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1

. . .

. .



2000 .


:
1. ;
2. .

.


:
1. .
:

h(t)

2. .
:

k(t)

()
.


:
1. ,
.
2. .

- ;
- ;
- .


:
1. :
2. :

:
1.

.
2. .

( )
,

.

g(t)=1(t)

x(t)=h(t)


, :

G(s)

W(s)

X(s)

1
G(s)=L{1(t)}=
S

x(s)=W(s)G(s)

x(t)=L

11
x(s) =L W(s)
=h(t) .

h(t) :

11
h(t)=L W(s) .

() .
( )
, ,

- .
g(t)=
(t)

x(t)=k(t)


, :

G(s)

W(s)

X(s)

G(s)=L{ (t)}=1
x(s)=W(s)G(s)=W(s)

x(t)=L1{x(s)}=L1{W(s)}=k(t)
,

k(t)

k(t)=L1{W(s)}

1
L{h(t)}= W(s)
s

L{k(t)}=W(s)

W(s)=sL{h(t)}

sL{h(t)}=L{k(t)} .

s t , ..
dh(t)
k(t)=
dt

x(t)

g(t) :

x(t)= k(t )g( )d = k( )g(t )d .

, ,
,

( ),
.

g(t)=1(t)

x(t)=h(t)


, :

G(s)

W(s)

X(s)

1
{
}
G(s)=L 1(t) =
S

x(s) =W(s)G(s)

10

x(t)=L

11
x(s) =L W(s)
=h(t) .

h(t) :

11
h(t)=L W(s) .

:
1.

(s) .

: W

2.

11
h(t)=L W(s) .

1
W(s) .
s

11

() .
( )
, (),

- .
g(t)=
(t)

x(t)=k(t)


, :

G(s)

W(s)

X(s)

G(s)=L{ (t)}=1
x(s)=W(s)G(s)=W(s)

12

x(t)=L1{x(s)}=L1{W(s)}=k(t) .
,

k(t)

k(t)=L1{W(s)}.

:
3.

(s) .

: W
4.

W(s)

k(t)=L1{W(s)}.

.

13

1
L{h(t)}= W(s)
s

{sL{h(t)}=W(s)}

L{k(t)}=W(s)

,

.
,

sL{h(t)}=L{k(t)} .
,
S
t , ..

dh(t)
k(t)=
dt

,

.

14

x(t)

g(t) :

x(t)= k(t )g( )d = k( )g(t )d .



, RC-.

U(t)=g(t)=1(t)

U (t)=?

RC-
:

15

T U (t)+U (t)=U (t)=1(t)


(1)
:

U (S)
1
W(S)=
=
U (S) TS +1

(2)

h(t) ,

(1)

1 1
h(t)=L W(S)

(3)
(1)

U (t)=U 0 =const :

U (t)=U 0 U 0e

1
t .
T

(U 0=1(t)) :

16

1
t
(t)=1(t)1(t)e T

(t0)
1
t
h(t)=
1e T

t 0 .

(4)

h(t) (3):

1
1 1
h(t)=L
.

S TS +1

1 1

S TS +1

. :

1
A
B
ATS +A+BS (AT +B)
= +
=
=
S(TS +1) S TS +1
S(TS +1)
S(TS +

17

AT +B=0

A
=
1

B.

A=1,

B=T . :
1
1
T
=
.
S(TS +1) S TS +1
:


1
T

1
1 1
1 1

h(t)=L
=L
=L L
s(TS +1)

S TS +1

1
t
=
1(t)
1(t)e T
1
t
h(t)=
1e T

(4) (5) .
( ):

(5)

18

dh(t) 1 T t
k(t)=
= e
dt
T
(6)

.

()

g(t)=asin(t) ,

a ;

(1)

- .


, (1).
.

W(s) =

1
,
T s+1

(2)

(1),

19

x(t)=A()sin(t+()) ,
(3)
,

, A()

()
A() =

()=arctgT

1
1+T
2

(4)

( (2)).

A=A()

=()

20

.

:
1.

.
2. .
,

(t)+x(t)=asint ,
Tx
(1)

W(S) =

X (S)
1
=
G(S) T S+1

(2)

(1)
.

21

(1)

g(t)=asint ,

xH (t) = B1 s i tn+ B2 c ot s
,

B1 B2

(3)

(3) (1),

T (B1 c ost B2 s in t) +
+ (B1 s in t + B2 c ost) = a s in t

(B1 T B2 )sint + (B2 T B1) cost = asin


.

22

B1 B2

sint cos t :

B1 T B2 = a,
B2 T B1 = 0.

(4)

B1

B2 . :

;
B1= 2 2
T +1

T a
B2 = 2 2
T +1

(3),

a
T a
xH (t)= 2 2 sint
cost=
T +1
T 22+1

= 2 2 (sintT cost)=
T +1

23

a 1+T 22
1
T
=

sint
cos
2 2
2
2
2
2
1+T

1+T
1+T

a
1+T
2

sin(tarctgT)

sin=

1
1+T
2

cos=

T
1+T
2

sin
tg=
=T.
cos
, :

xH (t)=

a
1+T
2

sin(t+) ,

=arctgT
(5).

24

(5) .
1.

g(t)=asint


2.

A()=

a
1+T
2

(6)

()=arctgT

(7).
,

25

A( )

1
T

()

=
1
T

26

1
.
W(s)=
T s+1
(8)

(8)

s= j ,

1
W( j
)=
=
T ( j
)+
1
(1
T
j )
1
T
j
=
=
=
(1+
T
j )(1
T
j ) 1+
T 22
1
T
=

j
2
2
2
2
1+
T 1+
T

W( j) :

27

A()=W( j) =
=

1+
T 2

2
1+
T 2


=
,
2

1+T 22
=
(1+T 22)2

A()=

1
1+T
2

(9)

2
2
1
+
T

()=argW( j)=arctg
=arctg(T
1
1+T 2 2
,

()=arctg(T ) .
(10)

28

(10) (7),
(9) (6)

"a"

"a" (6)

, (6)

a =1

.
.

b0sm+...+bm
.
W(s)=
n
a0s +...+am
(11)

s= j

W( j)
W( j)=U ()+ jV ()
(12)

29

U () - W( j) ;

V () - W( j) .

W( j) -

, ..

A()=W( j) = U 2()+V 2()


W( j)

(13)

, ..
() = argW( j) = arctg

V ()
.
U ()

(14)

W (. )
W( j)

()

A() ,

30

ImW( j
) =jV (
)

(
)

U (
)

(
)
V (
)

ReW( j
)=
U (
)

A(
)

0 ()
, - .
-- ,

s= j

W A()

().

- -
.

31

-
,

W( j) ,

L()=20lgW( j) =20lg A() .

(), .
,
,
( ,
).

,
20 , ..

20lg A() .

32

Lm()=20lg A()=20lgW( j)

[] .
Lm( ) [ ]
40

20
24
15

0,1

25

23

10

100

[ 1/ c]

1000

-20
50

10

15

24

30

35

39

42

45

48

50

33


,
.
,
.
, ,

B(s) b0sm+b1sm1+...+bm1s+bm
W(s)=
=
A(s) a0sn +a1sn 1+...+an 1s+an
(1)

34


,
.
,
:

k1 , (s+1)
.

( 2 s2 + 2 s+1)

(2)

(1)
(2) :

1
1
1
,
,
.
2 2
s T s+1 T s +2T s+1
(3).
,
(2) (3)
.

35

G(S)

S +3S +3.25S+2.5
4
3
2
S +4S +5.5S +7.5S

W(S) =

X(S)

X (S)
S3 + 3S2 + 3.25S+ 2.5
= 4
;
G(S) S + 4S3 + 5.5S2 + 7.5S


1
2

1 = 2;2,3 = j


1
2

1 = 0;2 = 3;3,4 = 1.5 j

:
1
1 2
1
2 1.25 ( S + 1)(
S +
S + 1)
(S + 2)(S2 + S + 1.25)
2
1.25
1.25
W(S) =
=
1
1 2
1
S(S + 3)(S2 + S + 2.5)
3 2.5 S( S + 1)(
S +
S + 1)
3
2.5
2.5

:
k=

21.25 2.5 1
=
= = 0.333...
3 2.5 7.5 3

1 =

22 =

212 =

1
= 0.8;
1.25

1
= 0.8;
1.25

1
= 0.5
2

2 = 0.8944
1 =

(S2):

0.8
0.8
=
= 0.447
2 2 1.789

(S):

36

T1 =
T22 =

22T2 =

1
= 0.4;
2.5

1
= 0.333...
3

0.4
0.4
1
=
= 0.4; 2 =
2 T2 1.265
2.5

W(S) =

(S2):

T2 = 0.63246

2 = 0.3162

k( 1S + 1)( 2 S2 + 21 2S + 1)
S(T1S + 1)(T22S2 + 2 2T2S + 1)

.
:

G(s)

X(s)

W(S) = k

x(t) = k g(t)
:

h(t)=k1(t) .

(S):

37

h(t)
1

U () = k

Lm()=20lg k

V () = 0 ; A()=k

Lm( )
0 /

20lgk

.

,

38

W(s) =

k
;
s

(1)

G(s)

1
s

X(s)

k = 1

g(t)

x(t)

:
W(S) =

k
X (S)
=
; SX (S) = kG(S)
S G(S)

39

dx
= kg(t)
dt

(2)

.
.

1.1
g(t) =1(t);

(t) = k 1(t);
x


:
x(t) = k t = h(t);

h(t)

arctgk
t

1.2 .
g(t) = (t); k(t) =

dh
=k
dt

40

k(t)
k

2.1.

--

.
W(S) =

k
S

-
W( j) =

S = j ;

k
k j
k
=

= j
j
j j

U () = 0;

V () =

A() = U 2 () + V 2() =

V (
)

U (
)

() = ;
2

41

2.2.

- .
A() =

A()

2.3.

- .
() =

(
)

.
2.4.

.
Lm() =20 lgW( j) =20 lg A() =20lg k 20lg

42


20 .
/.

Lm( )
20lgk

(
)
1

Lm()

Lm()

- 20

43


,

W(S) =

k
TS + 1

(1)

G(S)

__k__
TS +1

X (S)


:
k-

( )
;

T - .

44

1
d1S + d0

(1)

:
W(S) =

1
1
=
d1S + d0 d ( d1 S + 1) ;
0
d0

T=

d1
;
d0

k=

1
d0

:
W(S) =

k
TS + 1

,
.
W(S) =

k
X (S)
=
;
TS + 1 G(S)

(TS +1) X (S) = kG(S)

dx(t)
+ x(t) = kg(t)
dt

(2)

45

.
.
1.1.

.
g(t) =1(t);

(2) .
(2) :
(t) + x(t) = k 1(t);
Tx

,

1
t

x(t) = k(1 e T ) = h(t)

h(t)
k

h(t)

1/ T
1.2.

g(t) = (t);

46

h(t) =

dh k T t
= e
dt T

k(t)

k(t)

1/

:
1.3.

--

.
W(S) =

k
;
TS + 1


W( j) =

T ( j) +1 ;


W( j ) =

S = j ;

k
T ( j ) + 1

W( j)

k
1 Tj
k
Tk

=
j
.
2 2
1+ Tj 1 Tj 1+ T
1+ T 2 2

:
U ( ) =

k
;
1+ T 2 2

V ( ) =

Tk
.
1+ T 2 2

--
V ()

U ()

47

V 2 ()
= T 2 2 .
2
U ()


U ( ) =

U () :

k
U 2 ( )k
=
V 2 ( ) V 2 ( ) + U 2 ( )
1+ 2
U ( )

U 2 () kU () +V 2 () = 0,

:
2

k
k2

2
U () + V () =
2
4

-
V () = 0 ;

U () =

k
.
2

,
R=

k
.
2

--

V ()

U ()

48

V ( )
k/2
( )

A( )

U ( )
= 0

2.2.

()


A() = U 2 () +V 2 ()

V ()
A() =

U ()

k
T 2 +1
2

A( )
k

= 1/ T

2.3. - .

()

49

() = arctg

V ()
U ()

V ()

U ()

:
() = arctgT .

(
)

=
1/ T

,
.

2.4. -
.

:
Lm( ) = 20lgW( j ) = 20lg A( ) .

50

A( ) =

k
1+ T 2 2

k
Lm( ) = 20lg
= 20lg k 20lg 1+ T 2 2
2 2
1+ T


Lm() = 20lg k 20lg 1+T 22

:
-

: 0 ;
-

Lm() 20lg k -

: ;

Lm() 20lg k 20lgT

(-20 /) .

;20lg k .
T

() = arctgT

51

Lm( )

{
1/ T ;20lgk}

20lgk
20

20lgk
20lgT

=
1/ T

10

100

1000

(
)

=
1/ T
1

10

100

1000

( ) .
= 1/ T , :

= 20lg k 20lg k 20lg T 22 + 1 = 10lg(T 22 + 1) = 10lg 2 3.03

, -
,
().

52

-
.
1.

= 1/ T .

2.

3.

20lg k .
20lg k ,

, = 1/ T .
4.

;20lg k
T

20.

.
5. -

53

W(S) =

k
T S + 2TS + 1
2

(1)

G(S)

k
X (S)
T S + 2 TS + 1
2

k-

() ;

T - ;
-
0 < 1.

d S2 + d S + d
2
1
0
(1) :
1
d0
1
W(S) =
=
;
2
d2S + d1S + d0 d2 S2 + d1 S + 1
d0
d0

54

k=

1
;
d0

T2 =

d2
;
d0

T=

d2
;
d0

2T =

d1
;
d0

d d
d1
d1
= 1 0 =
;
2Td0 2d0 d2
2 d0d2

(1).
:

k
X (s)
W(s)= 2 2
=
T s +2T s+1 G(s)
;

(T 2s2 +2T s+1)X (s)=kG(s)

2
d
x(t)
dx(t)
2
T
+2T
+x(t)=kg(t)
2
dt
dt

(2)

. ,

55


.
(2)

T 22 +2T +1=0
(3)
( (1)),

2 1

T2

1,2 =

0<1,

=
T

2 1
T

(3)

-:

1=+ j

2 = j

(4)

1 2
=
T

56

g(t)=0)

x0(t)=e t (C1 sin t+C2 cos t)

(5)

1 2 .

1.

>1,

.
2.

=0,

=1/ T .

=0

57

.
1.1.

g(t) =1(t) ;

(2) .
(2)
(5).

T2

d2 x(t)
dx(t)
+ 2T
+ x(t) = k1(t)
2
dt
dt

x (t) = k .

(6)

(6)


x0(t) = et (c1 sint + c2 cost) + k

(7)

1 2
:
x(0) = 0;

dx(0)
= 0.
dt

58

(t) = et (c1 sint + c2 cost) + et (c1 cost c2 sint).


x

x(0) = C2 + k = 0

dx(0)
= C2 + C1 = 0
dt


1 2.
:
C1 =

k
1 2

C2 = k .

(7) :

C1
C2
x(t) = C 21 + C 22 e t
sin t +
cos t + k
2
2
C 21 + C 22
C 1+C 2

(8)

cos =

C1
C 21 + C 22

sin =

C2
C 21 + C 22

C
= arctg 2 .
C1

(8) (
1 2):

C 21 + C 22 =

k
1 2

1 2

t
1
T

x(t) = k 1
e sin
t + = h(t)
T

1 2

1 2
= arctg

(9)

59

(9)
(

)
1 2
T


lim h(t) = k
t

h(t)

, .

h(t)
A1
A2

h(t)

Tk

Tk

A1, A2 -

- ;

h(t)

60

1.
h(t) .
k = lim
t

2.

1 2
Tk = 2
T

Tk
A1
=e T .
A2

1.2.

k(t)

, (9)
k(t) =

dh(t)
k
=
dt
1 2

T 1 2

e T sin

t
1 2

1 2

t
1 2
e T sin
t + + e T
cos
t + =

T
T
T
T

1 2
t
T

(10)

k(t)

61

.
,
,
W(S) =

k
T S + 2TS + 1
2

S = j .

[
[

]
]

(
k
k
1 T 2 2 ) 2 T j
W( j ) =
=

=
T 2 2 + 1+ 2 T j (1 T 2 2 ) + 2 T j (1 T 2 2 ) 2 T j
=

k(1 T 2 2 )

(1 T ) + ( 2T )
2

2 2

2Tk

(1 T ) + ( 2T )
2

2 2

U ( ) =

k(1 T 2 2 )

(1 T ) + ( 2T )

V ( ) =

1.3.

2 2

(11)

2Tk

(1 T ) + ( 2T )
2

2 2

(12)

-
:
A() = U 2 () +V 2 ()

62

(11) (12) :
A( ) =

(1 T ) + ( 2T )
2

2 2

(13)


.
A( )

=0

= 0,4
= 0,7

= 1/ T

0,707 < < 1

< 0,707

-
,

=0

1
- = T

.
1.4.

- .

63

:
() = arctg

V ()
.
U ()

arctg (11) (12)


- :
2 T
1

arctg1 T 2 2 ,

( ) =
2 T
1
arctg 2 2 ,
>
1 T
T

(14)

()

=1/ T

=0,4

=0,7

=0

-
0 0 .

, .

64

--

1.5.

.
V (
)

(
)

=
0

U (
)

A(
)

=
T

1
T

- ,

.
- -
.

Lm() =20 lg W( j) =20 lg A()

65

-
(13)
Lm() = 20lg k 20lg (1T 22 )2 + (2T)2

(15)


20lg k, << 1/ T

Lm() =
20lg k 40lgT, >> 1/ T

(16)

, 0
1/


20lg k .

> 1/ T -

40/.
Lm( )

Hm

20lgk
40 /

> 0,5

< 0,5
m
= 1/ T

66

0,5 < < 1

(
).

< 0,5

.

H m = 20lg

1
2 1 2


m =

1
1 2 2
T

,
-
.

H = 20lg

1
2

= 1/ T .

.
1.

= 1/ T .

2.

20lg k .

67

3.

20lg k ,

40/.
4.

,20lg k
T

40/.

5.

-
, ,
,
Hm

H .

68

.

,

W(S) = k(S +1)

(1)



k( S + 1)

G(S)

X (S)


:
1.

.
2.

- .

(d1S + d0 )

:
W(S) = d1S + d0 =

1 d1
S + 1
d0 d0

(1)

69

k=

1
;
d0

d1
.
d0

W(S) = k(S +1)

.
W(S) =

X (S)
= k(S + 1) ;
G(S)

X (S) = k(S +1) G(S) ;

x(t) = k

dg(t)
+ kg(t) .
dt

(2)

.
.
1.1
.
g(t) =1(t);

(2) .

70

dg(t)
= (t).
dt



:
h(t) = k{ (t) +1(t)}

1(t)

- (t) :

(3)

h(t)
h(t)
h(t)

.
,
,

W(S) = k(S +1)

S = j .

W(S) = k ( j) + k = k + k j

U () = k ;

V () = k .

(4)

71

2.1.

.

,

A() = U 2 () +V 2 ();

(4)
(5)

A() =k 1+ 22 ;

A( )

A( ) k

{ }

2.2. -
.

72


() = arctg

V ()
,
U ()

(4)
() = arctg

(6)

( )


, , .

2.3.

--

73

(4) (5).
--
,
V ( )

A( )

( )
k

U ( )

2.4.


Lm() =20 lg W( j) =20 lg A()

-
(5)

Lm() = 20lg k + 20lg 22 +1

74

:
1.

Lm() 20lg k.

2.

Lm() 20lg k + 20lg .

,
:
1

;20lg k.

1
= - .

1
<

20lg k ,

1
> 20 /.


1
. = ,

3.03 .

75

Lm( )

20 /.

20lgk

,20lgk

=1

.
1.

1
= .

2.

3.

20lg k .
20lg k

1
, = .
4.


20 /.

;20lg k

76

.
5.




.
.

G(S)

2S2 + 2 S + 1

W(S) = 2S2 + 2S +1
(t) +2g
(t) + g(t)
x(t) = 2g

:
h(t) = 2

d (t)
+ 2 (t) + 1(t)
dt

X (S)

77

h(t)
1.0

t
h

U () =1 2 2
V () = 2

A()= (122)2 +(2)2

78

arctg

2 2

2
1
( )=
2

>
arctg
2
2

2
1

Lm()=20lg (122)2 +(2)2

79

A( )

( )

1.0

V ( )

= 1/

A( )

( )

=0
1.0

U ( )

80

Lm( )
+2
40 /.

-,

.
-,

.
-
:

k
,
W(s)=
T s1

81

W(s)=k(s1)

k
W(s)= 2 2
.
T S 2T s+1
- ,
, -,
- -

k
.
W(s)=
T s1

Lm( )
20lgk

-20 /.

=
1/ T

(
)

=
1/ T

82

W(s) =T s1

83

Lm()
20lgk

20 /.

=1/ T

()

=1/ T

84