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Chemistry Project

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that ______________________________of class_______ has satisfactorily completed the investigatory project in chemistry as prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education for AISSCE course for the academic year _________________ Place Date Name of Candidate

Signature of Teacher in charge of batch

Registration No Signature of External Examiner

Examination Centre Signature of the Principal

Date of Practical Examination

Page No

Contents

Seal

1 2 3 4-7 8 9 10 11

Acknowledgement Introduction Aim Procedure Observations Result Precautions Bibliography

Introduction

Fibres are classified into three types depending upon the source Animal fibre E.g.: Wool, Silk etc. Vegetable fibre E.g.: Cotton, Linen etc. Synthetic fibres E.g.: Nylon, Polyester etc. Besides their chemical composition and properties, most important property of these fibres is their tensile strength. Tensile strength is the extent to which a fibre can be stretched without breaking and it is measured in terms of minimum weight required to break the fibre. To determine the tensile strength of any fibre, it is tied to a hook at one end and weights are slowly added to the other end until the fibre breaks. Since peptide bonds are more easily hydrolysed by bases than acids, wool and silk are affected by bases and not by acids. A vegetable fibre, on the other hand, consists of long polysaccharide chains in which the various glucose units are joined by ether linkage. In other words, alkaline decrease the tensile strength of animal fibres and acids decreases the tensile strength of vegetable fibres. Synthetic fibres practically remain unaffected by both acids and bases.

AIM

The aim and objective of this project is to

1. Compare the tensile strength of given sample fibres.

2. To investigate the effect of acids and alkali on the tensile strength of these fibres.

Procedure

Experiment 1 Requirements I Apparatus: Hook, weight hanger and weights II Materials: Cotton, silk and nylon fibres Procedure 1 Cut out equal lengths of a cotton fibre, nylon fibre and silk fibre from the given sample of nearly same diameter. 2 Tie one end of cotton fibre to a hook which has been fixed in a vertical plane. Tie a weight hanger to the other end. The thread should be straight 3 Put a weight to the hanger and observe the thread stretched. Then, increase the weights

gradually on the hanger until the breaking point reaches and note the minimum weight needed for breaking the cotton fibre. 4 Repeat the above experiment for nylon and silk fibres separately. Precautions 1 Thread must be of identical diameters 2 Always take the same length of the threads. 3 Add the weight in small amounts very slowly.

Experiment 2
Requirements I Apparatus: Hook, weight hanger and weights II Materials and chemicals: Wool, cotton and nylon fibres, dilute solution of HCl and NaOH Procedure 1. Cut out equal lengths of wool, cotton and nylon threads from given sample of nearly same diameter. 2. Determine the tensile strength of each fibre as explained in Experiment 1. 3. Soak the woollen thread in a dilute solution of NaOH for five minutes. Take it out from hydroxide solution and wash it thoroughly with water and then, dry either by keeping it

in the sun or in an oven maintained at a temperature of about 400C. 4. Determine its tensile strength again as explained in Experiment 1. 5. Now, take another piece of woollen thread of the same size and diameter and soak it in a dilute solution of HCl for five minutes. Take it out, wash thoroughly with water, dry and determine the tensile strength again. 6. Repeat the above procedure for the samples of cotton and nylon fibre.

OBSERVATION

Type of fibre

Weigh

Weight

Weight

required required required to to break to break break the the thread the HCl NaOH soaked soaked thread thread 600g 150g 450g 550g 300g 450g

Cotton Silk Nylon

600g 300g 450g

RESULT
1. The tensile strength of woollen fibre decreases on soaking in alkali but practically remains unaffected on soaking in acids. 2. The tensile strength of cotton fibre decreases on soaking in acids but remains practically unaffected on soaking in alkalis. 3. The tensile strength of nylon fibre remains practically unaffected on

soaking either in acids or in alkalis.

Precautions
1. Thread must be of identical diameters.

2. Always take the same length of the threads. 3. Add the weight in small amounts very slowly.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Comprehensive Chemistry, Class 12 Practical Textbook, Class 12