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Parking Brake Service Brake

Disc Brakes Drum Brakes Dual System

Antilock Brake System (ABS)

Brake System Principles

 Kinetic Energy  Mass  Weight  Speed  Inertia and Momentum

Typical System

Brake System Drum Brake Disk Brake

DISC BRAKES consist of two pads that grasp a rotating disk. The disk, or rotor, connects to the wheels by an axle. You control the grasping power. When you pull on the brake, the clamps come together on the disk, forcing it to stop spinning and causing your vehicle to slow down and eventually stop.

Disc-style brakes development and use began in England in the 1890s. The first caliper-type automobile disc brake was patented by Frederick William Lanchester in his Birmingham, UK factory in 1902 and used successfully on Lanchester cars. It took another half century for his innovation to be widely adopted.Modern-style disc brakes. 1. 1949 Crosley Hotshot 2. 1953 Jaguar C-Type racing car 3. 1955 Citron DS

4. 1956 Triumph TR3 5. 1965 Rambler Marlin , Ford Thunderbird and so on . Disc brakes offer better stopping performance than comparable drum brakes, including resistance to brake fade. Disc brakes were most popular on sports cars when they were first introduced, since these vehicles are more demanding about brake performance. Discs have now become the more common form in most passenger vehicles.

A cross-drilled disc on a modern motorcycle

The design of the disc varies somewhat. Some are simply solid cast iron, but others are hollowed out with fins or vanes joining together the disc's two contact surfaces. This "ventilated" disc design helps to dissipate the generated heat and is commonly used on the moreheavily-loaded front discs. Discs may also be slotted, where shallow channels are machined into the disc to aid in removing dust and gas.

Some discs are both drilled and slotted. On the road, drilled or slotted discs still have a positive effect in wet conditions because the holes or slots prevent a film of water building up between the disc and the pads. One reason is the disc's lack of self-assist makes brake force much more predictable, so peak brake force can be raised without more risk of brakinginduced steering or jackknife on articulated vehicles.

Another is disk brakes fade less when hot, and in a heavy vehicle air and rolling drag and engine braking are small parts of total braking force, so brakes are used harder than on lighter vehicles, and drum brake fade can occur in a single stop.

A mountain bike disc brake

A railroad bogie and disc brakes

Uses of Disc Brakes

Disc brakes are often on the front (and sometimes on the rear) wheels of cars Do the real work of braking Unlike drum brakes, do not self-energize

Different materials have different coefficients of friction Pad material can be chosen for performance or to create a balance between performance and durability

Materials Continued

Asbestos brakes were used for years because of their extremely high friction coefficient, but advances in science has shown that it is a cancer causing substance.

Disc damage modes

Discs are usually damaged in one of four ways: warping, scarring, cracking, or excessive rusting. Warping Warping is often caused by excessive heat. When the disc's friction area is at a substantially higher temperature than the inner portion (hat) the thermal expansion of the friction area is greater than the inner portion and warping occurs.

Scarring Scarring (US: Scoring) can occur if brake pads are not changed promptly when they reach the end of their service life and are considered worn out.

Brake discs being polished after scarring occurred

Cracking Cracking is limited mostly to drilled discs, which may develop small cracks around edges of holes drilled near the edge of the disc due to the disc's uneven rate of expansion in severe duty environments. Rusting The discs are commonly made from cast iron and a certain amount of what is known as "surface rust" is normal.

Components Pistons and cylinders The most common caliper design uses a single hydraulically actuated piston within a cylinder, although high performance brakes use as many as twelve. Brake squeal Sometimes a loud noise or high pitch squeal occurs when the brakes are applied. Most brake squeal is produced by vibration (resonance instability) of the brake components, especially the pads and discs (known as force-coupled excitation).

Brake judder Brake judder is usually perceived by the driver as minor to severe vibrations transferred through the chassis during braking. Two distinct subgroups: hot (or thermal), or cold judder. Brake dust When braking force is applied, small amounts of material are gradually ground off the brake pads. This material is known as "brake dust" and a fair amount of it usually deposits itself on the braking system and the surrounding wheel.

Parts of Braking System

Brake Pedal force input to system from driver
Design gives a Mechanical Advantage

Master Cylinder converts force to pressure

Pressure is used to move brake pads into place

Brake Pads provide friction force when in contact with rotor

Works to slow or stop vehicle

Brake pads The brake pads are designed for high friction with brake pad material embedded in the disc in the process of bedding while wearing evenly.

Caliper holds pads and squeezes them against rotor

Calipers The brake caliper is the assembly which houses the brake pads and pistons. The pistons are usually made of aluminum or chrome-plated steel. There are two types of calipers: floating or fixed.
Rotor spins with wheel
When used in conjunction with brake pads, slows vehicle

Vents help provide cooling to brake

Caliper Types
There are 2 types of Calipers
 Calipers are disc brakes that use a caliper that is FIXED in position and does not slide. They have pistons on both sides of the disc. There may be 2 or 4 pistons per caliper

 Much more common  Single Piston  Easier to work with  On inboard side of caliper

Fixed Caliper
Motorcycles and some import trucks and cars use this type

Similar to bicycle brakes

Sliding Caliper
Applies pressure to two pads on opposite sides of rotor Caliper
 Sliding  Fixed

Friction Material exposed to air

Fixed Caliper
 Applies two pistons to opposite sides of rotor  Caliper stays stationary  Disc Brakes require higher hydraulic pressure

Caliper Operation
Caliper Brake Fluid



Step 1: Force is applied to by driver to the master cylinder Step 2: Pressure from the master cylinder causes one brake pad to contact rotor Step 3: The caliper then self-centers, causing second pad to contact rotor

In a disc brake, the brake pads squeeze the rotor instead of the wheel, and the force is transmitted hydraulically instead of through a cable. Friction between the pads and the disc slows the disc down. A moving car has a certain amount of kinetic energy, and the brakes have to remove this energy from the car in order to stop it. Brakes convert the kinetic energy to heat generated by the friction between the pads and the disc. Most car disc brakes are vented.

Vented disc brakes have a set of vanes, between the two sides of the disc, that pumps air through the disc to provide cooling.

Vented Rotors
Vented Rotors have Fins in the spaces between their machined surfaces. These spaces allow air to pass through, which helps carry heat away.

Nonvented Rotor
Non Vented Rotors are used on smaller vehicles, and have no cooling fins