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..

6-500

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2010

.. 6-500 .
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6-500
, .

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.., 2010
, 2010

1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.3.1.
1.3.2.
1.4.

7
7
8
9
9
12
16

2.
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.

18
18
19
22
26
29

3.
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.

32
32
37
39
40
42

4.
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.

43
43
48
50

5.
5.1.
5.2.
5.3. ,

52
52
54
57

6.
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.
6.5.
6.5.1.
6.5.2.
6.5.3.
6.6.

59
59
66
67
68
75
76
78
81
82

7.
7.1.
7.2. ( )

85
85
88

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8.
8.1. ,
8.2.
8.3.

90
90
96
99

9.
9.1.
9.1.1. - -
9.1.2. ()
9.1.3. -
9.2.
9.2.1.
9.2.2.
9.2.3.
9.3.
9.3.1.
9.3.2.
9.3.3.

101
101
105
105
106
108
108
111
117
121
121
122
122

10.
10.1.
10.2.
10.3.
10.4.
10.5.

124
124
128
129
130
132

11.
11.1.
11.2.
11.3.

136
136
140
143

12.
12.1.
12.2.

146
146
149

151

152

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6-500

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1.

1.1.

.1.1.
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1.2.

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dA

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.1.3. .


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s = 3 d d d = 1.26 d

.1.2

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.1.3

s
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s .

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1.3.
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( , )
E = K I (s L K ) ,

K , s
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K

I =

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Z = 2 Z L (-) ,
Z
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*

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10

I
=
I

K 2

(R ) + (X )
* 2

* 2

s.

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I =

K 2

(R ) + (X )
* 2

* 2

s (I I ) ,


I
=
I B

3K 2

(R ) + (X )
* 2

* 2

s,

(1.1)

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()
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E = K (I I ) (s LK ) = 3 K I (s LK )

(1.2)

(1.1) (1.2)
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11

1.3.2.
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.1.6,
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E . :
I I = I I .

.1.6. , , , .

I ,
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D = 2.24

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0

= 2f
( = 4 10 /).

, -
(. .1.6)
, .. D .
f = 50
= 100 1000 D
, .. h ,
. (
), .1.6, ( ,
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D .
D ,
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,

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12

, ..
( ), .
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D ; ,
D . ,
.1.7 .

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.1.7. , .


f , ..
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= 2f . , .1.7,
U& = Z& I& + Z& I&
,
U& = Z& I& + Z& I&

U& = E& Z& I& U& ;

Z&

, ; R , R , R
, , ; L , L
, ; M , M
,
; j = 1 .

()

Z& = R + R + jL

()

Z& = R + R + jL


()

Z& = R + jM

() ()

Z& = R + jM

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13

, ,

U& = 0 ,

I&
Z&
R + jM
.
= =
R + R + j L
I&
Z&


L = M =

0 D
,
ln
2 r2

.. I& / I& < 1 ,


R , , ,
.
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U& = Z& I& ,

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) ,
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U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& I& + I& + Z& I& + I&
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& I& + I& + Z& I& + I&

, : I& + I& + I& = 0 ,


( )
.
0 = U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& I& ,

Z& = Z& . ,

, ,
.
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14


0 D3
D
= M > M = 0 ln ,
ln
2 r2
2 s

s r -, ..
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, ,
, s 2r ,
M = M ,
.

6-500 , ,
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2

.1.8. .1.1.

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15

1.4.
, .1.6-1.7, . .1.8,
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.1.9-1.10
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I 0 , I 0 , I 0 , I 0 , I 0 ,
I 0 . , , .1.9
(
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( )
, -1 (.1.9).
,

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16

.1.10 ,
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I I , 3 I , I , I . ,
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.1.9.
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C

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17

2.


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18

2.2.


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.2.1. .

.2.2. .

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19

,
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21

2.3.
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22

.2.6. ,
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.2.7. .2.6 .

.2.8. ,
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, .2.5
U > U .

, .
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U

.2.6 ,

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23

, ,
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K > 1 .2.8.
K = 2
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.2.1 U / U
L / L , U
.2.5, L .

(1.2) .
.2.1 , ,
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.

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U ,
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- .
K

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24

.2.1. .

.2.5

.2.6

.2.7

.2.8

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25

2.4.
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()
.
.

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(1.1) s .
, .
.2.9-2.11
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: .2.9 , .2.10-2.11
.

.2.9. ,
N = 1 .

.2.10. ,
N = 2 .

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26

.2.11. ,
N = 2 , .


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(. .1.8, s > r ).
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L / L ;
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L / L .
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L / L , U
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, , ,
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2

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27

.2.2. .

.2.9

.2.10-2.11



N = 1 .
U ,
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N
U

U
,
N

U .

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28

2.5.


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K ,
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30

.2.2 ,

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31

3.

3.1.


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( )
( )
( )
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( 2 )
( )

( .. )

( .. )

( / )
( / )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( / )
( )

r1
r2
r3

r4

F = r1

F = r3 r2
2

1
2
0 = 8.85 10 12
0 = 4 10 7

s
= 2f
f

j = 1

, F F
,
.1.1.
,
(
).
www.zeu.ru

32

:
F = r1 ,
2

F = r3 r2 ,
2

.

r1 =

F /

r2 = r1 +
r3 = r2 +
2

F /

(3.1)

r4 = r3 +


.3.2.

.3.2. -
6-500 .

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( = r4 r3 )
( = r2 r1 )
6-10
20
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220
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5
5
5
6
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.3.1. .

.3.1
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F , r
r , .

, .
2

www.zeu.ru

33


= 0.9 ; , ,
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= 1 , = 1 .

, .1.1,
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[1].
.

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- EMTP-ATP
(Electromagnetic Transients Program [2]).

.3.3. .
( / )

1
F
1
=
F

R =
*

( / )

( / )

R =

0 f

( )

D = 2.24

( / )

L =

0 D
ln
2 r1

( / )

L =

0 D
ln
2 r2

()
( / )

M =

0 D
ln
2 s


( / )
( / )
( / )
( ,
)

www.zeu.ru

M =
*

0 D
ln
2 r2
2 1 0

C =
*

C =
*

ln

r2
r1

2 2 0
r
ln 4
r3

34

(.3.3-3.4),

- -,
.
, ..
D , .
D , R ,
(, , . [3]).
(. .3.3-3.4)
:
1.
, s >> r ;
2. ,
s = d = d = d ; d = 2d = 2d ,
s = d d d = 1.26 d .
3. , r >> (r r ) ;

r ;
4. (.. );
5. ,
.

:
= 2.4 = 2.4 ;
( ) = 2.0 10 ,
( ) = 3.2 10 ; [4]
50 0.

.3.4. .
( / )

Z& = R + R + jL

( / )

Z& = R + R + jL

()
( / )


( / )

Z& = R + jM
*

Z& = R + jM
*

L
Z& = Z& L ,
*

Z& = Z& L ,
*

Z& = Z& L ,
*

Z = Z& L .
*

www.zeu.ru

35

U&


U I I :
&

&

&

U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& )

U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& )

U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& )

U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& )

(3.2)

U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& )

U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& )

6 6- 6- ,
,
.

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36

3.2.
-


.

( ), (.3.5).
.3.5. .



K = 1 ,2,.

I& = 0
I& = 0
I& = 0

K = 1)

N = 1 ,2,.

N = 1)

U& = 0
U& = 0
U& C = 0

U& = 0
U& = 0
U& C = 0
. .3

.
1. .
2. .2,3 .
3. .3 ,
(3.2) (.. 3
N = 1 ), ( ) (
) .

(3.2)
,
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,
www.zeu.ru

37

.
, .3.6.

,
.

.
.3.6. (3.2).



I& + I& + I& = 0

I& = I& = I&


I& = I& = I&

I& + I& + I& = 0


.3.7. L
Z = Z L Z = Z L .
.3.7 , -
,
10 110 ,
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,
, .
&

& *

&

& *
0

.3.7.
.


*
*
*
*
*
*
1
Z& 0 = Z& + 2 Z&
Z&1 = Z& Z&
K = 1 ,2,.

N = 1 ,2,.

www.zeu.ru

Z = Z& Z
& *
1

& *

*
Z&
1

Z&

) (Z

&

Z&

Z Z
& *

*
Z&

* 2

& *

= Z& + 2Z

*
Z&

& *
0

Z&

& *

*
+ 2Z&

) (Z
&

+ 2 Z&

* 2

Z + 2Z
& *

) (Z
&

*
Z&

& *

+ 2 Z&

* 2

*
+ 2Z&

38

3.3.

-
10
110 . ,
, R X .
1

1. 10 F = 240 2

F = 50

2.

= 100


/

R
R
X
K = 1 ,2,.

N = 1 ,2,.

0.083
0.094
0.083

0.091
0.089
0.091

0.231
0.463
0.463

X0
2.036
0.099
0.099

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/

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X
R
X
K = 1 ,2,.

N = 1 ,2,.

2.

0.083
0.140
0.083

0.188
0.164
0.188

0.231
0.459
0.459

1.843
0.105
0.105

F = 1000 2
2
= 185 . = 100 .
110


/

R
R
X
K = 1 ,2,.

N = 1 ,2,.

0.020
0.042
0.020

0.092
0.081
0.092

0.168
0.127
0.127

X0
1.899
0.043
0.043

, 0.2
/

R
X
R
X
K = 1 ,2,.

N = 1 ,2,.

www.zeu.ru

0.020
0.091
0.020

0.187
0.088
0.187

0.168
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1.710
0.044
0.044

39

3.4.

-
, /:

s
,

r
1

L* = 0.05 + 0.2 ln

(3.2)

,
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.
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.3.7

( )
Z = Z Z = (R + R + jL ) (R + jM ) = R + jL ,
R = R ; L
:
& *
1

&

& *

L1 = L M =
*

s
0 D 0 D 0 s

ln
ln
ln = 0.2 10 6 ln ,
=

2 r1 2 s 2 r1
r1

, / /,

r
1

L1 = 0.2 ln
*

(3.2)


(3.2) 0.05 / 0.05 10 /.
,
, .
.3.3

,
,
s >> r ,
( (3.2) ).
s
r . , , .3.3

L ,
, ,
L = 0.05 10 /.
6

( / )

L = L +

0 D
ln
2 r1

( / )

L = L +

0 D
ln
2 r2

( / )
www.zeu.ru

L = 0.05 10 6
*

40



, .. L = 0 .
.3.3.
(3.2)
,
, :
(3.2) (3.2)
;
(3.2) (3.2)
, 1 50 % :
,
50%.
*

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41

3.5.
.3.7 -
Z&1 = R1 + jL1 , Z& , Z& , Z& ,
Z& , .
Z& Z& D , , Z&1
.
, Z&1 D
, Z&1 ,
Z& , Z& , Z& , Z& . , D (3.2).
D , ,
,
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-,
, .. ,
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,
,
D . , .
-, D , ..
, , D .
,
, D .
,
, . ,
D ,
.
, D ,
, D
.

www.zeu.ru

42

4.

4.1.

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,
,
I , I , I . ,
(3.2)
, , .
I , I , I ,
, ,
.4.1 ( ).
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.4.1 , .
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.4.1.

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, .
.3.7.

E = U 3 , U .
E .
.4.1. .4.1.



Z& 0 = R0 + jX 0

Z&1 = R1 + jX 1
Z& 2 = Z&1

*
*
Z& 2 = Z&1
Z& 0 = Z& 0 L
Z&1 = Z&1 L

Z& 0 = R0 + jX 0

Z&1 = R1 + jX 1
Z& 2 = Z&1

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43


.4.1
.
, ,
I& =

E& E&
,
Z&1 + Z&1 + Z&1

I& = a 2 I& ,
I& C = aI& ,

a = 12 + j 23 , a = 12 j 23 , a = 1 .
,
, , ,
2

I& =

E&
,
Z&1 + Z&1

I& = a 2 I& ,
I& C = aI& .


.4.1
, :
(1);
(1,1);
() (2).

,

(,
).

,
.4.2.
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)
(Z& + Z& )Z& ,
(Z& + Z& ) + Z&
(Z& + Z& )Z& ,
Z& =
(Z& + Z& ) + Z&

Z&1 = Z& 2 =

E&

E& 1

www.zeu.ru

E&

+
Z&1 + Z&1 Z&1
=
.
1
1
+
Z&1 + Z&1 Z&1

44

U1

E1

Z1

I1

U2

Z2

I2

U0

Z0

I0

.4.2. .

.4.2
- ,
, .. .

, .4.3, .4.2.

.4.3. .
.4.2. .




()

(1)

(1,1)

(2)

U& = 0

U& = 0

U& = 0
U& = U&

I& = 0

I& = 0
I& = 0
I& = 0

I&1 , I&2 , I&0 U& 1 , U& 2 , U& 0


I& , I& , I& U& , U& , U&

www.zeu.ru

45

U& = U& 1 + U& 2 + U& 0

I& = I&1 + I&2 + I&0

U& = a 2U& 1 + aU& 2 + U& 0 ,

I& = a 2 I&1 + aI&2 + I&0

U& = aU& 1 + a 2U& 2 + U& 0

I& = aI&1 + a 2 I&2 + I&0

,
.4.2, ,
.4.3
.
.4.3. .

(1)

(1,1)

(2)

U& 1 + U& 2 + U& 0 = 0


I&1 = I&2 = I&0

U& 1 = U& 2 = U& 0

I&1 + I&2 + I&0 = 0

U& 1 = U& 2

I&1 + I&2 = 0

,
(.4.4).
www.zeu.ru

46

.4.4. .




I&1 = I&2 = I&0 =

Z&1

E& 1
+ Z& 2 + Z& 0

U& 1 = E&1 Z&1 I&1

(1)

U& 2 = Z& 2 I&2


U& 0 = Z& 0 I&0
I&1 =
Z&1

(1,1)

E&1
Z& Z&
+ 2 0
Z& 2 + Z& 0

I&2 =

E&1 Z&1 I&1


Z& 2

I&0 =

E&1 Z&1 I&1


Z& 0

U& 1 = U& 2 = U& 0 = E& 1 Z&1 I&1


I&1 = I&2 =

(2)

E&1
Z&1 + Z& 2

U& 1 = U& 2 = E&1 Z&1 I&1

.4.4 ,
, .4.2
.4.1
I& 1 =

E U& 1
Z&1 + Z&1

I& 2 =

U& 2
Z& 2 + Z& 2

I& 0 =

U& 0
Z& 0 + Z& 0

, (3.2)
,
I& = I& 1 + I&2 + I&0
I& = a 2 I& 1 + aI& 2 + I&0 .
I& = aI& 1 + a 2 I& 2 + I& 0

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47

4.2.
, (
)


.

.
, .

4 ,

.
, , ,
(.2.5).
, ,
I& = 0 , I& = 0 , I& = 0 .

. (3.2)
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& I&
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& I&

U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& I&


, , ,
.
( 4 ).

. .4.5.

(1),
(1,1), (2)
(3). (
110-500 )
(3),
(1).
, , -
( 6-35 )
(1,1), (2), (3) , , (1) .
(1,1) I& 0 , .. (1,1),
(2), (3) ,
.
, , (3), , ,
6-35
. , (3)
(1,1) (2).
www.zeu.ru

48

.4.5. .2.5.

(1)
( )
(1,1)
( ,)
(2)
( ,)
(3)

I& + I& + I& = 0

U& = (Z& Z& )I&


U& = (Z& Z& )I&

Z& Z&

I& B = 0 , I& C = 0

U& = Z& I&


U& = Z& I&

Z&

U& = (Z& Z& )I&

U& = Z& I&

I& = 0

I& + I& = I& ,

I& -

Z& Z&

U& = Z& I&

U& = (Z& Z& )I& + Z& I&

U& = (Z& Z& )I& + Z& I&

I& = 0

I + I& = 0
I& + I& + I& = 0

U& = 0

U& = (Z& Z& )I&


U& = (Z& Z& )I&
U& = (Z& Z& )I&
U& = (Z& Z& )I&

U& = (Z& Z& )I&



. Z&
Z& Z&

Z& Z&

.4.6 ,
, ( .2.2)
K ,
.

.4.6,
( .2.2)
N .
.4.6. .

., .,
. (6-35 )


K = 1 ,2,.

.,
.
(110-500 )

www.zeu.ru

N = 1 ,2,.


K = 1 ,2,.

N = 1 ,2,.

49

4.3.

.3.5
(3.2) .4.7,
.
.4.8-4.9.
.4.7. (3.2).


I& + I& + I& = 0
(
I& + I& + I& = 0
)
I& >> I& I& >> I&


&
I = 0 I& = 0
.4.8. (), .


)

1 & * & * &
1 & * &
(Z Z ) I L
Z I L
1
K = 1 ,2,.

2
3

N = 1 ,2,.

1 & * & * &


Z Z I L
3N

2 & * & * &


Z Z I L
9N

.4.8 I :
;

,
, .
.4.8 ,
( )
, ,
2
1
,
<
9 N 3N

.4.6.

www.zeu.ru

50

.4.9. .


(

)

* L
I& = j U&

* L
I& = j U&

* L
I& = j U&

* L
I& = j U&

* L
I& = j U&

* L
I& = j U&

K = 1 ,2,.

Z& + 2Z&
*

I& =

Z& Z& &


I
=

*
*
Z& Z&

I& =

(Z

I& =

(Z

Z& Z&

N = 1 ,2,.

Z& Z&
*

*
L

3N

I =
I&

I&

3
3
U& j
4
4

*
L

2N 3

*
Z&

Z& + 2 Z&
*

Z& Z&
*
*
*
Z& Z& Z&
*

I& =

Z&

*
Z&

I&

I&

&
I& = *
I
*
Z& Z&
Z&

Z&

I&

)(

& *

)(

& *

Z +
*
*
*
Z& Z& Z&

& *

*
2 Z&

I&

I&

Z +
*
*
Z& + 2Z& I&
&

I =
*
*
3
Z& + 2 Z&
& *

Z&

*
2Z&

+ 2Z& I&
Z&

I& = *
*
3
Z& + 2 Z&
*
*
+ 2 Z& I&
Z&

I& = *
*
3
Z& + 2Z&
*

:
-, .

www.zeu.ru

51

5.

5.1.
&
, , I

.
I& , I& I& ,
D& I .
.4.9
,
I&

D& I =


X = L

I&
jX
=
,
&
R + jX
I

0 D
D
ln
ln

2 r2
s

= L

2s
0 s
ln L 0 ln ,
2 r2
2 d

d ( , 2r2 ).

,
I
I&
1
= =
.
&
2
I
I
1 + ( R X )

(5.1)

(5.1) R X
() L , R * X * (/).

s / d = 1 , d > d s / d 1 2 .
s >> r2 ( s / d >> 0.5 ),

( s / d 1 2 ). ,
.
(5.1) , ()
,
() ;
s / d .
.5.1 ,
, (5.1)
F (35, 50, 70, 95, 120, 150, 185, 240 2).
.5.1,
, , F
s
.
I / I
F s / d .
www.zeu.ru

52

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0
0

10

12

.5.1.
F (2) s d .

www.zeu.ru

53

5.2.
.4.8
( )
*
*
U& = (Z& Z& ) I& L , U& = jX * I& L .
,
U = X * I L ,
(5.2)
X * =

0 s
2s
ln = 0 ln , d (
2 r2
2 d

s / d = 1 ,
d > d s / d 1 2 ).
.4.8
U& = Z& * I& L
*
*
*
*
U& = (R + jM ) I& L . R << jM ,
*
U& = jX I& L . ,
*
U = X I L ,
(5.3)
X * = M * =

0 D
2 D
.
= 0 ln
ln

2 r2
2 d

(5.2)-(5.3) ,
:
I ;
L ;
s / d ( (5.3), s ).
.5.2 5.3 (5.2)
(5.3) . U
I = 1000 L = 1000 .


U = U

I
L
.
1000 1000

,
., D (1, 3, 10 )
, .
D (10, 100, 1000 ). -
.5.3 D , .
.4.8
. ,
.5.2-5.3,
,
(. .5.1).

www.zeu.ru

54

200

150

100

50

0
0

10

12

.5.2. 6-500 , (5.2)


s / d 1000 1000 .

1000
900

D ( )

800
700
600
500
400

300
200
100
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

.5.3. 6-500 , (5.3)


1000 1000 d D .

www.zeu.ru

55

.5.1. (), .


)
1



K = 1 ,2,.

N = 1 ,2,.

www.zeu.ru

.5.2

I
L

1000 1000

.5.3

I
L

1000 1000

L
1
.5.2 I
U


3N
1000 1000

L
2
.5.2 I
U


9N
1000 1000

56

5.3. ,
,
.5.2-5.3 .5.1, I ,
.
, :
,
, ;
, I K
, I
, .. I K I .
.
, ,
-1 -2. ,
..
-1 -2.

.5.4. .

.5.4 :
-2 I 2 -1;
-1 I 1 -2.
I 1 I 2 , , Q = 1, 2
, .
I 1 I 2 ,
( ),
. -1 -2 ( -1, -2),
- .
,
( Z&1 Z& 2 ) Q

I& 2 =

E&
,
Z&1 + Z&1 Q

I& 1 =

E&
.
Z&1 + Z&1 Q


Q ,
.
www.zeu.ru

57


Q=2
Q =1


-2
I& 2 ,


-1
I&1 ,

17
12

20
15

I& 2 < I&1 , I&1 , ..


-1. ( Q = 2 )
, 20 / Q = 10 .
( Q = 1 ) ,
15 .
, .5.4
I K (3) = 15 .
.5.4
I K (1) , .
. (
-1), I K (1) I K (3)
,
-1 .
.
,
.

,
, .
,
. , , ,
(,
,

).

www.zeu.ru

58

6.
6.1.
(
) :
P = P + P + P ,
P = I 2 R , P = I 2 R I I ,

P = U / 3 tg
2

U / 3 .

tg .
.3.3 R R
R = L F R = L F ,
, ,
P I
=
P I

F
.


, P / P 0 , .. .
:

,

( 90 0,
70 0);

, ..
(. 9- ).
,
P / P > 0 , ..
. :
, ,
, ;
,
, .
, 10 : F = 500 2, F = 95
2, = = 2 10 8 (), I = 186 , I = 115 .
P / P = 2.0 , ..
.
35 , : F = 630 2, F = 35
2, = = 2 10 8 (), I = 900 , I = 300 .
www.zeu.ru

59

P / P = 2.0 ( 10
), .. .
,
, ,
!


.
R1
P = P + P = I R1 .
2

.3.7 L ,
,
Z&

*
Z&
1

L = (

Z&

&
&
) (Z Z )

Z&


Z&1 = R1 + jX 1
R1 = R +

X = L

Z& Z&

Z&

R
R
1+
X

0 D
D
ln
ln
2 r2
s

0 2s
ln .
2 d

P = I 2 R1 , P = I 2 R ,
P = P P = I 2 (R1 R ) .

DP =

P
=
P

R / R
2

R

1 +
X

(6.1)

, .
(6.1) .2.3.1 [5] , ,
(5.1)
DP

P I
=
P I
R

R
.
R

(6.1)
X
() L , R * X *
(/). R / R = F / F .
DP = P / P
. DP = 0

( )
.
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60

DP > 0 ,
(6.1), .6.1
6-500 . ,
, DP 1.6 , .
.6.1 , s d

. DP = P / P
F F / F s / d .
F
s d , D P F ,
, , DP F / F :
, ,
I , F ;
P P ,
DP F , P .
DP F ,
,
,
. DP F .
, DP
, DI . DP
s / d 0
F F , .. ,
.
.6.1 P P
s d , (6.1),
.
s
, d .
, d ,
d = d + 2 , (. .3.2). ,
(r3 r2 ) 0 ,
d d = d 2 .

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61

.6.1. 6-500
F , F / F
s / d . P / P 1.6 .
F ,

P / P

2
3,0

2,5

2,0

35

1,5

1,0

0,5

0,0
0

10

12

10

12

3,0

2,5

2,0

50

1,5

1,0

0,5

0,0

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62

3,0

2,5

2,0

70

1,5

1,0

0,5

0,0
0

10

12

10

12

3,0

2,5

2,0

95

1,5

1,0

0,5

0,0

www.zeu.ru

63

3,0

2,5

2,0

120

1,5

1,0

0,5

0,0
0

10

12

10

12

3,0

2,5

2,0

150

1,5

1,0

0,5

0,0

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64

3,0

2,5

2,0

185

1,5

1,0

0,5

0,0
0

10

12

10

12

3,0

2,5

2,0

240

1,5

1,0

0,5

0,0

www.zeu.ru

65

6.2.
,
.

P
P
2
P = P + P = P 1 + = I R 1 + ,
P
P

P = P = I 2 R .
-:

, .
, ,
, .
,
, .

( )

P
2
2
I R 1 + = I , R ,
P

I
I ,

1
P
1+
P

= K ,

(6.2)

K = 1 1 + P P ,
.
F
I , , - ,
F , ( I < I , )
.
, :
( )
, ;
, F .
,
, .. :
F ?

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66

6.3.
, ,
, (6.2),
DP = P P ,
.
,
, ,
F , .. ,
.


DP = P P = 0 ,
. , ,
,
I
F , I .
I (F , F )
F F
K .
, F
F0 .
P0 ,
F

K 0 = I 0 I , = 1 1 + P 0 P .
F0


F , P K = I I , = 1 1 + P P .
I

I 0

1 + P 0 P
K
=
= K ,
K0
1 + P P

(6.3)

K .

F P (6.3)
, :
F F 0
K 1 ;
F < F 0
K > 1 .
,
,
. , (6.3),
K =

I ,
I 0

1 + P0 P
1+ 0

= 1 + P 0 P =


www.zeu.ru

1
K0

F0 , K 0 .

67

6.4.
(3.1)


d 2r2 ,

d = 2r4 .


s
s = d ;
s = 1.26 2d = 2.52 d
, .
s d , , s d ,
,
F F , .
(6.1) .6.1 s d .

10 110 ,
, (
s d = 1 s d = 1.15 1.75 ).
.6.2 10 110 . ,
, 10 .
.6.3 10
, ,
(6.2) .
10 400/70 2
K 0 = 0.89 . , ,
70 150 2,
K = 0.81 , (6.3)
K = K K 0 = 0.81 0.89 = 0.91 , .. 10 %.


, . ,
, :
:
, ;
: , .
,

F , , :
( );
.
.
www.zeu.ru

68

.6.2. 10 110 ,
, F F .
P / P 1.6 .
U ,

P / P

1,6
1,4
1,2
1

10

0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1,6
1,4
1,2
1

110

0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0

www.zeu.ru

69

.6.3.
10 , ,
F (Cu Al), F .
K 10

F
1

0,9

Cu

0,8

0,7

0,6
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

0,9

Al

0,8

0,7

0,6

www.zeu.ru

70


, .. ,
(, )
(, ).

. ,

, F .
,
, ,
, .
( (6.3))
-
.
,

, . ,

, ..
. , ,
,
.
(6.2))

,
. 1- .6.4,
.6.2-6.3 10 ,
.
( ).

( .6.4 ).

, , F0 = 70 2
.
,
I 0
I , ,
K 0 (6.2).
10 , ,
F0 = 70 2 K 0 .6.3 .
www.zeu.ru

71


F , 2

P 0 P

K0

95
120
150
185
240
300
400
500
630
800
1000
1200

0.086
0.104
0.124
0.146
0.179
0.214
0.269
0.321
0.385
0.467
0.560
0.650

0.960
0.952
0.943
0.934
0.921
0.908
0.888
0.870
0.850
0.826
0.801
0.778

K = 1 K0

I 0 = I , K 0

*)

1.042
150*0.960 ..*0.960
1.051
200*0.952 ..*0.952
1.060
250*0.943 ..*0.943
1.071
..
..
1.086
..
..
1.102
..
..
1.126
..
..
1.149
..
..
1.177
..
..
1.211
..
..
1.249
..
..
1.285
1500*0.778 ..*0.778
*) I , .6.4, .

,
F0 = 70 2
, I 0 ,
K = K K 0
(6.3), K .6.3 .
2- .6.5,
.6.3 10 ,
.

www.zeu.ru

72

.6.4.
( 10 , ).
K F (2)
F , 2

I , ,

*)

F -

35 2 502 702 952 1202 1502 1852


95
150
..
1.0
0.979
0.970 0.960 0.947
120
200
..
1.0
0.975
0.965 0.952 0.937
0.925
150
250
..
1.0
0.970
0.958 0.943 0.926
0.912
0.899
185
..
..
1.0
0.965
0.951 0.934 0.915
0.899
0.884
0.871
240
..
..
1.0
0.958
0.941 0.921 0.898
0.879
0.862
0.847
300
..
..
1.0
0.950
0.931 0.908 0.882
0.861
0.841
0.825
400
..
..
1.0
0.939
0.916 0.888 0.858
0.834
0.811
0.792
500
..
..
1.0
0.928
0.902 0.870 0.837
0.810
0.785
0.764
630
..
..
1.0
0.915
0.885 0.850 0.813
0.784
0.756
0.733
800
..
..
1.0
0.899
0.865 0.826 0.785
0.753
0.724
0.699
1000
..
..
1.0
0.883
0.844 0.801 0.757
0.723
0.692
0.666
1200
1500
..
1.0
0.868
0.825 0.778 0.732
0.697
0.664
0.637
*) .

2402

0.835
0.810
0.775
0.745
0.712
0.676
0.641
0.612


I = I K , .6.4 :
I ( );
K .
,


.
www.zeu.ru

F ,

73

.6.5.
( 10 , ).
K F (2)
*)
I 0 ,

F , 2

F -

F = 70 2

35 2 502 702 952 1202


95
144
..
1.042
1.020
1.011 1.000 0.987
120
190
..
1.051
1.024
1.014 1.000 0.985
0.972
150
236
..
1.060
1.029
1.016 1.000 0.982
0.967
185
..
..
1.071
1.033
1.018 1.000 0.979
0.962
240
..
..
1.086
1.040
1.022 1.000 0.975
0.955
300
..
..
1.102
1.047
1.026 1.000 0.972
0.949
400
..
..
1.126
1.057
1.031 1.000 0.967
0.939
500
..
..
1.149
1.067
1.036 1.000 0.962
0.931
630
..
..
1.177
1.077
1.041 1.000 0.957
0.922
800
..
..
1.211
1.089
1.048 1.000 0.951
0.912
1000
..
..
1.249
1,103
1,054 1.000 0.946
0.903
1200
1167
..
1.285
1.115
1,060 1.000 0.941
0.895
*) I , .6.4, .

1502

1852

2402

0.953
0.946
0.936
0.927
0.913
0.902
0.890
0.877
0.864
0.853

0.932
0.920
0.908
0.892
0.878
0.863
0.847
0.832
0.819

0.907
0.893
0.872
0.856
0.838
0.819
0.801
0.786


I = I K , .6.5 :
2
I , F = 70 ;
K .
0

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74

6.5.

P P

.
,

, .
, ,
,
.

, .
.6.6 ( C )
, .
C
(. 10- ),
,
(. 11- ),
.
C
,

, .


.
.6.6 ,
, ,

.
, ,
.6.6.
,
, :
, ,
,
;
.
, , 1- 2-
.
,

, ..
.
www.zeu.ru

75

.6.6. .
,

..,
.
.

0.01-0.02

.
,
.

0.05-0.1

1.0-2.0

2.0-4.0

6.5.1.
1- :
.
.6.7

D = P P
K .
D = P P , , ,
F /
.
,
D = 0 K = 1 .
,

,
.
: 95, 120, 150, 185, 240, 300, 400,
500, 630, 800, 1000, 1200 2. , ,
240 2 300, 800 2 1000.
.6.7 N ,
F .
P

.6.7. .
D P = P P
N F
K = 1 1 + DP
0.0
0.2
0.5
1.0
1.5

www.zeu.ru

1.0
0.91
0.82
0.71
0.63

0
1
2
3
4

76

P P = 0.2
K = 0.91 , ..
10%.
, ,
( ),
.
,

C = 3

, LK > 0 ,
*

:
, , .

*

C = 3 N F 1 LK > 0 ,
*

N , F ;

.
C
C : C C , .
*

1-

10 110
.6.8,
, .
10 ,

10 .
.6.9
L = 1000 , .
,
, , :
*

10

, L
P P ;
P P
L ;
K

110

P P L ;

- .
.

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77

.6.8. 10 110
.

* , . . 1* , . .
,
1
1
10
110

0.001-0.002
0.002-0.007

0.0001
0.0005

.6.9. 10 110
LK = 1000 .
C , ..
LK = 1000
DP = P P
N F
110
10
0.0
0.2
0.5
1.0
1.5

0
1
2
3
4

0
0.3
0.6
0.9
1.2

0
1.5
3.0
4.5
6.0

6.5.2.
2- :
.

P = I R
L , R = L F .
:

, ;

, .
,
.
,

( ).
.6.10 , .6.11

C T .
C
C . , T = 8
, ,
( C C ), .
2

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78

.6.10. .

LK
,
*
, /
R = F
I
,
DP = P P
, ..

( )
.6.11. .

2
*
,
P = I (R LK )

, .

P = DP P
3P
8760
W1 =
1000
C1 = W1

T
, .

CT = T C1

,
,


I . .6.11,
I , :
,

I , [] =


I , [] =

C [. ]
F 2
1.903

,
T [ ] [ ] DP [..] LK []
C [. ]
F 2
1.189
.

T [ ] [ ] DP [..] LK []

Cu Al
, 1.6
, D = P P .
P

2-

10 110 ,
. 10 (110 )
2
2
F = 500 (400 ) , F = 95 (70) , L = 2000 (3000 ) ,
0.15 (
). , ,
.
, = 2 ( ) ,
T = 8 ?
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79

10 (110) D = P P = 2.06 (0.22) ,


I ,
.
.6.6 , .6.12
:
10
170 ,
500 2; ,
38 ;
110
380 , 400
2; ,
85 .

,

,
. 2-
:
10 , 110
.
P

.6.12. 2- .
I , ,

10
110
.
0.017
0.038
.
.
,
.

0.038

0.85

0.170

0.380

0.240

0.537

www.zeu.ru

80

6.5.3.


6-500 :
(1- );
(2- ).
,

1- 2- . 1-
,
, :
P P ;
L ;
I .
,
,
2 .
:
P P ;
L ;
I .


,
,
.

www.zeu.ru

81

6.6.


, s
,
.
,
,
( 1200).

. .
(3.2) , , ,

, .
I& = I& 1 + I& 2 + I& 0

I& = I&1 + I& 2 + I& 0

I& = a 2 I& 1 + aI& 2 + I& 0 ,


I& = aI& 1 + a 2 I& 2 + I& 0

I& = a 2 I&1 + aI& 2 + I& 0 ,


I& = aI&1 + a 2 I& 2 + I& 0

1
3
1
3
, a2 = j .
a= + j
2
2
2
2

,
I& = I& 1

I& = a 2 I& 1

I& = aI& 1

I& = I&1

I& = a 2 I&1 .
I& = aI&1

I& + I& + I&


I& + I& + I& = 0 , (3.2)
B

=0

I&
I&
I&
I&
Z& Z&
jX
= B = C = 1 =
=
= D& I ,
&
&
&
&
&
&
R + jX
I I B I C I 1
Z Z

X = L

0 D
D
ln
ln

2 r2
s

0 2s
ln .
2 d

,
I& = I& 2
I& = I& 2
I& = aI& 2 .
I& = aI& 2
I& = a 2 I& 2

I& = a 2 I& 2

I& + I&B + I& C = 0


I& + I&B + I&C = 0 , (3.2)
I&
I&
I&
I&
Z& Z&
= B = C = 2 =
= D& I .
I& I&B I&C I& 2
Z& Z&

,
I& = I& 0
I& = I& 0
I& = I& 0 I& = I& 0 .
I& = I& 0

www.zeu.ru

I& = I& 0

82

I&

I& = I& B = I& C = I& 0


= I&B = I&C = I&0 , (3.2)
I&
I&
I&
I&
Z& + 2Z&
R + jX 0
= B = C = 0 =
=
= D& I 0 ,
&
&
&
&
&
&
R 3 + R + jX 0
I I B I C I 0
Z + 2Z

X 0 = L

0 D
D
+ 2 ln
ln

2 r2
s

= L

0 D
ln
.
2 3 r2 s 2

, D& I 0 > D& I . ,


,
, .. .
,

I& 0 0 I& 0 0 .

I&
I& + I& 2 + I& 0
D& I& + D& I I& 2 + D& I 0 I& 0
= 1
= I 1
I& I& 1 + I& 2 + I& 0
I& 1 + I& 2 + I& 0
I&B
a 2 I&1 + aI& 2 + I& 0
a 2 D& I I& 1 + aD& I I& 2 + D& I 0 I& 0
=
=
I&B a 2 I&1 + aI& 2 + I& 0
a 2 I& 1 + aI& 2 + I& 0
I&C
aI&1 + a 2 I& 2 + I&0
aD& I I& 1 + a 2 D& I I& 2 + D& I 0 I& 0
=
=
I&C aI& 1 + a 2 I& 2 + I& 0
aI& 1 + a 2 I& 2 + I& 0

I&
I&
= D& I + (D& I 0 D& I ) 0
I&
I&
I&B
I&
= D& I + (D& I 0 D& I ) 0
(6.4)
I&B
I& B
I&C
I&
= D& I + (D& I 0 D& I ) 0
I&C
I& C

I& 0 0 ,
(6.4).
P = P (1 + P P ) ,
, I& I& , ,
(6.4), I& 0 I& . I& 0 I&
, .
2

P
I&
R
I&
F
= =
&
&
P I R
I F
PB
I&
R
I&
F
= B = B
PB
I& B
R
I& B
F
PC
I&
= C
PC
I& C

www.zeu.ru

R
I&
= C
R
I& C

(6.5)

F
83

,

, .. I& 0 = 0 , I& 0 = 0 . (6.4)

P
DP =
P

I&
I&
I&
= B = C = D& I ,
I& I& B I& C
2
P
P
R
= B = C = D& I = D& I
PB PC
R

F
,

,
,
, D& D , ,

, .
( ) I& = D& I&
P = D P , , -
.
I

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84

7.

,
, L
L = L = L = L 3 .


L L L .
,
( ).
.
1

7.1.
,
.7.1.

U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& )
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& ) .
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& )
Z& ,
- 1-, 2-, 3-
, .
A1

A 2

A 3

.7.1. .

(
(

)
)

I& B = I& A 0.5 j 0.5 3


.
I& C = I& A 0.5 + j 0.5 3

, U&

A1

www.zeu.ru

+ U& A 2 + U& A3 = 0 .

85

, (
, )
I&
I&
I&
I&
(Z& Z& ) K& ,
= = = =
(7.1)
I& I&
I&
I&
(Z& Z& )
A

K& T =

K&

L1 + 0.5 j 0.5 3 L2 + 0.5 + j 0.5 3 L3


,
L1 + L2 + L3

(7.2)

.
(7.1) (5.1)

I&
jX
K& T ,
=
R + jX
I&

R X ()
L , (/).
,
,

I
I&
= =
I
I&
P
=
P

1
R
1+
X

R / R

K ,

K ,
2

R

1 +
X

(7.3)

(7.4)

[L1 0.5(L2 + L3 )]2 + [0.5 3 (L2 L3 )]

K = K& =
.
L
R X ()
L , (/).
, ,
( K& = 1 ),
D = I& I& D = P P = D R R .
(7.2)
, .7.1. (7.3)
(7.4) .7.2.
.7.2 ,
, ,

.
, ,
4 .
K

www.zeu.ru

86

.7.1. .

L1 = L ,
L2 = L3 = 0

L1 = 0 ,
L2 = L3 = 0.5 L

L1 = 0.5 LK
L2 = L3 = 0.25LK

L1 = L2 = L3

.7.2. ( ).

K& T

L1 = L ,
L2 = L3 = 0

DI

DP

L1 = 0 ,
L2 = L3 = 0.5 L

0.5

0.5DI

0.25 DP

L1 = 0.5 LK
L2 = L3 = 0.25LK

0.25

0.25 DI

0.0625 DP

L1 = L2 = L3

.7.2 :
( )

;
(, 1 ),

, ,
( 4 ) .

www.zeu.ru

87

7.2. ( )


,
,
( ,

).
,
,
I& + I& + I& = 0 , I& + I& + I& = 0 .
I& (7.1),
U&
= (Z& Z& ) L (1 K& ),
I&

U&
= (Z& Z& ) L (1 K& ) ,
&
A

A1

A 3

I C

(Z& Z& ) = jX = jX / L .
( .7.1)
U& U&

*

U 1 =

L1
1 K& T X I
LK

L
U 2 = 3 1 K& T X I
LK

(7.5)

(7.5) I
L ( X ),
( L L , L L , K ).
(7.5)
1

U 1
L
= 1 1 K& T
XI L K

U 2
L
= 3 1 K& T
XI
LK

(7.6)

,
.7.3.
.7.3 ,
,
.

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88

.7.3. (7.6), .

K& T
1 2

L1 = L ,
L2 = L3 = 0

L1 = 0 ,
L2 = L3 = 0.5 L

0.5

0.75

L1 = 0.5 LK
L2 = L3 = 0.25LK

0.25

0.375

0.1875

L1 = L2 = L3

0.333

0.333

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89

8.
8.1. ,


, , , . ,
( )
.
Q
, , :
,
, (.8.1);
,
, 2-3 (.8.1-8.2).

.8.1,. QxABC.

.8.1,. QxA.

www.zeu.ru

90

.8.2,. QxABC.

.8.2,. QxA.

, :
;
L ;

.

www.zeu.ru

91

.8.3 Q , .

- ,
.
, (3.2), ,
Q . Q
Z& ,
. .8.1
Z& Z& .
12

12

A1

I1

B1

I1

C1

I1

A2

I2

B2

I2

C2

I2

I1
I1
I1

I2

I2
I2

.8.3. , Q
( ).
.8.1. , .
()
*
*
*
Z& = R + jM
( / )
()
*
*
*
Z& 12 = R + jM 12
( / )
D
()
*
M = 0 ln
( / )
2 s
()
( / )

( )
( )
www.zeu.ru

M 12 =
*

0 D
ln
2 s12

s
s12

92

Q ,
Q 1 .

: Q QxA.
, .8.1,
( s >> s ):
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& )
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& )
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& )
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& )
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& )
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& )
12

12

12

12

12

12

12

, .8.1,
( s >> s ):
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& )
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& )
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& )
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& )
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& )
U& = Z& I& + Z& I& + Z& (I& + I& ) + Z& (I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& + I& )
12

12

12

12

12

12

12

, (3.2),
,
.
- Q ,
. .8.2-8.4
I ( ) Q .
Q = 1
4.

www.zeu.ru

93

.8.2,. Q ( Q Q ). QxABC.



Z& 0 = Z& + 2 Z& + 3(Q 1)Z& 12
1

Z& 1 = (Z& Z& )

2
2
Z& + 2 Z& + 3(Q 1)Z& 12 ]
[
Z& Z& )
(

&
&
&
&
&
&
&
2
Z 0 = [Z + 2 Z + 3(Q 1)Z 12 ]
Z 1 = (Z Z )

[Z& + 2Z& + 3(Q 1)Z& 12 ]
Z& Z&

[Z& + 2Z& + 3(Q 1)Z& 12 ]2

Z& 1 = (Z& Z& )


3
Z& 0 = [Z& + 2 Z& + 3(Q 1)Z& 12 ]
[Z& + 2Z& + 3(Q 1)Z& 12 ]
( N
)
.8.2,. Q ( Q Q ). QxA.



Z& 0 = Z& + (Q 1)Z& 12 + 2QZ&
Z& 1 = Z& + (Q 1)Z& 12 QZ&
1

2
2
Z& + (Q 1)Z& 12 + 2QZ& ]
[
Z& + (Q 1)Z& 12 QZ& ]
[

&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
2
Z
=
Z
+
Q

1
Z
+
2
Q
Z

[
(
)
]

12

0
Z1 = [Z + (Q 1)Z 12 QZ ] [Z& + (Q 1)Z& 12 QZ& ]
[Z& + (Q 1)Z& 12 + 2QZ& ]

Z& + (Q 1)Z& 12 + 2QZ& ]


[
&
&
&
&
&
&
&
&

Z1 = Z + (Q 1)Z 12 QZ
3
Z 0 = [Z + (Q 1)Z 12 + 2QZ ]
[Z& + (Q 1)Z& 12 + 2QZ& ]
( N
)

www.zeu.ru

94

.8.3,. (), ( QxABC).



(3)
(1)


1 & * & * &
1 & *

*
(
Z Z ) I L
[
Z + (Q 1)Z& 12 ] I& L
1

K = 1 ,2,.

2
3

1 & * & * &


Z Z I L
3N

N = 1 ,2,.

.8.3,. (), ( QxA).



(3)
(1)


1 & *
1 & *

*
*
*
[
Z + (Q 1)Z& 12 QZ& ] I& L
[
Z + (Q 1)Z& 12 ] I& L
1

K
K
K = 1 ,2,.

2
3

N = 1 ,2,.

1 & *
*
*
Z + (Q 1)Z& 12 QZ& I& L
3N

.8.4. ( )
.


D& =

QxABC
QxA

www.zeu.ru

D& =

I&
Z& Z&
=
I&
Z& Z&

I&
Z& + (Q 1)Z& 12 QZ&
=
I&
Z& + (Q 1)Z& 12 QZ&

95

8.2.
.8.2-8.4 , 10
Q = 1 , Q = 2 , Q = 3 ,
500/95 2 c .
,
.


s=d
s12 = 10d
s = 10d
s12 = d

QxABC
QxA

= 100 ,
D = 1130
(. .3.5), , . -
-
Z .

Q L = 1000 . QxABC.
Q
Z 0 ,
Z 1 ,

1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3

0.040+j0.083
0.040+j0.083
0.040+j0.083
0.057+j0.078
0.057+j0.078
0.057+j0.078
0.040+j0.083
0.040+j0.083
0.040+j0.083

0.188+j1.984
0.336+j3.451
0.484+j4.919
0.247+j0.043
0.249+j0.034
0.249+j0.030
0.247+j0.043
0.249+j0.034
0.249+j0.030

Q L = 1000 . QxA.
Q
Z 0 ,
Z 1 ,

www.zeu.ru

1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3

0.040+j0.227
0.040+j0.372
0.040+j0.517
0.143+j0.126
0.195+j0.114
0.218+j0.097
0.040+j0.227
0.040+j0.372
0.040+j0.517

0.188+j1.695
0.336+j3.307
0.484+j4.919
0.245+j0.046
0.248+j0.034
0.249+j0.030
0.245+j0.046
0.248+j0.034
0.249+j0.030

96

( )
.
Q
DI = D& I

1
2
3
1
2
3

QxABC

QxA

0.281
0.281
0.281
0.700
0.858
0.920

(), ( 1000, 1000) ( QxABC).


(1)

Q

(3)
= 100

K = 1

N = 1

1
2
3
1
2
3

61.5
61.5
61.5
20.5
20.5
20.5

697
1189
1680

(), ( 1000, 1000) ( QxA).


(1)

Q

(3)
= 100

K = 1

N = 1

1
2
3
1
2
3

206
351
496
69
117
165

697
1333
1969

:

Q
(QxABC QxA);

Q , ,
QxA;
QxABC
, ,
4 5, (1),
.

www.zeu.ru

97

Q
,
(QxABC QxA);
-
QxABC;

,


, .
:

QxABC,
.
:
,
N
, QxABC.
, ,

QxABC, , ,
:
(1, 1, 1) ;
(1, 2, ) .
,
Q ,
, ( ).
,

.
, , 1-
, 2- , 2-
, 1- (1, 1, 1
).
1, 1, 1 1- ,
2- .

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98

8.3.
,

( Q = 1 ), ,
, :
()
;



;
.

( Q = 2, 3... ) ,
,
(.8.1, .8.2,).
() :

, ,
.

QxA QxABC,
,
. QxABC.
1. Q -
QxABC,
(.8.4).
2. ,
, QxABC,
QxA, ,
(
.8.5 ).
3. ,

. QxABC.
4. , 1,
2 .. ,

. QxABC.
QxA 6-10
50-100 ,
2-3 . ,
(
), QxA (.8.6,).
www.zeu.ru

99

.8.4. QxABC.

.8.5. QxA.

.8.6. QxABC () QxA ()


, , , ,
.

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100

9.

9.1.



. ,
, ..
(.9.1).
-
.
, ,
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0
250 ,
.

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: (1), (1,1), (2), (3).
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(2) .
(3),
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(1,1) ,
.
I
t
K

Q * = I R t ,
2

R = F 1 ; F
.
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Q .
Q Q .
*

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101


I Q = Q ,
*

I =

Q F

1
1
= I K1
,
t
t

(9.1)

I ,
t = 1 .
,
Q T = 250 0.

F I
.
,
, t = 1 ,
, (9.1),
I 1 t .
, I
F ,
(9.1) , F .
.
, T = 250 0
K1

K1

K1

K1

Q = m * CV (T T0 ) ,
*

m = V , V
; C
; T
( ),


0
, 90 .
,
, V = V = V L = F ,
*

Q = V F CV (T T0 ) .
*

Q , (9.1)
*

I = A F

1
1
= I K1
,
t
t

(9.2)

A ,
.
(9.2), , ,
,
I = A F I
F .
K1

www.zeu.ru

K1

102

A = 0.2 /2, .. F = 50 2

I = 10 .
(9.3) F
I t

K1

I
F t ,
A

(9.3)

I .9.1 ( . ).
.9.1. .

(9.3)

6-35

0.87 I K (3)

0.87 I K (3)


(
)
110-500

,
-

I R = U

3 RN

D I I K (3)
I K (1)

I K (1) ,
I K (3) ,

U ,

RN ,
DI (5.1).

,
( )
.

.

, . ,
( )
,
.
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103


,
, ()
, .
, ( )

,
.

.9.2. , .

.9.3. ,
.

I
, .. .
F I t
,
L . .9.2-9.3
.
K

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104

9.1.1. - -
- - (
110-500 )
, , .9.4,.
(1), I K (1)
(9.3) .

.9.4. : (1) ()
(1,1) ().
9.1.2. ()
()
(1,1),


, .9.4,.
: (, -1)
,
.

- (, -2)
,
.

() ,
( )
. ,
, (. .9.4,),
, , .
(1,1) ,
, ,
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105

( ).
(1,1) ,
. (1,1)
()
I K (1,1) =

3
I K (3 ) 0.87 I K (3 ) ,
2

.
()
(9.3) 0.87 I K (3) .
.

.
,
,
K (3 )


I ,
. , (
),
, (1)
(1,1).
(1) ,
F ,
I , .
.
9.1.3. -

I R = U

3 RN ,

U (. .9.5).
R ,
:
;

.
, I
.
,
I .
,
, .
N

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106


() : (9.3)
0.87 I K (3) .
(
)
(1): (9.3) I K (1) (U 3 ) R N .


, , ,
() .

,
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, ,
,

. , (9.3)
D I ( ) , D = I I
(5.1), I ( ) ,
.
I

K 3

K 3

.9.5.
- .

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107

9.2.
.9.4
(1) (1,1). .9.4, ;
.9.4, , ..
,
. , (1)
(1,1)
I , -1,
, . (1)
, (1,1)
.
9.2.1.
, ,
. ,


( .9.6, I , I ),
.
, ..
. , .9.6,:
Z = Z
;
E = E ;
, .. .
&

&

&

&

.9.6. , .

(.9.7) -
L L (
L = L L ). (1)
.9.2, .9.3.
.9.3. , , .9.7,
, .
(1) .4.4
1

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108

I&1 = I&2 = I&0 =

Z&1

E& 1
,
+ Z& 2 + Z& 0

.3.7
I&1 = I&2 = I&0 =

E&1
,
3Z& + 3Z&

I& = I&1 + I&2 + I&0 =

E&1
,
Z& + Z&

.9.3.
.9.2. (1) .9.7.


(..
, .9.7,)

I& =

(..
, .9.7,)

Z& C + Z& L 1 + Z& L 2


*

L1

""

L2
""

B
C
L1
""

E&1

Z& C + Z& Z& L 1

I& =

E& 1

L2

I
""

.9.7. - ,
() ().

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109

.9.3. .9.2.
I
( I )





L1 = 0 , L 2 = L

(..
, .9.7,)

I& =

(..
, .9.7,)

I& =

E& 1
Z& C

L1 = L , L 2 = 0

I& =

E& 1
Z& C + Z L
& *

E& 1

Z& C + Z& Z& L

I& =

E& 1
Z& C + Z& L
*

, Z Z < Z . ,
.9.3, ,
, .
,
(9.3) I = I = E / Z .
I = I = E / (Z + Z L )
.
(9.3) (
) K
*

&

&

&

&

&

& *

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

K& = 1 +

Z& L
.
Z& C

.9.6,, :

(
Z I ).
, Z < Z ( I > I )
2- , (I / I )
. ,
(. .9.8).


, . ,
.

(, , 10- ).
,
. , :
,
, - ;
&

&

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110

-
- .
, 6-500 ,
,
(,
) (6-35 ) .

.

.9.8. ,
.
,
3- ,
( )
( ,
). ,
6-500
. , , :
D ,
,
D , .. X 0 X 1 ;


(, 110-500 ),


;
.

9.2.2.



-.

,
.
www.zeu.ru

111

(1) ,
(1,1) .
- L
L 1 ( L 2 = L L 1
). .9.9,;
.9.9,.

A
a)

I1

I2
I1

I
""

I2

""

I1

I2
I1

I2

I
""

""

.9.9. - .
,
I& 1 , .. I& 2 << I&1 ,
I& << I& 1 , I& << I&1 . I& 2 = 0 , I& = 0 , I& = 0 .
, ,
(3.2),
U& = Z& 1 I&1 + Z& 1 I&1 + Z& 2 I&2 + Z& I& + Z& I&
U& = Z& 1 I& 1 + Z& 1 I&1 + Z& 2 I&2 + Z& I& + Z& I& ,
U& = Z& 1 I&1 + Z& 1 I&1 + Z& 2 I&2 + Z& I& + Z& I&

1 ,
L 1 , 2 L 2 ,
L = L1 + L 2 .

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112

U& = U& = U& = 0 (


), I&1 = I&2 I&1 (
), I& = I&C ( ).
.9.9
I& 1 :
I&2
Z& Z&
L
=
1 ,
(9.4)
2
&
L
I&1
Z
2

Z&
Z& + Z&
I&
I&
Z& Z&
Z&
L
= =

1 ,
(9.5)
2
&
&
&
&
&
L
I 1 I 1
Z + Z &
2Z
Z
Z& + Z&
I&1 I&2
=
1 .
(9.6)
I&1 I&1
I& + I&2 + I& + I& = 0
I&
Z& Z&
Z& Z&
L
=
(9.7)

1 .
2
&
&
&
L
I 1
Z + Z &
2Z&
Z
Z& + Z&

, (9.4)-(9.7)
(1) ( L = L )
.4.9 I , I , I
, I = I .
L 0 , (9.4)
I / I 0 , (9.6) I / I 1 , .. :

, .9.9,;
.
,
6-500 , ,
(1)
(1,1)
.
L .
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2
240/50 ,

10 1 .
,
, ,
. [6] ,

1

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

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113

F / F , ()
( .9.10). ,
[6],
, ,
.

.9.10. .

, .9.10
,
- .
.
, .9.10
, [6]
- , ,
-
. [6]
, - [6]
.
[6]
,
,
( ) (. (9.4)-(9.6)).
,
, .. (
) .
( .9.11-9.12
;
).
.
.9.11
I = I
&

&

U& 2 = Z& 2 I&2 + 2Z& 2 I&2

U& 2 = Z& 2 I&2 + (Z& 2 + Z& 2 )I& 2

2 ,
L = 0.5L .
2

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114

.9.11. -
, .

.9.12. -
, .

, U = U = U ,
I = I = I .
2-
I + I + I + I = 0 . ( I 0 )
I = I = I = 0 , U = U = U = 0 . , ,
,
, ..
. ,
, .9.11
.9.9 0.5L .
.9.11 ( 0 L 0.5L )
(9.4)-(9.7), L / L ,
L / 0.5L , .. I / I = f (2 L / L ) .
&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

www.zeu.ru

&

&

115

.
.9.12 I = I
&

U&

U&

Z&

Z&

I&

1 1
1

I&

1 +

Z&

Z&

I&

1 1

1 + (

I&

2 Z&

Z&

I&

1 1

&

&
&
1 + Z 1 )I 1

1 ,
L = 0.5L .
, U = U = U ,

1

&

(Z& Z& ) I&


(Z& Z& )
1

D& I&
I

&

&

+ I&1 = I&1 ,

+ I&1 = I&1 = I&1 ,

D = ZZ ZZ = ZZZZ ,


.
( I 0 ) ,
I , .. I + I + I + I 0
I + I + 2 I = 0 .
&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

I&1
1 + 2 D& I
=
,
3
I&1

(9.8)

I&1
I&
1 D& I
= 1 =
.
3
I&1 I&1

(9.9)

0.5L L L ,
, (9.8)-(9.9),
L .
(9.8)-(9.9) :
D = 1 I
;
D = 0 I
.
,

D . , D
F
.
, ,
,
.
,
, ,
,
1

&

&

&

&

&

www.zeu.ru

&

116

( )

.
.
, ()

, . ,

, .
9.2.3.

(9.4)-(9.7)
2
2
500/95 240/50 10 .
I& 1 (1,1) (
,
).
, .. s / d , s
, d = 2r4 .
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( s / d = 1 ),
(9.4)-(9.7) L1 / L .
= 100 .
N& + M& N& + M& ,
.9.13
.9.14.
1

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0
0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

.9.13. (9.4)-(9.7) s / d = 1 240/50 2


L1 / L .
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117

.9.13 ,
- (
) ,
. ,
,
I I .
&

&

.9.14. (9.4)-(9.7) s / d = 1 240/50 2


L 1 / L = 0.5 .

0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0
0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

.9.15. (9.6) 240/50 2


s / d L1 / L .

.9.15
.
I / I = f (L / L ) , ..

, ,
.
&

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&

118


.

, :
, , ;
,
, .
, (
), ,
(1)
(1,1) .
L .
(.9.10), ,
[6],
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( 6-10 ),
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.
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I
.
(9.4)-(9.9) .9.16-9.17
() ,
,
1 2. ,

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2
2 240/50 ,
500/95 ,
, .
, , , 1000/185 2
, ,
.
.9.15-9.16,
, (
) , ,

.
F
s / d
.
1

&

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119

,

.
1

0,8

0,8

0,6

0,6

0,4

0,4

0,2

0,2

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

.9.16.
240/50 2 . s / d L1 / L .
1 , 2 .

0,8

0,8

0,6

0,6

0,4

0,4

0,2

0,2

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

.9.17.
500/95 2 . s / d L1 / L .
1 , 2 .

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120

9.3.


, .. .
( ).

I
.
U ,
,
,

U = I

X = X

(R

+ R ) + X ,
2

(9.10)

, R = R L
L L :
*

X = L =

R = F ,

D
0
ln .
2
r2

9.3.1.
I = 10 ;
2
L = 1500 F = 50 ; ,
R = 0.5 .

2 10 8
1500 = 0.6
50 10 6


U = 10 (0.5 + 0.6) + 0 = 11 .

5.5 ( ),
U .
: -
.

,
. , I = 10 1
F = 50 2. (9.3),
I F ( I R ), ,
,
L > 1 2 : -
R =

LK =

.
-
, , ,
, -
.
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121

9.3.2.


,
, , (9.10), :
R ;
R .


(. .9.10).

(.9.17).
,
: (9.10) R R .

.9.17. .

/
, , ,
,
. ,
,
, .
/ ,
-
, , ,
,
.
9.3.3.
,
(.2.4)
, .

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122


.
R ,

-
( ) ,
.
( L )
, , , 30 .
.9.18. ,
L = 1 2 .
,
, ,
.
,
.
1 ,
1 , 2 , ..

.
1. , ,
,
.
2. ,
,
(
).

. .
3. .2
,
( ) ,
.

.9.18. .
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123

10.

10.1.

( ),
-,
.
, , ,
,
, .
.
(.10.1). ,
2 1 .
x12
2r1
d12

2r2

h1
h2

D12

h2

h1

.10.1. ( ).


( 0 )
( )
( ) [3,7]:

u = u + u ,
i = i + i ,

Z i = u u ,

Z ,
:
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124

Z ii =

60

Z ik =

60

ii
ik

2 hi
,

r
i

ln

Dik
,

d ik

ln

.
, ,
,
1 2 (.. u = 0 , i = 0 ).

u1 u1

=
u u ,
2 2

Z 11

Z
21

i1 u 1
.
=

Z 22 i2 u 2

Z 12

u1 = Z 11 i1 + Z 12 i 2

(10.1)

u 2 = Z 21 i1 + Z 22 i 2

.10.2. , 2
() , ().

.10.2,, 2 ,
.. i = 0 . 1
(10.1), ,
, u = Z i .
2

11

Z = Z 11

(10.2)
,

.10.2,, 2
.. u = 0 . (10.1) i
,
2

u1 =

Z 11

(Z 12 )2
Z 22

i1 ,

1
Z = Z 11

(Z 12 )2
Z 22

(10.3)

.. , , 2 .
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125

1 ,
2 , (10.2)-(10.3)
Z .
, h
(.10.3). (
0 ) Z Z ,
D = 2h , d = r :

ii

12

12

ik

Z 11

60

Z 22

60

Z 12

60

2
1

2h
,

r
1

ln

2h
,

r2

ln

2h
,

r2

ln


; .
1

.10.3. -.

, ,
: h = r
( ), h
.

, Z Z , (10.3)
4

12

60

22

r2
,

r1

ln

(10.3)

..

( ).
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126

.10.1. () ,
(10.3) . F
( ).
10
35
110
220
330
500
F , 2
4
8
15
23
28
34
120
240
300
400
500
630
800
1000
1200
1500

19,3
14,6
13,3
11,8
10,7
9,6
8,7
7,8
7,2
6,5

32,2
25,2
23,2
20,8
19,0
17,3
15,7
14,3
13,3
12,1

47,7
38,7
36,0
32,7
30,3
28,0
25,7
23,6
22,1
20,2

60,1
49,9
46,9
43,0
40,2
37,4
34,6
32,1
30,1
27,9

66,2
55,6
52,4
48,3
45,3
42,3
39,2
36,5
34,4
31,9

72,5
61,5
58,1
53,8
50,6
47,4
44,2
41,3
39,0
36,3

,
, 6-500 ,
, 50 100 ( (10.2)).

=

0
,
1

(10.4)

= 3 10 / . ,
= 2.4 = 2 10 / = 200 /.
8

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127

10.2.


( ),
. ,
: .10.4, ,
; .10.4, , .

.10.4. ()
().

.10.4,
, , (10.1) i = 0 :
Z
Z
u = u ,
u = u

Z
Z
, u (0.4 0.8) u .
, ,
, ..
, . ,
: t = 2L .
, L = 100 = 200 / t = 1
u ,
.
.10.4,, , ,
, ( u = 0 ) t .
, - ,
, ;
, .. ,
, ,
. (
)
.
2

21

21

11

11

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128

10.3.
, ,
. , .10.2, ,
.
, , ,
, .10.5
1 , ,
. ,
1
3, , ..
LK 3 -1. 3
-1 ,
, , 3

, 3.

.10.5. .

, , ,
, ,
: ,
( ) .
u (0.4 0.8) u .

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129

10.4.

u u
.

u , u .
, ( )

.
, u
, .
, 6-10
, 35-500
.

( )
().
.10.2-10.3 ,

.
,
.
, ,
-,
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,
, .
.10.2. .

www.zeu.ru

6-10

35-500


.10.3

130

.10.3. 35-500 .

( N )

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131

10.5.


, .
[8]
U W . , ,
U W .
( ) ,
U ,
(
, , ,
).
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W ,
,
2000 ,

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( 8/20 ,
30/60 ).
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()
;

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:
U ;
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U
U , ;
W ,
U , W = W U .
8 / 20

www.zeu.ru

30 / 60

132

U
U (
, ):
U

(T )

(T ) -
U (. .10.4)

.10.4. - ,
U .
(T )
T

,
0.1
1.40
1
1.35
10
1.30
100
1.23
1200
1.15
3600
1.10

U U
. T = 1 ( t = 1

),

K

U
.
1.35


U U , U = 5 ,
,

U
U
= 3.7 .
1.35

U
U U .
U , U U
8 / 20

8 / 20

U 30 / 60

30 / 60

( 2 U ) K
= ( 2 U ) K

U 8 / 20 =

30 / 60

8 / 20

30 / 60

K
K

, , ,
K = 2.1 K = 1.9 .
8 / 20

30 / 60

8 / 20

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30 / 60

133

U U
, .
U U ,
U ,

U , K
N .

( ), 10
, .
:
75 ;
40 .
U = ( 2 U ) K U = 40
K = 2.1, U = 13.5 . ,

13.5 .
,
: 3.7 U 13.5 . ,

6 10 ,
6 , .
8 / 20

8 / 20

30 / 60

30 / 60

8 / 20

8 / 20

8 / 20

8 / 20


, :
() ,
;
,
;
;
() ;
(,
, , ).
, ,
,
.
EMTP.
, ,
,
,
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134

W = 0.5 C LK
*

C

*
*
C +

K 2 U
3

(10.5)

C ;
; U ,
(. 1516.3-96); K
, , ,
K 2 ,
.
, ,

*

1 W
,

K U

(10.5)

1 W
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2 N U

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K .
, ,

W

2 N () , N
.
: ,
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EMTP.
,
U = 6 , ,
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W , /
150
220
330
500

1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0-5.0

,
, .
,
( K 2 ),
.
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135

11.

11.1.


6-500
.
:
;

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150

1. Wedepohl L.M., Welcox D.J. Transient analysis of underground power transmission


systems. Proc. Inst. El. Eng., 1973, vol.120, N2, pp.253-260.
2. EMTP Rule book. Bonneville Power Administration, Branch of System Engineering.
Portland, Oregon 97208-3621, USA,1986 (www.emtp.org).
3. .. . .:
.., 2004, 304 .
4. .., .. . .: , 1975. 256 .
5. 60287-1-1 (2006 .) . .
1-1. ( 100%-
) . .
6. .., .., ..
10
//, 4, 2002 . .30-31.
7. .., .. /
. .: , 1967.
8. .. 6-750 . .: , 2007. 60 .

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151

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