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22.

1
97
51

. . , . . . . . : . .: . . . .-. , 1985. 128 .


, ( ), .
. .
.

:
- . .

1702070000 167
52-85
053(02) 85



-
, 1985

: , ( ), , , (, , . .).
, , , .
, , ,
- .
.
, , , . ( , ) , ,
, , ,
, . , . , , ,
.

. , . , , ,
.
, , , .
, , , .
, ,
, , ,
.

I. .
1.
1.1. :

n = p1k1 p2k2 psks

p1, , ps ,

k1, , ks .

1.2. .
2, .
4, , 4.
8, , 8.
3, 3.
9, 9.
5, , 5.
25, ,
25.
11, , , , , , 11.
(m, n) n
{m, n}:
m n = (m, n) {m, n}.
1.3. () :

a,
a =
a,
a b

a . 0,
a
< 0.

a
a
=
; | | a | | b | | < | a b |;
b
b

| a b | - | a | | b |;

| a + b | - | a | + | b | ( ).
1.4. .
():

m p mq + np
;
+ =
n q
nq

m p mq np
;
=
n q
nq

m p mp
;
=
n q
nq

m p mq
.
: =
n q
np

n n nk
0,n1n2nk = 1 2
,
10k

n1, n2, , nk .

:
0,n1n2nk (nk+1 nk+2 nk+p) =
(nk+1 nk+2 nk+p) .

n1n2 nk nk +1nk + 2 nk + p n1n2 nk


10k (10 p 1)

1.6. .

1.5. .

ab cd
=
;
a+b c+d

ab cd
a c
=
=
: a d = b c;
;
b d
b
d
ma + nb mc + nd
( ),
=
pa + qb
pc + qd

2
2
m, n, p, q p + q 0.

1.6. .
:

(a b)

ax
= ax y ;
y
a

ax ay = ax+y ;

a0 = 1 (a 0);
x

= a b ;

ax
a
= x.
b
b

(a, M1, M2 > 0, a 1):

log a a = 1;

M
log a 1 = log a M1 log a M2 ;
M2
log b c
1
= c log a b ; log a c =
; loga c =
.
log b a
logc a

log a (M1M2) = log a M1 + log a M2;

( )

log a bc

(ax) y = axy ;

2. .
2.1. .
:
n

x c = (x c) (x

n 1

+x

n 2

c+x

n 3 2

c + + xc

n 2

+c

n 1

) = (x c)

n1

x c = (x + c) (x

n2

n3 2

c+x

n 2

c + xc

n1

) = (x + c)

n k 1 k

c ,

n1

(1) x

k nk1 k

c ,

k=0

n ;
n

x
k =0

n ;
n

n 1

n1

x + c = (x + c) (x

n2

n3 2

c+x

n2

c xc

n1

+c

) = (x + c)

n1

(1) x

k nk1 k

c ,

k=0

n .
:
2
2
(x + c) (x c) = x c ;

(x + c) (x2 xc + c2) = x3 + c3;


2
2
3
3
(x c) (x + xc + c ) = x c .

2.2. .
n- P(x) = xn + a1xn1 +
+ a2xn2 + + an-1x + an c c1, c2, , cn:
c1 + c2 + c3 + + cn1 + cn = a1,
c1c2 + c1c3 + + cn1cn = a2,
c1c2c3 + c1c2c4 + + cn2cn1cn = a3,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
c1c2c3cn1cn = (1)n an .
P(x) = x2 + px + q :
c1 + c2 = p,

c1c2 = q.

P(x) = x3 + px2 + qx + r :
c1 + c2 + c3 = p,

c1c2 + c2c3 + c1c3 = q,

c1c2c3 = r .

2.3. .
ax2 + bx + c = 0 :

x1,2 =

b b2 4ac
.
2a

2.4. . 7
2

D b 4ac > 0 , ; D = 0, 2; D < 0, :

4ac b2
4ac b2
b
b
+i
i
x1 =
; x2 =
.
2a
2a
2a
2a

x2 + px + q = 0:

x1,2

p
p
= q.
2
2


ax + 2kx + c = 0:
2

x1,2

k k2 ac
=
.
a

2.4. .
y3 + py + q = 0
:

y1 = A + B ,

y2,3 =

A+B
AB
i
3 ,
2
2

q
q
A = 3 + Q , B = 3 Q ,
2

p
q
Q = + ,
3
2

,
AB = p/3.

3
y + py + q = 0 (
). Q < 0, p < 0,

y1 = 2

cos ,
3
3

y2,3 = 2

p

cos ,
3
3 3

cos =

Q . 0 p > 0, y1 = 2 p 3 ctg 2 ,

q
3

2 ( p 3)

y2,3 = p 3 ( ctg 2 i 3 cosec 2 ) ,

tg = 3 tg

,
2

tg =

2
q

( p 3 )3 ,

,
4

.
2

Q . 0 p < 0, y1 = 2 p 3 cosec 2 , y2,3 = p 3 cosec2 i 3 ctg2 ,


tg = tg ,
2
3

2
sin =
q

p
,
3

,
4

.
2

I.2. .
3

ax + bx + cx + d = 0

xi = yi

b
3a

yi .

(i = 1, 2, 3),

2.5. 4- .
ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e = 0 y = x +

b
y4 + py2 + qy + r = 0,
4a

1
1
z1 + z2 + z3 ) , y2 = ( z1 z2 z3 ) ,
(
2
2
1
1
y3 = ( z1 + z2 z3 ) , y4 = ( z1 z2 + z3 ) ,
2
2
y1 =

(1)

z1, z2, z3 ( )
z3 + 2pz2 + (p2 4r) z q2 = 0,
(1) ,

z1 z2 z3 = q .
2.6. .
:
| a + b | - | a | + | b |;

| a b | . | | a | | b | |;

2
2
a + b . 2 | ab |;

a+b
. ab , (a . 0, b . 0).
2

a b
+ . 2 , (ab > 0);
b a

a - a ;
1
n

a .

i =1

aibi -

i =1
n

i =1

n a a a
1 2
n

aibi -

i =1

i =1

1p

aip

ai . 0

( );

( );

1
ai n

i =1
1q

biq

i =1
n

i =1

bi2

i =1

ai2

1
n
n

i =1

a
i =1

2
i

( ),

2.7. .
n :

Pn = n! .

n m :

Am
n =

n!
.
(n m) !

1 1
+ = 1.
p q

2.7. .
n m :

Cm
n =

n!
.
m ! (n m) !

Cnm = Cnn m ; Cnm++11 = Cnm + Cnm +1 ; Cn0 + Cn1 + Cn2 + + Cnn 1 + Cnn = 2 n .
() () (k1, k2, , km):

Cn (k1, k2 , , km ) =

n!
k1 ! k2 ! km !

(n = k1 + k1 + + km).

n m :

n 1
m
fnm = Cm
+ n 1 = Cm + n 1 .

:
:

(a1 + a2 + + ar ) n =

k1+ k2 ++ kr = n

(1)

fnm = fnm1 + fnm 1 .

Cn (k1, k2 , , kr )a1k1a2k2 arkr ,

(k1, k2, , kr),


k1 + k2 + + kr = n. Cn(k1, k2, , kr), (1), .
:

k1+ k2 ++ kr = n

Cn (k1, k2 , , kr ) = r n .

10

II.
1.
1.1. .
:

S=

1
1
1
aha = bhb = chc ;
2
2
2

S=

S = p (p a) (p b) (p c)

( );

abc
1
ab sin ; S =
; S = pr ;
4R
2

S = ra (p a) = rb (p b) = rc (p c) ; S =
S = p (p a) tg

ra rb rc r ;

S = p 2 tg

= p (p b) tg = p (p c) tg ,
2
2
2

tg tg ;
2
2 2

a, b, c , ha, hb, hc , a, b,
c, p =

1
(a + b + c) , R , 2

, r , , ", $, ( ,
a, b, c , ra, rb, rc , a, b, c.
:
a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos "; b2 = a2 + c2 2ac cos $; c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos (;

a
b
c
=
=
= 2R .
sin sin sin
+

tg
ctg
a+b
2 =
2 ;
:
=
a b tg tg
2
2
+

tg
ctg
tg
ctg
a+c
b+c
2 =
2 ;
2 =
2 .
=
=

a c tg
b c tg
tg
tg
2
2
2
2

a+b
=
c

cos
2 =
2 ;

+
sin
cos
2
2

cos

ab
=
c

ma a:

ma =

1
2

ha, a:


sin
2 =
2 .

+
cos
sin
2
2

sin

2b2 + 2c2 a2 .
ha =

2 p (p a) (p b) (p c)
.
a

1.2. .

la a:

:

S=

la =

11

2ac cos
2 =
2.
a+b
a+c

2ab cos

( a).

a 3
.
3
a 3
.
: r =
6
:

S=

R=

( a b c).

1
ab .
2

R=

c
= mc .
2

2
2
2
: a + b = c .
:
ac : a = a : c, bc : b = b : c,

bc : hc = hc : ac,

ac bc a b c.
1.2. .
.
( a b):
( a): S = a2.
.

S = a2 sin = ah =

h , d1 d2 .
:
:
.

r=

S = a b.

1
d1d2 , a
2

, (

d12 + d22 = 4a 2 .

1
1
h = a sin .
2
2

S = ab sin = aha = bhb =

1
d1d2 sin ,
2

a b , " , ha hb ,
$ d1 d2.
:

d12 + d22 = 2 (a2 + b2) .

( a, b h).

:
.

S=

S=

a b,

a+b
h.
2

1
d1 d2 sin , d1 d2 , ( 2

12

II.1.

: a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 = d12 + d22 + 4m2 , a,


b, c, d , m , .
:
, : a + c = b + d.
,
: " + ( = $ + * = 180.
: ac + bd = d1d2;
S = (p a) (p b) (p c) (p d) , p = (a + b + c + d)/2.
1.3. .
n-:

180(n 2).

n-:
n-:

1
n(n 3) .
2

an = 2R sin

180
180
, R
= 2r tg
n
n

, r .
n-:

Sn =

1 2
360
180 1 2
180
R n sin
.
= r2n tg
= an n ctg
2
4
n
n
n

1.4. .

D2
: L = 2R. : S = R =
.
4
2

1.5. .
: R , l , a , ,
( ) .
:

a = 2R sin

.
2

2R
.
360
R2
.
: S =
360
1

sin .
: S = R2
2
180

l=

1.6. .
: S = PL,
P , L .
: V = SL = SH,
S , H .
( a, b, c):

V = abc.

1.10. .

13

1.7. .

S=

:
, h .

1
Ph ,
2

1
SH , S , H .
3
1
: S = (P + p)h ,
2

V=

, , h .
:

V=

1
H (S1 + S1 S2 + S2) , H
3

, S1 S2 .
1.8. .

: a , V , S ,
R , r , H .
. . .

V = a3 ;

S = 6a2;

R=

a 3
;
2

r=

a 6
;
4

r=

a
;
2

H = a.

. .
.

a3 2
V =
;
12

S = a2 3 ;

R=

a 6
;
12

H=

a 6
.
3

. .
.
.
.
.

V=

a 10 (25 + 11 5)
a3 (15 + 7 5)
a 3(1 + 5)
; S = 3a2 5 (5 + 2 5) ; R =
;r=
.
4
4
20

. . .

5a3 (3 + 5)
;
12

a 2 (5 + 5)
a 3 (3 + 5)
; r=
.
4
12
. L, N F
: N L + F = 2.
V=

S = 5a2 3 ;

R=

1.9. .
( R H):
:

V = R2H.

S = 2RH; S = 2RH + 2R2.


1.10. .
( R H): V =
:

1
R2 H .
3

S = RL, L .

14

II.1.

1
H (R12 + R1R2 + R22 ) ,
3

: V =

H , R1 R2 .
:

S = (R1 + R2)L,

L .
1.11. .
( R):

S = 4R2.

( R): V =

4
R3 .
3

1.12. .
: V =

1
H 2 (3R H) ,
3

R , H .
:
: V =

S = 2RH.

2
R2H ,
3

R , H .

S = R 2H +

1
1
H3 + (R12 + R22)H ,
6
2
H , R1 R2 .
:

V=

S = 2RH,

R , H .

2RH H2 .

15

2.
2.1. .

Ax + By + C = 0.
(t ):
x = kxt + x0, y = kyt + y0, kx2 + ky2 0.

k:

y = kx + b,

k = tg ,

(0; 2) ( 2 ; ) .

x y
+ = 1 , (a 0, b 0), (a; 0) (0; b) a b
Ox Oy .
: x cos + y sin p = 0, p
, Ox
:

, .
:

sin
cos
= A,
= B,

p
= C,

1
2

A +B

. C.

, (x1, y1) (x2, y2):

y y1
x x1
=
.
y2 y1 x2 x1

d (x0, y0) Ax + By + C = 0:

d=

| Ax0 + By0 + C |
2

A +B

(x1, y1), (x2, y2),

(x3, y3) :

x1

x2
x3

y1 1

y2 1 = 0 .
y3 1

(x0, y0), (x1, y1), (x2, y2)

1:

x0 =

x1 + x2
y + y2
, y0 = 1
.
1+
1+

A1x + B1y + C1 = 0, A2x + B2y + C2 = 0


:

B1 C1
B C2
,
x0 = 2
A1 B1
A2

B2

C1
C
y0 = 2
A1

A2

A1
A2
.
B1

B2

: A1B2 A2B1 = 0.
: A1A2 + B1B2 = 0.

16

II.2.
y = k1x + b, y = k2x + b:

x0 =

b2 b1
k b b1k2
, y0 = 1 2
.
k1 k2
k1 k2

k1 = k2.
: k1k2 = 1.
| AB
1 2 A2B1 |
,
: sin =
A12 + B12 A22 + B22
:

cos =

| A1A2 + B1B2 |

A12 + B12 A22 + B22

A1B2 A2B1
.
A1A2 + B1B2

tg =

y = k1x + b, y = k2x + b:

tg =

k1 k2
1 + k1k2

( k1k2 1).

k1k2 = 1, = /2.

, Aix + Biy +
+ Ci = 0 (I = 1, 2):

1(A1x + B1x + C1) + 2(A2x + B2x + C2) = 0 ( 21 + 22 0 ).

Aix + Biy + Ci = 0 (I = 1, 2, 3) :

A1

A2
A3

B1

C1

B2 C2 = 0 .
B3 C3

2.2. . . . .
:
2
2
F (x, y) / a11x + 2a12xy + a22y + 2a1x + 2a2y + a0 = 0.
:

S = a11 + a22;

a11 a12

a12 a22

a11 a12

a1

a1

a0

(1)

= a12 a22 a2 .

(1):
(2):

a2

a11x2 + 2a12xy + a22y2.

a11
a12

a12

a22

(2)

= 0.

: S = 1 + 2; = 12.
(1)

( ):

A=

a22 a2
a2

a0

a11 a1
a1

a0

, , S, A (1) :

S < 0 ;

0
>0
S > 0 ;
= 0 ;

2.2. . . . .

0
<0
=0

17

;
;

0 ;

A > 0 ;

=0

= 0 A < 0 ;

A = 0 .


x = x cos y sin + x0,
y = x sin + y cos + y0
F (x, y) = 0 ( 0)
, .
.

x2

a2

y2
b2

a2 =

= 1,

,
2

b2 =

,
1

1 2 , 1.2.
(t ):

x = a cos t,

r, n:
, e =

(t [0; 2)).
p
2
, p = b a r=
1 + e cos

y = b sin t,

a 2 b2 a (0 e < 1), a .

x = a/e,

x = a/e.

. R,
: x2 + y2 = R2 ;
2
2
2
(a; b): (x a) + (y b) = R ;
2
(r0; n): r2 2rr0 cos (n n0) + r0 = R2 ;
: r = R ;
.

x
a

2
2

y2
2

= 1,

a2 =

,
2

b2 =

,
1

1 2 , 1.2.
(t ):

x = a ch t,

r, n:
, e =

(t ( ; + )).
p
2
, p = b a
r=
1 + e cos

y = b sh t,

a 2 b2 a > 1 .

: x = a/e, x = a/e.

18

II.2.
.
:

y2 = 2px,

p=

1
S

.
S

r=

p
.
1 + cos

2.3. .
:

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0,
A2 + B2 + C2 0.
x y z
:
+ + = 1, (abc 0) ;
a b c
(a; 0; 0), (0; b; 0), (0; 0; c) Ox, Oy Oz .
: x cos + y cos + z cos p = 0, cos , cos
cos , , p .
:

cos = A,

cos = B,

cos = C,

p = D,

A2 + B2 + C2

( D).
, (x0, y0, z0) a = (a1; a2; a3) b = (b1; b2; b3) (u, v ):
x = x0 + a1u + b1v, y = y0 + a2u + b2u, z = z0 + a3u + b3v.
a b A, B, C:

A=

a2 a3
b2

b3

a3 a1

B=

b3

b1

C=

a1 a2
b1

b2

, (xi; yi; zi) (i = 1, 2, 3),


:

x1

y1

z1 1

x2
x3

y2

z2 1

y3

= 0.

z3 1

, (x0, y0, z0)


n = (A; B; C): A(x x0) + B(y y0) + C(z z0) = 0.
Aix + Biy + Ciz +

+ Di = 0 (i = 1, 2): A1 = A2, B1 = B2, C1 = C2 .


:
A1 A2 + B1B2 + C1C2 = 0.
(x0; y0; z0) Ax + By + Cz + D = 0:

d=

Ax0 + By0 + Cz0 + D


2

A + B +C

2.4. .

19

Ax + By + Cz + D1 = 0
Ax + By + Cz + D2 = 0:

D1 D2

d=

A2 + B2 + C2

n Aix + Biy + Ciz + Di = 0 (i = 1, 2):

cos =

A12

A1A2 + B1B2 + C1C2

B12

+ C12

A22

B22

+ C22

2.4. .

(1)
A1x + B1y + C1z + D1 = 0, A2x + B2y + C2z + D2 = 0.
: x = x0 + rxt,
y = y0 + ryt, z = z0 + rzt,
r = (rx, ry, rz) , x0, y0, z0 , .
(1) : rx = (B1C2 B2C1), ry = (C1A2 C2A1), rz = (A1B2 A2B1).
, (x0; y0; z0) r = (rx, ry, rz):

x x0 y y0 z z0
.
=
=
rx
ry
rz

n ,
x x0 y y0 z z0
, x x0 = y y0 = z z0 :
=
=
rx
ry
rz
rx
ry
rz

cos =

rxrx + ryry + rzrz

(rx2 + ry2 + rz2) (rx2 + ry2 + rz2)

, :

rxrx + ryry + rzrz = 0.

, :

rx ry rz
=
= .
rx ry rz

, ,
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0: A = B = C .
rx ry rz
, (x0; y0; z0)
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0: x x0 = A, y y0 = B, z z0 = C.
(x1; y1; z1) , :

ry
rz

d = y0 y1 z0 z1

rz

rx

z0 z1 x0 x1
rx2

ry2

rz2

rx

ry

x0 x1 y0 y1

1
2

20

II.2.

2.5. .
:
F (x, y, z) a11x2 + 2a12xy + a22y2 + 2a13xz + 2a23yz + a33z2 +
(1)
+ 2a1x + 2a2y + 2a3z + a0 = 0.
:

a11 a12

a13

a1

a12 a22 a23 a2


a13 a23 a33 a3
a1

a2

a3

S = a11 + a22 + a33 ;

a11 a12

= a12 a22 a23 ;

a13 a23 a33

a0

J=

a13

a11 a12

a12 a22

a22 a23

a23 a33

a33 a13
a13

a11

(1):
2
2
2
n (x, y, z) a11x + 2a12xy + a22y + 2a13xz + 2a23yz + a33z .
(2):

a11
a12

a12

a22

a13

a23

= 0.

(2)

a13
a23
a33
1, 2, 3
: S = 1 + 2 + 3 ; J = 12 + 13 + 23 ; = 123.

2.5. .

21

I. 0:

x2

<0

a2

y2
b2

z2
c2

S > 0, J > 0

>0

a2

b2

c2

x2

=1

:
2

x2

a2

y2
b2

= 1

z2
c2

= 0:

a2
a2

y2

+ 2 = z .
a2
b
2
x
y2
2 = z .
> 0: :
a2
b

< 0:

x2

x2

=0

I I. = 0:

x2

b2

z2
c2

= 1

:
=0

a2

y2

J > 0;

J < 0;
J = 0,

: , , .

y2
b2

y2
b2

z2
c2

z2
c2

=1
=0

22

3.
3.1. .
( ) ,
r = r (t) (x (t); y (t)), t ,

dr (t)
= (x (t); y (t)) .
dt
dv(t)
d 2r (t)
=
= (x(t); y(t) ) .
w (t) =
dt
dt 2
v (t) =

t l, | v | = 1; l .
k r = r (l) l :

k = | w (l) |.

R = 1/k.
, r = r (t) (x (t); y (t)),
(x (t1); y (t1)) (x (t2); y (t2)):

t2

t2

t1

t1

| v (t) | dt =

l=

x 2 + y 2 dt .

x = x (t), y = y (t) t0:

y y(t0) =

y(t0)
(x x(t0)) .
x(t0)

x = x (t), y = y (t) t0:

y y(t0) =

x(t0)
(x x(t0)) .
y(t0)

n x = x (t), y = y (t) l:

n=

w
=
|w|

x (l) + y2 (l)

(x(l); y(l)) .

x = x1 (t), y = y1 (t) x = x2 (t), y = y2 (t), t = t0 :

cos =

x1x2 + y1y2

x12 + y12 x22 + y22

.
t =t0

k x = x (t), y = y (t) ( x + y

0) : k =

| xy yx |

(x2 + y2) 3 2

x = x (t), y = y (t) t = t0:

xc = x(t0 ) y(t0 ),

yc = y(t0 ) + x(t0 ),

dv
= w = kn,
dl

= [(x 2 + y 2 ) /(xy xy)]

dn
= kv .
dl

t = t0

3.3. .

23

3.2. .
( ) , r = r (t) (x (t); y (t); z (t)),

v (t) =

dr (t)
= (x (t); y (t); z (t)) .
dt

dv(t) d2r (t)


=
= ( x(t); y(t); z (t) ) .
dt
dt2
t l, | v | = 1; l

w (t) =

k l -

: k = | w (l) |.
, r = r (t) (x (t); y (t) ; z (t)),
(x (t1); y (t1); z (t1)) (x (t2); y (t2); z (t2)):

l=

t2

t2

t1

t1

| v (t) | dt =

n=

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 dt .
w
.
|w|

r = r (l) (l ): b = [v n] .

i=

i r = r (l) (l ):
r = r (t) (t ):

k=

i r = r (t) (t ):

db
.
dl
rr

| r |3
i=

r, r , r

[r r ]2

r = r (l) (l ):

dv
= kn,
dl

dn
= ib kv,
dl

db
= in .
dl

3.3. .
, n v(l), ; ,
n b, ; ,
v(l) b, .
(x (l0); y (l0); z (l0)).
:

x x(l0) y y (l0) z z (l0)


=
=
.
x(l0)
y(l0)
z (l0)

:
:

x x(l0) y y (l0) z z (l0)


=
=
.
x(l0)
y(l0)
z (l0)

x x(l0)
y y(l0)
z z (l0)
.
=
=
y(l0) z (l0)
z (l0) x(l0)
x(l0) y(l0)
y(l0) z (l0)

z (l0) x(l0)

x(l0) y(l0)

24

II.3.

x x(l0) y y(l0) z z (l0)


x(l0)

y(l0)

x(l0)

z (l0)

y(l0)

= 0.

z (l0)

x(l0) [x x(l0)] + y(l0)[y y(l0)] + z(l0) [z z(l0)] = 0 .

x x(l0)

y y (l0)

z z (l0)

x(l0)

y(l0)

z (l0)

y z
y z

z x
l =l0

z x

= 0.

x y
l =l0

x y

l =l0

3.4. .
:
z = f (x, y);
F (x, y, z) = 0;
: r = r (u, v),
: x = x (u, v), y = y (u, v), z = z (u, v),
(1)
u, v .
(x (u0, v0), y (u0, v0), z (u0, v0)) ,
(1)

x
u
x
v

y
u
y
v

z
u
z
v

2.

, ,
(u0; v0):

x x(u0 , v0) y y(u0 , v0) z z (u0 , v0)


x(u0 , v0)
u
x(u0 , v0)
v

y (u0 , v0)
u
y (u0 , v0)
v

z (u0 , v0)
u
z (u0 , v0)
v

= 0.

, , (u0; v0):

x x(u0 , v0)
y y(u0 , v0)
z z (u0 , v0)
.
=
=
y(u0 , v0) z (u0 , v0)
z (u0 , v0) x(u0 , v0)
x(u0 , v0) y(u0 , v0)
u
u
u
u
u
u
y(u0 , v0) z (u0 , v0)
z (u0 , v0) x(u0 , v0)
x(u0 , v0) y(u0 , v0)
v
v
v
v
v
v

3.4. .

25

- r u = u(t),

r
r
du +
dv .
u
v
2
2
2
2
-: dS = (dr) = E(du) + 2F du dv + G dv

v = v(t), r = r (u, v):

dr =

( ).
E, F, G :
2

r r
z
y
x
E = E (u, v) =
=

+
+
u u
u
u
u
z
y y
x x
r r
F = F (u, v) =
+
+
=

u
u v
u v
u v

z
,
v
2

r r
z
y
x
G = G (u, v) =
=

.
+
+
v v
v
v
v
u = u(t), v = v(t) , (1):
t2

l =

u v
u
v
+G
E
+ 2F
dt .

t1

, :
r
r

S =
EG F 2 du dv =
du dv ,
u
v

u, v.
, z = f (x, y):

S =

f
1+

f
dx dy ,
+
y

0 x, y.
, r = r (u, v):

r
r
u v
,
m (u, v) =
2
EG F

E, F, G .
r = r (u, v):
(dr dm) = L (u, v) du2 + 2M (u, v) du dv + N (u, v) dv2,
L, M, N :

L(u, v) = m

2r

u2

2r r r
, ,
u2 u v
EG F2

II.3.

26

M (u, v) = m

2r
=
u v

2 r r r
,
,
u v u v
EG F

N (u, v) = m

r r r
,
,
v2 u v

.
EG F2
(u0; v0)
(, (u0;
v0)).
, du/dv:

kN =

v2

L(du) 2 + 2M du dv + N(dv) 2
E(du) 2 + 2F du dv + G(dv) 2

, ,

k=

kN
, 2 cos

.
,
kN k1 k2 ( ),
*)

L kE

M kF

M kF N kG

= 0.

( ).
.
k1, k2 2
2
: kN = k1 cos + k2 sin .

k1 + k2 1 EN 2FM + GL
.
=
2
2
EG F2
LN M2
( ) : K (u, v) k1k2
.
EG F2

H (u, v)

k1, k2, H, K .

*)

, kN .

27

4.
4.1. .
: a + 0 = a, a + b = b + a, a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c.
:
a = a, (a) = () a, (a + b) = a + b, ( + ) a = a + a.
a = (a1; a2; a3),


b = (b1; b2; b3):

a a
a a
a1 a2
= 1 3 = 2 3 = 0.
b1 b3
b2 b3
b1 b2

a = (a1; a2; a3),

a1 a2 a3
b = (b1; b2; b3),

c = (c1; c2; c3):

b1

c1

b2

c2

b3 = 0 .

c3

a b ,
: (a, b) = | a | | b | cos , = (a, b) .
: (ab), ab, ab.
:
(a, b) = (b, a),
((ka), b) = k (a, b),
2
(a, (b + c)) = (a, b) + (a, c), (a,b) (a,a) (b,b) ( ).
a = (a1; a2; a3), b = (b1; b2; b3) :
(a, b) = a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3 .
a = (a1; a2; a3), b = (b1; b2; b3):

cos =

(a, b)
=
a b

a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3

a12 + a22 + a32 b12 + b22 + b32

a b [a, b]:
1) [a, b] | a | | b | sin ( = (a , b ) );
2) [a, b] a, b ;
3) (a; b; [a,b]), , .
: [ab],
ab.
a = (a1; a2; a3), b = (b1; b2; b3) :

a a3 a3 a1 a1 a2
[a, b] = 2
;
;
.
b
b
b
b
b
b
3
3
1
1
2
2

: [a, b] = [b, a], [( a), b] = [a, b] ( ),


[(a + b), c] = [a, c] + [b, c], [a, [b, c]] = b (a, c) c (a, b), [[a, b], c] = b (a, c) a (b, c).
(-) <a, b, c> , (i, j, k):
a = (a1; a2; a3), a = (a1; a2; a3), c = (c1; c2; c3) , , a, b, c, .

28

II.4.

, (a; b; c) , , *).
a, b, c, :

a1 a2 a3

a, b, c = b1

c1

b2

c2

b3 .

c3

:
<a, b, c> = ([a, b], c) = ([b, c], a) = (c, [a, b]) = (b, [a, c]).
4.2. .
f(r):
xyz:

f f f
grad f = ; ; ;
x y z
1 f
f 1 f
;
;
;
r r r sin
f 1 f f
grad f = ;
;
.
z

r, 2, n: grad f =
, , z:
F:
xyz:

div F =

Fx Fy Fz
+
+
;
x
y
z

r, 2, n:

div F =

F*
1 2 *
1

*) + 1
r
F
F
(
)
(sin
,
+

r
r sin
r sin
r2 r

Fr* , F* , F* F;

, , z:

div F =

1
1 F* Fz*
,
+
(F*) +


z

F* , F* , Fz* F , , z.
F:

xyz:

rot F =

,
z

Fx

Fy

Fz

F Fy Fx Fz Fy Fx
rot F = z
;
;

;
y
z
z
x
x
y

*)

, (i, j, k) , a, b, c , (a; b; c) , .

4.2. .
r, 2, n:

1
rot F =
r sin

29


F*

(F* sin ) ;

1 1 Fr* (rF )
1 (rF*) Fr* ;
;

r sin
r r
r

, , z:

1 Fz* F* F* Fz* 1 ( F*) F* .


rot F =
;
;


z z


, (C , c
):
grad C = 0,
grad (Cf) = C grad f,
grad (f1 + f2) = grad f1 + grad f2,
grad (f1f2) = grad f1 + grad f2,
div c = 0,
div CF = C div F,
div (F1 + F2) = div F1 + div F2,
div (fF) = f div F + F grad f,
rot c = 0,
rot CF = C rot F,
rot (F1 + F2) = rot F1 + rot F2,
rot (fF) = f rot F + (grad f) F.
f = div grad f.

f:

xyz:

f =

2f

x2

2f

y2

2f

z2

r, 2, n:

f =

2f

2 f
1
2f
1 2f
1
f ;
ctg
+ 2
+
+

sin 2 2
2 2
2

, , z:

f =

1 f 1 2f 2f
.

+
+
2 2 z2

w = wkk k k :
k

iw =

wk
i

+ w j jik .

w = wkk :

iwk =

wk
i

wj kij .

: gij (i, j = 1, 2, 3) ;

: g11 = g22 = g33 = 1, gij = 0 i j;

: g11 grr = 1, g22 g = r2, g33 g = r2 sin2, gij = 0 i j;

: g11 g = 1, g22 g = 2, g33 gzz = 1, gij = 0 i j.

II.4.

30

i (c wk) = c i wk;
i (vk + wk)= i vk + i wk;
i (vj wk) = wk i vj + vj i wk;
i (gjk) = 0;
i wj = gjk i wk.
:
i
jk
=

gjk
gks
1 is gjs
g
+
+
k
2
s
j

(gij = 0 i j):

1 ii gii
g
;
2
j
1 ii gii
iii =
;
g
2
i
iji =

jji =
i
jk
=0

1 ii g jj
g
;
2
i

i j, j k, i k.

:
, , z:

r, 2, n:

r = r;

r = r sin2 ;

= sin cos ;

r =

1
;
r

= ;

1
= ;
r

= ctg .

1
.

, , .
, :
: i = grad ;
w :

i wi = div w ;

w (u = rot w):
1, 2, 3;

u =

1
( w w ) ,
g

g = det gij .

, , -

31

III. . . .
1.
1.1. .
a {an}:

lim an = a ,

> 0 N = N(), |xn a| < n > N.


, , . ,
, . {an} (), M, an - M (an . M) n. , , .
{an} (), an+1 > an (an+1 < an) n. .
1.2. .
{xn} {yn} ,
lim (cxn) = c lim xn (c );
n

lim (xn yn) = lim xn lim yn ;

lim (xn yn) = lim xn lim yn ;

lim xn
xn
= n
n yn
lim yn
lim

lim xn - lim yn


x n - y n - zn

lim xn = lim zn = a,

{xn},

lim yn 0;

{yn},

xn - yn .

{zn}

lim yn = a .

{xn}, {yn} xn - yn

lim xn = a,

lim yn = b,

a - b.

{xn}
, > 0 N0 = N0 () ,

| xn xn+p | < , n > N0 p > 0.


.
.

32

III.1.
1.3. .
a > 0, b > 1, > 0, p .
n

lim 1 + = e;
n
n
lim

a = 1;

1
n
lim
= 1;
n 1 n
tg

lim

n n n!

lim

lim

= e;

n = 1;

1p + 2p + + np

an
= 0;
n n!
lim

lim

n
n

lim n ( a 1) = ln a;

1
=
;
p +1

= 0;

lim

lim

logb n
n

1
n = 1;
1n

sin

1p + 3p + + (2n 1) p

lim
n
np +1
1
1
1
lim
+
++
= ln 2.
2n
n+2
n n + 1

np +1

= 0;

2p
=
;
p +1

33

2.
2.1. .
f (x0 + x) f (x0)
.
x
x 0
, , f (x) x0.
df
df (x)
(x0) =
f (x) f(x0) =
.
dx
dx x = x

y = f (x) x0

lim

f(x0 + x) f(x0)
f(x0 + x) f(x0) = A(x0) x + o (x),
o (x) ,
A(x0) x y = f (x) x0:
df (x0) = A(x0) dx

(dx x).
y = f (x)

x0

, f(x0), df(x0) = f(x0) dx.

f(x1, , xn) ( x01 , , xn0 ) xk f (x10 , , xk0 + xk , , xn0) f (x10 , , xn0)


lim

.
xk
xk 0
, , f xk. f (x10 , , xn0)

fxk (x10 , , xn0) .
xk

f( x01 , , xn0 ) = f( x01 +x1, , xn0 +xn) f( x01 , , xn0 ) = A1x1 + + Anxn + o(),
A1, , An xi (i = 1, , n) =

(xk)2 ,

k =1

f(x1, , xn)

( x01 , , xn0 ),
A1x1 + + Anxn,
fx1 dx1 + + fxn dxn
(dxi xi , i = 1, , n) ,
(1)
f(x1, , xn)

( x01 , , xn0 ),

df. (1)
dxi f: dxi f = fxi dxi
(i = 1, , n) .
2.2. .
u(x) const, u(x) 0, du 0.
u(x) v(x) x0, :

(cu) = cu (c = const);
(u v) = u v;

d(cu) = cdu;

d(u v) = du dv;

34

III.2.

(uv) = uv + uv; d(uv) = v du + u dv;

uv uv
u u dv v du
u
; d =
.
=
v
v
v2
v2
.
y = f (x)
x0 f(x0) 0, -

g(y) y0 = f (x0) g(y) = 1/f(x0).


. f (x) (t)
x0 t0 x0 = (t0),

f ( (t)) t0 ( f ( (t) ) )

t = t0

= f(x0) (t0) =

d f () d (t)
d
dt

.
t = t0

.
x(t) y(t) t0
y (t )
y
x(t0) 0, x0 = x (t0) yx = t 0 =
.
xt (t0)
x t =t
0

2.3. .
u(x) v(x) n- x0,

dn (u + v) = dnu + dnv;

(u + v)(n) = u(n) + v(n);

(uv) (n) =

Cnk u(k) v(n k) ,

k=0

dn (uv) =

Cnk dku dn kv

( ).

k=0

.
y = f (x) x0,

f(x0) 0, x = g (y)
g(y0) = f(x0) / f 3 (x0) .
.

y = f (x) x = (t) x0 t0

x0 =

(t0),

( f ( (t) ) )

t =t0

f(x0) 2 (t0)

f ( (t))

+ f(x0) (t0) .

t0

, .
x(t) y(t)

y x ytxtt
= tt t
t0 x(t0) 0, x0 = x (t0) yxx
.
3
xt

. f (x)
x0,
x0, f(x0) = 0.
.
f (x) [a, b], (a, b)
, c (a, b), f(c) = 0.

2.5. .

35

.
f (x) [a, b] (a, b), c,

f (b) f (a)
= f(c) .
ba

.
f (x) g (y) [a, b], (a, b) g(x) 0 x (a, b), c (a, b),

f (b) f (a)
f(c)
.
=
g (b) g (a) g(c)

2.4. .

(x ) = x 1

(sin x) = cos x;
(tg x) =
(arcsin x) =
(arctg x) =

(cos x) = sin x;

cos x
1
1 x
1

1 + x2

(ctg x) =

(arccos x) =

(arcctg x) =

(sh x) = ch x;
1

ch x

(cth x) =

sin2 x
1
1 x
1

1 + x2
1
(loga x) =
;
x ln a
(ch x) = sh x;

(ax) = ax ln a;

(th x) =

(xx) = xx (ln x + 1);

( = const);

sh2 x

2.5. .

.
0

y =

= y(x1, , xn) x =

(x10 , , xn0) , xi = xi (t1, , tm)

(i = 1, , n;

j = 1, , m), y(x(t))

xi
tj

y
t 0
,
tj

y
=
tj

y xi
.
t

i
j

i =1

.
y (x) x0, xi = xi (t) (i = 1, , n)
t 0, y (x(t)) = y (x1(t), , xn(t)) t 0: dy =

y(x(t0))
t dtj =
j
j =1
m

y(x0)
x dxi (t 0) .
i
i =1

36

III.2.

, . F (x1, , xn, y) = 0,

y = f(x1, , xn)
0
0
( x1 ; ; xn ; y0), Fx , Fy , i

, Fy 0, ( x10 ; ; xn0 )
fx , fx = Fx / Fy .
i

, .
yj = fj(x1, , xn)
(j = 1, , n) Fi(x1, , xn, y1, , ym) = 0
0
(i = 1, , m), ( x10 ; ; xn0 ; y10 ; ; ym
) -

Fk m Fk fj
+
=0
xi j =1 yj xi

fj

xi

(k = 1, 2, , m) .


. n- f(x, y):

dnf (x, y) =

f (x, y)

Cnk xn kyk dxn k dky ,

k=0

Cnk .

37

3.
3.1. .
F(x) f(x) X*), X F(x) = f(x) .
f(x) X , f (x) dx = F(x) + C (C = const).
f (x) dx , :

3.2. .
f(x) X,

d
f (x) dx = f (x) .
dx

f(x) X
df (x) = f (x) + C .
,

f(x) X, k , kf(x) kf (x) dx = k f (x) dx .

f(x) g(x) X,
f(x) + g(x) [f (x) + g (x)] dx = f (x) dx + g (x) dx .

.
f(x) g(x) X,
g (x) df (x) , X f (x) dg (x)

f(x) dg(x) = f(x) g(x) g(x) df(x) .




(
) .
f(z) Z,
z = g(x) X,
g(X) Z, f(g(x)) g(x) X

f(g(x)) g(x) dx = f(z) dz .

3.3. .

x dx =
x
a dx =

x +1
+C
+1

ax
;
ln a

sin x dx = cos x;
tg x dx = ln cos x ;
sh x dx = ch x;
*)

( 1) ;

C ;

dx
= ln | x | (x 0)
x

cos x dx = sin x;
ctg x dx = ln sin x ;
ch x dx = sh x;

38

III.3.

dx

dx

sin2 x = ctg x;

cos2 x = tg x;

sh2 x = cth x;

ch2 x = th x;

dx

dx

x2 + a2

dx
2

a x

dx

sin x = ln

x
1
arctg
a
a
= arcsin

tg

x
;
2

th x dx = ln ch x;
dx

sh x = ln

dx

th

x
;
2

x
a

(a 0);

( x < a);

dx

x 2 a2

dx

x a
dx

cos x = ln

1
xa
ln
2a
x+a

= ln x + x2 a2
x
tg + ;
2 4

cth x dx = ln sh x ;
dx

(a 0);

ch x = 2 arctg e

(a 0);

39

4.
4.1. .
,

Xn dx =
dx

x dx

1
Xn +1
a (n + 1)

X = ax + b.

(n 1);

X = a ln X ;
x dx x b
X = a a2 ln X ;

ln X ;
a2X a2

1
1
b
=
+
(n 1, 2) ;

Xn
a2 (n 2) Xn 2 (n 1) Xn 1

x2dx
1 X2
= 3
2bX + b2 ln X ;

X
a 2

x2dx
1
b2
= 3 X 2b ln X ;
X
X2
a
x2dx
1
2b
b2
= 3 ln X +

;
X 2X2
X3
a

x2dx
1
2b
b2
1
=
+

Xn
a3 (n 3) Xn 3 (n 2) Xn 2 (n 1) Xn 1
dx
1 X
= ln
;
xX
b
x
dx
1 X ax
= 2 ln
+
;
2
X
xX
b x
X2
x dx

n 1
1 X
(a)i xi
i
(n . 1) ;
Cn 1
= n ln

xXn
b x i =1
iXi
dx
1
a
X
=

+
;
ln
bx b2
x
x2 X
1
dx
1
2
X
= a 2 + 2 3 ln ;
2 2
x
x X
b X ab x b
n
i 1 i 1
dx
1
X
X
i (a) x
= n +1 Cn
+ na ln
x
x
x2 X n
b
(i 1) Xi 1
i = 2

dx

(n 1, 2, 3) ;

(n . 2) ;

40

III.4.

dx

xm X n

m 1
m 1
Cm
ln
+ n 2 (a)

i =0

Xm i 1 (a)i

i
Cm
+ n 2

(m i 1) xm i 1

X
.
x

x2dx x
b
b2 2ac
= 2 ln X +
X
a 2a
2a2

xmdx

Xn

Xn

(2n 3) aXn 1

c
(2n 3)a

xm 1

(2n m 1) aXn 1

dx
;
X
dx

Xn

x2n 1dx
Xn

1
a

x2n 3dx

Xn 1

dx
1
x2
b
ln
=

2c
xX 2c
X
dx

xXn

2c (n 1) Xn 1

c
a

(n 2)b
(2n 3)a

(m 1) c
(2n m 1) a

( = 4ac b2).

X = ax2 + bx + c

2ax + b
2
( > 0),
arctg

dx
=
X
1 ln 2ax + b
( < 0);

2
ax
b

+
+

dx
2ax + b
(2n 3)2a dx
=
+
;
(n 1)
Xn
(n 1) Xn 1
Xn 1
x dx
b dx
1
=
ln X
;
X
2a
2a X
x dx
bx + 2c
b(2n 3)
dx
=

;
n
n 1
(n 1) Xn 1
X
(n 1) X

x2dx

bm + n 1

m i 1 = 0,

m + n 2

x2n 3dx
Xn

b
a

Xn

xm 2dx
Xn

(n m)b
(2n m 1) a

x2n 2dx
Xn

xm 1dx
Xn

(m 2n 1);

dx
;
X

b
2c

dx

Xn

1
dx
;
c xXn 1

1 b2
a dx
;
ln
=

x2X 2c2
x2 cx 2c2 c X
dx
1
(2n + m 3) a
=

(m 1) c
xm X n
(m 1) cxm 1Xn 1

dx

x dx

dx

xm 2 X n

(n + m 2) b
dx
(m 1) c
xm 1Xn

(m > 1) ;

4.1. .
,

41

X = a2 x2.

x
x 1 a+x
, arth = ln

a
a 2 ax
x 1 a+x
| x | < a, arth = ln
| x | > a.
a 2
xa
Y arctg

X = a2 + x2, X = a2 x2.

dx

X = aY ;
dx
x
2n 1 dx
+
Xn +1 2na2Xn 2na2 Xn ;

x dx
1
= ln X ;
X
2
x dx
1
=
(n 0) ;
n +1
X
2nXn

x2dx
= x aY ;
X
x2dx

Xn +1

2nXn

1
2n

dx

Xn

(n 0) ;

x3dx
x 2 a2
=

ln X ;
X
2
2

x3dx
X2

x3dx

a2 1
=
+ ln X ;
2X 2

a2

Xn +1 = 2(n 1)Xn 1 + 2nXn

(n > 1) .

, X = a3 x3.
X = a3 + x3, X = a3 x3.

dx
1
(a x) 2
1
2x a
= 2 ln
+ 2
arctg
;
X
a 3
6a
a2 ax + x2 a 3
dx

dx

X2 = 3a3X + 3a3 X ;

a2 ax + x2
x dx
1
1
2x a
=

ln
arctg
;
X
6a
a 3
a 3
(a x) 2
x2

x dx

x2dx
1
= ln X ;
X
3

X2

3a2X

3a2

x dx
;
X

42

III.4.

x2dx

x3dx
dx
= x a3
;
X
X

X2

1
;
3X

x3dx
X2

x
1

3X 3

dx

x dx

a4 + x 4

x2dx

a4 + x 4

x3dx

a4 + x 4

a4 + x 4

4a3 2

dx
.
X

X = a4 + x4.

ln

x2 + ax 2 + a2

x2 ax 2 + a2

2a3 2

arctg

ax 2

a2 x2

x2
arctg
;
2a2
a2
1

x2 + ax 2 + a2
ax 2
1
1
+
ln 2
arctg
;
4a 2
x ax 2 + a2 2a 2
a2 x2

1
ln(a4 + x4) .
4

dx

X = a4 x4.

a+x

a4 x4 = 4a3 ln a x + 2a3 arctg a ;


x dx

a4 x 4
x2dx

a4 x 4

4a

ln
3

a2 + x2
a2 x2

1
1
a+x
x
ln
arctg ;

4a a x 2a
a

x3dx

1
=

ln a4 x4 .
4
4
4
a x

4.2. .

x dx

a + bx =
x dx

(a bx)m

(a bx)m

( a > 0, b > 0, n = 0, 1, 2, ; m = 1, 2, 3, ).

2 x 2 a
bx

arctg
;
b
a
b b

a bx =
x dx

x n +1 2dx

2 x
a
+
ln
b
b b

x x

a + bx
;
a bx

(m 1) a(a bx) m 1

2m 5
2a(m 1)

x dx

(a bx)m 1

(m . 2) ;

4.2. .

x x dx
6a x 2bx x
2a2
bx
;
=
+
arctg
a + bx
a
3b2
b2 ab

x x dx
6a x + 2bx x a a
=
+ 2
ln
a bx
3b2
b b
x x dx

x x

a + bx
;
a bx
x dx

(a bx)m = (m 1)(a bx)m 1 2b(m 1) (a bx)m 1


n

(1) k akxn k

xn x dx
=2 x
a bx

dx
=
x (a + bx)

2
bx
;
arctg
a
ab

dx
=
x (a bx)

1
ln
ab

(2n 2k + 1)(b)k +1 + (b)n +1

k=0

x
1
bx
+
arctg
;
a(a + bx) a ab
a

dx

x
1
+
ln
a(a bx) 2a ab

x (a bx) 2
dx
x (a bx)

2 x
a(a bx)

(m . 2) ;

dx
x (a bx)

(n . 2) ;

a + bx
;
a bx

an +1

dx

x (a + bx) 2

43

m 1

a + bx
;
a bx

(2m 3) b
a

x ndx

(a + bx)

x dx

(a bx)m .

( n = 0, 1, 2, ; m = 1, 3, 5, ).

dx
2
=
a + bx ;
a + bx b
x dx
2
a
a + bx
=
+

;
m
2
m2 m 4

m
2

(a + bx)
b (a + bx)
x2 dx
(a + bx)

x3dx
(a + bx)m
xndx
(a + bx) m

=
=

2
b3 (a + bx) m 2

2
b4 (a + bx)m 2

(a + bx) 2 2a(a + bx)


a2
+

m
6
m
4
m
2

(a + bx)3 3a(a + bx)2 3a2 (a + bx)


a3
+

;
m6
m4
m 2
m 8

2
bn +1 (a + bx) m 2

k=0

(1) kCnk (a + bx) n k ak


;
2n 2k m + 2

44

III.4.

1
a + bx a
(a > 0),
ln

a + bx + a
dx
a
=
x a + bx 2
a + bx
(a < 0);
arctg

a
a
dx
2
1
dx
=
+
(m 2) a (a + bx) m 2 a x (a + bx)m 2
x (a + bx) m

xn

(2n 3) b
dx
(n . 2) ;
a + bx
(n 1) axn 1 2(n 1) a xn 1 a + bx
dx
1
mb
dx
=

(a + bx)m
(n 1) xn 1 (a + bx)m 2(n 1) xn 1 (a + bx)m + 2
2
2n
dx
=

(m 2) bxn (a + bx) m 2 (m 2) b xn +1 (a + bx) m 2

dx

xn

a + bx

(n . 2) ;

(m . 3) .

(a + bx) m dx ( n = 0, 1, 2, ; m = 1, 3, 5, ).

2 (a + bx) m + 2
;
(m + 2) b
2 (a + bx) m + 4 a (a + bx) m + 2
;
x (a + bx) m dx = 2

m+4
m+2

2 (a + bx) m + 6 2a (a + bx) m + 4 a2 (a + bx) m + 2


;
x2 (a + bx) m dx = 3

+
m+6
m+4
m+2

(a + bx) m dx =

2 (a + bx) m + 2

(1) kCnk (a + bx) n k ak


;
2n 2k + m + 2

a + bx a
2 a + bx + a ln
a + bx + a
a + bx

dx =
x

a + bx
2a
arctg
2 a + bx +
a
a

(a + bx) m
2(a + bx) m / 2
(a + bx) m / 2 1
dx =
+a
dx ;
x
m
x

(m . 3) ;

(a + bx)

dx =

bn +1

k=0

(a > 0),
(a < 0);

(a + bx) m
x2

a + bx
x

dx =

dx =

(a + bx) m + 2
2ax2

(a + bx) 3
(n 1) ax

n 1

mb
+
2a

(5 2n) b
2a(n 1)

(a + bx) m
dx ;
x
a + bx
xn 1

dx

(n . 2) ;

4.2. .

(a + bx) m
xn

dx =

(a + bx) m + 2

b(m 2n + 4)
+
2a(n 1)

(n 1) axn 1

(a + bx)m
xn 1

45

dx

(n . 2) ;

(a + bx) n (c + fx) m dx ( = af bc 0, n = 1, 3, 5, ;

m = 1, 3, 5, ).

dx

=
(a + bx)(c + fx)

dx
(a + bx)(c + fx) m

2bfx + af + bc
1
arcsin

bf

(bf < 0),

2
ln bf (a + bx) + b c + fx
bf
f (a + bx)
2
arctg
b(c + fx)
bf

2
(m 2)

(bf > 0),

(b > 0, f < 0);

a + bx
+

m 2
(c + fx)

b(m 3)
+
2

m2
(a + bx)(c + fx)

dx

(m . 3);

(a + bx)(c + fx)
2bfx + af + bc

(bf < 0),


arcsin
+

2
f
bf

a + bx

dx =
c + fx

(a + bx)(c + fx)
ln bf (a + bx) + b c + fx (bf > 0);

f
f
bf

2 (a + bx) n (c + fx)
(a + bx) n
n
dx =

(n + 1) f
(n + 1) f
c + fx

a + bx
(c + fx)

dx =

2
a + bx
b
+
m

2
f(m 2) (c + fx)
f(m 2)

(a + bx) n (c + fx) dx =

dx
a2 + b2x2
dx
2

2 2 m

(a + b x )

(a + bx) n 2
dx ;
c + fx

dx
(a + bx)(c + fx)

2 (a + bx) n + 2 (c + fx)

+
b(n + 3)
b(n + 3)
xn dx
2

2 2 m

(a + b x )

am 1

(m 3) 2

k=0

(m . 3) ;

(a + bx) n
dx .
c + fx

(a > 0, b > 0, n = 0, 1, 2, ; m = 1, 3, 5, ).

1
ln bx + (a2 + b2x2) m ;
b
1

m2

(1) kC(km 3)
2

2k 2k +1
2b x
2 2 2k +1

(2k + 1) (a + b x )

(m . 3) ;

46

III.4.

x dx

1
= 2 a2 + b2x2 ;
b
a2 + b2x2
x dx
1
=
(a2 + b2x2) m
(m 2) b2 (a2 + b2x2) m 2
x2dx

x a2 + b2x2

a2 + b2x2

2b2

x2dx

(a2 + b2x2) 3

a2 + b2x2

2 2 m

2
2 2
ln
bx
+
a
+
b
x ;
2b3

b2 a2 + b2x2

2
2 2
ln
bx
+
a
+
b
x .
b3

dx

xn

2 2 m

(a + b x )

(a > 0, b > 0, n = 1, 2, 3, ; m = 1, 3, 5, ).

1
a + a2 + b2x2
;
= ln
a
bx

dx

a2

dx

(m . 3) ;

(a + b x )

(m 1) 2

k =1

1
2k

(m 2k) a

2 2 m 2k

(a + b x )

a + a2 + b2x2
m ln
bx
a
1

dx

x2

2 2

a +b x

dx

x2

2 2 m

(a + b x )
dx

x3

a2 + b2x2
dx

x3

2 2 m

(a + b x )

a2 + b2x2
a2x

am +1

(1) kC(km 1) 2 b2kx2k 1


2 2 2k 1

(2k 1) (a + b x )

k=0

2a2x2

a + a2 + b2x2
;
+ 3 ln
bx
2a
2 4

(m 2)b x
4

(m 2) b2

2 2 m 2

(a + b x )

x5

dx
2

2 2 m2

(a + b x )

2 2

(m . 3);

(a2 + b2x2) m dx (a > 0, b > 0, n = 0,1,2,; m = 1,3,5,).

x a2 + b2x2 a2
a + b x dx =
+
ln bx + a2 + b2x2 ;
2
2b
2

b2

a2 + b2x2

(m 1) 2

(m . 3);

4.2. .

(a + b x )

x
ma2
2
2 2 m
dx =
(a + b x ) +
m +1
m +1
(a2 + b2x2) m + 2

x (a2 + b2x2) m dx =

2 2 m

2 2 m

(a + b x )

(m + 2) b2

xn (a2 + b2x2)m dx =

(a2 + b2x2) m 2 dx ;

x (a2 + b2x2) m + 2

dx =

a2

(m + 3) b

xn 1 (a2 + b2x2)m+ 2
2

(m + n + 1) b

(m + 3) b

(a2 + b2x2) m
dx =
x

x2

x2

(a2 + b2x2) m 2 dx .

(a2 b2x2) m dx (a > 0, b > 0, n = 0,1,2,; m = 1,3,5,).

x a2 b2x2 a2
bx
a b x dx =
+
arcsin
;
2
2b
a

(a2 b2x2)m dx =

(a2 + b2x2)m dx ;

(a2 + b2x2) m 2
dx ;
x

(a2 + b2x2) m
dx =
+ mb2
x

n 2

a2 + b2x2
+ b ln bx + a2 + b2x2 ;
x

dx =

(a2 + b2x2) m

(a2 + b2x2) m dx ;

x
b (m + n + 1)
2

(a2 + b2x2) m
+ a2
m

a2 (n 1)

a2 + b2x2
a + a2 + b2x2
2
2 2
;
dx = a + b x a ln
x
bx

a2 + b2x2

47

2 2

2 2

a b x dx =

x
ma2
(a2 b2x2)m +
m +1
m +1
(a2 b2x2) 3
3b2

x (a2 b2x2) m dx =

x2 a2 b2x2 dx =

(m + 2) b2

8b2

(a2 b2x2)m 2 dx

a2 b2x2 +

x (a2 b2x2) m + 2

a4

bx
arcsin
;
a
8b3
a2

a2 b2x2
a + a2 b2x2
;
dx = a2 b2x2 a ln
x
bx

2 2 m

(a b x )

dx =

(m . 3) ;

(a2 b2x2) m + 3

2b2x3 a2x

(m + 3) b2

(m + 3) b2

(a2 b2x2) m dx ;

48

III.4.

(a2 b2x2) m
1
dx =
(a2 b2x2) m + a2
x
m
a2 b2x2
x2

dx
a2 b2x2

2 2 m

(a b x )
x dx
2

2 2

a b x
x dx

(a b x )
x2dx
a2 b2x2

(a2 b2x2) 3
x2dx
2 2 m

(a b x )
xndx
a2 b2x2

(a2 b2x2) m
xndx
2 2 m

(a b x )

(a2 b2x2)m 2 dx .

(a > 0, b > 0, n = 0, 1, 2, ; m = 1, 3, 5, ).

2 2 m

dx b2

xndx
(a b x )

C(km 3) 2b2kx2k +1

(m 3) 2

am 1
b2

(2k + 1) (a b x )

1
2

(a b x )

x
b2 a2 b2x2

bx
arcsin
;
a
2b3

k=0

(2k + 3) (a b x )

n 1

tkdt
(a2 b2t2) m

n 2

(m . 5) ;

a2 b2x2 dx ;

(t = x2) ;

xn 1

2 2 2k + 3

1
2

C(m 5) 2b2kx2k + 3

xn 1 a2 b2x2

bx
arcsin
;
a
b3

(m 5) 2

am 3

a2

2b2

2 2 m 2

(m 2) b

(m . 3) ;

x a2 b2x2

2 2 2k +1

k=0

a2 b2x2

x2k +1dx

x2dx

(m . 3) ;

1
bx
arcsin ;
b
a

2 2 m

(a2 b2x2) m 2

dx = a2

dx
2

a2 b2x2
bx
dx =
b arcsin
;
x
a

(a2 b2x2) m
x

(a2 b2x2) m 2
dx
x

2 2 m 2

n 1

b (m 2) (a b x )

b2 (m 2)

xn 2dx
(a2 b2x2) m 2

(m . 3);

4.2. .

a2 b2x2
dx

(a b x )

(m 1) 2

2 2 m

(a > 0, b > 0, n = 0, 1, 2,; m = 1, 3, 5,).

2 2 m

1 a + a2 b2x2
;
= ln
a
bx

dx

dx

xn

49

(a b x )

1
2k

(m 2k) a

k =1

2 2 m 2k

(a b x )

a + a2 b2x2
m ln
bx
a
1

x2
x2

dx
2

a2 b2x2

2 2

a b x
dx

(a2 b2x2) m

a2 x

dx
b2x2 a2

2 m

(b x a )
x dx

(b2x2 a2) m
x2dx
b2x2 a2

x2dx
(b2x2 a2) m
=

xndx

2 2

2 m

(b x a )

(m . 3) .

(b2x2 a2) m dx (a > 0, b > 0, n = 0,1,2,; m = 1,3,5,).

(1) (m 1)

2 (m 3) 2

(1) kC(km 3)

am 1

(b2x2 a2) 3

b2x2 a2

k=0

(2k 1) (a2 b2x2) 2k 1

2k 2k +1
2b x

2 2

2 2k +1

(2k + 1) (b x a )

k=0

(m 2) b2 (b2x2 a2) m 2

(m . 3) ;

x b2x2 a2
a2
=
+ 3 ln bx + b2x2 a2 ;
2b
2b

x2dx

xndx

C(km 1) 2 b2kx2k 1

1
ln bx + b2x2 a2 ;
b

dx
2 2

(m 1) 2

am +1

(m . 3);

x
b2 b2x2 a2

(1) (m 3)

(1) kC(km 5)

n 1
2

n2

xn1
2

2 2

2k 2k + 3
2b x

(2k + 3) (b2x2 a2) 2k + 3

k=0

ln bx + b2x2 a2 ;

xn 1 b2x2 a2
b

2 (m 5) 2

am 3
2

2 m2

b (m 2) (b x a )

(m . 5) ;

b2x2 a2 dx ;

n 1

b2 (m 2)

xn2dx
2 2

2 m 2

(b x a )

(m . 3);

50

III.4.

dx

b2x2 a2

x2

xn

a
1
;
arccos
2
bx

dx
b2x2 a2
dx

(b2x2 a2) m

b2x2 a2
a2x

1
(m 2) b2xn +1 (b2x2 a2) m 2

n +1

(m 2) b2

xn + 2

dx
(b2x2 a2) m 2

x b2x2 a2 a2

b x a dx =
ln bx + b2x2 a2 ;
2
2b

(b2x2 a2) m dx =

2 2

(m . 3);

2 2

2 m

x
ma2
(b2x2 a2) m
m +1
m +1

(b x a ) dx =

xn 1 (b2x2 a2)m+ 2
2

(m + n + 1) b

(b2x2 a2) m
xn

dx = a

xn

(m + n + 1) b

(b2x2 a2) m 2

(b2x2 a2) m 2 dx ;

(n 1) a2

b2x2 a2
a
dx = b2x2 a2 a arccos
;
x
bx
2

dx + b

n 2

(b2x2 a2)m dx;

(b2x2 a2) m 2
xn 2

dx .

4.3. .
, (n . 0 , a . 0 ).

sinn 1 ax cos ax n 1
+
sinn 2 ax dx
na
n

sinn ax dx =

xn
n
x sin ax dx =
xn 1 cos ax dx
cos ax +
a
a

sin ax
(ax) 3 (ax) 5 (ax) 7
dx = ax
+

+ =
x
3 3! 5 5! 7 7!

sin ax

(n > 0) ;

k=0

(1) k (ax) 2k +1
;
(2k + 1) (2k + 1) !

1 sin ax
a
cos ax
dx ;
+
n

1
n 1 x
n 1 xn 1
x
dx
1
cos ax
n2
dx
=
+
;
n
n

1
n
a(n 1) sin ax n 1 sin 2 ax
sin ax
n

dx =

(n > 0) ;

4.3. .

x dx
1
(ax) 3
7(ax)5
31(ax) 7 127 (ax) 9
= 2 ax +
+
+
+
++
sin ax a
3 3! 3 5 5! 3 7 7!
3 5 9!

2(22n 1 1)
+
Bn (ax) 2n +1 + (Bn );

(2n + 1) !

x dx
x
1
= ctg ax + 2 ln sin ax ;
2
a
sin ax
a
x dx
x cos ax
1
=

+
n
n 1
sin ax
(n 1) a sin ax (n 1)(n 2) a2 sinn 2 ax
n2
x dx
(n > 2);
+
n 1 sinn 2 ax
dx
1 ax
;
= tg
1 sin ax
a 4
2
x dx
x ax 2
ax
;
= tg
+ 2 ln cos

1 + sin ax
a 4
2 a
2
4
x dx
x
ax 2
ax
;
= ctg
+ 2 ln sin

1 sin ax a
2 a
2
4
4

sin ax dx
1 ax
;
= x + tg
1 sin ax
a 4
2
1 ax 1
dx
ax
;
= tg
+ ln tg

sin ax (1 sin ax) a 4


2 a
2
dx
1
ax 1
3 ax
=

tg

tg

4 2 ;
2a 4
2 6a

(1 + sin ax) 2
dx

(1 sin ax)2

1
ax 1
ax
;
tg
+
tg3

2a 4
2 6a
2
4

sin ax dx

1
ax 1
ax
;
ctg
+
ctg3

2a
2 6a
2
4
4

(1 sin ax)2

1
ax 1
ax
;
ctg
+
ctg3

2a
2 6a
2
4
4

sin ax dx

(1 + sin ax)2

3 sin2 ax 1
1
1
=
=
arcsin
arctg( 2 tg ax) ;

sin2 ax + 1 a 2
1 + sin2 ax 2 2 a

dx

dx

dx

1
tg ax ;
1 sin2 ax
cos2 ax a
sin (a b) x sin (a + b) x
sin ax sin bx dx =

2(a b)
2(a + b)
=

( a b );

51

52

III.4.

ax

tg
b
+c

2
2
(b2 > c2),
arctg

b2 c2
a b2 c2
dx
=
ax
b + c sin ax
+ c c2 b2
b tg
2
2

ln
(b2 < c2);
ax
a c2 b2
+ c + c2 b2
b tg

2
sin ax dx
x b
dx
=
;
b + c sin ax c c b + c sin ax
dx
1
ax c
dx
=
ln tg

;
sin ax (b + c sin ax) ab
2
b b + c sin ax
dx
c cos ax
b
dx
=
+ 2
;
2
2
2
2 b + c sin ax
(b + c sin ax)
a(b c )(b + c sin ax) b c

sin ax dx

(b + c sin ax)2

b cos ax

a(c2 b2)(b + c sin ax)

c2 b2

dx
;
b + c sin ax

b2 + c2 tg ax
=
arctg
b
b2 + c2 sin2 ax ab b2 + c2
dx

dx

b2 c2 sin2 ax
=

1
ab b2 c2
1

2ab c2 b2

arctg
ln

b2 c2 tg ax
b

c2 b2 tg ax + b
c2 b2 tg ax b

(b > 0) ;
(b2 > c2 , b > 0),
(b2 < c2 , b > 0);

cosn 1 ax sin ax n 1
cos ax dx =
+
cosn 2 ax dx ;
na
n

xn cos ax dx =

cos ax
(ax) 2 (ax) 4 (ax) 6
dx = ln(ax)
+

+ = ln(ax) +
x
2 2! 4 4! 6 6!

cos ax

xn

dx

dx =

xn sin ax n

xn 1 sin ax dx ;
a
a

cos ax

(n 1) xn 1
1

a
sin ax
dx
n 1 xn 1

ax

k =1

(n 1) ;

cos ax = sec ax dx = a ln 4 + 2 = a ln sec ax + tg ax ;


dx
1
sin ax
n2
dx
=
+
n
n

1
n
cos ax a(n 1) cos ax n 1 cos 2 ax (n > 1) ;

(1) k (ax) 2k
;
2k (2k) !

4.3. .

x dx
1 (ax) 2 (ax) 4 5 (ax) 6 61(ax) 8 1385 (ax)10
= 2
+
+
+
+
+
cos ax a 2
4 2!
6 4!
8 6!
10 8 !

En (ax) 2n + 2
+ +
+ (En );

(2n + 2) (2n) !

x dx
x
1
= tg ax + 2 ln cos ax ;
2
cos ax a
a
x dx
x sin ax
1
=

+
n
n 1
cos ax (n 1) a cos ax (n 1)(n 2) a2 cosn 2 ax
n2
x dx
(n > 2);
+
n 1 cosn 2 ax
dx
1 ax
= tg
;
1 + cos ax a
2
dx
1
ax
= ctg
;
1 cos ax
a
2
x dx
x ax 2
ax
= tg
+ 2 ln cos
;
1 + cos ax a
2 a
2
x dx
x
ax 2
ax
= ctg
+ 2 ln sin
;
1 cos ax
a
2 a
2
cos ax dx
1 ax
= x tg
;
1 + cos ax
a
2
cos ax dx
1
ax
= x ctg
;
1 cos ax
a
2
dx
1
ax 1 ax
= ln tg +
tg
;
2 a
2
cos ax (1 + cos ax) a
4

dx
ax
1
ax 1
= ln tg +
ctg
;

2 a
2
cos ax (1 cos ax) a
4
dx
1
ax
1
3 ax
=
tg
+
tg
;
2
6a
2
(1 + cos ax) 2 2a

dx

(1 cos ax)2
cos ax dx

(1 + cos ax)2
cos ax dx

=
=

1
ax 1
ax
ctg

ctg3
;
2a
2 6a
2

1
ax 1
ax
tg

tg3
;
2a
2 6a
2
ax

(1 cos ax)2 = 2a ctg 2

1
ax
ctg3
;
6a
2

1 3 cos2 ax
1
=
arcsin
;
1 + cos2 ax
1 + cos2 ax 2 2 a

dx

dx

dx

1 cos2 ax = sin2 ax = a ctg ax ;

53

54

III.4.

cos ax cos bx dx =

dx
=
b + c cos ax

b2 c2

( a b );
(b2 > c2),

b2 c2

ax
+ c2 b2
2
ln
(b2 < c2);
=
ax
c2 b2
(c b) tg
c2 b2
2
cos ax dx
x b
dx
=
;
b + c cos ax c c b + c cos ax
1
dx
dx
ax c
ln tg +
;
=

cos ax (b + c cos ax) ab


2 b b + c cos ax
4
dx
c sin ax
b
dx
=

;
(b + c cos ax) 2 a(c2 b2)(b + c cos ax) c2 b2 b + c cos ax
cos ax dx
b sin ax
c
dx
=
2
;
2
2
2
2 b + c cos ax
(b + c cos ax)
a(b c )(b + c cos ax) b c
(c b) tg

sin (a b) x sin (a + b) x
+
2 (a b)
2 (a + b)
ax
(b c) tg
2
2
arctg

dx

b2 + c2 cos2 ax
b

dx

c cos ax
=

=
=

ab b c
2

ab c b

ab b + c
1

1
2

ln

arctg
arctg

b tg ax
2

b +c
b tg ax
2

b c

b tg ax c2 b2
2

b tg ax + c b

(b > 0) ;
(b2 > c2 , b > 0),
(b2 < c2 , b > 0);

sin x dx
1
= ln a + b cos x ;
a + b cos x
b
sin x dx
1
=
( a + b cos x )n ( n 1) b ( a + b cos x )n 1

sin x dx
1 cos x
;
= ln
cos x (1 cos x )
cos x

sin x dx
1
1
x
=
ln tg + ;
cos x (1 sin x ) 2 (1 sin x ) 2
4 2
sin x dx

(n . 2) ;

a + b cos x

(a + b cos x ) (c + d cos x ) = ad bc ln c + d cos x


c + d sin x
d
dx
a + b cos x dx = b ln a + b cos x + c a + b cos x ;
cos x dx
1
= ln a + b sin x ;
a + b sin x b

( ad bc 0 ) ;

4.3. .

cos x dx

(a + b sin x)

dx

sin x cos x =

(n . 2) ;
(n 1) b (a + b sin x) n 1
cos x dx
sin x
= ln
;
1 sin x
sin x (1 sin x)
x
cos x dx
1
1
=
ln tg ;
sin x (1 cos x)
2(1 cos x) 2
2
c + d sin x
cos x dx
1
=
(ad bc 0) ;
ln
(a + b sin x)(c + d sin x) ad bc a + b sin x
c + d cos x
d
dx
;
dx = ln a + b sin x + c
a + b sin x
b
a + b sin x
dx
x
1
1
=
+ ln tg ;
sin x (1 cos x)
2 (1 cos x) 2
2
dx
1
1
x
=
+ ln tg + ;
2 (1 cos x) 2
cos x (1 sin x)
4 2
n

1
x
ln tg ;
2
2 8

dx
=
a cos x + b sin x
dx

(a cos x + b sin x)

1
2

a +b
=

ln

tg

d (x )

cos ( x )

dx

dx

(a + b cos x + c sin x)

a2 + b2 ;

(a = cos , b = sin ) ;

1 + cos x sin x = ln 1 tg 2 ;
dx
dt
a + b cos x + c sin x = a + b + c

x + arccos

sin t
d (x )

t = x + arctg ;
c

a + cos ( x )

sin x dx
x 1
= ln sin x cos x ;
sin x cos x 2 2
cos x dx
x 1
= + ln sin x cos x ;
sin x cos x
2 2
1
dx
b

arctg
=
tg x
2
2
2
2
a

a cos x + b sin x ab

(b = cos , c = sin ) ;

(a > 0, b > 0 ) ;

b tg x + a
1
ln
;
a cos x b sin x 2ab b tg x a
sin x cos x dx
1
=
ln a cos2 x + b sin2 x
2
2
a cos x + b sin x 2 ( b a )
2

dx

( a b) .

55

56

III.4.

tg x dx = ln cos x ;
tg x
tg x dx =
tg

x dx ( n . 2) ;
n 1
ctg x dx = ln sin x ;
ctg x
ctg x dx =
x dx ( n . 2 ) ;
ctg

n 1
dx
x 1
= + ln sin x cos x ;
tg x 1 2 2
dx
1
=
a + b tg x a + b (b ln a + b tg x + b ln cos x + ax) ;
tg x dx x 1
tg x 1 = 2 2 ln sin x cos x ;
tg x dx
1
=
a + b tg x a + b (bx a ln a cos x + b sin x ) ;
dx
x 1
= + sin 2x ;
1 + tg x 2 4

dx
b
1
b

=
x arctg tg x ( a b ) ;

a + b tg x a b a
a

n 1

n 2

n 1

n 2

dx

b2 tg2 x

b
a + b tg x
x
+
ln

2a a b tg x
a2 + b2
1

cos2 x
=
;
2
1 + tg2 x

tg x dx

tg x dx

1+ a

tg x

ln cos2 x + a sin2 x

2 a 1

dx
x 1
= ln sin x cos x ;
ctg x 1 2 2
ctg x dx
x 1
= + ln sin x cos x ;
ctg x 1
2 2
ctg x dx
dx
=
;
a + b ctg x
a tg x + b
dx
x 1
= sin 2x ;
2
1 + ctg x 2 4

x
a + b ctg x a b

dx
1
= 2
x+
2
2
2
2
a b ctg x a + b

(a2 1) ;

dx
2

b
b

arctg ctg x
a
a

b
a b ctg x
ln
;
2a a + b ctg x

(a2 b2 ) ;

4.4. , .

57

sin2 x
=
;
2
1 + ctg2 x
ctg x dx
1
tg x dx
=
;
1 + a2 ctg2 x a2 1 + 1 tg2 x
ctg x dx

a2

x 1 sin x cos x
tg x dx
= + ln
;
1 ctg x
2 2
cos2 x
ba

tg x dx
1
=
arccos
cos x ;
ba
b

a + b tg2 x

( Bn ) ;

22n 22n 1 Bn a2n 1x2n +1


ax3 a3x5 2a5x7 17a7x9
x tg ax dx =
,
+
+
+
++
3
15
105
2835
(2n + 1) !
2n 1

3
5
7
22n 22n 1 Bn ( ax )
ax )
2 ( ax )
17 ( ax )
(
tg ax dx
= ax +
+
+
++
x
9
75
2205
(2n 1) (2n) !

( Bn ) ;

22n Bn a2n 1x2n +1


x ax3 a3x5

,
a
9
225
(2n + 1) !

x ctg ax dx =

2 ( ax )
22n Bn ( ax )
ctg ax dx
1 ax ( ax )
,
=

(2n 1) (2n) !
x
ax
3
135
4725

( Bn ) ;
2n 1

( Bn ) .

4.4. , .

1 ax
e ;
a
1
x
xneax dx = xneax
xn 1eax dx ;
a
a

eax dx =

ax

(ax ) + = ln x +
eax
ax ( ax )
dx = ln x +
+
+
x
1 1! 2 2 !
3 3!
n

dx =

1 e
e
n 1 + a n 1 dx
n 1 x
x

ax

ax

1
eax
;
= ln
1 + eax a 1 + eax
dx
x 1
=
ln b + ceax ;
ax
b ab
b + ce
dx

eaxdx

b + ce

ax

1
ln b + ceax ;
ac

( n 1) ;

(ax )k ;

k k!
k =1

58

III.4.

eax ln x 1 eax
e ln x dx =

dx ;
a
a x
eax
ax
e sin bx dx = 2
(a sin bx b cos bx ) ;
a + b2
eax
eax cos bx dx = 2
(a cos bx + b sin bx ) ;
a + b2
n ( n 1)
eax sinn 1 x
ax
n
e sin x dx =
(a sin x n cos x ) + 2 2 eax sinn 2 x dx ;
2
2
a +n
a +n
ax
n 1
n ( n 1) ax
e cos x
+
+
eax cosn x dx =
a
cos
x
n
sin
x
e cosn 2 x dx ;
(
)
2
2
2
2
a +n
a +n
x eax
x eax sin bx dx = 2
( a sin bx b cos bx )
a + b2

ax

x eax cos bx dx =

x eax

a2 + b2

eax

(a2 b2) sin bx 2ab cos bx ;

(a + b )
2

2 2

(a cos bx b sin bx )

eax

(a2 b2) cos bx 2ab sin bx .

(a + b )
2

2 2

4.5. , .
n
n
n 1
ln x ) dx = x ( ln x ) n ( ln x ) dx
(

(ln x ) + ( ln x ) + = ln ln x +
dx
= ln ln x + ln x +
ln x
2 2!
3 3!
dx

(ln x )

( n 1) ;

( n 1) (ln x )

n 1

1
n 1

dx

(ln x )

ln x

xm ln x dx = xm +1

2
m + 1 ( m + 1)

(ln x )

n 1

k =1

(ln x )k ;
k k!

( n 1) ;

( m 1) ;

xm +1 ( ln x )
n
n 1

dx =
xm ( ln x ) dx
m +1
m +1

( m 1, n 1) ;

(ln x )n dx = ( ln x )n 1 ;

x
n +1
ln x
ln x
dx =
x
( m 1) x
m

(ln x )n dx =
xm

m 1

( m 1) ;
( m 1)2 xm 1
n 1
ln x )
(
n
+
dx

(ln x )n
( m 1) xm 1

m 1

xm

( m 1) ;

4.6. , . 59

xm dx

(ln x )

xm +1

( n 1) (ln x )n 1

dx
= ln ln x ;
x ln x

dx

ln x

= ln ln x ( n 1)

m +1
+
n 1

xm dx

(ln x )

( n 1) ;

n 1

2
2
n 1) ( ln x )
(
ln x +

2 2!

3
3
n 1) ( ln x )
(

3 3!

= ln ln x +
dx

x (ln x )
x

dx

(ln x )

k =1

( n 1) ( ln x )n 1

+ =
k

( 1) ( n 1) ln x
;
k k!

( n 1) ;

xm 1 ( n 1) ( ln x )

n 1

m 1
dx
n 1 xm ( ln x )n 1

( n 1) ;

x
(sin ln x cos ln x ) ;
2
x
cos ln x dx = (sin ln x + cos ln x ) ;
2
1 ax
1 eax
ax
e ln x dx = e ln x
dx .
a
a x

sin ln x dx =

4.6. , .

x
x
dx = x arcsin + a2 x2 ;
a
a
2
x
x
a2
x x 2
x arcsin dx =

arcsin +
a x2 ;

a
a
4
a 4

x
x3
x 1
x2 arcsin dx =
arcsin + x2 + 2a2 a2 x2 ;
a
a
a 9
n +1
x
x
x
1
xn +1dx
n
x arcsin dx =
arcsin
;
a
n +1
a n +1
a2 x 2

arcsin

1
x
x
1
x3
1 3
x5
1 3 5
x7
arcsin dx = +
+
+
+ =
x
a
a 2 3 3 a3 2 4 5 5 a5 2 4 6 7 7 a7
=
1

arcsin

arcsin
n

x
+
a

k =1

k (2i 1)

x2k +1

i =1

2i

a2k +1 ( 2k + 1)

x
1
x 1
a+ a x
dx = arcsin ln
;
a
x
a a
x
x
1
x
1
dx
dx =
arcsin
+
a
a n 1 xn 1 a2 x2
( n 1) xn 1

( n . 2) ;

60

III.4.

x
x
arccos dx = x arccos a2 x2 ;
a
a
x 2 a2
x
x x 2
x arccos dx =

arccos
a x2 ;

a
4
a 4
a
x
x3
x 1
2
x arccos dx =
arccos x2 + 2a2 a2 x2 ;
a
3
a 9
x
xn +1
x
1
xn +1dx
xn arccos dx =
arccos +
;
2
2
a
n +1
a n +1
a x

1
x

x
1 x3
1 3
x5
arccos dx = ln x

x
a
2
a 2 3 3 a3 2 4 5 5 a5

1 3 5
x

x
= ln x
7
24677 a
2
a
2

a
k =1

2k +1

2i

i =1

( 2k + 1)2

x
1
x 1 a+ a x
arccos dx = arccos + ln
;
a
x
a a
x
x
1
x
1
x
1
dx
arccos dx =
arccos
;
n
n

1
a
a n 1 xn 1 a2 x2
x
( n 1) x
x
x a
arctg dx = x arctg ln a2 + x2 ;
a
a 2
x
1 2
x ax
x arctg dx =
x + a2 arctg
;
a
2
a
2
x
x3
x ax3 a3
x2 arctg dx =
arctg
+
ln x2 + a2 ;
a
3
a
6
6
n +1
x
x
x
a
xn +1dx
xn arctg dx =
arctg
( n 1) ;
a
n +1
a n + 1 x 2 + a2
1

( 1) x2k+1
1
x
x
x3
x5
x7
arctg dx =
+

+
=

2 2k+1
x
a
a 3 3 a3 5 5 a5 7 7 a7
k=0 ( 2k + 1) a

x
1
x 1
x 2 + a2
dx = arctg
ln
;
a
x
a 2a
x
x2
1
x
1
x
a
dx
arctg
dx
=

arctg
+
a
a n 1 xn 1 x2 + a2
xn
( n 1) xn 1

arcctg

k (2i 1)

x2k +1

( x < a );

arctg
2

x
x a
dx = x arcctg + ln x2 + a2 ;
a
a 2
x
1 2
x ax
x arcctg dx =
x + a2 arcctg +
;
a
2
a
2
x
x3
x ax2 a3
2
x arcctg dx =
arcctg +

ln x2 + a2 ;
a
3
a
6
6

(n 1) ;

4.7. , .

x
xn +1
x
a
xn +1dx
x arcctg dx =
arcctg +
(n 1) ;
a
n +1
a n + 1 x 2 + a2
1
x

x
x3
x5
x7
arcctg dx = ln x +

+
+ =
x
a
2
a 3 3 a3 5 5 a5 7 7 a7

= ln x +
2

( 1)k+1 x2k+1

2 2k +1
k =0 ( 2k + 1) a

x
1
x 1
x 2 + a2
arcctg dx = arcctg +
ln
;
a
x
a 2a
x2
x2
1
x
1
x
a
dx
arcctg
dx
=

arcctg
a
a n 1 xn 1 x2 + a2
xn
( n 1) xn 1

( x < a );

(n 1) .

4.7. , .

1
ch ax ;
a
1
ch ax dx = sh ax ;
a
1
x
ch2 ax dx =
sh ax ch ax + ;
2a
2
1
n 1
shn ax dx =
shn 1 ax ch ax
shn 2 ax dx
(n > 0),
an
n
1
n+2
=
shn +1 ax ch ax
shn + 2 ax dx (n < 0, n 1);
a ( n 1)
n +1

chn ax dx =

dx
1
ax
= ln th
;
sh ax a
2
dx
2
= arctg eax ;
ch ax a
1
x sh ax dx = x ch ax
a
1
x ch ax dx = x sh ax
a
1
th ax dx = ln ch ax ;
a
1
cth ax dx = ln sh ax ;
a
th ax
th2 ax dx = x
;
a

sh ax dx =

1
n 1
sh ax chn 1 ax +
chn 2 ax dx
(n > 0),
an
n
1
n+2
=
sh ax chn +1 ax +
chn + 2 ax dx (n < 0, n 1);
a ( n + 1)
n +1

a2
1
a2

sh ax ;
ch ax ;

61

62

III.4.

cth ax
;
a
1

sh ax sh bx dx = a b (a sh bx ch ax b ch bx sh ax )
1
ch ax ch bx dx =
(a sh ax ch bx b sh bx ch ax )

a b
1
ch ax sh bx dx =
(a sh ax sh bx b ch bx ch ax )

a b
1
sh ax sin ax dx = 2a (ch ax sin ax sh ax cos ax ) ;
1
ch ax sin ax dx =
(sh ax sin ax ch ax cos ax ) ;

2a
1
sh ax cos ax dx = 2a (ch ax cos ax + sh ax sin ax ) ;
1
ch ax cos ax dx =
(sh ax cos ax + ch ax sin ax ) .

2a
cth2 ax dx = x

(a2 b2) ;

(a2 b2) ;

(a2 b2) ;

63

5.
5.1. .
f(x) [a, b] a = x0 < x1 < < xn = b, f(x) [a, b]
n 1

f(i) xi ,

lim

(1)

max xi 0
i =0

i [ xi , xi +1 ] , xi = xi +1 xi . f(x), ,
[a, b].
b

f ( x ) dx .

5.2. .
1.

dx = b a .

2. f(x) [a, b], f(x) [a, c], [c, b] (a - c - b)

f ( x ) dx = f ( x ) dx + f ( x ) dx .

3. f(x) [a, b],

f(x) dx = f(x) dx .

4. f(x) [a, b], | f(x) |


[a, b]

f(x) dx - f(x) dx .

5. f(x) [a, b], kf(x) (k = const) [a, b]

kf(x) dx = k f(x) dx .

6. f(x) g(x) [a, b], f(x) + g(x)

f(x) g(x) [a, b]

[f(x) + g(x) ] dx = f(x) dx + g(x) dx .

7. f(x) g(x) [a, b] f(x) . g(x) [a, b],


b

f(x) dx . g(x) dx .

. f(x) g(x) [a, b], m - f(x) - M g(x) [a, b],


[m, M],

f(x) g(x) dx = g(x) dx .

64

III.5.

. f(x) ,
g(x) [a, b],

[a, b],

f(x) g(x) dx = g(a) f(x) dx + g(b) f(x) dx .

- .

[a, b] F (x) = f(x),

f(x)
b

f(x) dx = F(b) F(a) F(x) a .

. f(z)
[a, b], z = g(x) [; ];

a = g(), b = g(), a - g(x) - b,

f(z) dz = f( g(x)) g(x) dx .

. f(x) g(x) [a, b] ,


b

f(x) g(x) dx =

b
f (x) g (x) a

g (x) f(x) dx .
a

.
f(x) g(x) [a, b], 1 < p < +,
1p

p
f (x) + g (x) dx
a

1p

p
- f (x) dx
a

1p

p
+ g (x) dx
a

1 1
g(x) [a, b], 1 < p < +,
+ = 1 ,
p q
b

1p b

p
f (x) g (x) dx - f (x) dx
a

.
f(x)

1q

q
g (x) dx
a

p = q = 2 .

f(x) [a, b], F(x) =

f(t) dt

[a, b].

f(x) [a, b] x0 [a, b] , F(x) =

f(t) dt

x0 F (x0) = f(x0).

5.3. .

y = f(x) (x[x0, x1]),

5.3. .

l=

x1

x0

65

1 + (f) 2 dx .

: x = (t), y = (t),

l=

t1

t0

2 (t) + 2 (t) dt .

: = () (0 - - 1),

l=

2 + 2 d .

. y = f(x) [a, b], , Ox, b

f(x) dx .

y = f(x) x = a x = b, S =

OAB, AB,
1

1
: = () (0 - - 1), OA OB: S =
2d .

2
0

,
Ox , y = f(x), b

x = a x = b Ox: V = f2 (x) dx .
a

,
Ox , [a, b] y = f(x):
b

S = 2 f (x) 1 + f2 (x) dx .
a

: x = (t), y = (t) (t[t0, t1]),


t1

S = 2 (t) 2 (t) + 2 (t) dt .


t0


y = f(x) (x[a, b]), (x):
b

M =

1
x0 =
(x) x 1 + f2 (x) dx,

Ma

(x)

,
b

1
y0 =
(x) f (x) 1 + f2 (x) dx,

Ma

1 + f2 (x) dx .

66

III.5.





(x, y) = 1, y = f(x), Ox x = a x = b:
b

1
x0 = xf (x) dx,
Sa

1
y0 =
f2 (x) dx,

2S a

S .
Oy ,
y = f(x), (x):
b

Iy = (x) x2 1 + f2 (x) dx .
a

Oy

, y = f(x),
Ox x = a, x = b, (x, y) = 1:
b

Iy = x2 f (x) dx .
a

5.4. .

2 2

e a

dx =

2 2

e a

2a

(a > 0) ;
b
e
2a

cos bx dx =

x dx

e
0

x dx

e
0

+1

2
;
6

2
;
12

(4a2)

(a > 0) ;

ln x dx =

( 0,5772156649 );

e x ln x dx =

e x ln2 x dx =

sin x

dx = ;
x
2

( + 2 ln 2 ) ;
4

2
2

+
+
2
ln
2
(
)

;
2

5.4. .
+

sin2 x
2

dx =

;
2

sin ( x ) dx =

ln ln x dx = ;
0
1

ln x
2
dx =
.
x 1
6

cos ( x ) dx =

;
2

67

68

6.
,
6.1. .
f(x) [a, b), < a < b - + ,

[a, ], < b; lim f (x) dx .


b

f(x) dx

, f(x) [a, b).

lim f (x) dx ,
b

f(x) dx a

, .
b

f(x) dx , -

f(x) dx .
a

f(x, y) G = {(x, y):


(y)

- y - ; (y) - x - (y)}, (y) =

f (x, y) dx -

(y)

, y.
, , (y) =

f(x, y) dx , < a < b - + , y Y.


a

y0 Y (y0) , (y) Y.
(y) Y > 0 < b ,
b

(, b) y Y

f(x, y) dx

Y.

< , (y) -

6.3. , .

69

6.2. .
b

f(x) dx

, > 0 b*(), b

b, b > b*

f(x) dx

< .

. f(x)
F(x) x . a, g(x) +

x . a lim g (x) = 0 ,
x +

f(x) g(x) dx .
a

F(x) dx

| f(x) | - F(x) x . a

f(x) > 0 f(x) = O(g(x)) x +,

f(x) dx

f(x) dx

g(x) dx
a

f(x) = O(xp) x +,

f(x) dx

, p > 1, -

, p - 1.
6.3. , .
.

f(x, y) G , (y) (y)


(y)

[, ], (y) =

f (x, y) dx [, ]

(y)

lim (y)

(y)

lim

y y0

f (x, y) dx =

(y)


f(x, y)

y y0

lim (y)

lim f (x, y) dx .

y y0

y y0

) .

f (x, y)
G (y), (y)
y

[, ], , , [, ] -

d (y)
=

dy

(y)

(y)

f (x, y)
d (y)
d (y)
+ f ( (y), y )
dx f ( (y), y )
.
y
dy
dy

70

III.6.
(y) = b = const, (y) = a = const,

d (y)
=
dy

f (x, y)
dx .
y

. (y) (y) [, ]
f(x, y) G = {(x, y): - y - ; (y) - x - (y)},
(y)

f (x, y) dx dy =
(y) dy =

(y)

f(x, y) dx dy .
G

6.4. , .

, (y) =

f(x, y) dx a

Y, , > 0
< b, (, b) (, b) y Y

f(x, y) dx

< .

(y) =

f(x, y) dx

Y, y
g(x), [a, b) ( ) [a, ] ( (a, b) )
, | f(x, y) | - g(x), x [a, b), y Y,

g (x) dx

f(x, y) x [a, b) ( < a < b - +) y Y,

y Y x [a, b), [a, b) f(x, y)


[a, ] g(x) y y0
Y, lim

y y0

f (x, y) dx

f(x, y) dx = lim f(x, y) dx = g(x) dx .


y y0

.
f(x, y) {(x, y): a - x < b, c - y < d} ( < a < b - +,
< c < d - + )

f(x, y) dx
a

[c, ], c < < d,

6.4. , .
d

f(x, y) dx
c

71

[a, ], a < < b

dy f(x, y) dx, dx f(x, y) dy , b

dy f(x, y) dx = dx f(x, y) dy .

f(x, y)

f (x, y)
{(x, y): a - x < b, c - y < d}
y

( < a < b - +, < c < d - +)

f (x, y) dx ,

[c, d], F(y) =

f(x, y) dx

d
f (x, y) dx =
dy

f (x, y)
dx
y

f (x, y)
dx .
y

72

7.
(x)

, (y) =

f (x, y) dx , (x) (x) -

(x)

[a, b], , [a, b], -

dx
f (x, y) dy
f (x, y) dy dx .

a
(x)
a (x)

f(x, y) G x, y
f(x, y) dx dy = lim f(xi , yj) xiyj ,
b

b (x)

(x)

max xi 0 i
max yj 0

xi = xi +1 xi , yj = yj+1 yj , (xi ; yj) G .


f(x, y, z) V x, y, z

f(xi , yj , zk) xi yj zk ,
f(x, y, z) dx dy dz = maxlim
xi 0
V

max yj 0
max zk 0

xi = xi+1 xi , yj = yj+1 yj , zk = zk+1 zk, (xi ; yj; zk) V .


. G = {(x, y): a - x - b, y1(x) - y - y2(x)}, y1(x), y2(x)
[a, b], f(x, y) G ,
b

y2 (x)

f(x, y) dx dy = dx
a

f (x, y) dy .

y1 (x)

Guv Gxy (x, y)


(u, v); x = x(u, v), y = y(u, v) Guv Gxy ,
Guv Gxy.

(x, y)

(u, v)

Guv *) Guv . f(x, y)

Gxy ,

Gxy

*)

f (x, y) dx dy =

Guv

f [ x(u, v), y(u, v) ]

(x, y)
du dv .
(u, v)

g, G, G ,
h, h = g G.

III.7.

73

. V = {(x, y, z): a - x - b, y1(x) - y - y2(x), z1(x, y) - y - z2(x, y)}, y1(x),

y2(x) [a, b], z1(x, y), z2(x, y) G = {(x, y):

a - x - b,

y1(x) - y - y2(x)}, f(x, y, z) V ,


b

y2 (x)

f(x, y, z) dx dy dz = dx
a

y1 (x)

z2 (x,y)

dy

f (x, y, z) dz .

z1 (x,y)

Guvw Gxyz (x, y, z) (u, v, w);

x = x(u, v, w), y = y(u, v, w), z = z(u, v, w) Guvw Gxyz ,


Guvw Gxyz.

(x, y, z)
0 Guvw Guvw . f(x, y, z)
(u, v, w)
Gxyz ,

Gxyz

f (x, y, z) dx dy dz =

Guvw

f [ x(u, v, w), y(u, v, w), z (u, v, w) ]

(x, y, z)
du dv dw .
(u, v, w)

74

8.
, (0 - t - T):

r = r (t)

x = x(t),

y = y(t),
z = z (t).

f(x, y, z) , .

f(x, y, z) ds

I f

(ds ):
T

f(x, y, z) ds = f(r) ds = f ( x(t), y(t), z(t) )

x2 (t) + y2 (t) + z2 (t) dt .

I (A
B ):

f(x, y, z) ds = f(x, y, z) ds = f(x, y, z) ds .


AB

BA

P = P(x, y, z), Q = Q(x, y, z), R = R(x, y, z) F(r) = (P; Q; R), , t. II

P dx + Q dy + Rdz ,

P dx + Q dy + R dz =

F(r) dr =

F(r)

dr
dt =
dt

{P ( x(t), y(t), z(t) ) x(t) + Q ( x(t), y(t), z(t) ) y(t) + R ( x(t), y(t), z(t) ) z(t)} dt.
0

II
.

75

9.
, x = x(u, v),
y = y(u, v), z = z(u, v), (u, v) D, D , x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v)
, E, F, G
:
2

x
y
z
x
y
z
E = + + ;
G = + + ;
u
u
u
v
v
v
x x y y z z
F=
+
+
.
u v u v u v

I . f(x, y, z) ,
, I

f(x, y, z) d ,

f(x, y, z) d = f(x(u,v), y(u,v), z(u,v))

EG F2 du dv .

I .
I I .
+
, n = {cos ; cos ; cos }; P(x, y, z),
Q(x, y, z), R(x, y, z) , . II

P dy dz + Q dz dx + R dx dy ,

P dy dz + Q dz dx + R dx dy = (P cos + Q cos + R cos ) d .


+

, ,

cos =
A =

A
2

A + B +C

cos =

B
2

A + B +C

cos =

C
2

A +B +C

(y, z)
(z, x)
(x, y)
;B=
;C =
,
(u, v)
(u, v)
(u, v)

. II
.
. G x, y . P(x, y), Q(x, y),

P Q
,
G *)
x x

P P
x y dx dy =

P dx + Q dy . (

, G ).
*)

76

III.9.

.

x, y, z, ; P(x, y, z),
Q(x, y, z), R(x, y, z) G
x, y, z , G.

cos cos cos

P dx + Q dy + R dz =

d,
z

cos , cos , cos


, ,
.
(P; Q; R) - F,

F dr = rot F n d .

.
, V, P(x, y, z), Q(x, y, z), R(x, y, z) , V.

(P cos + Q cos + R cos ) d = x + y + z dx dy dz ,

cos , cos , cos .


P, Q, R - F,
:

F n d = div F dx dy dz ,

n = (cos , cos , cos ).

77

IV.
1.
1.1. .

a1 + a2 + + an + =

(1)

n =1

an ,
Sm = a1 + a2 + + am
(m = 1, 2, )
.
(1) , lim Sn = S .
n

S . {Sn} , (1) . , , , , .

(1) ,

n =1

n =1

n =1

a
n =1

1.2. .

a
n =1

=c

n =1

b
n =1

a
n =1

b
n =1

(-

(a

+ bn) =

n =1

a + b
n =1

n =1

(a

+ bn)

, -

an
bn =

n =1 n =1

( ),

n =1

( )

a
n =1

n =1

ca

ca

( ),

n =1

n 1

a
n = 2 m =1

mbn m

1.3. .
: lim an = 0 .
n

78

IV.1.

a
n =1

> 0 N = N(), n > N p > 0

Sn + p Sn =

n+p

i = n +1

< .

a
n =1

b , n > N an - bn , b
n =1

n =1

a
n =1

n =1

a
an > 0 lim n +1 = q , q < 1
n

an . 0 lim

na
n

, q > 1 .

= q , q < 1

a
n =1

an

1 = q , q > 1
n an +1

lim

an > 0

, q < 1 .

an > 0

> 0, > 1

a
n =1

a
n =1

an

, q > 1 .

n =1

, < 1 . = 1, > 1

, - 1 .

x . 1,
+

an
n

= + + 1+
, | n | < c (c = const)
an +1
n n

f(x) dx .
1

f(n)
n =1

f(x)

1.6. .

79

1.4. .

(1)

n 1

n =1

, ) bn . bn+1, ) lim bn = 0 .

bn (bn . 0) -

Rn = (1)nbn+1 + (1)n+1bn+2 +

Rn =

= (1)n n bn+1 (0 - n - 1).

a
n =1

n bn

, )

a
n =1

) bn .

a
n =1

n bn

, )

{bn} 0; ) {Sm} .
1.5. .
.
.
, : )
; ) ; ) ; )
.
1.6. .

n (n + 1)
;
2
( n + 1) ( 2p + n ) ;
p + (p + 1) + (p + 2) + + (p + n)=
n
1+2+3++n=

1 + 3 + 5 + + (2n 1) = n2 ;
2 + 4 + 6 + + 2n = n (n + 1) ;
1 + 8 + 16 + + 8 (n 1) = (2n 1)2;

n (n + 1) (2n + 1)
;
6
n2 (n + 1) 2
;
13 + 2 3 + 3 3 + + n 3 =
4
n (4n2 1)
;
12 + 32 + 52 + + (2n 1)2 =
3
12 + 2 2 + 3 2 + + n 2 =

13 + 33 + 53 + + (2n 1) 3 = n2 (2n2 1) ;
14 + 24 + 34 + + n4 =

n (n + 1) (2n + 1) (3n2 + 3n 1)
;
30

80

IV.1.

n +1
nx
x sin
2
2 ;
sin x + sin 2x + + sin nx =
x
sin
2
n +1
nx
cos
x sin
2
2 ;
cos x + cos 2x + + cos nx =
x
sin
2
2n + 1
x
nx
n sin
x sin sin2
2
2
2 ;
cos x + 2 cos 2x + + n cos nx =
x
2 sin2
2
1 x 1 x
1
x
1
x
tg x + tg + tg + + n tg n = n ctg n 2 ctg 2x ;
2 2 4 4
2
2
2
2
x
nx
1

n sh sh n + x sh2
2
2
2

.
ch x + 2 ch 2x + + n ch nx =
2 x
2 sh
2
sin

1.7. .

1
1
1

1 + 2n + 2n + 2n + ( ) ;

2
3
4
2n + 2
2
(2n) !
1
1
1

+ ( ) ;
En =
1

2n +1
2n +1
2 n +1
2n +1
3

5
7

Bn =

n =0

(2n) !

2n 2n 1

(1)
n =1

(1)

1
1 1
1
= 1+ +
+
+ = e;
1! 2 ! 3 !
n!

n =0

1
1 1 1
= 1 + + = ln 2 ;
n
2 3 4

n 1

(1)

1 1 1
1
=
+
+ + + = 2;
n
2 4 8
2
n =0

n =0

(1) n

1
1 1
1
1
= 1 +

+ = ;
n!
e
1! 2 ! 3 !

n =0

2n

= 1

1
1 1 1 1

= 1 + + = ;
2n + 1
3 5 7 9
4

n (n + 1) = 1 2 + 2 3 + 3 4 + = 1 ;
n =1

(2n 1) (2n + 1) = 1 3 + 3 5 + 5 7 + = 2 ;
n =1

(n 1) (n + 1) = 1 3 + 2 4 + 3 5 + = 4 ;
n =2

1 1 1
2
+ + = ;
2 4 8
3

1.7. .

81

(4n 1) (4n + 1) = 3 5 + 7 9 + 11 13 + = 2 8 ;
n =1

n =1

1
1
1
1
=
+
+ = ;
n (n + 1) (n + 2) 1 2 3 2 3 4
4

2
= 1+ 2 + 2 + 2 + =
;
2
6
n
2
3
4
n =1

(1)
n =1

n 1

n =1

2
= 1 2 + 2 2 + =
;
12
n2
2
3
4
1

(2n 1)
n =1

= 1+

32

(1) n 1

2
;
8

+ =

52

= 1

(2n 1) 2

32

52

72

+ =

2
;
32

2
= 1+ 4 + 4 + =
;
4
90
n
2
3
n =1

(1)
n =1

n 1

74
= 1 4 + 4 + =
;
720
n4
2
3
1

(2n 1)
n =1

n
n =1

2k

(1)

n =1

(1)
n =1

1+

n 1

22k

2k

34
+

32k
1

22k
1

32k

(2n 1) 2k +1

(1) n
= cos1 ;
(2n) !

n =1

+ =

54

= 1

= 1+

1
= ch1 ;
(2n) !

n =1

1+

= 1+

n2 k

(2n 1)
1

n =1

= 1+
n 1

+ =

42k
1

32k
1

52k

= 1

4
;
96

+
1

42k
1

72k

32k +1

2k 22k 1
Bk ;
(2k) !
+ =

)B ;

2k 22k 1 1
(2k) !

2k (22k 1)
+ =
Bk ;
2 (2k) !
1

52k +1

72k +1

+ =

2k +1
22k + 2 (2k) !

(2n 1) ! = sh1 ;
n =1

n =1

(1) n 1
= sin1 .
(2n 1) !

Ek ;

82

2.
2.1. .
, , .

x,

f (x)
n =1

, -

Sm(x) =
S(x) =

f (x)

n =1

f (x)
n =1

f (x)
n

n =1

X,

{Sn(x)} .

a
n =1

(x x0) n , an x0 (-

) , x , .
| x x0 | < R (R
), ( ).
f(x) x0

n =0

f (n) (x0)
(x x0) n f(x)
n!

x0.
(. . 1.1).
2.2. .

f (x)
n =1

X, , > 0
N = N(), n > N, p x X

Sn + p (x) Sn (x) =

n+p

f (x) < .

i = n +1

2.3. .

83

f (x)
n =1

X,

r , | an(x) | - rn.
n =1

f (x) g (x)

n =1

X,

f (x)
n =1

X; {gn(x)}

x X.

f (x) g (x)
n =1

f (x)

n =1

X,

{gn(x)} x X X.
2.3. .
.

f (x)
n =1

X n

lim fn (x) , x0 X,
x x0

lim
fn (x) =
x x0
n =1

n =1

f (x)

dx f (x)
d

n =1

f (x)
n =1

x x0

n =1

lim f (x) .
n =1

x x0

[a, b]

n =1

fn (x) =

n =1

d
fn (x) .
dx

[a, b] -

[a, b],
fn (x) dx =

n =1
a
[a, b].

( lim f (x) )

[a, b],

d
dx

f (x) dx
n =1 a

84

IV.2.

a (x x ) .

2.4. R

n=0

1
= lim n an .
R n
an
an
, R = lim
.
lim
n an +1
n an +1
:

2.5. .

| x x0 | < R

n =0

b (x x )
n =0

n =0

a
n =0

d
dx

(x x0) +
(x x0)

n =0

b (x x ) = (a

(x x0) n ,

n =0

n =0

b (x x ) = c
n =0

(x x0) n =

n =0

(n + 1) a
n =0

an (x x0) n dx =

n =0

n +1 (x

n =0

(x x0) , cn =

a b
i =0

i n i

x0) n ;

n + 1 (x x )
an

+ bn ) (x x0) n ;

n +1

+c

(c = const) .

2.6. .

(1 x) m = 1 +

(1) n

n =1

(1 x )

m ( m 1) ( m n + 1) n
x
n!

(m > 0) ;

2
m ( m 1) ( m 2 ) x3
mx m ( m 1) x
+

+
1!
2!
3!

m ( m + 1) ( m + n 1) n
= 1+
(1) n
x =
n!

= 1

(1 x )m

( x - 1) ;

n =1

sin x =

2
m ( m + 1) ( m + 2 ) x3
mx m ( m + 1) x
= 1
+

+
1!
2!
3!

( x < ) ;

x2 n
x2 x 4 x6
= 1
+

+
(2n) !
2! 4! 6!

( x < ) ;

(1) n

n =1

cos x =

x2n 1
x3 x5
= x
+

(2n 1) !
3! 5!

(1) n 1

n =0

(m > 0; x < 1);

2.6. .

tg x =

(2n) !

n =1

1
ctg x =
x
sec x = 1 +

1 3 2 5 17 7
62 9
x + x +
x +
x +
3
15
315
2835

22n Bn 2n 1 1 x x3 2x5
x7
x
= +
+
+
+

x 3 45 945 4725
(2n) !

n =1

En 2n
x2 5x4 61x6 277x8
x = 1+
+
+
+
+
(2n) !
2
24
720
8064

n =1

1
cosec x = +
x

n =0

(2n) !

n =1

) B x2n1 =

(0 < x < ) ;

x < ;
2

(0 <

x < ) ;

xn
x x2 x3 x 4
= 1+ +
+
+
+ ;
n!
1! 2 ! 3 ! 4 !

x
= 1 +
x
2
e 1

n =1
2

(1) n +1Bnx2n
x B1x2 B2x4 B3x6
= 1 +

(2n) !
2
2!
4!
6!

x
3x4 8x5 3x6 56x7

+
+ ( x < );
2!
4!
5!
6!
7!
x2 4x4 31x6

cos x
e
= e 1
+

+ ( x < ) ;
2!
4!
6!

x2 3x3 9x4 37x5

+
+
+
+ x < ;
etg x = 1 + x +
2!
3!
4!
5!
2

x 2 2x 3 5x 4
earcsin x = 1 + x +
+
+
+ ( x < 1) ;
2!
3!
4!
x2 x3 7x4 5x5
earctg x = 1 + x +

+
+ ( x < 1) ;
2! 3!
4!
5!
2 n +1

x 1

x 1)
(
(x 1) 3
(x 1) 5

=
+
+
+

ln x = 2
2
2n +1
3
5

x
1
+
3 ( x + 1)
5 ( x + 1)
n = 0 ( 2n + 1) ( x + 1)

esin x = 1 + x +

ln x =

(1) n +1 ( x 1)
(x 1)2 (x 1)3 (x 1) 4
= (x 1)
+

+
n
2
3
4

(x 1) n

n =1

ln x =

x < ;
2

2 22n 1 1

1 x 7x3
31x5
127x7
= + +
+
+
+
x 6 360 15120 604800

e =

= x+

22n 22n 1 Bn

85

n =1

ln (1 + x ) =

n xn

n =1

x 1 (x 1) 2 (x 1) 3
+
+
+
x
2x 2
3x3

(1) n +1xn
x2 x3 x 4
=x
+

+
n
2
3
4

( x > 1 2) ;
( 1 < x - 1) ;

(x

< 2 ) ;

( x > 0) ;

(0 < x - 2) ;

86

IV.2.

ln (1 x ) =

xn
x2 x3 x 4 x5
= x +
+
+
+
+

2
3
4
5
n

n =1

( 1 - x < 1) ;

x2n +1
x3 x 5 x 7
1 + x
ln
2
2
x
=
=
+
+
+
+

2n + 1
3
5
7
1 x

n =0

(x

< 1) ;

1
1
1
1
1

x + 1
= 2 + 3 + 5 + 7 +
ln
=2
2
n
1
+
x 1
x 3x

(2n + 1) x
5x
7x
n =0

arcsin x = x +

n =1

=x+

x3
1 3x 3
1 3 5x 3
+
+
+
23 245 2467

arctg x =

n =1

(x

< 1) ;

1 3 5 (2n 1) x2n +1
=
2 4 6 (2n) (2n + 1)


x3
1 3x 5
1 3 5x7
x +
+
+
+
2
23 245 2467

n =0

(1) n x2n +1
x3 x5 x7
=x
+

+
2n + 1
3
5
7

(1) n +1

(x

(x

< 1) ;

< 1) ;

arctg x = +
2

(2n + 1) x

arcctg x = +
2

(1) n +1x2n +1
x 3 x5 x 7
= x
+

2n + 1
2
3
5
7

n =0

n =0

arcctg x = +

sh x =

1
1
1
1
+ 3 5 + 7
2 x 3x
5x
7x

(1) n

2n +1

(1) n

(2n + 1) x

n =0
2n 1

1
1
1
1
3 + 5 7 +
x 3x
5x
7x

2 n +1

= +

(x

x2 n
x2 x 4 x6
= 1+
+
+
+
(2n) !
2! 4! 6!

< ) ;

n =1

(x

(x

(x
< 1) ;

( x < 1) ;

< ) ;

(1) n+122n (22n 1)


x3 2x5 17x7 62x9
Bnx2n 1 = x
+

(2n) !
3
15
315 2835

1
cth x = +
x

n =1

> 1) ;

( x > 1) ;

1
1
1
1
3 + 5 7 +
x 3x
5x
7x

n =0

th x =

2n +1

x
x3 x5 x7
= x+
+
+
+
(2n 1) !
3! 5! 7!

n =1

ch x =

n =0

(2n + 1) x

arcctg x =

> 1) ;

1 3 5 ( 2n 1) x2n +1
=
2 4 6 ( 2n ) ( 2n + 1)

arccos x = x
2
=

(x

(1) n +122n
1 x x3 2x5
x7
Bnx2n 1 = +
+

+
(2n) !
x 3 45 945 4725

x < ;
2

(0 <

x < ) ;

2.6. .

arsh x = x +

(1) n

n =1

=x

87

1 3 5 (2n 1) x2n +1
=
2 4 6 (2n) (2n + 1)

x3
1 3x5
1 3 5x 7
+

+
23 245 2467

(x

< 1) ;

1 3 5 (2n 1)
arch x = ln ( 2x )
=
2n
2
4
6
(2
n
)
(2
n
)
x

n =1
1
1 3
1 3 5

= ln ( 2x )

2 2x2 2 4 4x4 2 4 6 6x6

arth x =

n =0

arcth x =

x2n +1
x3 x5 x7
= x+
+
+
+
2n + 1
3
5
7

(2n + 1) x
n =0

2 n +1

(x

( x > 1) ;

< 1) ;

1
1
1
1
+ 3 + 5 + 7 +
x 3x
5x
7x

(x

> 1) .

88

3.
3.1.

pn

p1p2 pn =
, Pm = p1p2 pm =

n =1

pn -

pn .
n =1

P {Pn} n
. P P 0, , .
lim Pm = 0 , .
m

ln p

n =1

pn
n =1

3.2. .

pn

P =

pn ,
n =1

n =1

, lim pn = 1 .

ln p
n =1

ln p
n =1

M=

n =1

pn

, P = eM.

(1 + an) ,
n =1

N0,

an , ,

a
n =1

3.3. .

4n2

n =1 4n

n =2

1
n =1

( );

1 1
= ;
n2 2


= ;

(2n + 1) 2 4
1

3.3. .

e1 n
=
1
n =1
1+
n

1 + (1) n
n =1

( );

a
2
(a + 1)
sin
;
=

2n + 1 a + 1
2

1 + 13 = 1 ch 3 ;
2
n =1
n

1
n =1

1
1
3
;
=
ch

2
n3 3

a
a
a
a sin a
;
1
1 +
=2
a
2n + 1
2n + 2
n + 1

n =0

(1 + ae2
n =1

1 + 2
n
n =1

)=

1
(1 + cth a) ;
2

(1) n +1 n

2
1 + 2
=
12 n =2
n

(1) n n

;
2e

a a n sin a

;
=
1 e
n
a
n =

n0

a a (2n +1) cos a

;
=
1
e
2n + 1
2
n =

n =1 1 1

pnx

n
n =1

( )

(pk (p1 = 2, p2 = 3, p3 = 5, ), x > 1);

(1 + x2

n =0

x 1

n =1

x 1 +

n =1

cos
n =1

x
2

)=

(x

< 1) ;

x2
= sin x ;
n2 2
x2
= sh x ;
n2 2
=

sin x
x

1 4 sin2
n =1

1
1 x

(x

= cos x ;
n =1
(2n 1) 2 2

1 + 4x 2 2 = ch x ;
n =1
(2n 1)

< 1) ;

x sin x
.
=
x
3n

4x2

89

90

V.

1.
() : z = x + iy (i2 = 1);
Re z = x ,
Im z = y .
z = x iy z.
:
z1 + z2 = (x1 + x2) + i (y1 + y2), z1 z2 = (x1 x2) + i (y1 y2),
z1z2 = (x1x2 y1y2) + i (x1y2 + x2y1),

z1 x1x2 + y1y2
x y xy
=
+ i 2 21 12 2
2
2
z2
x2 + y2
x2 + y2

*):
:
:
.
:

( z2

0) .

z = r (cos + i sin ).

z = r = x 2 + y2 .
Arg z = arg z + 2k

(k = 0, 1, 2, ), arg z =

z = r ei.

: ei = cos + i sin .
:

z1z2 = r1r2 ei ( 1 + 2) ;
z1
r
r
= 1 ei (1 2) = 1 cos ( 1 2 ) + i sin ( 1 2 )
z2 r2
r2

( z2

0) .

: zn = rn ein = r (cos n + i sin n ),


+ 2 k
+ 2 k
+ 2 k n
n
z = n r exp i
+ i sin
= r cos
( k = 0,1, 2, , n 1) .
n
n
n

*)

z, .

zm n =

(n z )

2.
2.1. .
f(z) z0, lim f (z) = f (z0 ) .
z z0

f(z), G, G.
f(z) z, -

f (z)
= f(z) .
z 0 z

lim

f(z) z0,

f (z) =

n =

( z z0 )n ,

z0 (an -

). G,
.
z0 f(z), f(z0) = 0. z0
n- f(z), f(z) = (z z0)n (z), (z) (z0) 0.
z0 f(z), f(z) -

. z0 f(z),

> 0, 0 < | z z0 | < f(z) .

f(z) ,
z z0, . . cn = 0
(n = 1, 2, ).
z0 f(z) ,

z z0 (c1 0, ck 0, ,

cki = 0 (i = 1, 2, )), k ; k = 1, .
z0 f(z) ,
z z0.
, ,
, . .
w = f(z) G z
w z0G,
. G , G.
I , , II , .

92

V.2.
2.2. .

. G
G, , G:
:
:

u v
u
v
=
=
,
;
x y
y
x
u
v
u v
= r , r
=
,

r
r

u = u (r cos , r sin ),

v = v (r cos , r sin ).
f(z), G,
. z0
.
.
2.3. .

f (z) dz = (u dx v dy) + i (v dx + u dy) ,

C , f(z) = u (x, y) + i v (x, y).


C x, y.
f(z) = u (x, y) + i v (x, y) C: z = z(t) = x(t) + i y(t) (t1 - t - t2, x(t) y(t)
):

t2

t2

t1

t1

f (z) dz = {ux vy} dt + i {vx + uy} dt .


.
f(z)
z

F (z) =

f () d + C

(C = const ) ,

f()

z0

G, z0 z
, G.
:

lim

f (z) dz = lim f (z) dz = f(z) dz ,


n

fn (z) (n N) , f(z)
C.

2.4. .

f (z) dz = 0 ,

93
f(z) -

G, C G.

f (z) =

1
2 i

f ()

z d ,

C , G G, f() G, z G.

(z) =

1
2 i

()
d , C z

, () C; z C, (z)
G, C.
: (n) (z) =

n!
2 i

()

( z)

n +1

d , nN.

. f(z)
, f(z) = const.
. f(z) G

f (z) dz = 0

C, G,

f(z) .
:

i (z0 ) =

1
2 i

()
1
d + (z0 ) ,
z0
2

1
2 i

e (z0 ) =

()
1
d (z0 ) ,
z0
2

(z) C, z0C, i (z0) , zz0 C, e (z0)


, zz0 C.
2.4. .

(n = 1, 2, ) G
G G , f (z) =

f (z)
n =1


G .

f (z)
n =1

fn (z)

d(k)

dz (k)

f (z) =

d (k)

dz
n =1

f (z) ,
(k) n

94

V.2.

f (z)

n =1

G G, G G .

f (z ) =

f (n) ( z0 )
n!

n =0

(z z0 ) n ,

f(z)

z0.
:

f (z ) =

f (k) ( z0 )

k =0

k!

(z z0 ) n +1
Rn (z) =
2 i

(z z0 ) + Rn (z) ,

f (z ) =

f ()

( z) ( z )

c (z z ) = c (z z ) + c

n =

n =0

n =1

1
f(z) r < | z z0 | < R, cn =
2 i

n +1

n (z

d .

z0 ) n ,

f ()

( z )
0

n +1

(n = 0, 1, 2, ), | z z0 | = , r < < R.
.
2.5. .
f(z) z = z0
res f (z0 )

1
f ( z ) dz = c1 , f(z) G,
2 i

C , G,

, c 1 (z z0)1 f(z) z0.

f (z ) dz = 2i res f (z ) ,
k

k =1

f(z) -

G , zk (k = 1, 2, , n); C G zk.
z0 n:

res f ( z0 ) =

1
d (n 1)
lim
(z z0 ) n f ( z0 ) .
(

1)
n
(n 1) ! z z0 dz

f ( z ) =

1
2 i

f (z ) dz = c

1 ,

C C, (.. ,
).

2.6. .

1
2 i

f ( z )

95

f (z ) dz = 2

arg f ( z ) = N P . -

(N) (P) f(z),


C , ,

1
C arg f ( z ) -, w = f(z)
2

w, z C ( ). , , f(z) C.

1
2 i

f1 + f2
1
dz =
f1 + f2
2 i

f
dz , f1, f2
f1

G G; f1(z) 0 | f2(z) | < | f1(z) | .


2.6. .
w = f(z) ( I ) G , f(z) (z G) f(z) 0 G.
II , . , , , II .
l C w = f(z): l =

f (z ) dz .

S G
w = f(z): S =

f ( z ) dx dy .

96

VI.
1.
1.1. .

(0)

sin

cos

tg

ctg

2 3

2+ 3

15


12

3 1
2 2

3 +1
2 2

18


10

5 1
4

5+ 5
2 2

10 + 2 5

30

1
2

3
2

1
3

36

5 5
2 2

5 +1
4

10 2 5
5 +1

10 2 5

45

2
2

2
2

54

3

10

5 +1
4

5 5
2 2

60

3
2

1
2

72

2

5

5+ 5
2 2

5 1
4

10 + 2 5
5 1

10 + 2 5

75

5

12

3 +1
2 2

3 1
2 2

2+ 3

2 3

90

5 1

5 +1
10 2 5
3

10 + 2 5
5 1
3
5 +1

10 2 5
5 +1
1
3
5 1

1.2. .
( , ,
, , , ,
, , )
cos

= 1 cos2

sin

cos

= 1 sin

tg

ctg

1 sin2
=
sin

sec

cosec

sin
1 sin2

1 cos2
cos

cos

1 sin2
=

1
sin

1 cos2

1
cos
1

tg
1 + tg2
1
1 + tg2

ctg

1 + ctg2

1
tg

ctg

1
ctg

1 + ctg2
ctg

= 1 + tg2

1 + tg2
=
tg

= 1 + ctg2

1
sec

= sec2 1

1
sec2 1

cosec

sec2 1
sec
=

1 + ctg2
=

sec

sec
sec2 1

1
cosec

cosec2 1
=
cosec
=

1
cosec2 1

= cosec2 1

cosec
cosec2 1

=
97

1 cos2

tg

VI.1.

sin

VI.1.

98

1.3. .

= 2

sin =

cos

sin

cos

sin

cos =

sin

cos

sin

cos

tg =

ctg

tg

ctg

tg

ctg =

tg

ctg

tg

ctg

:
sin ( ) = sin cos cos sin ;
cos ( ) = cos cos sin sin ;

tg ( ) =

tg tg
;
1 tg tg

ctg ( ) =

ctg ctg 1
.
ctg ctg

, :
sin 2 = 2 sin cos ;
cos 2 = cos2 sin2 = 1 2 sin2 = 2 cos2 1;

tg 2 =

2 tg

1 tg2

ctg2 1
ctg 2 =
;
2 ctg

sin 3 = 3 sin 4 sin3 ;

tg 3 =

3 tg tg3

cos 3 = 4 cos3 3 cos ;

ctg 3 =

ctg3 3 ctg

1 3 tg2
3 ctg2 1

1 cos

1 + cos
sin =
;
cos =
;
2
2
2
2
1 cos
sin
1 cos

tg =
;
=
=
2
1 + cos 1 + cos
sin
1 + cos
sin
1 + cos

ctg =
.
=
=
2
1 cos 1 cos
sin


, .
() :

sin + sin = 2 sin

cos
;
2
2

sin sin = 2 cos

sin
;
2
2

cos
;
2
2
+

cos cos = 2 sin


sin
= 2 sin
sin
;
2
2
2
2
cos + sin = 2 cos ( 45 ) ;
cos sin = 2 sin ( 45 ) ;
cos + cos = 2 cos

tg tg =

sin ( )
cos cos

ctg ctg =

sin ( )
sin sin

1.3. .

tg + ctg =

cos ( )

cos sin
tg + ctg = 2 cosec 2;

;
2

1 + sin = 2 cos2 45 ;
2

1 + cos = 2 cos2

1 tg =
1 tg tg =

cos ( )

;
cos cos
cos 2
1 tg2 =
;
cos2
tg2 tg2 =

tg ctg =

99

cos ( + )

cos sin
tg ctg = 2 ctg 2;
1 cos = 2 sin2

;
2

1 sin = 2 sin2 45 ;
2

2 sin ( 45 )
;
cos
cos ( )
ctg ctg 1 =
;
sin sin
cos 2
1 ctg2 =
;
sin2
sin ( + ) sin ( )
;
cos2 cos2

ctg2 ctg2 =

sin ( + ) sin ( )
sin2 sin2

tg2 sin2 = tg2 sin2 ;


ctg2 cos2 = ctg2 cos2 .
:
1
sin sin = cos ( ) cos ( + ) ;
2
1
cos cos = cos ( ) + cos ( + ) ;
2
1
sin cos = sin ( ) + sin ( + ) ;
2
1
sin sin sin = sin ( + ) + sin ( + ) + sin ( + ) sin ( + + ) ;
4
1
sin sin cos = cos ( + ) + cos ( + ) + cos ( + ) cos ( + + ) ;
4
1
sin cos cos = sin ( + ) sin ( + ) + sin ( + ) + sin ( + + ) ;
4
1
cos cos cos = cos ( + ) + cos ( + ) + cos ( + ) + cos ( + + ) .
4
:

arcsin x = arcsin ( x ) = arccos x = arctg (x 1 x2 );


2

arccos x = arccos ( x ) = arcsin x = arcctg (x 1 x2 );


2

arctg x = arctg ( x ) = arcctg x = arcsin (x 1 + x2 );


2

arcctg x = arcctg ( x ) = arctg x = arccos (x 1 + x2 ).


2

100

2.
:

ex e x
;
2
sh x
th x =
;
ch x
1
sech x =
;
ch x
:
ch2 x sh2 x = 1;
sh x =

sh x =

th x
1 th2 x

1
cth2 x 1

ex + e x
;
2
ch x
cth x =
;
sh x
1
cosech =
.
sh x
ch x =

th x cth x = 1;
ch x =

ch2 x 1
th x =
=
;
ch x
1 + sh2 x
sh x

1 th2 x

cth x
cth2 x 1

1 + sh2 x
ch x
cth x =
=
.
sh x
ch2 x 1

sh ( x y ) = sh x ch y ch x sh y;
th ( x y ) =

th x th y
;
1 th x th y

ch ( x y ) = ch x ch y sh x sh y;
cth ( x y ) =

sh 2x = 2 sh x ch x;

cth x cth y 1
;
cth y cth x

ch 2x = ch2 x + sh2 x;

cth2 x + 1
;
2 cth x
1 + th2 x
x
x
ch x 1 = 2 sh2 ;
ch x + 1 = 2 ch2 ;
2
2
x
sh x
ch x 1
x
sh x
ch x + 1
=
th =
;
cth =
=
;
2 ch x + 1
sh x
2 ch x 1
sh x
xy xy
sh x sh y = 2 sh
ch
;
2
2
x+y xy
x+y xy
ch x + ch y = 2 ch
ch
;
ch x ch y = 2 sh
sh
;
2
2
2
2
sh ( x y )
sh ( x y )
th x th y =
;
cth x cth y =
;
ch x ch y
sh x sh y
th 2x =

2 th x

cth 2x =

2 ch x ch y = ch ( x + y ) + ch ( x y ) ;

2 sh x sh y = ch ( x + y ) ch ( x y ) ;

(
arch x arch y = arch ( xy

)
( x + 1 y + 1 xy) ;
1 ) = arsh ( y x 1 x y 1 ) ;

2 sh x ch y = sh ( x + y ) + sh ( x y ) .
:

arsh x arsh y = arsh x y2 + 1 y x2 + 1 = arch


x2 1 y2

arth x arth y = arth

xy
.
1 xy

VI.2.

101

cos x = ch ix;

sin x = i sh ix;
tg x = i th ix;
ctg x = i cth ix;

ch x = cos ix;

sh x = i sin ix;
th x = i tg ix;
cth x = i ctg ix.

arccos x = i arch x;

arcsin x = i arsh ix;


arctg x = i arth ix;
arcctg x = i arcth ix;

arch x = i arccos x;

arsh x = i arcsin ix;


arth x = i arctg ix;
arcth x = i arcctg ix.

102

3. -

n ! nz
(z) = lim
n z ( z + 1) ( z + n )

( z 0, 1, 2,) .

( II ):

(z) =

e dt

ln (1 + z) = ln (1 + z ) + z (1 ) +

= lim
n

k =1

n =2

zn
(1) [ (n) 1]
n

(z

1
= z e z
(z)
n

(Re z > 0 ) .

z 1 t

< 2) .

1 + z ez n ,
n

n =1

1
ln n 0, 5772156649 .

(nz) = (2 )

(1 n) 2

nz 1 2

n 1

z + k .

(n + z) = ( n 1 + z ) ( n 2 + z ) (1 + z ) z (z) .

(z) (z) =

(z) (1 z) =

z 1

k =1

;
z sin z

t
dt
1+ t

( 0 < Re z < 1) .

1
1
139

(z) e z zz 1 2 2 1 +
+

12z 288z2 51840z3

< ) .

(n + 1 2)
1
1
1

2
8 n 128 n
(n + 1)
n

1
: (n + 1) = n!, = .
2
(z) (w)
- : B(z, w)
,
(z + w)
1

B(z, w) =

( arg z

z 1

w 1

(1 t )

dt =

tz 1

(1 + t )
0

z +w

dt

(n ) .

B(z, w) = B(w, z);

( I ).

- (-):

(z) =

d
(z)
ln (z) =
.
(z)
dz

VI.3. -

103

( Re z > 0):

e t
t
e zt
1
(z) =

dt
e

t
1 e t
(1 + t) z
0
0

1
(z) = +
z

(1 + z) = +
(nz) =

:
:
:
:

dt
1 tz 1
=

+
dt .

1
t
t

n (z + n) ;
z

n =1

(1)

(z

(n) z n 1

< 1) .

n =2
n 1

1
n

z + + ln n .
n

k=0

1
1
1
+
+ + + (z) .
n 1+ z n 2 + z
z
(z) (1 z) = ctg z .
(n + z) =

(n) = +

n 1

k =1

1
k

1
= ln 2 .
2

2 ),
( n .

-:
z

(a, z) =

t a 1

dt

(Re a > 0, a = const ) ,

(a, z) (a) (a, z) =


a z

(a + 1, z) = a (a, z) z e

t a 1

dn a
:
z (a, z) = (1) n z a n (a + n, z) .
n

dz
1

: , z2 = erf z, , z2 = erfc z .
2

dt .

104

4.

2

dw
+ z2 2 w = 0 ;
2
dz
dz
: J (z) , Y (z)
z2

d w

+z

H(1) (z), H(2) (z) ( ).


:

J (z) cos J (z)


.
Y (z) =
sin

, .

H(1) (z) = J (z) + iY (z)

H(2) (z) = J (z) iY (z)

J n (z) = (1) n Jn (z)

J (z) =

Y n (z) = (1) n Yn (z).

2 k +

(1) k ( z 2 )

k ! (k + + 1) ;

J n (z) =

k =0

1 z
Yn (z) =
2

n n 1

k =0

2k n

(1) k ( z 2 )

k ! (k n) !

k=n

(n k 1) ! z2
2 z
+ ln Jn (z)
2
k!
4
1 z

2

k =0

( z2 4) k
.
[ (k + 1) + (n + k + 1) ]
k ! ( n + k) !

(z 2)
cos ( z cos ) sin2 d =
( + 1 2)

J (z) =

2 (z 2)
( + 1 2)

Y (z) =

1
1
sin ( z sin ) d

2
(1 t )

1 2

z sh t
t
t
{e + e cos ( )} e dt
0

1
sin z sh(t t)
J (z) =
e
dt
cos ( z sin ) d

(Re > 1 2 ) ;

cos zt dt

arg z < ;
2

1
Jn (z) =
cos ( z sin n ) d.

( f J, Y, H(1), H(2)):
m

1 d
m
f m (z);

z f (z) = z
z dz
m

arg z < ;
2

1 d
m m
f+ m (z).

z f (z) = (1) z
z dz

VI.4.
:

J (z) J (z) =

(1) k ( z 2 )

++ 2 k

105

( + + 2k + 1)

k ! ( + k + 1) ( + k + 1) ( + + k + 1) .
k =0

( f J, Y, H(1), H(2)):

f 1 (z) + f +1 (z) =

2
f (z) .
z

J n 1 2 (z) = (1) n +1Yn +1 2 (z);

Jn +1 2 (z) = (1)

Y n 1 2 (z) = (1) n Jn +1 2 (z).


n

2 n +1 1 d sin z
;
z

z
z dz z
n

2 n +1 1 d cos z
;
Yn +1 2 (z) = (1)
z

z
z dz z
2 sin
;
J (z) J +1 (z) + J (z) J +1 (z) =
z
2
.
J (z) Y 1 (z) Y (z) J 1 (z) =
z
n +1

106

5. I K

2

d w

z2

dz

dw
z2 + 2 w = 0 ;
dz

+z

: I(z) K(z) ( ).
:
i
i

2
e
J (ze 2 )
< arg z - ;
2

I (z) =
3
3
i
2 i

J (ze 2 ) < arg z - ;


e
2

K (z) =
[I (z) I (z) ] ;
2 sin

, .

I n (z) = In (z);

I (z) =

1z
Kn (z) =
2 2

n n 1

In (z) = (1) n In (z) .

K n (z) = Kn (z);

k =0

(z 2) 2k +
;
k ! (k + + 1)

( n k 1) !

z2
z
n +1
+ (1) ln In (z) +
2
4

k!

k =0

(1) n
+
2

z

2

( z2 4 )

[ (k + 1) + (n + k + 1) ] k ! ( n + k) ! .
k =0

1 z cos
sin z ch(t t )
I (z) =
e
cos d
e
dt

K (z) =

(z 2)

(1 2 + )

e zt t2 1

1 2

dt

arg z < ;
2

Re z > , arg z < ;


2
2

1 z cos
In (z) =
e
cos n d.

I 1 (z) I +1 (z) =

2
I (z);
z

K 1 (z) K +1 (z) =

2
K (z).
z

(f I, ei K):
m

1 d
m
f m (z);

z f (z) = z
z dz

1 d
m
f +m (z) .

z f (z) = z
z dz

VI.5. I K
:

I1 2 (z) =

2
sh z;
z

I (z) I +1 (z) I (z) I 1 (z) =

2 sin ( )

z
1
K +1 (z) I (z) + K (z) I +1 (z) = .
z

107

108

6.

d 2w
dz2

+ (c + z)

dw
aw = 0 ;
dz

: w = A(a, c; z) + B(a, c; z) (A B ).
(a, c; z) ( M(a, c; z)):

(a, c; z) = 1 +

a z a ( a + 1) z
+
+ = 1+
c 1! c (c + 1) 2 !
2

n =1

n 1

z n (a + i)
i =0
n 1

n ! (c + i)

i =0

(a, c; z) ( U(a, c; z)):

(a, c; z) =


(a, c; z)
(1 + a c, 2 c; z)
z1c

.
sin c (1 + a c) (c)
(a) (2 c)

:
1

(c)
c a 1
(a, c; z) =
eztta 1 (1 t )
dt;
(c a) (a)

ez
a 1
(a, c; z) =
e zt (t 1) tc a 1dt.
(a)

dn
dz n

dn
dz

(a + n) (c)
(a + n, c + n; z);
(c + n) (a)

= (1) n

(a + n)
(a + n, c + n; z).
(a)

(a, c; z) = ez (c a, c; z) ;
c (c 1) (a, c 1; z) c (c 1 + z ) (a, c; z) + (c a ) z (a, c + 1; z) = 0;

c (a, c; z) c (a 1, c; z) z (a, c + 1; z) = 0;

(a 1 + z ) (a, c; z) + (c a) (a 1, c; z) (c 1) (a, c 1; z) = 0;
(??c + z ) (a, c; z) (c a ) z (a + 1, c; z) + (c + 1) (a, c 1; z) = 0;
(a c + 1) (a, c; z) a (a + 1, c; z) + (c 1) (a, c 1; z) = 0;
(c a ) (a 1, c; z) + (2a c + z) (a, c; z) a (a + 1, c; z) = 0;
(c a 1) (a, c 1; z) (c 1 + z ) (a, c; z) + z (a, c + 1; z) = 0;
(a, c; z) a (a + 1, c; z) (a, c 1; z) = 0;

(c a ) (a, c; z) z (a, c + 1; z) + (a 1, c; z) = 0;
(a 1 + z ) (a, c; z) (a 1, c; z) + (a c + 1) (a, c 1; z) = 0;
(a + z ) (a, c; z) + a (c a 1) (a + 1, c; z) z (a, c + 1; z) = 0;
(a 1, c; z) ( 2a c + z ) (a, c; z) + a ( a c + 1) (a + 1, c; z) = 0.

VI.6.

109

(a, a; z) = ez ;

(1, 2; 2z) =

e iz
(1, 2; 2iz) =
sin z;
z

1 3

, ; z2 =
erf z;
2 2
2z

z
+ , 2 + 1; 2z = (1 + ) ez
2

( a, a + 1; z ) = a z (a, z);
a

2
1 1

, ; z2 = ez erfc z.
2 2

d 2w 1 i 1 4
:
+ + +
dz2 4 2
z2

(2)
(2)
Mi, ( z ) +
Mi, ( z ) .
1

i
+ i
2

Mi, (z) = e
Wi, (z) = e

I (z);

) w = 0 ;

: Mi,(z) Wi,(z).

Wi, ( z ) =

z
1

e
+ , 2 + 1; 2z =
( 2z ) K (z);
2

(1 a,1 a; z ) = ez (a, z);

ez
sh z;
z

z
2

i + , 2 + 1; z ;
2

1
+
2

i + , 2 + 1; z .
2

z
2

1
+
2

110

7.
2
erf(z) =

2
erf(z) =

e t dt;

erf(z) = erf(z) .

(1) n z2 n +1
2 z2
2n z2 n +1
.
=
e
n ! 2n + 1
1 3 ( 2n + 1)

n =0
n =0

2 z2
e .

erf(z) =

1
2

C (z) =

1
2

S(z) =

cos t
dt =
t

sin t
dt =
t

2z

2z

n =0

n =0

(1) n z2 n
;
( 4n + 1) ( 2n ) !

(1) n z2 n +1
.
( 4n + 3 ) ( 2n + 1) !

i
1 i4
C (z) + iS(z) =
e erf (e 4 z );
2

(z) =

n =1

i
1 i 4
C (z) iS(z) =
e
erf (e 4 z ).
2

(z) =

(Re z > 1) .

1 p z

(Re z > 1) ,

p.
:

1 z

1 2

1
(z) =
(z)

1
(z) =
(z)
:

(1 z) =

(2 ) z
:
1
(0) = ;
2

cos

2
;
6

e
0

(2n) = 0;

(4) =

B2 n
2n

4
;
90

tz 1

tz 1

z
(z) (z);
2

(1 2n) =
(2) =

+1

dt

(Re z > 0 ) ;

dt

(Re z > 1) .

z ( z + 1)

(z + 2) (1 z)
= 4 2 .
(z) (1 z)

(2n) = (1)

n 1 2 n 1

2 n
B2 n ;
(2n) !

(Bk );
(6) =

6
;
945

(8) =

8
.
9450

VI.7.

Ei(z) = (0, ze

)=

Ei(z) = i + ln z +

n =1

e t
dt .
t

zn
;
n n!

Ei( x) = + ln x +

li(z) =

:

z

si(z) =

dt

cos t
1
dt = [Ei(iz) + Ei(iz) ] .
2
t

li(z) = Ei(ln z);

sin t
1
dt = [Ei(iz) Ei(iz) ] ;
t
2i

ci(z) =

Si(z) = si(z) + =
2

si(z) = +
2

(1) n

n =0

ci(z) = + ln z +

n =1

sin t
dt;
t

Ei(z) = li(ez ) .
:

Ci(x) = ci(z) .

z2 n +1
;
( 2n + 1) ( 2n + 1) !
z2 n
(1)
.
2n ( 2n ) !
n

xn
.
n n!

ln t .
0

(1) n

n =1

111

112

1. ., . , . 1, 2, 3. .: , 1969, 1973, 1974.


2. . ., . . , , . .: , 1971.
3. . . . .: , 1978.
4. ., . . .: , 1984.
5. . ., . ., . . . .: , 1981, 1983.
6. ., ., . . .: , 1977.

1. . . . .: , 1979.
2. . ., . ., . . . .: , 1979.
3. . . . .: , 1978.
4. . ., . . . .: , 1969, 1971.
5. . ., . . , . 1, 2. .: , 1971, 1980.
6. . . . .: . , 1961.
7. . . , . 1, 2. .: , 1980.
8. . ., . . . .: , 1973.
9. . . . .: , 1978.
10. . . , . 1, 2. .: , 1975.
11. . . . .: , 1984.
12. . . . .: , 1978.
13. . . . .: , 1974.
14. . . . .: , 1973.
15. . ., . . . .: , 1979.
16. . ., . . , . I, II. .: , 1962, 1963.