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2010 . 1 1 .

2354
511.622

. .
,
22.IV.2010

, .
: , , , , , .
On application of class groups of ideals of quadratic fields to the construction
of public key cryptosystems
M. M. Gluhov
Academy of Cryptography of Russian Federation, Moscow
Abstract. The paper contains a brief survey on cryptosystems based on imaginary and
real quadratic fields.
Key words: quadratic field, ring of integer numbers of quadratic fields, class group, algorithmic reduction of ideals, key exchange system, discrete logarithm problem.
Citation: Mathematical Aspects of Cryptography, 2010, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 2354 (Russian).
2010 . .

. .

24

, , Q (. [1273]).

Q. , ,
.
,
. ( )
. ,
, .
. :

Ln ( e, c ) = exp c ( log n ) ( log log n )


e

1 e

) , n N , cR, c > 0, 0 e 1,

Ln() = .

1.

[111].
( , ) Q, , Q. m ( x) .
, Q( ) Q
, n = [Q( ):Q]. m ( x) Q n
1 = , 2 , , n . , .
s t , (s, t) Q( ).
______________ ______________

25

Q( )

= a0 + a1 + ... + an 1 n 1 , a0 , a1 ,..., an 1 Q.
, (1, ,..., n 1 ) Q( ) Q. Q( ).
Q( ) ,
Q( ), m ( x) Z[x]. Q0( )
Q( ) . Q( ) r Z, r Q0( ). Q( )
, ,
. , , Q( ), Q0( )
, 0 0*.

Q .
. , i ,

i , i = 1, , n.
N( ) = 1 ( )... n ( ) Tr( ) = 1 ( ) + ... + n ( )
. N(x) Tr(x)
.
, :
N( ),Tr( ) Q, N( ) = N( )N( ) , Tr( + ) = Tr( ) + Tr( ) .

0 N( ),Tr( ) Z, |N( )
( N( ) 0), 0* |N( ) | = 1.
0* , 0*
m m- 1 s + t 1
.
0* , 0* .
I(0) 0. ,
I(0) v1,,vk,
= (v1,,vk).
____________________________ 2010, . 1, 1, . 2354 ____________________________

. .

26

, 0
= ( , ) , Z. (,+) n. ,
w1,,wn A,
(1)
= z1w1 + + zn wn ,
z1,,zn Z. Z- ,
= [w1,,wn]. (,+) (0,+),
N(A). ,
N(A) = [0:].
, .
= ( ), N(A) = |N( )|. .
n w1,,wn
d ( w1 ,, wn ) = ( w1 , , wn ) ,
2

( w1 , , wn ) = det i ( w j ) .

w1,,wn Z- , d(w1,,wn) , , = 0.
d(), , , d,
. , Z-.
N ( A) =

d ( A) / d .

, ,
N(AB) = N(A)N(B).
.

. , ,
, , ______________ ______________

27

0 , 0,

. , . , Z , , , , .
, , (I(0) , 0, . (I(0)
,
.
(1),
w1,,wk , z1,,zk
0. (1), w1,,wk .
. I().
, I(0) I() I()\ I(0)
0 .
. 0 .
, 0 , = , . . = (1/c)A. . ,
(0) 0,
= P1k1 ...Pmkm ,
P1 ,..., Pm , k1,,km
( ). ,
I() , ,
.
,
I1(). I()/I1()
( ) Cl().
, (
) h().
h() Cl() .
h() , ,
____________________________ 2010, . 1, 1, . 2354 ____________________________

. .

28

Q 2, . , .

2.
Q

( D ) , D 0 1 .

c Q , D < 0, ,
, D > 0. Q

( D)

= a + b D , a, b Q.
' = a b D . b 0,
x2 2ax + a2 b2D,
N( ) = a2b2D Tr( ) = 2.
,

Q0

( D) a

b 2 D, 2a Z.

Q
1) Q 0

( D ) = {a + b

2) Q 0

( D ) = a + b2

( D):

D ; a, b Z , D 1 (mod 4),
D

; a, b Z, a b ( mod 2 ) , D 1 (mod 4).

d Q

( D)

4D D, Z-

(1, D )

1+ D
1,
.
2

______________ ______________

29


(1, w), w =

d+ d
,
2

( D ) .
Q ( D ) (0,1), D < 0, (2,0), D > 0.

Z- Q


Q 0 D

( )

D < 0 D > 0. , <1> D < 3 <1>< >


D > 0, > 0 (
D ). ln Q

( D ) R(d), d -

( R d).
{0}:

b+ d
Z ,
A = q aZ +
2

q Q, a, b, c = ( b 2 d ) / 4a Z , q > 0, a > 0, ( a, b, c ) =1, a < b a.

q(a,b,c).
, q = 1, ,
(a,b,c) = 1, |b| a c b 0, |b| = a = .
a,b,c (a,b,c).
, 0 (0), ,
. .
Q 0 D ,

( )

, :
d
d
I a) = 1 Pi = [p, bi+w], i = 1,2,
p
p
, b1,b2
(2 + d)2 d (mod p);
____________________________ 2010, . 1, 1, . 2354 ____________________________

. .

30

d
I b) = 1 ();
p
d
I ) = 0 P = [p, w].
p

= 2 Q 0

( D ) , -

2, :
II a) d 1 (mod 8) P1 = [2, w], P2 = [2, 1+w];
II b) d 1 (mod 8), d 1 (mod 4) (2);
II c) d 1 (mod 4) P = [2, 1+w];
II d) d 2 (mod 4) P = [2, w].
, , Z,
Q 0

( D ) . , I a) II

a) (p) = P1P2, I c), II c) II d) (p) = P2.


, B Q 0

( D ) , -

( ), ( ) , ( ) = ( )B.
, Q

( D) .

( ( D )) ,

, Q

( ) = B. h(d)
:
h(d ) =

d
d
L(1, ) d < 4, (2)
L(1, ) d > 0, h ( d ) =

2 R(d )

|d|,
1

( p)
L(1, ) = 1
,
p
p

Z.
, :
h(d ) =

1
x
( x) ln sin
d> 0,

R(d ) 0< x < d / 2


d
( x , d ) =1

______________ ______________


h(d ) =

31

1
( x) x d < 0.
d 0< x < d
( x , d ) =1

,
h(d) d, h(d).
. , , ,
d

( d)

h(d)

( d)

1+

, 0 < <1.

: h(d) =

( d ),

= 0,461559

, , , ,
, h(d) d .
,
h(d). , h(d) = 1.

.
,
. h(d) , -, (McCurley .) [53, 32], , 1971 . (Shanks D.) [68].
.
(2)
,
h(d) 2B.
(
) :
f Cl(d) fh(d) = 1.
(3)

(babystepgiantstep) [B, 2B].
____________________________ 2010, . 1, 1, . 2354 ____________________________

. .

32

(3)
Cl(d) (Schoof R. J.) [66] Cl(d).
h(d) Ld(21/2). [53] , , ,
, Ld(321/2/4). , 321/2/41,06.
,
Q D

( )

Z.

f ( x, y ) = ax 2 + bxy + cy 2

(4)

d(f) = b24ac S(f) = (a,b,c) . f ,


S(f) = 1. d < 0 a > 0, f .
d
F(d). SL(2,Z) (. .
22- Z 1). d(f) S(f)
. F(d) .

d. d < 0.
, . .
(4) > 0. , , , . , . .
SL(2,Z).
d < 0
Q 0 D c d

( )

(4)
( a , b, c ) = aZ +

b +
2

Z.

______________ ______________

33

, :
.

3. ,


1988 . [52].
.

.

(Buchmann J., Williams H.) [29],
.

Q 0 D d < 0.

( )

, ,

. ,
, d .
, , a < d / 3 ,
, a < d / 4 , .
, [29].
U, V
. U V
0 1 D < 0
I Q 0 D . -

( )

: U V -

x y 1, D , U V
I , V U I . U V Iy Ix x y.
U, V x

____________________________ 2010, . 1, 1, . 2354 ____________________________

. .

34

.
U, V J, Ixy.
, . J . [29] J. , x,y, I, Ix, Iy.
,
.
.

i = (ai,bi,ci), i = 1,2, , 12 = 3 = d0(a3,b3,c3),
a3 = d1

2a
a1a2
, b3 = b2 b3 = b2 2 ( v ( s + b2 ) wc2 ) ,
2
d0
d0
c3 =

b32 d
b +b
, s= 1 2 ,
4a
2

d 0 = (a1 , a2 , s ), u , v, w Z, ua1 + va2 + ws = d 0 ,


d1 = ( a1 , a2 , s, c1 , c2 , b1 s ) .

, 1,2 , d1 = 1.
, (log2d).

. . Z
. . .
,
(. [6, 15, 49, 60, 65, 67, 68]).
[49].
, [15].
.
(4) f = [a,b,c].

a,b,c, . ,
d < 0, f > 0 a < 0. ,
______________ ______________

35

. , a > 0, d F+(d). :
0 1
Mu =
, tu ( f ( x , y ) ) = f
1 u

( ( x, y ) M ) .
u

, f = [a,b,c] F+(d),
tu(f) = [a1,b1,c1] F+(d) a1 = c, b1 = b+2cu, c1 = abu+cu2. (5)
, f F+(d) (., ,
[15]).
f tu, u

a1 < 2au + b < a1.


(5). 1 > a1, .
1 = a1 b1 < 0, , t0, f1 = [c1,b1,a1]. 1 < a1.
f1 , f.
,
[ai,bi,ci], a < a1 < a2 < , k fk = [ak,bk,ck].
k. , a d , f1
, . , k < 3. a > d , a1 < a/2. , a < d / 4 f1 , :
a

k log 2
d

+ 2.

, f = [a,b,c]
(||f||3) , ||f||
|abc|. ,
a + b, ab O(max{||a||,||b||}), O(||a||||b||).
[15] .

| c | +b
v ( f ) = sign ( c )

2|c|

____________________________ 2010, . 1, 1, . 2354 ____________________________

36

. .

, f, tv(f)(f) (tv(f))2(f) a < b a , |v(f)| 2 |a| |v(f)| |c|. ,


(||f||2). d > 0.
, [29].

() Cl(d),
Cl(d). ,
Cl(d) .


,
, Cl(d).
Cl(d) d < 0, , 1989 . (. [53], [32]).
Cl(d) h(d) , . 2
[53], [68].
- [30], [22].
.

(6)
Cl(d) = <g1><gr>, ord (gi) = ni, i = 1,,r,
Cl(d)

= , , Cl(d).
(6) ,
r

i =1

i =1

= gia( i ) , = gib( i )

(7)


( i ) x b ( i ) ( mod ni ) , i =1,, r.

(i)x b(i) (mod ni) gib(i) gi(i) ni. .


-.
______________ ______________

37

- (6) (7).
, Q 0

( D ) , (0) (1),

.
1,,Pk

P ( ) = (1) ,
t i

i = 1,,k. (b1,,bk) ,
(t(1),,t(k)), , b1,,bk,

S = UMV = diag(n1,,nr,1,,1).
U = (u(ij)) Qi = Pju(ij), j = 1,r, (6),
gi Qi. ,

V1 = (v(ij)), i = Qjv(ij). ,
Cl(d) h1,,hk 1,,Pk, g1,,gr.
(7)
, h1,,hk.
(v(1),,v(k)), 0 v(i) d 1,
, Aiv(i),
.
, ,

Piw(i).

= hi
.
. w(i)v(i)

(7).
, P1,,Pk
, Ld(),
Ld(1/4).
Ld().
[22]
k, r, ni, h(d) d = (410t +4) t = 24, 29, 34, d = 4F7, F7 7- . ____________________________ 2010, . 1, 1, . 2354 ____________________________

. .

38

. k r : k = 1404, 1902, 2609, 3257 r = 3, 3, 4, 2.


Cl(d) [24, 70, 45]
. , [24] ,
O(log4(d)). [38] . , - Ld(321/2/4), -
,
-. [46] ,
Ld(1) .
, Cl(d)
,
. ,
,
.
d Q D .

( )

, d , h(d)
, . . .
h(d)
(2). d, h(d), . , ,
.

4. ,


. 3 ,
Cl(d)
Q D .

( )

( ) , , , Cl(d) h(d).
, ______________ ______________

39

d,
, RSA, - , .
, Cl(d)
, .
[41] ()
. , (. [19,3743,45,57,58]).
. Q D

( )

Q0

( D ) , Z- r 2. ,

D < 0,

b d1 + d1
,
qa +

d1 Z, d1 < 0, d1 0 1 (mod 4) d1 Z,
a,bZ, a > 0, a < b a, qQ. d1
d1 1 (mod 4) d1/4 d1 0 (mod 4),
O(d1) , . , O(d1)
Q 0 D Q D d1. O(d1) -

( )

( )

, d1 d1 = f2d, f, dZ, d
. , , , Q d1 = Q d , O ( d1 ) O ( d ) ,

( ) ( )
. . Q ( d ) Q ( D ) 1

d.
O(d1) ,
Q 0 D , , ,

( )

, , ,
Cl(d1) h(d1). ,
____________________________ 2010, . 1, 1, . 2354 ____________________________

40

. .

Cl(d1) , , ,
Cl(d1) .
[41] , , d1 = f2d < 0,
c h(d1) h(d), h(d1) h(d) f:
d
h ( d1 ) = h ( f 2 d ) = h ( d ) f 1 ,
q
d
, q
q f.
d1 = f2d < 0 h(d), ,
, . . h(d) = 1, , RSA -.
-, d1 = f2d < 0 [41].
d1.
, .
(S. Paulus, T. Takagi) , d1
( , 1998 . [59]).

O(log2d1).

[41] , . , . 19981999 .
, RSA [43],
DSA [19]. ( Z/mZ m)
d1 = f2d < 0, f = q, d = p, p 3
(mod 4), d = 4p , , q .
RSA d1 = f2d < 0, f = pq
______________ ______________

41

p, q, d , h(d) = 1. ,

d
d
h ( d1 ) = p 1 q 1 .
p
q

, f = pq. RSA
RSA. RSA , .
, , [40], . ,
DSA . ,
.
, ,
d1.
[45], ,
d1 = 2d O(log3) d
GF() = 1 GF(2)
p
d
= 1 .
p
[37]
, NICE- (New Ideal Coset Encryption).
,
, . ,
RSA.
.
d1 = f2d 1536 n = pq
RSA RSA 751,3 ms, NICE-
6,2 ms. , NICE-
-, ,
.
____________________________ 2010, . 1, 1, . 2354 ____________________________

. .

42

[38],
, . ,
( 2000 .) .

5. ,

1989 . [29] .
. . (R Scheidler)
[27],
Q D , D > 0. -

( )

,
. , D > 0 ,
.
. . ,
, ,
[21]. S.
[69]
, S S . .
A B
> 0, I(c), , (I(c),c).

1, D ,

I(ac) (I(ac),ac) . b, I(bc) (I(bc),bc) .


A, B
I(abc), .
, I ,
______________ ______________

43

, , .
, (
) [970].
, . [62]


. , .
[48]. [44] ,
. [62] ,
,
. (a,b,c) , ,
, . ,
. [70] -,
()
S LD

( 2 ) . , -

S, . .
S ,

D. [46, 50]
, . , , .
[24] , . .
I(xy) (I(xy), xy)
y > 0. (log2D) (log D).
[27] [14],
Crypto-94.

,
____________________________ 2010, . 1, 1, . 2354 ____________________________

. .

44

.
.
D D > 0
OD = Z + Z

D+ D
.
2

OD Q
D

( D ) . -

) )

A = q Za + Z b + D / 2a , a,bZ, qQ, a > 0, q > 0, c = b2 D/4a Z.

a, q , b
2. ,
b ,

2a + D < b<

D a < D

a < b < a a >

D.

q = 1.
= Z + Z(), () = b + D / 2a .

, ()
() () > 1, 0 < (A) <1.
, a < D b< D . , , D.
D SD.
, = , Q

( D)

, , = ,
D, = k, D, kZ. ,

Log = log+ kRD,


RD = log D. log+RDZ
,
(,) ( (), = D).
k (,),
k , k. A k :
= (1/), = log k, ,
log k<log k OD.
______________ ______________

45

, , > 0.
(,). m
. m- (,) (,r),
, = m((A) + c),
r = (x,B). , . . . (,r) exp((A,c),m). ,

SD, c R, n,m N: (exp((A,c),m), n) = (exp((A,c), n), m).


,
. [14] , .
,
. . , , .
,
, ,
Q D D < 0

( )

. Q D D > 0,

( )

. e
[63] Q D , D

( )

n + 1 n > 2. ,
k (ln d),
d, , . ,
2 Rd
2R
k d , Rd = O d ln d .
ln d
ln 2
, k
, a + b d + d / 2
2

(a,b)
____________________________ 2010, . 1, 1, . 2354 ____________________________

. .

46

, , .

- , h(d)
.
, , .
, D = n2 + 1 h(d) . , - n2 + 1
,
.
2000 . [25], ,
.
.
() () G, H, : G H k. ,
(g1,,gk) G (h1,,hk) , hi = (gi), i = 1,,k.
.
1. g G, h = (g) h .
2. e = (1,,ek) {0,1}k .
3. r = g g1e1 ...g kek .

4. hh1e1 ...hkek = (r ) .
11/2k,
.
[25] G, H F*
F = Q D , F -

( )

: F * P , () = F0, F0 = Q 0

( D).

: Z- F0 ,
, , ______________ ______________

47

. ,
,
0 .
, . , ( )
.

O(R1/2do(1)) exp(O(log d loglog d)1/2).


, R, d
h(d), :
, d ,
.
,
[49]. ,
[34], , d = 2687
21024. :

1024
1536
2048
3072
4096


687
958
1208
1665
2084


d.
, , d
1,2 3 (mod 4),

R > 2k1 ln d
1 2 k2 k1 160
d
> 2k1 + k2 +1 .
ln d ln ln d
,

Cl0(d) Cl(d). , , ,
Cl0(d) 0,977575 (. [5],
____________________________ 2010, . 1, 1, . 2354 ____________________________

48

. .

. 291). [5] , .
1. .
2. h(d) 1/p+1/p2.
x
3. h( p ) , , 8

1 4.
, R(d)
d , h(d) , ,

ln(R(d)h(d)) ~ ln d .
d, h(d) = 1.
[34]

d = 2m, m = 687,968,1208,1665,2084, k1 = 160, k2 = 80.
, 11/230. Pentium II, 300MHz, 64 MB.
, .
.
687
958
1208 1665 2084
m
0,98 3,96 13, 25 16,16 63, 42
d
54,87 84,56 122,74 196, 4 291,76

3, 23 4,86
7,03
10,7 16,03
h
7,15 11,04 16, 45
3, 28 4,96

2001 . . , . . [47]
, S
. , , . , , (S,*), (*) .
.
, I S ,
a, b , ______________ ______________

49

I a , I b , . J R , I ab .
( f , p) I f R, p N,
1 f < 2 p . ( J , d ) , J , I, d N d

J = ( ) I , | (2 p / d ) 1|< f 2 p .
J ,
( f , p) . ,

| d 2 p |< fd 22 p , , d 2 p
fd 22 p .
( f , p) , ,
( f , p) .
, .

,
, 2 >46H2log2H ( 2 p 3072 DH 2
).
2006 . [48] [47]. -, , ( f , p) d. , , ( f , p) . , ( f , p) I
p N , f R,1 f < 2 p ( J , d , k ) , J
, I , d N , 2 p < d 2 p +1 , k Z K ,
J = ( ) I | (2 p k / d ) 1|< f 2 p . -,
[69], .
,
[47],
.
____________________________ 2010, . 1, 1, . 2354 ____________________________

50

. .

, , .
m
r1
log 2
795 0,04 0,38
1384 0,11 1,05
1732 0,15 1,63
3460 0,50 6,34
5704 1,32 17,97

r2
0,13
0,30
0, 43
1, 45
3,86

r1 / r2
2,8948
3, 4518
3,7925
4,3814
4,6553

1- , m, r1 , r2

[47], [48] .
.
[47] , , . (a,b,c) ,
, , . ,
.

. ,
. 1994 . . , Q D D > 0

( )

- Ld(1,144).
2000 . . [70] , 1,44 2 1,41.
( ) . [50]. ,
. ,
(log D)1/3(loglog D)1/3,
, .

.
, , , .
______________ ______________

51


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2. . . .: , 1940.
3. . ., . .
. ., 1998.
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Appl. Math., 1994, v. 48, p. 425449.
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