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. ..

( )
.. .. ..
24

UC
C

U C
2
U

2006

1
LC

24


:
.
.

.
, L, C R

(.1).

(t)

L
C

. 1. .

, ..
.
, . 1,
( ) [1]:

q
dI
+ RI = L
+
C
dt

(1).

, ;
.
(1) , , I = dq/dt,
q= Idt

dI
1
+ RI +
Idt =
dt
C

(2).

4
, ,

I = I 0e

it

(2) ,

dI
= i I 0
dt

I dt =

I0
i

= I 0 R + I 0 i L I 0

i
= I0 R +
C

i L
C

(3).
:

Z :

= Z,

1
.
Z = R + i L
C

,
.
, Z:
Z = X + iY

Z = Z e i

Z =

X2 +Y2 =

1
R 2 + L
C

( )
Y
= arctg
= arctg
X

1
C.
R

I ,

,
L, C, R,
Z , .. ,
R. ,
, . ,
, .
(3) ,

1
.
LC

(4)

,
, ..

= 0.

5
(4). ( R)
,
(4).
,
.

(.2).
:

U C = I 0

U L = I 0 i L

.2 , ,
,
. , , UL UC
.
.

UL
UEH

I
UR

UC
.2.

.

. I ,
I0 . ,
:
I0 = IC + ILR ,

(5)

IC I LR - ,
.

. 3. .


1
= U LR = ILR ( R + i L )
i C

U C = IC

(6)

(5) , (6),
ILR .

ILR = I0

2
0

02 2 + i 2

(7)

2
0

1
,
LC

2 =

R
.
L

(8)

(7), , ,
. (7).
02
I LR = I 0
(9)
2
02 2 + 4 2 2

(9) ,
:
2

= 02 2 2 .
(10)
<<0 ,

I LR = I 0

0
= I0 Q IC
2

7
, (Q>>1),
0, ILR Q ,
. (5), 0
, . ,
,

.
.
, Q ,
.
,
, .
r =

UC
1
1
=
IC
= Q
I0
I0
0C

L R
= Q2R
C R

(11)

,
,
I.

.
, L R. ,
, .
ILR, UL =iL ILR UR =ILR R..
, UL +UR =UC. UC,
: IC= iC UC. IC + ILR, ,
, I0.

UL= L ILR

UC=ULR
I=ILR+IC

IC
ILR
UR=R ILR
.4
,
. IC ILR
. ,
:

8
1
=

R 2 + 2 L2 ,

04=4+422.

(12)

(8),
2

= 02 2 2 .

(13)

,
, ,
.
(10) (13),
.

Q.
:
, ( 2):
Q = 2

LI 2
L
1
= 2
=
2
R
RI T
R 2 LC

L
.
C

(14)

, ()
, .. .
,
( ) ,
, ..
U C

Q=

(15).


R Q:
R . .

= Q2 .

(16)
R
, 0
( R . . R 10 4 ).

( ).
, Q >> 1,
( ):
Q =

(17).

2 ,

1/ 2

.
:
Q=

(18)

9

.

.

, , (.5).
, .

Ri

. 5. R, L, C.

.
.

. R,

.
Ri Ci
:
(Q >> 1);
,
,
(..
).

1. .
UC f.
. 6.
.
U = 1 ( ).

10
Ri Ci , UC(f)
(. ).
, UC(f),
.

.6.

.
.
.
( - (4)).
- (15)
(- (17)).
R ( - (14))
RL R Ri.
2. .
,
, f = /2.
.
. 7, Ri Ci,
1.

11

C
L

Y X
. 7.
.

Ri,
I.
Y , (U).
,
.
: f < f ; f = f ; f > f.
(57) f (
) 2y0 2y (. . 8.).
:

y
2y0

2y

. 8. , .
.

= arcsin

y
y0

f . (f).
, ( )
.
:

12

tg =

1
C

(19)

(19) ,
.
,
.
3. L RL
.
. 9.
, R
RL.

. 9. .
U (
).
,
f
UC .
.

. ,
f =

1
2 LC

Q=

1
RL

L
C


:
f =

1
2 L C

Q=

L 1
RL C

1/ C

13
f Q 1 .
, ,
L RL :
1
L=
2
(1 C )
f ,
RL = L
.
2

4
Q

(. 1 ).
4 .
. 10. R
= 270 , ,
R >> Z . R , 1.

. 10. .
U = 1 , UC
( R)
.
f, UC(f).
.
. UC(f). Q
f
, Q =
, 2f
2f
. Q , 1.
.

14
1. .
,
.
1.
?
2. ?
3. ?
4.
?
5.
? .
6.
?
7.
.
8. ?
?
.
1.
2.

... . . 2004.
... . . 2005.