k m 1
n
n

(
)m

lim 1
=1,
n
n
, , n . , (. 3.2.4, , )
(
)n

lim 1
= e
n
n
Pn (m)
Pn (m)

m e
,
m!

.
7.2.2.1. 100 000 . ,
, 0,0001. ,
1) , 2) 3) ?
.
( ) , A ,
, () , .
= np = 100000 0, 0001 = 10 .
e , , (. .6 1.1). ,
, lg e 0, 434,
(
)
e = 10lg e
= 10lg e , e = 10lg e .
188


e10 = 1010lg e = 104,34 4, 5 105 = 0, 000045 .
, ,
3
P100000
=

103 e10
1000 0, 000045
=
= 0, 0076 .
3!
6

7
16
, P100000
= 0, 0900 P100000
= 0, 0220 .

7.2.2.1, , . ,
m Pnm .
m : ,
m

F () = e
. m!
, F () (.
5.4 .)
(
)
(
)
m

= 1 mm1 e + 1 m e =
F () = e
m!
m!
m!

m1

e
=
(m ) = 0 .
m!
, = m , 100000 ( 7.2.2.1),
. ,

.

7.2.3


, , .
,
.
,
A B. ,
,
{
A + B = ,
A B = .
, , k + 1- k-. ,
189

: (. 7.1.5)
PAk (Ak+1 ) = p11 ,

PBk (Ak+1 ) = p12 ,

PAk (Bk+1 ) = p21 ,

PBk (Bk+1 ) = p22 ,

Ak Bk , k-
A B.
, p11 , p21 , p12 , p22
k. , Ak Bk ,

{ 1
p1 + p21 = 1,
p12 + p22 = 1.
.
,

1
p1 p21

S =
p12 p22 ,
, p11 , p21 , p12 , p22 . 1
, A B . , P (Ak+1 ) P (Bk+1 ) P (Ak )
P (Bk ).
(. 7.1.5), k

P (Ak+1 ) = PAk (Ak+1 ) P (Ak ) + PBk (Ak+1 ) P (Bk ) ,

P (Bk+1 ) = PAk (Bk+1 ) P (Ak ) + PBk (Bk+1 ) P (Bk )

P (Ak+1 ) = p11 P (Ak ) + p12 P (Bk ) ,

P (Bk+1 ) = p21 P (Ak ) + p22 P (Bk ) .

, .

P (Ak+1 )



P (Bk+1 )

1
p1

=
1
p2

T

p12
P (Ak )


p22 P (Bk )

1 , , , p2 2
1
, ,
.

190

, 2

P (Ak+1 )



P (Bk+1 )




P (Ak )


= ST



P (Bk )

, , S
, , ,
. ,





P (A2 )
P (A3 )
P (A4 )






=
= ST ST
= ST







P (B2 )
P (B3 )
P (B4 )

P (A1 )


T
T
T
.
= S S S


P (B1 )
,

P (A4 )



P (B4 )



(
)3

P (A1 )
= ST



P (B1 )

, Sk
k- ,
(
)k1
T
T
T
T
T
Sk = S S . . . S = S
.
|
{z
}
k1

, , (. 2.3).
, , ,
,
:
P ( )
P ( )
P ( )
P ( )
P ( )
P ( )
P ( )
P ( )
P ( )

= p11
= p21
= p31
= p12
= p22
= p32
= p13
= p23
= p33

= 0.3 ,
= 0.5 ,
= 0.4 ,
= 0.4 ,
= 0.1 ,
= 0.2 ,
= 0.3 ,
= 0.4 ,
= 0.4 ,

2 ,
.

191

, 1,
2, 3.




0.3 0.5 0.4 p11 p21 p31 T

1

2
3

A =
0.4 0.1 0.2 = p21 p22 p23
0.3 0.4 0.4 p3 p3 p3
(2.3.2)
S .
, (
, )
. k k + 1







x1,k+1
x1,k p11 p21 p31 T x1,k






1
T
x2,k+1 = S x2,k = p2 p22 p32 x2,k =






1
x3,k+1
x3,k p3 p23 p33 x3,k



0.3 0.5 0.4 x1,k





=
(7.2.3.1)
0.4 0.1 0.2 x2,k ,
0.3 0.4 0.4 x3,k
xj,k , j k- .
. 3.2.5.3 (. 3.2.5) ,
,
, . , , -
(7.2.3.1), .
,



x1
x1,k



x2 = lim x2,k .
k

x3
x3,k
3.2.5.3 ,



x1 92


x2 = 60


x3 86
, , (. 2.4) T
S , = 1 .
192

, ,
. .
7.2.3.1. A B , :
; .

3
2
A p+
A = 5 pA = 5 ,

4
3
B p+
B = 7 pB = 7 . ,
A?
.


3 2
5 5


S =
.
3 4


7 7
P (Ak ) , k- A, P (Bk )
, k- B.
(. 7.1.5)
P (Ak+1 ) = 35 P (Ak ) + 37 P (Bk ) ,

(7.2.3.2)

P (Bk+1 ) = 25 P (Ak ) + 47 P (Bk ) .


(7.2.3.2)

3 3

P (Ak+1 )
P (Ak )

5 7




=




P (Bk+1 )
2
4
P (Bk )

5 7

P (A1 ) = 1 P (B1 ) = 0 , P (A2 ) = 53 P (B2 ) = 25 .


(7.2.3.2)
9 + 6 = 93 ,
P (A3 ) = 35 P (A2 ) + 73 P (B2 ) = 25
35
175
6 + 8 = 82 .
P (B3 ) = 52 P (A2 ) + 47 P (B2 ) = 25
35
175
, A B
2
93
82
3
5 5 , 175 175 .
7.2.3.1 ,
A
193

B ( ). ,



P (Ak ) P (A)
=

lim
P (B) .
k P (Bk )
, k (7.2.3.2),

3
3

P (A) = 5 P (A) + 7 P (B) ,


(7.2.3.3)

P (B) = 2 P (A) + 4 P (B) .


5
7


3
5


2

5


3
7
P (A)



P
(B)
4

7


P (A)
=
P (B)

(2.4.1) 2.4,

P (A)

,
P (B)


3 3
5 7


,

2 4


5 7
= 1 .
, (7.2.3.3)
2
3
P (A) = P (B),
5
7
P (A) P (B) ,
(. 7.1.1.6), P (A) + P (B) = 1 ,

15
14
P (A) =
P (B) =
.
29
29
, , A , B. , A , B. ,
p+
A =

21
20
4
3
=
>
= = p+
B .
5
35
35
7

194

8.1
8.1.1

( )
, , ,
,
, .
8.1.1.1 ,
. .
, , , : 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. : , ,

.. ,
, .
,
,
. : ,
.
195

8.1.2

N xk ,
k = [1, N ], ( = xk ),
P ( = xk ) = pk .
, ,

x1

x2

...

xN

( = xk )

p1

p2

...

pN

( )
( =
xk ). , ( , )
.
8.1.2.1. ( ), , , ,
.
,
.
( ) :
;
;
.
.
8.1.2.1.
,
,

1
6

1
6

1
6

1
6

1
6

1
6

196

8.1.2.2. ,
, 23 .
. , ,
: 0, 1, 2 3. , .
(7.2.1.1)
P ( = 0 : ) = C30

( )0 ( )3
1
2
1
1 1 1
.
= 1 =
3
3
3 3 3
27

P ( = 1 : ) =

C31

( )1 ( )2
2 1
2
2
1
= 3
= .
3
3
3 9
9

( )2 ( )1
2
1
32 4 1
4
=
= .
3
3
2 9 3
9
( )3 ( )0
1
321 8
8
2
=

=
.
P ( = 3 : ) = C33
3
3
1 2 3 27
27

P ( = 2 : ) = C32

, ,

1
27

2
9

4
9

8
27

N. N
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
.
8.1.2.3. ,
,
P ( = k) =
197

1
,
6

k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 .


.
8.1.2.4. n
( , p)
Pn ( = k) = Cnk pk (1 p)nk =

n!
pk (1 p)nk
k! (n k)!

, n + 1 ,
.
8.1.2.5. .
p , , , k 1 , k-
,
P ( = k) = pk1 (1 p) , k = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , k, . . . .
8.1.2.6. , k = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , k, . . . , ,
P ( = k) =

k
e ,
k!

>0,

,
.
. xk , , , xk xk+1 , k ,
( = xk ) pk . ,
k 7.1.4.1 (. 7.1.4),
P ( < xn ) = p1 + p2 + . . . + pn2 + pn1 =

n1

pk ,

k=1

, P ( < x1 ) = 0.
8.1.2.2. ( , ) F (x),
x (, +) P ( < x).
198

. 8.1: ( 8.1.2.2.)
,
F (x) = P ( < x).
8.1.2.2
:
1 . F (x) ;
2 . [0, 1] , 0 F (x) 1 .
3 . F (x) x;
4 . lim F (x) = 0 lim F (x) = 1 ;
x

x+

5 . F (x) x;
6 . P ( xn ) = F (xn ) + pn . ,
, F (xn+1 ) F (xn ) = pn .
(. .8.1)
8.1.2.2.
,

199

. :

,
.

.,
.

8.1.3


.
,
.
, . .
.
.
A B , .
30 , ,
A B 2:2.
, A B,
200

, 60 .
?
, ( ) , 40 A
20 B, .
A, ( ) B,
.
, 12 2:2,
30 , 3:1 A, 60 . ,

30 60

1
2

1
2

30

1
2

1
2

, , M M A
B,
M =

30 + 60
1
1
= 30 + 60 = 45
2
2
2

M =

0 + 30
1
1
= 0 + 30 = 15 ,
2
2
2

.
. xk , k = [1, N ]
. m , , - ,
nk xk . , m

1
n1 x1 + n2 x2 + . . . + nN xN
=
nk xk .
m
m
N

M =

k=1

201

, ,
M =

n1
n2
nN
n1 x1 + n2 x2 + . . . + nN xN
=
x1 +
x2 + . . . +
xN
m
m
m
m

M = p1 x1 + p2 x2 + . . . + pN xN =

pk xk ,

k=1

, m = n1 + n2 + . . . + nN =

pk xk , 7.1.2.1,

k=1

pk =

nk
nk
.
= N
m

nk
k=1


, M ,
8.1.3.1.

x1

x2

...

xN

( = xk )

p1

p2

...

pN


M =

xk pk = x1 p1 + x2 p2 + . . . + xN pN .

k=1

8.1.3.1. ,
.
. 8.1.3.1 8.1.2.1,

M = 1

1
1
1
1
1
1
7
1
+2 +3 +4 +5 +6 = =3 .
6
6
6
6
6
6
2
2

8.1.3.2. ,
,
23 .
202

. 8.1.3.1 8.1.2.2,

1
2
4
8
54
M = 0
+1 +2 +3
=
=2.
27
9
9
27
27
,
, , , .
,
,
.
8.1.3.3. ,

,
58 .
. , 8.1.3.1 . ,
, pk
, , k 1
, k- . ,
, 7.1.4.2
( )k1
( )k
5
3
3 5
pk =
=
.
8
8
5 8
,
( )k

3 5
M =
k
.
5 8
k=1

, , (6.4.1.1),

3
M =
k
5
k=1

5
( )k
5
8
3
2
= ( 8 )2 = = 2 .
8
5
3
3
5
1
8

.
1 .
. , c, M = c.

2 . . M (c ) = c M .
3 . .
203

4 . .

. xk , k =
[1, s] pk , ym , m =
[1, t] pm . +
7.1.4.2 xk + ym pkm = pk pm/k ,
pm/k = P(=xk ) ( = ym ).
M ( + ) =
s

xk pkm

m=1

xk

xk

xk pk

pkm

k=1
t

ym pkm

ym

=
)

pkm

m=1

(
ym

)
pk pm/k

m=1

ym pk

k=1
s

m=1

k=1

xk pk +

k=1

pm/k

k=1

pk pm/k
t

m=1

k=1

+
)

m=1

k=1
s

m=1

k=1
s

(xk + ym ) pkm =

k=1 m=1

k=1

s
t

=
)

pm/k

m=1

ym pk = M + M ,

k=1

pm/k = 1

m=1

pm/k = 1

m=1

( = xk ), k = [1, s] ( = ym ), m = [1, t] .
.
,

. ,
.
.
8.1.3.3. , , 1 . , , .
, N ?
204

. , O
, Ox . k , ,
k , xk .
M k ,
. k = (k M k )2 , dk k- .
, x1 = 1, d1 =x21 = 1. ,
k dk = |xk | .
k+1 ( k + 1)
(1)

(2)

dk+1 = (xk + 1) = x2k + 2 xk + 1 = dk + 2 xk + 1

dk+1 = (xk 1) = x2k 2 xk + 1 = dk 2 xk + 1 .

1 (1)
1 (2)
dk+1 + dk+1 = dk + 1 .
2
2
k, d1 = 1 ,
M k = k, k .
N
M N = N .
M k+1 =



M .
8.1.3.2. M ( M )2 D . =

D .

,
, .
: ?
8.1.3.1. .
:
D = M ( 2 ) (M )2 .
. 8.1.3.2 ,
D = M (M )2 = M ( 2 2(M )+(M )2 ) = M ( 2 )2M (M )+(M )2 =
= M ( 2 ) (M )2 .
205

x1

x2

...

xN

( = xk )

p1

p2

...

pN

( 2
)
D =
xk pk

)2
xk pk

k=1

k=1

= x21 p1 + x22 p2 + . . . + x2N pN (M )2 .


8.1.3.4.
,
.
. , 8.1.2.1 M =
7
2 (. 8.1.3.1),
(
D =

) ( )2
1
7
35
11
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6

=
=2
.
6
6
6
6
6
6
2
12
12
2

35
1.71 .
= D =
12
, ,
.
1 . : D 0.
2 . . ,
c, D = 0.

3 . ,
: D(c ) = c2 D.
4 . .
4 . ,
,
2

D( + ) = M ( + M ( + )) =
206

= M ( + M M ) = M ( M + M ) =
)
(
= M ( M )2 + 2 ( M ) ( M ) + ( M )2 =
(
)
(
)
= M ( M )2 +2M ( M )M ( M )+M ( M )2 = D()+D() ,
M ( M ) = M M = 0 M ( M ) = M M = 0 .
,
.
8.1.3.5.
,
n .
. , n
, A
( ) p
q = 1 p .
.
M = M (1 + 2 + 3 + . . . + n ) ,
k , k- . , k 1 p
0 q . M k = p 1 + q 0 = p , k = [1, n] . ,
, M = np .
D = M (2 )(M )2 .
k
12 = 1 p, 02 = 0 q, M (2k ) =
p 1 + q 0 = p , k = [1, n] . , Dk = M (2k ) (M k )2 ,
Dk = p p2 = pq, k = [1, n] .
, 4 , , D = npq .

= npq .
, ,
23 . 8.1.2.2,
8.1.3.2. p = 32 , q = 13 , n = 3 .

2 1
2
2
2
=
0.816 .
M = 3 = 2 ; D = 3 =
3
3 3
3
3
8.1.3.6. , ,
:
k
e , >0.
P ( = k) =
k!
207

. M . ,
(6.4.2.1) x = n = k 1,

M =

k=0

+ n

k
e =e
= e e = .
k!
n!
n=0

8.1.3.1, , D = M ( 2 ) (M )2 . (6.4.2.1)
n = k 1 m = n 1 , ,
M ( 2 ) =

k=0

k2

+ n
+ m

e = e
+ e 2
=
k!
n!
m!
n=0
m=0

= e e + e 2 e = + 2 .
,
D = M ( 2 ) (M )2 = ( + 2 ) 2 = ,

= .

8.2

8.2.1

, , . , ,
, , ..
,

. ,
, .

208

, . , , , . , , , , 7.1.2.1
, , , . ,
,
.
, F (x), , , ,
< x. ,
F (x) = P ( < x) ,
(8.2.1.1)
8.1.1.1
8.2.1.1. ,
x,
, ,
.
(8.2.1.1) , .
1 . F (x) 0 F (x) 1 x (, +).
2 . F (x) x (, +).
3 . lim F (x) = 0 lim F (x) = 1 .
x

x+

4 . [a, b)
P (a < b) = F (b) F (a) .

(8.2.1.2)

8.2)
.
,
, ,
x (, +), ,
, .

, .
, , [x, x + x) .
(8.2.1.2), F (x) ,
P (x < x + x) = F (x + x) F (x) dF = F (x) x .
209

. 8.2:


p(x) = F (x)

1
P (x < x + x)
x

(8.2.1.3.)

( ,
)
x.
, , .

.

.
1 . p(x) 0 x (, +).
+

2 .
p(x) dx = 1 , ,

. , , , y = p(x) Ox
.

3 . (8.2.1.3) -

210


x
F (x) =

x (, +).

p(t) dt ,

4 . (a, b) (
a b)
b
P (a < b) =

p(x) dx .

(8.2.1.4)

8.2) , , .8.2).

.
8.2.1.2. [a, b], p(x)
,

0,
x a ,
1
p(x) = b a , a < x b ,
0,
x > b .
,

0,
x a ,
a , a < x b ,
F (x) = x
ba
1,
x > b .
F (x) p(x) 8.2. ,
c = 1 (. 2 )
ba
( ),
y = p(x) Ox.
8.2.1.3. ( ) , p(x)

p(x) =
211

(x)2
1

e 22 .
2

(8.2.1.5)

(8.2.1.5) 2 .
x
(t)2
1

F (x) =
e 22 dt .
2

F (x)
,
(6.4.2.4). , = 0,
= 1,
.
F (x) p(x)
8.2. . 8.3. ,
, ,
(
)
1 1
x
F (x) = +
,
2 2

x
t2
2
(x) =
e 2 dt

, .

. 8.3: .
8.2.1.1. , = 0 = 1 , 2
(1, 3).
212

. (8.2.1.4) (8.2.1.5) ( )
3
P (1 < 3) =
1

(xa)2
1
1

e 22 dx =

ex dx 0.0786 .
2

8.2.1.2.

p(x) =

c
.
4 + x2

c ( < < 0).


. , 6.2.2.3.

dx
1
x
= arctg + C .
2
2
x2 + 4
c 2 (. 8.2.1). ,
+

c dx
=1.
x2 + 4

+
c dx
c
x
c ( ( )) c
=
arctg

=
=1,
=
2

2
2
2 2
2
2
x +4

c=

2
.

, 4
( 8.2.1.4)
0
P ( < < 0) =

2
p(x) dx =

dx
=
x2 + 4

0
( )) 1
x
1
1(
0
= .
= arctg
=

2
2

213

8.2.2


p(x). , xk
x, (8.2.1.2), pk p(xk )x,
M =

k=1

pk xk

(p(xk )x) xk =

k=1

xk p(xk )x .

k=1

, ,
(6.1.1.1)
8.2.2.1.
p(x)
( )

M =

xp(x) dx


8.2.2.2. p(x) ( )
+

2
D =
(x M ) p(x) dx

, 8.2.2.1
8.2.2.2 ,
.

. , ,
,
p(x) =

1
1

,
1 + x2

M :

1
x
1
xp(x) dx =
ln(1 + x2 ) + C .
dx =
2

2
1+x
214

lim ln(1 + x2 ) , , , M .
x

8.2.2.1 8.2.2.2
.
8.2.2.1. , ,
,
, 5 .
.
t0 = 0 t1 = 5, t [0, 5] . ,
[0, 5]
8.2.1.2

0,
t < 0 ,
0, t < 0 ,
F (t) = 5t , 0 x < 5 ,
p(t) = 15 , 0 x < 5 ,
1, x 5 ,
0,
t 5 .

(
+

5 ( )
5
1
1
1
t2
M =
tp(t) dt = t
dt =
t dt =
5
5
5
2

5 )

5

= ,

2
0


+
)2 ( )
)2

5 (
5 (
5
1
1
5
2
D =
(t M ) p(t) dt =
t

dt =
dt =
t
2
5
5
2

( (
(( )
)3 5 )
(
)3 )
3

1 125
1
1
5
5
5
25
1

=
=
t

=
2 .
=

5
3
2
15
2
2
15 4
12
0
,

25
5
= D =
= 1.44 .
12
2 3
,
2.5 1.44 .
8.2.2.2.
,
a = 0 = 1 .
2
2
. p(x) = 1 ex .

+
+

2
1
M =
xp(x) dx =
x ex dx =

215

1
=
2

+
(
)

( 2)
2
1
x2
e
d x =
ex
2

+


=0.

, ,
(8.2.1.5) a (.
. 8.3),
M = a ,

D = 2 ,

= ,

, , ( ), ,
.

8.2.3

, . .
.

. 8.4: .

216

M k

k

+
k
x p(x) dx , ,

, (
+
k
)
xk pk .
k=1

k k

+

k
(x M ) p(x) dx ,

, ,
( )
+

(xk M ) pk .

k=1

A k

,
()
M ,

3
M ( M )3
A k =
=
.
(D)3
(D)3

E k


, ,

E k =

M ( M )4
4

3
=
3.
(D)2
(D)2

217

M o

M e



D
V = M 100% ,
, .
,
p(x) . , .

M e
P ( < M e) =

1
= P ( > M e) ,
2

, M e
.

q Q
F (Q) = q .
q = 12 , 0.5-
.

8.4
. , 8.4 ,
, . ,
, , , . ,
( , (8.2.1.5))
.
8.2.3.1.

218

. 8.5:

,
[
0,
x < 0 ,
F (x) =
1 ex , x 0 .
.
( F (x) p(x) . 8.5)
[
0,
x < 0 ,
p(x) =
ex , x 0 .

+
+
+
+


x
x
M =
xp(x) dx =
xe dx = xe
+
ex dx =

+
+


x
x
= xe
e
=1.
0

, (
),
+

D = M ( 2 ) (M )2 =
x2 ex dx 1 = 2 1 = 1 .
0

, D = 1 =
, D = 1 ,
+

(x 1)3 ex dx = 2

(x 1)4 ex dx = 9 ,
0

219

D = 1 .

A = 2 E = 6 .
, , , q
V = 1 , M o = 0 , M e = ln 2 Q = ln

8.3

8.3.1

1
.
1q

, , y = f (x). = f ()
, . .
8.3.1.1. , x1 = 1, x2 = 0, x3 = 1, x4 = 2,
1

2
,

( = xk )

1
3

1
6

1
4

1
4

y = x2 + 3. = 2 + 3
y1 = 3, y2 = 4, y3 = 7
P ( = 3)

1,
6

P ( = 4)

1+1= 7 ,
3 4
12

P ( = 7)

1.
4

220

7
,

( = yk )

1
6

7
12

1
4

,
.
, F (x), = f (), y = f (x) .

G(y) = P ( < y ) = P ( f () < y ) = P ( < g(y) ) = F (g(y)) ,
x = g(y) , 1 y = f (x).
, p(x)
+

M =
f (x)p(x) dx .

8.3.2

, ,
. , ,
(, , ) . ( ).
,
, ,
.
1 , g(x) f (x),
g(f (x)) = f (g(x)) = x, g(x) = 1
!
f (x)

221

, ,
, , , ,
, .
,
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , y1 , y2 , . . . , ym ,
pji = P (( = xi ) ( = yj )) , , , , xi , yj .
{, } ,
8.3.2.1. 2
. , ( = xi ), , xi ,

( = xi ) ( = y1 ) + ( = xi ) ( = y2 ) + . . . + ( = xi ) ( = ym ) .
, 7.1.4.1,
P ( = xi ) =

P (( = xi ) ( = yj )) =

j=1

pji ,

j=1

8.3.2.2. 8.3.2.3.
,
( = xi ) ( = yj ), i = [1, n], j = [1, m]
,
n
m

pji = 1 ,

i=1 j=1

pi = 1 ,

i=1

qj = 1 ,

j=1

,
pi =

pji ,

qj =

j=1

pji .

i=1

2 ,
.

222

x1

x2

...

xi

...

xn

y1

p11

p12

...

p1i

...

p1n

y2

p21

p22

...

p2i

...

p2n

yj

pj1

pj2

...

pji

...

pjn

ym

pm1

pm2

...

pmi

. . . pmn

8.3.2.1. () .

x1

p1 =

x2

pj1

p2 =

j=1

...

pj2

...

xn

pn =

j=1

pjn

j=1

8.3.2.2. .

y1

q1 =

y2

p1i

q2 =

i=1

...

p2i

...

i=1

8.3.2.3. .
223

ym

qm =

i=1

pmi

, = yj . , . (. 7.1.4.2), ,
P=yj ( = xi ) =

P ( ( = xi ) ( = yj ) )
pji
=
,
P ( = yj )
qj

i = [1, n] .

(8.3.2.1)

.
.
(
, ) ,

8.3.2.1.
F (x, y) = P ( ( < x) ( < y) ) .
F (x, y), .
1 . : F (x, y) {x, y}.
2 . : 0 F (x, y) 1 .
3 . F (x, y) .
4 . F (, ) = F (, +) = F (+, ) = 0, F (+, +) = 1 .
5 .
F (x, +) F (+, y) .

y

F (x, y) =
p(t1 , t2 ) dt1 dt2 .

p(x, y) .

(
)
d dF (x, y)
.
p(x, y) =
dx
dy
, y , x = const,
224

, x
y = const.
, .
1 . p(x, y) 0 {x, y}.
2 . :
+

p(x, y) dy dx = 1 .
(8.3.2.2)

3 .
+

p(x) =
p(x, y) dy

q(y) =
p(x, y) dx .

, ,
. (. 3.1) . ,

( ) ,
.
8.3.2.2. , {, }, , ,
, .
,
p=y (x). (8.3.2.1)
p=y (x) =

p(x, y)
p(x, y)
= +
,

q(y)
p(x, y) dx

q=x (y) =

p(x, y)
p(x, y)
= +
.

p(x)
p(x, y) dy

(8.3.2.3)
, ,
.

p=y (x) = p(x) ,

q=x (y) = q(y) ,


225

(8.3.2.2),
8.3.2.2.
, p(x, y) = p(x) q(y) .
,
. , ,
.
, ,
8.3.1, . .
8.3.2.1. ,
{, }, : x1 =
1, x2 = 0, x3 = 1, x4 = 2, : y1 =
0, y2 = 1, y3 = 2,
1 ,
P ( ( = xi ) ( = yj ) ) = 12
= 2 .

.
:

x1

x2

x3

x4

y1

y2

y3

z1 = 0, z2 = 1, z3 = 2, z4 = 4, z5 = 8 ,
,
,

( = zk )

1
2

1
6

1
6

1
12

1
12

226

8.3.3

, . , . , .

( , ), .
8.3.3.1. ,
M =

n
m

pji xi ,

M =

i=1 j=1

n
m

pji yj ,

i=1 j=1

M =
xp(x, y) dx dy ,

M =
yp(x, y) dy dx .


8.3.3.2. ,
D =

n
m

pji (xi M )2 , D =

i=1 j=1

n
m

pji (yj M )2 ,

i=1 j=1

(x M )2 p(x, y) dx dy,
D =

(y M )2 p(x, y) dy dx .
D =

: =
= D.
227


. , ( )
, , .
.
8.3.3.3. ,
(
)
+

M=y =
x p=y (x) dx .

pji
,
M=yj =
xi
qj
i=1

,
( )
+

M=x =
y q=x (y) dy ,

pji
,
M=xi =
yj
pi
j=1

.
, , , (8.3.2.1)
(8.3.2.2). ,
, M=y M=x , y x.
.
M=y , ,
,
.
8.3.3.1. , {, },

x1 = 1 x2 = 0

x3 = 1

y1 = 2

0.1

0.25

0.15

y2 = 3

0.3

0.1

0.1

228

. ,

q1 = P ( = 2) = 0.1+0.25+0.15 = 0.5

q2 = P ( = 3) = 0.3+0.1+0.1 = 0.5 .

8.3.3.3,
M=2 = x1

p11
p12
p13
0.1
0.25
0.15
+ x2
+ x3
= (1)
+0
+1
= 0.1
q1
q1
q1
0.5
0.5
0.5

M=3 = x1

0.1
0.1
0.3
p21
p22
p23
+0
+1
= 0.4 .
+ x2
+ x3
= (1)
q2
q2
q2
0.5
0.5
0.5

,
. , .
8.3.2.2 ,
(
)
(
)
(
)
P ( = x) ( = y) = P ( = x) P ( = y) .
: ,
? : . .
8.3.3.4.

(
)
cov(, ) = M ( M ) ( M ) .

cov(, ) =

n
m

( M ) ( M ) pji ,
i=1 j=1

(x M ) (y M ) p(x, y) dy dx .
cov(, ) =

, (. 8.1.3), .
(
)
cov(, ) = M ( M ) ( M ) = M ( M M + M M ) =
229

= M ( ) M M .
, .
.
8.3.3.2. {, },

x1 = 1 x2 = 0

x3 = 2

y1 = 1

0.1

0.25

0.15

y2 = 3

0.3

0.1

0.1

. cov(, ) = M ( ) M M ,
M , M M ( ).

x1 = 1 x2 = 0

( = xi )

0.4

x3 = 2

0.35

0.25

y1 = 1

y2 = 3

( = yj )

0.5

0.5

M = (1) 0.4 + 0 0.35 + 2 0.25 = 0.1

230

M = 1 0.5 + 3 0.5 = 2 .

, =

( = zk )

0.3

0.1

0.35

0.15 0.1

M = M ( ) = (3) 0.3 + (1) 0.1 + 0 0.35 + 2 0.15 + 6 0.1 = 0.1 .


,
cov(, ) = M ( ) M M = 0.1 0.1 2 = 0.3 .
cov(, ) = M ( )M M ,
. , ,
3 (. 8.1.3) M ( ) = M M , . ,
cov(, ) = 0
. , ,
.
8.3.3.3.
2 1

( = xk )

1
4

1
4

1
4

1
4

= 2 .

( = yk )

1
2

1
2

, M = 0. M ( ) = 0. -

231

, =

( = zk )

1
8

1
8

2 1
1
8

1
8

1
8

1
8

1
8

1
8

M = M ( ) =

(8) + (4) + (2) + (1) + 1 + 2 + 4 + 8


=0.
8

, , cov(, ) = 0.
.

) .
(
M ( M ) ( M ) , , ,
.
,
cov(, )
r(, ) =
,

= D = D .
.
1 . 1 r(, ) 1 .
2 . , r(, ) = 0 .
3 . r(, ) = 0, .
4 . = a + b ,

1, a < 0 ,
r(, ) = 0, a = 0 ,
1, a > 0 ,
,
8.3.3.3.
8.3.3.4. r(, ),
8.3.3.2.
232

. , 8.3.3.2 ,

. = D = D ,
.

: 2

x1 = 0

x2 = 1

x3 = 4

( 2 = xi )

0.35

0.4

0.25

M ( 2 ) = 00.35+10.4+40.25 = 1.4 D = M ( 2 )(M )2 = 1.4(0.1)2 = 1.39 .



: 2

y1 = 1 y2 = 9

( 2 = yj )

0.5

0.5

,
M ( 2 ) = 1 0.5 + 9 0.5 = 5

D = M ( 2 ) (M )2 = 5 22 = 4 .

,
r(, ) =

cov(, )
0.3
cov(, )
0.25 .

=
=

1.39 1
D D

11 12
M




= M
M M =
K =




21 22
M



M ( M )2
M (( M ) ( M ))


=
=


M (( M ) ( M ))

M ( M )2



D
cov(, )



.
=

cov(, )

D
233


, ,
11 =

11
=1,

12 =

12
= r(, ) ,

21 =

21
= r(, ) ,

22 =

22
=1.

,

11 12

R =

211 22





1


=


r(, )


r(, )

,


1

r(, ) .
, ,
tr K = 11 + 22

det K = 11 22 12 21 ,

.
, , , (, ) . , ( , )
,
)
(
(xM )(yM )
(xM )2
(yM )2
1
2

+
2

2
2

p(x, y) =
,
e 2(1 )
2 1 2
= r(, ). z = p(x, y) .4.25.
, , = 0,
8.2.1.2 (8.2.1.5)
p(x, y) = p(x) p(y) .

234

8.4

8.4.1

, , ,
. , ,
. ,
. ,

12 . ,
, , , .
( , )
. , ,
,
,
.

, ( ) .
.
M
D. n ,
k , k = [1, n] .
k

1 + 2 + . . . + n
1
=
k .
n
n
n

k=1

235


8.4.1.1. .

, ,

)
(
1 + 2 + . . . + n



M < = 1 .
>0:
lim P
n+
n
. ,
(
)


D


>0: P
M 2

x1

x2

...

xN

...

( = xk )

p1

p2

...

pN

...

,
,
M ,

P( | M | ) =
pk ,
|xk M |

k,
|xk M | .

D = M ( M )2 =

|xk M |2 pk ,

k=1

D
|xk M |2 pk
2 pk = 2 P ( | M | ) .
|xk M |

|xk M |

.
236

M D, 2 3 (. 8.1.3).
( n
)
)
( n
n

1
1
1
1
M = M
k = M
k =
M k = n M = M .
n
n
n
n
k=1

(
D = D

1
k
n
n

k=1

k=1

k=1

1
k
= 2 D
n
k=1

n
1
1
D
= 2
Dk = 2 n D =
.
n
n k=1
n

n + M = M ,
D 0 . , ,

(
)


D


.
>0: P
M
n 2
n
(
)




P
M
,
.
. , . ,
, .
-, , , .
, . , , = 3 ,
(
)


D
1
P M 3
= ,
9
92

,
0,003.

, ( ) . :
1 .
A,
p = P (A).
237

2 .
.

8.4.2

.
.
. ( )
, .
, , .
.
k a 2

n = 1 + 2 + . . . + n =

k .

k=1


8.4.2.1. .
n n a
2 .
,
1
F (x) =
2

x
e

(ta)2
2 2

dt ,

1
F (x) =
2

t2

e 2 dt .


. , A , n ,

238

A p q = 1p . -
(
)
np
P <
< = F () F () .
npq
8.4.2.1. ,
100
60 70.
. n = 100 p = q =

np
50
=
=
npq
5

1
2

. 60 70

2 4, , ,
1
P (60 70) = P (2 4) = F (4) F (2) =
2

239

4
2

x2
2

dx 0.023 .



, , ,
. , .
, , .
, , ( ), , .
, . ,
. , , , , .
, , , .
. ,
. ( ) .

240

9.1

,
, ( , ) .
n,
xk nk . ,
n

n=

nk .

k=1

,
.
9.1.1. . , , . nk
xk .
pk = nk /n .
9.1.2.
( ) (
.)
9.1.3. F (x), , < x . ,
F (x) =

nk
1
=
nk .
n
n x <x
x <x
k

( )

,
. , ,

1
F (x) =
2

241

(ta)2
2 2

dt ,

a priori a . , .
,
, n , n .
, ,
.
,
.
9.1.4. , M = . ,
.
9.1.5. ,
, .
9.1.6. ,
n ,
, ,
(
)
> 0
lim P | n | < = 1 .
n

, n ,
.

9.2

9.2.1.
n
x1 + x2 + + xn
1
=
xk .
n
n
n

M =

k=1

9.2.2. n
,
D =

n
)2
1 (
.
xk M
n
k=1

242

9.2.2.
n

= D .
M . , {xk , x2 , . . . xn } .
n ,
.
M D.

(
)
(
)
M
x1 + x2 + + xn
M M = M
=n
= M ,
n
n
.

D =

n
)2
1 (
xk M
.
n
k=1


( n
)
( )
)2
1 (
M D = M
xk M
=
n
k=1

)
n
)2
1 (
(xk M ) (M M )
=
=M
n
k=1
( n
)
( n
)
)2
)
1 (
2 (
xk M
(xk M ) (M M )
=M
M
+
n
n
k=1
k=1
( n
)
)2
1 (
+M
M M
.
n
(

k=1

.
( n
)
n
)2
)2
1 (
n D
1 (
M
xk M
M xk M
=
= D .
=
n
n
n
k=1

k=1

( n
)
(
)
n
)
2
2(M M ) (
M
(xk M ) (M M ) = M
=
xk M
n
n
k=1

k=1

2(M M )
n

M (xk M ) = 2(M M )2 =

k=1

243

(
= 2D = 2D

1
xk
n
n

)
= 2n

k=1

D
D
2 =2 n .
n

, ,
( n
)
)2
1 (
D
M
M M
=
.
n
n
k=1

( )
n1
D
=
D .
M D = D
n
n
, .
1 ,
, n
n
n.

( )2
D = 2 ,
, .
.
9.2.3. , .
, , ,
, , .
9.2.4.
= P ( | | < ) .

( , + ).

.

244


, 5
, 88, 109
, 184
, 109
,
166
, 121
, 184
, 14
,
5, 17
, 105
, 24
, 87
, 109
, 87
, 109
() , 64
, 15
, 14
, 198

, 179
, 180
, 180
, 105
, 5
, 119
, 121
, 76
, 68
, 240
, 242
, 242
, 243
, 103
, 103
, 30


, 240
, 14
, 175
, 135
, 241
, 114
, 83
, 122, 123
, 225
, 105
, , 8
180
,
, 174
112
245

,
94
,
7
, 7
, 11
, 9

, 61
, 61

, 133
, 116, 132, 133
, 13
, 134
, 244
- , 5
, 87
, 109 , 21
- , 6
, 218
, 87
- , 174
, 109 , 233
, 7
,
229
, 195


,
94
, 204


,
91
, 214
, 205
, 92
, 227

, 121

, 116

,
109
,

244
, 88
, 244


, 88

,
, 172
109
,
, 87
122


, 171
, 109
, 21
, 234
, 229
, 9
, 48 , 217
, 45, 52, 72
, 217
, 235
246

, 232
, 143
, 218
,
140
, 171
, 84 , 180
, 84
, 5
, 122
, 7

, 103
, 122
, 103
, 61


, 190

,
,
114
190
- , 140
, 200 , 208
, 79
, 221

, 78

,
17
, 214

,
236

,
16
, 202
,
242

, 153
, 227

, 20

, 71
,
155
, 218

, 37

,
155
, 32

,
172
, 221
, 79
, 13

, 83
, 212
, 218

,
21
, 5

, 81
, 61
, 107
, 81
, 5
, 7
, 217

, 56
, 56
, 234
, 25
, 11
, 13

247

, 240
, 117
, 15,61

, 97
- , 123
, 222
, 81
, 13
, 81
, 21

, 134
, 27
, 139
, 143
, ,
27
143
, 88, 109
, 74
, 87
,
, 109
62
, 7


, 162
, 36
, 156
, 9
() ,
,
172
7
, 23
, 13
, 116
, 113
, 121 , 119
, 65
, 116
- , 13
, 76
, 172
, 116, 132, 139 , 134
, 198
, 13
, 14, 177
- , 171
, 7
, 59
, 211
, 59
, 8
- , 87

, 210
, 29
, 224
, 13, 176
, 6
, 172
, 124 , 78
, 34
248

- , 77
, 97
, 214
, 75
- , 15
, , 15
222
, 8
m n
, 196
, 40
- n n
, 62
, 35
, 161
, 35
, , 221
154
, 84
- , 22
, 81
, 36
, 5

, 228
, 89
, 195

, 212
, 206
, 170
, , 242
232
, 48
, 48
- , 203
, 242
, , 14, 177
143
, 138
, 196
, 30
() , 21
, 210 ()
, 81
,
225
, 89
, 76
, 205
, 186
, 173
, 84 , 241
, 199 , 6
, 21
, , 21
209
() , 171
- , 161
, , 165
224
, 88
, 185
249

, 62
, 161
,
154

, 13
, 184
, 186
-, 239
-, 134
, 187
, 121
- , 229
, 196
, 184
, 9
, 236
, 205
, 38
,
-, 40
5
, 237
, 93
, 197
, 110 , 228
, 6
,
, 244
71
, 104
, 165
, 22
, 168, 212
, 8
, 11
, 8
, 11
, 8
, 11
, 8
, 221

, 22

, 224

, 82
,
199
, 90 , 220
, 56
, 123
, 50
, 123
, , 5
225
, 238
, 179

, 217
- , 190
, 228
, , 160
224
, 165
, 79
, 241
250

, 59
, 5
, 14, 60

, 200
, 13
, 160
, 88
, 103
, 171
, 241
,
242

251

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