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.. , ..

.. , ..


2007
531(075)
373
907

,
,

..

907

, ..

: . / .. , .. . : - . . . -,
2007. 136 . 500 . ISBN 978-5-8265-0618-9.

,
,

.

.
.

.
.

531(075)
373
ISBN 978-5-8265-0618-9


(), 2007


..
..
8.08.2007.
60 84 / 32. 5,9 . . .
500 . 501
-
,
392000, , 106, . 14


:
a > b , b < a .
a > b b > c , a > c .
a > b , a + c > b + c .
a > b c > 0 , ac > bc .
a > b c < 0 , ac < bc .
a > b c > d , a + c > b + d .
a > 0 , b > 0 , c > 0 , d > 0 , a > b c > d , ac > bd .
n

a > b > 0 n , a > b .


:

a 2 b 2 = ( a b )( a + b ) ;

a 2 2ab + b 2 = ( a b )2 ;

a 3 b3 = (a b ) (a 2 m ab + b 2 );

a 3 3a 2b + 3ab 2 b3 = ( a b ) ;
3

ax 2 + bx + c = a ( x x1 )( x x2 ) ,
2
x1 x2 ax + bx + c = 0 .

ax 2 + bx + c = 0 :
b D b b 2 4ac
.
=
2a
2a
c
b
: x1 + x2 = , x1 x2 = .
a
a
:
a1 , a2 , ... , an , ... ;
d ;
an +1 = an + d ;
an = a1 + d ( n 1) n- ;
x1, 2 =

an =
Sn =

an 1 + an +1
;
2
2a1 + d ( n 1) n .
a1 + an
2

n=

:
a1 , a2 , ..., an , ... ;
q ;
bn +1 = b q , b 0 , q 0 ;
bn = b1q n 1 n- ;

bn2 = bn 1bn +1 ;

bn q b1 b1 (q n 1)
n ;
=
q 1
q 1
b
S = 1 q < 1 .
1 q

Sn =

sin ( x ) = sin x ;

sin( x + 2k ) = sin x ;

cos( x ) = cos x ;

cos( x + 2k ) = cos x ;

tg ( x ) = tg x ;
ctg ( x ) = ctg x ;
k .

3
2

sin

1
2

2
2

3
2

cos

3
2

2
2

1
2

tg ( x + k ) = tg x ;
ctg ( x + k ) = ctg x ,

tg

3
3

ctg

3
3

.
: 1 = / 180 .

, :
sin
cos
sin 2 + cos 2 = 1; tg =
; ctg =
;
cos
sin
1
1
.
; 1 + ctg 2 =
1 + tg 2 =
sin 2
cos 2
:
2 tg
sin 2 = 2 sin cos =
;
1 + tg 2
cos 2 = cos 2 sin 2 = 1 2 sin 2 =
tg 2 =

1 tg 2
;
1 + tg 2

2 tg
ctg 2 1
; ctg 2 =
.
2
2 ctg
1 tg

sin 3 = 3 sin 4 sin 3 ; cos 3 = 4 cos3 3 cos .


:
sin 2 =

1 cos 2
1 + cos 2
; cos 2 =
.
2
2

:
sin( ) = sin cos cos sin ;
cos ( ) = cos cos m sin sin ;

tg ( ) =

tg tg
.
1 m tg tg

:
sin + sin = 2 sin

+

;
cos
2
2

sin sin = 2 sin


+
;
cos
2
2

cos + cos = 2 cos

+

;
cos
2
2

cos cos = 2 sin

tg m tg =

+

;
sin
2
2

sin ( )
.
cos cos

sin
cos
tg
ctg

II

III

IV

+
+
+
+

+
+

sin sin =

1
(cos( ) cos( + )) ;
2

cos cos =

1
(cos( ) + cos( + )) ;
2

sin cos =

1
(sin ( ) + sin( + )).
2

+
2

sin

3
3

+ 2
2
2

sin t

cos

cos

cos t

sin

sin cos cos sin

sin cos cos sin

tg t

ctg

ctg tg

tg

ctg

ctg tg

ctg t

tg

tg ctg

ctg

tg

tg ctg

sin

cos

:
sin x = a , a 1,
cos x = a , a 1,

x = ( 1) arcsin a + n ;
n

x = arccos a + 2n ;

tg x = a , x = arctg a + n ;
ctg x = a , x = arcctg a + n ,
n .

arcsin x , 0 arccos x ;
2
2

< arctg x < , 0 < arcctg x < ;


2
2

arcsin ( x ) = arcsin x ; arccos( x ) = arccos x ;


arctg ( x ) = arctg x ; arcctg ( x ) = arcctg x .


: a , b , c ABC , h , p = a + b + c , S , R r 2
.

.
a
b
c
.
=
=
sin sin sin

.
a 2 = b 2 + c 2 2bc cos .

aha bhb chc


1
abc
=
=
, S = ab sin , S = pr , S =
,
2
2
2
2
4R

S=
S=

p ( p a )( p b )( p c ) .

= + b.

. > 0 < 0. A(
b/a; 0) B(0; b). b = 0 = . .

= 2 + b + .

, . > 0 , < 0 .

b 4ac b 2
. x1, x2
,
4a
2a

(0; ).
1,2 =

b b 2 4ac
2
. 1 2 ax + bx + c = 0 ,
2a

y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d.

. = 3 b . 0
> 0 < 0. < 0, . K. (0; d). x4 5

b
.
3a

b . , tg = .

3a
3a

= n (n > 1 )

n- , (0; 0) (1; ) .
n > 0 < 0.
n , .

d =
x=

( x2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2

M 1 ( x1 ; y1 ) M 2 ( x2 ; y2 ) .

x1 + x2
y + y2
, M 1 ( x1 ; y1 ) M 2 ( x2 ; y2 ) = M 1M : MM 2 .
, y= 1
1+
1+
2

Ax + By + C = 0 ( A, B, C , A + B 0) .
y = kx + b k ( b , Oy ).
y y1 = k ( x x1 ) k , M 1 ( x1 ; y1 ) .

y y1
x x1
=
, M 1 ( x1 ; y1 ) M 2 ( x2 ; y2 ) .
y2 y1 x2 x1

x y
+ = 1 ( a , b , Ox Oy ).
a b

d=

Ax0 + Bx0 + C
A2 + B 2

tg =

M 0 ( x0 ; y0 ) Ax + By + C = 0 .

k 2 k1
y = k1 x + b1 y = k 2 x + b2 .
1 + k1k 2

x2 y2
+
= 1 ( a , b ).
a 2 b2

x2 y2

= 1 .
a 2 b2
2

y = 2 px , y = 2 px Ox ( p > 0 ).

X = x2 x1 , Y = y2 y1 , Z = z2 z1 AB A ( x1 ; y1 ; z1 ) B ( x2 ; y2 ; z2 ) .

a = X 2 + Y 2 + Z 2 a = {X ; Y ; Z } .

d=

( x2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2 + ( z2 z1 )2

M1( x1; y1; z1 ) M 2 ( x2 ; y2 ; z2 ) .

a b = a b cos a b ( ).
a b = X 1 X 2 + Y1Y2 + Z1Z 2 a = {X 1 ; Y1 ; Z1} b = {X 2 ; Y2 ; Z 2 } .
cos =

X 1 X 2 + Y1Y2 + Z1Z 2
X 12

+ Y12 + Z12 X 22 + Y22 + Z 22

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 ( A , B , C , A2 + B 2 + C 2 0 ).
d=

Ax0 + By0 + Cz0 + D


M 0 ( x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 .
A2 + B 2 + C 2

x x0 y y0 z z 0
a = {l ; m ; n} , M 0 ( x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) .
=
=
l
m
n
x = x0 + lt , y = y0 + mt , z = z0 + nt .

x2 y 2 z 2
+
+
= 1 ( a , b , c ).
a 2 b2 c2

x2 y 2 z 2
+

= 1 .
a 2 b2 c2

x2 y2 z 2
+

= 1 .
a 2 b2 c2

x2 y 2
+
= z (p > 0, q > 0 ).
2 p 2q

x2 y 2

= z .
2 p 2q

x2 y 2 z 2
+

= 0 .
a 2 b2 c2

lim

x 0

sin x
= 1 .
x

lim 1 +

1 x
= e .
x

f ( x0 ) = lim

x0

f ( x0 + x ) f ( x0 )
y = f ( x ) x0 .
x

dy = f ( x0 ) dx f ( x ) x0 .
:
, ,
1)

(u v ) = u v ;

2)

(uv ) = u v + uv ;

u uv uv
3) =
, v 0.
v
v2

y = f ( x ) = C y = 0 ,

(Cu ) = Cu .

(x n ) = nx n1 ; ( x ) = x

1
2

= 1 ;
2 x

1 = (x 1 ) = 1 .

x2
x

(a x ) = a x ln a ; (e x ) = e x

(log a x ) =

1
;
x ln a

(ln x ) =

1
.
x

(sin x ) = cos x ;

(arcsin x ) =

(cos x ) = sin x ;

(arccos x ) =

1
= sec 2 x ;
cos 2 x
1
(ctg x) = 2 = cosec2 x ;
sin x

(arctg x ) =

( tg x ) =

1
1 x2
1

1 x2

1
;
1 + x2
1
.
(arcctg x ) =
1 + x2

y(t0 ) = f ( x0 ) (t0 ) y = f [ (t )] t0 ; x0 = (t 0 ) .
( y0 ) =

1
x = ( y ) y0 = f ( x0 ) .
f ( x0 )

(uv)( n ) = u ( n )v + nu ( n 1)v +

n( n 1) ( n 2 )
u
v + ... + + uv ( n ) .
1 2

f (b ) f (a )
= f (c ) ; c (a , b ) .
ba

f (b ) f ( a ) f (c )
; c (a , b ) .
=
g (b ) g ( a ) g (c )

f ( x ) = f (a ) +

+ ... +

f (a )
f ( a )
(x a) +
( x a )2 +
1!
2!

f ( n ) (a )
f ( n +1) ( )
( x a )n +
( x a )n +1 ; (a , x ) .
n!
(n + 1)!

a = 0

f ( x ) = f (0 ) +

f (0 )
f (0 ) 2
f ( n ) (0 ) ( n )
x +
x+
x + ... +
1!
2!
n!

f ( n +1) (0) ( n +1)


x
.
( n + 1)!

dx =

x +1
+ C ( 1);
+1

ax

dx
= ln x + C ;
x

a dx = ln a + C (0 < a 1); e dx = e
x

sin x dx = cos x + C ;
dx

dx

dx

x
+ C;
a

cos2 x = tg x + C;

dx

= arcsin x + C ;
a x
1 x2
x
dx
1
dx
1 + x 2 = arctg x + C ; a 2 + x 2 = a arctg a + C ;
xa
dx
1
x 2 a 2 = 2a ln x + a + C (a 0);
x 1
dx
1
x 2 1 = 2 ln x + 1 + C;
dx
1
x
dx
x2 + a2 = a arctg a + C (a 0); x2 + 1 = arctg x + C;
dx
2
x 2 k = ln x + x k + C ;
dx
2
x 2 1 = ln x + x 1 + C.

f ( x ) d x x=(t ) = f [(t )](t ) dt

f ( x ) dx = f [(t )](t ) dt

= arcsin

+ C;

cos x dx = sin x + C;

sin 2 x = ctg x + C ;

; () = a , () = b .

u( x)v( x) dx = u( x)v( x) v( x)u( x) dx

u dv = u v a v du

f ( x ) dx = f (c )(b a ) ; c [a , b] .
a

f ( x ) dx = F (b) F (a ) = F ( x ) a
b

-.

s=

f ( x ) dx
a

0 y f ( x ), a x b .

s = (t ) (t ) dt , : x = (t ) , y = (t ) , t .

s=

1 2
() d , , : = () , .
2
b

L=

1 + ( f ( x ))2 dx , y = f ( x ) , a x b .

L=

((t ))2 + ((t ))2 dt

, : x = (t ) , y = (t ) , t .

(())2 + (())2 d

, : = () , .

L=

V = f

( x ) dx

Ox 0 y f ( x ) , a x b .

P = 2 f ( x ) 1 + ( f ( x )) dx Ox 0 y f ( x ) , a x b .
2

, ( ), , . , , , .
, ,
r B

, : a = AB, a = AB a = AB .
, ( ), .
( ) .
. b , -

: OL , ; L, , LM , b. =

OM b.
. b , + b
: OA = OB = b; , ,

OC = b ( AC = OB = b OC = OA + AC ). : a2 a1.

. a1 () 2 () (), 1 2. , , .
: OA1 = a1, OA2 = a2.


1 A2 (

) a2 a1:

1 A2 = OA2 OA1 .
. a2 a1 a2 a1, a2 a1, .. a2 a1 = a2 + (a1).
. a () () (), ,
, , . = 0, .
: .
. , , ,
.
: a :

a
.
x

a
1

.
x
x

b .

ab = |a| |b| cos ( a, b ).

a () b () (), :

1)

(AOBL

),

a b, .. |a| |b| sin ( a, b );

2) ;
3) ( ) , , b, .
.
OX, OY, OZ, , . , OX, OY, OZ (OX ; OY ; OZ ), XOY, YOZ, ZOX
. - UV (. . ). OX, OY, OZ
, , , , OA , OB , OC .
i, j, k.
.

, 90, Y, , OZ. .
. .
.
a, b, () , (.. , b .) , OA , OB , OC , . a, b, , OA , OB , , .
, a, b, .


n a

i
i =1

i = i .

n

S=

ai2
i =1

n(n 1)

= t (, n) S ,
t ; .

0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

0,95

0,98

2
5
10

1,00
0,74
0,70

1,38
0,94
0,88

2,0
1,2
1,1

3,1
1,5
1,4

6,3
2,1
1,8

12,7
2,8
2,3

31,8
3,7
2,8

1.

1.1.

r
,
t

v =

v=

v =

s
;
t

dr
,
dt

r t; r - ; s , t.

a =

v
dv
.
, a=
t
dt

a = a + an , a = a2 + an2 ,
a =

2
d
; an =
( r
dt
r

).

s = 0t

at 2
;
2

= 0 at ,
0 .

d
.
dt

d
.
dt

2
=
= 2n,
t
T

T ; n ( n = N / t , N , t ).

= 0 t

t2
;
2

= 0 t t ,

0 .

s = R ; v = R; a = R ; an = 2 R ,
R .
1.2.

( )

p = mv .

( )

F = ma = m

dv dp
.
=
dt
dt

F = ma = m

dv
mv 2
; Fn = man =
= m2 R .
dt
R

F = fN ,
f ; N .

F = f N / r ,

f ; r .

n

p = mi v i = const ,
i =1

n ( ), .
:

xC =

mi xi
;
mi

yC =

mi yi
mi zi
,
; zC =
mi
mi

mi i- ; xC , yC , zC .
( )

ma = F + Fp ,
Fp = u

dm
( u ).
dt

v = u ln

m0
,
m

m0 .
1.3.
,

dA = Fdr = Fs ds = Fds cos ,


Fs ; .
, , s

A = Fs ds = F cos ds .
s

N = A / t .

N=

dA
, N = Fv = Fs = F cos .
dt

= mgh,
g .

F = kx ,
; k .

= kx 2 / 2 .
( )

T + = = const .

= n / n ,
n n .
m1 m2 :

1 =
2 =

(m1 m2 ) 1 + 2m22
m1 + m2

(m2 m1 ) 2 + 2m11
m1 + m2

1 2 .

=
1.4.

m11 + m2 2
.
m1 + m2

J = mr 2 ,
m ; r .
()
n

J = mi ri2 ,
i =1

ri mi .
2
J = r dm .

( ; m ):

mR 2

1
mR 2
2
1
ml 2
12
1 2
ml
3
2
mR 2
5

J = J C + ma 2 ,
J C , ; J ,
; m .
, z ,

T = J z 2 / 2 ,
J z z ; .
, ,

T=

1
1
mC2 + J C 2 ,
2
2

m ; C ; J C , ;
.

M = [rF ] ,
r -, F.

M = Fl ,
l ( ).

dA = M z d ,
d ; M z z .
( )

Lz = mi i ri = J z ,
ri z ; mi i ; J z z ;
.
()

M=

dL
d
; M z = Jz
= J z ,
dt
dt

; J z z .
( )
L = const.


= F / S,
F () ; S .
()
= l / l,
l (); l .

()
' = d / d,
d (); d .
() ' ()
' = ,

()
= E,
.
()
l

= Fdx =
0

E 2
1 ES
(l )2 =
V,
2 l
2

V .
1.5. .

T12 R13
=
,
T22 R23
T1 T2 ; R1 R2 .

F=G

m1m2 r
,
r2 r

F ( ) m1 m2 , r ; G .

P = mg ,
m ; g .

g = F/m ,
F , m, .
m1 m2 , r ,

= Gm1m2 / r .

= /m ,
m, .

i, j, k .

1 = gR0 , 2 = 2 gR0 ,
R0 .

ma = ma + F ,
a a , F .

F = F + F + F ,
F , 0: F = ma0; F (
, , R): F = m2R; F
( , , v :

F = 2m[v].
1.6.
h

p = gh ,
.

F = gV ,
F ; V .

S = const ,
S ; .

2
+ gh + p = const ,
2
2

; ; / 2
; h , ; gh .
, ,

2
+ p = const .
2
, ,

= 2 gh ,
h , .

F =

S,
x

; / x ; S .
, ,

Re = < > d / ,
; < > ; d , , .
, , ,

F = 6r ,
r ; .
, , t l,

V = R 4 pt / (8l ) ,
R ; p .

Rx = C x

2
S,
2

C x ; ; ; S
.

Ry = C y

2
S,
2

C y .
1.7. ()

x =

x t
2

1 / c

y = y , z = z , t =

t x / c 2

1 2 / c 2

, K x K , x x
, y y , z z ; c .

1 2 / c 2

, ; , .
()

l = l0 1 2 / c 2 ,
l0 , , ( ); l ,
, .

ux =

ux
;
1 u x / c 2
uz =

uy =

u y 1 2 / c 2
1 u x / c 2

u z 1 2 / c 2
,
1 u x / c 2

, K x K , x x
, y y , z z .
s12 ( )
2
2
2
s12
= c 2t12
l12
= inv ,

t12 1 2; l12 , .

m=

m0
2

1 / c

, p=

m0 v
1 2 / c 2

m0 .

F=

dp
,
dt

p .

E = mc 2 = m0c 2 + T , T = (m m0 ) c 2 .

E 2 = m02c 4 + p 2c 2 ,

pc = T (T + 2m0c 2 ) .

E = m0i c 2 M 0c 2 ,
i =1

m0i i- ; M 0 , n .

2.

2.1. -

-
V = const = const, m = const,
; V ; ; m .
-

V = V0 (1 + t ) , V1 / V2 = T1 / T2
p = const, m = const;

p = p0 (1 + t ) , p1 / p2 = T1 / T2
V = const, m = const,
t ; V0 p0 0 ; = 1 / 273

; 1 2

.

n

p = pi ,
i =1

pi i- .
( -)

pVm = RT ( ),
pV = ( m / M ) RT ( ),
Vm ; R ; M ; m ; m/M = .

p = nkT ,
k ( k = R / N A , N A ).
-

1
p = nm0
3

pV =

2 m0
N
3
2

2
= E ,
3

pV =

1
Nm0
3

1
= m
3

; ; n

, m0 ; m = Nm0 ; N V.
:

= 2 RT / M = 2kT / m0 ;

= 3RT / M = 3kT / m0 ;

= 8 RT / ( M ) = 8kT / ( m0 ) ,
m0 .

0 =

3
kT .
2

f ( ) =

3/ 2
2
m
dN ( )
= 4 0 2e m0 / ( 2 kT ) ,
N d
2kT

f () dN ( ) / N N , + d .

f ( ) =

dN ( )
2
=
(kT )3 / 2 1/ 2e / ( kT ) ,
N d

f ( ) dN ( ) / N N 2

, = m0 / 2 , + d.

ph = p0e Mg ( hh0 ) / ( RT ) ,
ph p0 h h0 .

n = n0e Mgh / ( RT ) = n0e m0 gh / ( kT ) ,

n = n0e / ( kT ) ,

n n0 h h = 0 ; = m0 gh .
, 1 ,

z = 2 d 2 n ,
d ; ; .

l =

=
z

1
2 d 2 n

Q =

dT
St ,
dx

Q , S t; dT / dx ; :

1
= cV l ,
3
cV ;

; l .

M = D

d
St ,
dx

, S t; d / dx , D :

D=

1
l .
3

()

d
S,
dx
F S; d / dx ; :
F =

1
= l .
3
2.2.
, ,

1 =

1
kT .
2

i
kT ,
2

i , (i = n + n + 2n ) .

i
m i
RT ,
U = RT =
M 2
2
; m ; ; R .

Q = U + A ,
Q , ; U ; .

dQ = dU + A.
Cm

Cm = cM ,
.

CV =

i
i+2
R, Cp =
R.
2
2

C p = CV + R .

dU =

m
CV dT .
M

, ,

A = pdV .

A=

V2

pdV ,

V1

V1 V2 .
:

A = p(V2 V1 ) , A =

m
R(T2 T1 ) ;
M

A=

m
V
m
p
RT ln 2 , A =
RT ln 1 .
M
V1
M
p2

( )

pV = const , TV 1 = const , T p1 = const ,


= C p / CV = (i + 2 ) / i .

A=

m
CV (T1 T2 ) ,
M

A=

1
1
RT1 m V1 p1V1 V1
1 ,
1 =
1 M V2 1 V2

T1 , T2 V1 , V2 .
()

A Q1 Q2
Q
=
= 1 2 ,
Q1
Q1
Q1

Q1 , ; Q2 , ; , .

T1 T2
,
T1

T1 ; T2 .
1 2
2

dQ
dU + A
.
=
T
T
1
1

Si2 = S 2 S1 =

2.3. ,

( --)

a
p + V 2 (Vm b ) = RT ,

m
Vm ; b --, .
--

2a V
p + 2 b = RT ,
V

2a
p + 2 (V b ) = RT ,
V

= / .
, ,

p = a /Vm2 .
(, ) b --

V = 3b ,

p = a / (27b 2 ), T = 8a / ( 27 Rb ) .

U = (CV T a /Vm ) ,
CV .

U1 + p1V1 = U 2 + p2V2 ,
1 2 .

= F / l , = E / S ,
F , l, ; , S .

p = (1 / R1 + 1 / R2 ) ,

R1 R2 ; ,
( ), , ( ).

p = 2 / R .

h=

2 cos
,
gr

; r ; ; g .

CV = 3R ,
CV () .
-,
,

dp
L
,
=
dT T (V2 V1 )

(V2 V1 )

; ( ).

3.

3.1.


1
Q1 Q2 r
,
40
r
r2
F Q1 Q2 ; r ; 0 , 8,85

F=

1012 /.


E = F / Q0 ; = / Q0

= A / Q0 ,

F , Q0 , ; Q0 ; A .


1 Q r
1 Q
E=
.
; =
40 r 2 r
40 r

d E = EdS = En dS ,
dS = dSn , dS, n ; En E
.
S

E = EdS = E n dS .
S

()
n

i =1

i =1

E = E i ; = i ,
E i , i , .



E = grad E = i +
j+
k ,
y
z
x
i, j, k .

, ,
E=

d
.
dr

( )
p = Q l,
I .

,
=

dQ
dQ
dQ
; =
; =
,
dl
dS
dV

.. , , .


E = EdS = E n dS =
S

0 ;

Qi

1
0

Qi = dV ,
0
i =1
V

, S ; n ;

i =1

,
E = ( 2 0 ) .
,
E = 0 .
, R c Q r

E = 0 r < R ( );
1 Q
E=
r R ( ).
4 0 r 2
, R Q r
E=

1 Q
r R ( );
40 r 3

E=

1 Q
r R ( ).
40 r 2

, R r ,
E = 0 r < R ( );
E=

1
r R ( ).
40 r

Edl = El dl = 0 ,
L

El dl. L.

, Q0 1 2
2

A12 = Q0 (1 2 ) , A12 = Q0 Edl = Q0 El dl ,


El dl.


P = pi V ,
i

V ; pi i- .


P = 0E ,
.

:
= 1+ .
E0
E = E0 P 0 , E = E0 .


D = 0 E .

D , E P
D = 0E + P .

D = DdS = DndS = Qi ,
S

l =1

Qi

S ; Dn D

l =1

, dS, n .
.

E = / ( 0 ) ,
.


C = Q/ ,
Q , ; .


C = 0 S / d ,
S ; d .

C=

20l
,
ln( r2 / r1 )

l ; r1 , r2 .


C = 40

r1r2
,
r2 r1

r1 r2 .


n
1
1
=
C i =1 Ci

C = Ci ,
i =1

Ci i- ; n .


W=

C2 Q Q 2
=
=
.
2
2
2C


W=

1 n
Qi i ,
2 i =1

i , , Qi , i-.


W=

C ( )2 Q Q 2
=
=
,
2
2
2C

Q ; C ; .


F =

Q2
2 S 0 E 2 S
=
=
.
2 0 S 2 0
2


0E 2
SU 2 0E 2
Sd = 0
V,
=
2
2
2
S ; U ; V = Sd .

W=

w=

0E 2 ED
=
,
2
2

I=

dQ
;
dt

D .
3.2.


j=

I
,
S

S .

j = ne v ,
v ; n .

, ,
= A / Q0 = E dl ,
Q0 ; A ; .

R , G

R = l / S ; G = 1 / R ; = 1 / ,
; S ; l .

R = Ri
i =1

n
1
1
= ,
R i =1 Ri

Ri i- ; n .

= 0 (1 + t ) ,

I =U / R ;

I = (1 2 + E12 ) / R ;

I = E/ R ,
U ; R ( ); (1 2 ) ; E12 ...
, ; E ... .

j = E ,
E .

t
A = IUt = I 2 Rt =

U2
t.
R

P = IU = I 2 R =

U2
.
R

-
Q = I 2 Rt = IUt ,
Q , t .
-
w = jE = E 2 ,
w .

i =1

i =1

i =1

Ii = 0 ; I i Ri = Ei .
3.3. ,

1 2
1 2 =

A1 A2 kT n1
+
ln ,
e
e
n2

A1 , A2 ; k ; n1 , n2 .


E=

k
n
(T1 T2 ) ln 1 ,
e
n2

(T1 T2 ) .

-
j = CT 2e A / ( kT ) ,
j ; C , ; A .
3.4.

, , ,
M = [p m B] ,
B ; p m :

p m = ISn ,
S ; n .

B H
B = 0H ,
0 ; .

--
dB =

0 I [dl , r ]
,
4
r2

dB , dl I ; r -, dl ,
.

dB
dB =

0 Idl sin
,
4
r2

dl r .

()

B = Bi ,
i

B ; Bi .

,
B=

0 2 I
,
4 R

R .


B = 0

I
,
2R

R .

dF = I [dI , B] ,
dF , dl I , .


dF = IBl sin ,
dl .

I1 I 2
dF =

0 2 I1I 2
dl ,
4 R

B=

0 Q [ v r ]
,
4 r 3

R ; dl .

r -, .


B=

0 Qv
sin ,
4 r 2

v r.

F = Q [v B ] ,
F , Q, v.


F = QE + Q [v , B] ,
F , Q, .


= R

IB
,
d

; I ; d ; R = 1 / (en ) ( ).

( )
n

Ik ,
Bdl = Bidl = 0
k =1
L

0 ; dl , ; Bi = B cos
n

L ( ); dl ;

Ik
k =1

, .

( ), N ,
B = 0 NI / l ,
l .

( )
B = 0 NI / 2r .

( ) dS
d B = BdS = Bn dS ,

dS = dS n , dS, n ; Bn
.

S
B = BdS = BndS .
S

( , )
= 0
.

N 2I
S,
l


dA = Id ,
d , .


dA = Id ' ,
d ' , .
3.5.


Ei =

d
,
dt

Ei ... .

... , S B ,
Ei = BS sin t ,
t n .

, I L,
= LI .
...
s = L

dI
,
dt

L .

()
L = 0

N 2S
,
l

N ; l .

I = I 0e t / ; I = I 0 (1 e t / ) ,

= L / R ( L ; R ).

... (..., )
E = L12

dI
,
dt

L12 .

( N1 N 2 , ,
N1 N 2
S,
l
0 ; I ; S .

L12 = L21 = 0

N 2 2 I1
=
= ,
N1 1 I 2
N , , I , ... .

, , I,
W = LI 2 / 2 .


w=

B2
H 2 BH
= 0
=
.
2 0
2
2

3.6.

p m L e
p m = gL e =
g = e / ( 2m ) .

e
Le ,
2m


J = Pm / V = p a / V ,
Pm = p a , .


J = H ,
.

B, H, J
B = 0 (H + J ) ,
0 .


= 1+ .
( )

Bdl = Bl dl = 0 ( I + I ) ,
L

dl , ; Bl L
; I I' ( ) ( ),
.

Hdl = I ,
L

I , L.
3.7.

j =
D ; 0

D
E P
,
= 0
+
t
t
t

E
P
;
.
t
t

Edl = t dS ; DdS = dV ;
L

D
Hdl = j + t dS ;
L
S

B dS = 0 .
S

B
; div D = ;
t
D
; div B = 0 ,
rot H = j +
t

rot E =

D = 0E; B = 0H; j = E (0 0 ; ( ;
).

4.

4.1.

s = A cos (0t + ) ,
s ; ; 0 = 2 / T = 2 () ; = 1/T
; ; 0 .
, ,

ds

= A0 sin (0t + ) = A0 cos 0t + + ;


dt
2

d2s
= A0 cos (0t + ) = 02 s .
dt 2
m

T=

mv 2 mA202
=
sin 2 (0t + ) .
2
2

mA202
cos 2 (0t + ) .
2

E=

mA202
.
2

m&x& = kx

&x& + 02 x = 0 ,

k k = 0 m .

T = 2 m / k ,
m ; k .

T = 2 J / ( mgl ) = 2 L / g ,
J ; l ; L = J / (ml)
; g .

T = 2 l / g ,
l .
, L
,

T = 2 LC .
:

&& + 1 Q = 0; Q = Q cos ( t + ) ,
Q
m
0
LC
Qm ; 0 = 1 / LC .
,
,

A2 = A12 + A22 + 2 A1 A2 cos(2 1 ) ,


A1 A2 ; 1 2 .

tg =

A1 sin 1 + A2 sin 2
.
A1 cos 1 + A2 cos 2

T = 2 / .
, ,

x 2 2 xy
y2
+
cos

+
= sin 2 .
A2 AB
B2
; .
:

d 2s
ds
+ 2 + 02 s = 0 ;
2
dt
dt

s = A0e t cos (t + ) ,

s , ; ( = r / (2m) = R/(2L)
); 0 ; =
; A0e

02 2

A (t )
= eT ,
A (t + T )

A (t ) A (t + T ) , , .

T 1
A (t )
= T = = ,
A (t + T )
N

= ln

= 1 / ; N , .

0
.
=
2

Q=

d 2s
ds
+ 2 + 02 s = x0 cos t ; s = A cos ( t ) ,
dt
dt 2
s , ( x0 = F0 / m , x0 = U m / L );

A=

x0

02

) + 4
2

= arctg

2
.
2

02

= 02 2 2 ;

A =

x0
2 02 2

Z , R, L
, U = U m cos t ,
2

2
Z = R2 + L
= R 2 + ( RL RC ) ,

RL = L ; RC = 1 / (C) .

tg =

L 1 / ( C )
.
R

()

I = Im / 2 ; U = Um / 2 ,
, ,

P =

1
I mU m cos ,
2

cos =

1
R + L

4.2.
, :

= T ; = ,
( ).
, ,
( x, t ) = A cos (t kx + 0 ) ,

( x, t ) x t; ; () ;

k = 2 / = 2 / ( T ) = / ( ; ; ); 0 .

= 2

max = 2m ; min = ( 2m + 1) ,
2
2

m = 0, 1, 2, ... .
u ,

d
d
.
; u=
; u =
k
dk
d

2
x cos t = 2 A cos kx cos t .

( x, t ) = 2 A cos

x = m ; x = m + ,
2
2 2

m = 0, 1, 2, ... .

L = lg ( I / I 0 ) ,
I ; I0 (I0 = 1 /2).

= RT / M ,
R ; ; = p /V ;
.

( ) 0

, ; 0 , ; ;
; . ,
, .
4.3.

0 0

c = 1 / 0 0 ; 0 0 ;
.
() (H)

0 E = 0 H ,
.

E = E0 cos (t kx + ) ; H = H 0 cos (t kx + ) ,
0 0 ; ; k = / ;
= 0.

w=

0E 2 0H 2
+
.
2
2

S = [EH].
5. .

5.1.

i1 = i1 ; sin i1 / sin i2 = n21 ,


i1 ; i1 ; i2 ; n21 = n2 / n1
; n1 n2 .

sin i . = n2 / n1 = n21

( )

n2 n1 n2 n1
,
=
b a
R
R ; n1 n2 ; ,

, ; b . R > 0
, R < 0 .

1 2 1 1
= = + ,
f R a b
a b ; f ; R .

1
1 1 1
1
= ( N 1) +
= + ,
f
R 1 R2 a b

f : N = n / n1 ( n n1
); R1 R2 (R > 0 ; R < 0 ); a b
.

Ie = e / ,
e ; , .
, ,

0 = 4I ,
I .

R = /S ,
, ; S .

B = I / ( S cos ) ,

I ; S ; .

E = /S ,
, ; S .
R B , ,

R = B .
5.2.

= c/n ,
; n .

2
2
( L2 L1 ) = ,
0
0

L = sn (s ; ); = L2 L1 ; 0 .

= m 0 , m = 0 , 1, 2 , ... .

= ( 2m + 1)

0
, m = 0 , 1, 2 , ... .
2

x =

l
0 ,
d

d , l , ,
l >> d.
, ,
(n0 = 1),

2dn cos r

2dn cos r

= 2d n 2 sin 2 i 0 = m 0 ,
2
2
m = 0 , 1, 2 , ... ;

= 2d n 2 sin 2 i 0 = (2m + 1) 0 ,
2
2
2
m = 0 , 1, 2 , ... ,

d ; n ; i ; r . 0 / 2 : n > n0, , n < n0 .


( )

rm = (m 1 / 2) 0 R , m = 1, 2 , 3 , ... ,
m ; R .

rm* = m 0 R , m = 1, 2 , ... .

n = nc ,
nc ; n .
5.3.
m-

ab
m ,
a+b

rm =

m ; ; a b ,
.
, :

a sin = ( 2m + 1) , a sin = 2m , m = 1, 2, 3, ...,


2
2
a ; ; m ; .
, :

d sin = 2m ,
2

d sin = 2m

m = 0 , 1, 2 , ... ;

, m = 0 , 1, 2 , 3, ..., 0, N , 2 N , ... ,
N

d ; N .

d = 1/ N0 ,
N0 , .
( -)

2d sin = m, m = 1, 2 , 3 , ... ,
d ; .

D =

m
=
.
d cos

,
,

1,22 / D .
D ; .

R=

= mN ,

, ( + ) , ; m ; N .
5.4.

= A ( n 1) ,
n .

n= .
( )
&x& + 02 x =

eE0
cos t ,
m

0 , ; 0 ; ; .
, ,

n2 = 1 +

n0 i
0

e2 / m
,
02 i 2

0 ; n0 i 0 i; m ; .
( )

I = I 0 e x ,
I0 I ;

= 0

1 2 / c 2
,
1 + ( / c ) cos

0 , ;
; ; v ,
, .
( = / 2 )

= 0 1 2 / c 2 .
-

cos = c / ( n) ,
; n .
5.5.

P=

I max I min
,
I max + I min

Imax Imin , .

I = I 0 cos 2 ,
I , ; I0 , ; .

tg iB = n21 ,
iB , ; n21 .
l

= l (no ne ) = klE 2 ,
no, ne , ; ; k .

= (no ne ) d = (m + 1 / 4) 0 , m = 0 , 1, 2 , ... ,
, ; 0 .
:

= d ;

= []Cd ,
d , ; 0 [] ;
.
5.6.
-

Re = T 4 ,
Re () ; -; .
Re r ,T (r ,T )

Re = r ,T d = r , T d .

RTc = AT T 4 ,
AT .

max = b / T ,
max , ; b .

(r ,T ) = CT 5 ,
= 1,30 105 /(3 5).
-

r ,T =

2 2
kT ,
c2

k .

0 = h = hc / .

r ,T =
r ,T =

h
2 2
,
c 2 e h / ( kT ) 1
h
2c 2 h
.
5
hc / ( kT )
e
1

Tp = 4 A T ,
.

= h = A + Tmax ,
2

= h , ; ; Tmax = mmax / 2
.

0 = A / h ; 0 = hc / A ,
0 (0 ), .

m =

h
=
;
c2 c2

p =

h
,
c

h .

p=

Ee
(1 + ) = w (1 + ) ,
c

Ee = Nh ( , ); ; w
.

h
2h
(1 cos ) =
sin 2 = 2C sin 2 ,
m0c
m0c
2
2
; m0 ; ; C = h / ( m0 c ) .
= =

6. ,

6.1.
, ,

1
1
= R 2 2 ,
m
n
; R ; m (m = 1, 2, 3, ...); n
(n = m +1, m + 2, ...): = 1 ( ), m = 2 ( ), m = 3 ( ), m = 4 ( ), m = 5 (
), = 6 ( ).
( )
me rn = nh , n = 1, 2 , 3 , ... ,
me ; n- rn.
( )

h = E n E m ,
En Em ().
n-

En =

1 Z 2 me e 4
, n = 1, 2 , 3 , ... ,
n 2 8h 2 02

Z ; 0 .
6.2.
p

= h / p = h / (m) ,
m ; .

= / k = E / p = c 2 / ,
E = h ( ); p = hk ( k = 2 / ).

u=

d dE
=
.
dk dp

xp x h ,
yp y h ,
zp z h ,
x, y , z ; p x , p y , p z ;

Et h ,
E ; t .
dV
2

dW = dV =

dV ,

= ( x , y , z , t ) , ; * , ; ||2 = *
;

dW = dV =

dV ,

= ( x , y , z ) () .

dV = 1,

, .. x , y , z +.
x1 2

W=

x2

( x )

dx .

x1

L, , , ,

L =

dV .

= ( x , y , z , t ) , ; h = h /(2) ; ;

2 2 2
= 2 + 2 + 2 ; i = 1 ; U = U ( x , y , z , t ) , .
x
y
z

2m
(E U ) = 0 ,
h2

U (r ) ( x , y , z , t ) = ( x , y , z ) e

i ( E / h )t

) ; U = U ( x , y , z) ;

; p x = kh ; E = h .
n , n- ,

En = n 2

2h 2
, n = 1, 2 , 3 , ... ,
2ml 2

l .
, ,

n ( x) =

n
2
sin
x, n = 1, 2 , 3 , ... .
l
l

D l,

2
D = D0 exp
2m(U E )l ,
h

D0 , ; U ; .

2 2m
m02 x 2
= 0 ,
+ 2 E
2
2
x
h
2 2

m0 x / 2 = U ; 0 ; m .

1
En = n + h0 , n = 1, 2 , 3 , ... .
2

E0 =

1
h0 .
2

6.3.

U (r )

U (r ) =

Ze 2
,
40 r

r ; Z ; 0 .
n

En =

1 Z 2 me 4
, n = 1, 2 , 3 , ... .
n 2 8h 2 02

Ei = E1 =

me 4
.
8h 202

( )

Ll = h l (l + 1) ,
l , n : l = 0 , 1, ... , n 1 ( n ).
z

Llz = hml ,
ml , l : ml = 0 , 1, ... , l ( (2l + 1) ).

l = 1 ml = 0 , 1 .
, ls- ( ) ,

100 ( r ) =
2

a = 40h / me

e r / a ,

) , .

, ls-, r r + dr

dW = 100

dV = 100

4r 2dr .

( )

Ls = h s ( s + 1) ,
s (s = 1/2).
z

Lsz = hms ,
ms (s = 1/2).

Z ( n, l , ml , ms ) = 0 1 ,
Z ( n, l , ml , ms ) , , : n , l , ml , s .
Z(n), , n,
n 1

Z ( n ) = 2( 2l + 1) = 2n 2 .
l =0

min = ch / (eU ) ,

; U , .
, ,

1
1
2
= R ( Z ) 2 2 ,
m
n
R , Z ; ; m
( = 1, 2, 3, ...); n (n = m + 1, + 2, ...).
K ( = 1)

1 1
= R ( Z 1)2 2 2 .
1 2
6.4.
- -

1
,
e( Ei ) / ( kT ) + 1
Ei ; k ; T
Ni =

N i

; . e

N i = Ae

Ei / ( kT )

/ ( kT )

, A = e

1
e( Ei ) / ( kT ) 1

( Ei ) / ( kT )

Ni =

>> 1 -

N (E ) =

1
,
e( E EF ) / ( kT ) + 1

EF .
= 0

1 E < FF ,
N (E ) =
0 E > FF .
( T << TD)

TD = hD / k ,
, ,

=
n ; lF

ne 2 lF
,
m uF

, ; uF

.
6.5.

ne = C1 e ( E2 EF ) / ( kT )

n p = C2 e ( E1 EF ) / ( kT ) ,

2 , ; E1 , ; EF ; ; C1 2 , (
1 = 2).

EF = E / 2 .
.

= 0 e E / ( 2 kT ) ,
0 , .

7.

7.1.

R = R0 A1 / 3 ,
R0 = 1,4 10

15

; ( ).

E = [Zm p + ( A Z ) mn m ] 2 =
= [Zm + ( A Z ) mn m] 2 ,

m p , mn , m , ; Z ( ); ; mH = m p + me ,

(11 H ) ; m .

m = [Zm p + ( A Z )mn ] m = [Zm + ( A Z )mn ] m .

( , )

E = E / A .
, t t + dt,

dN = Ndt ,
N t; .

N = N 0 e t ,
N t; N0 ( t = 0);
.
, t,

N = N 0 N = N 0 (1 e t ) .

1/2

T1/ 2 = (ln 2) / .

= 1/ .

A=

dN
= N .
dt

:
-
A
A 4
4
Z X Z 2Y + 2 He

A
A
0
Z X Z +1Y + 1e

A
A
0
Z X Z 1Y + +1e

+-

A
A
Z X + a Z Y + b

A
ZX

A
Z Y

A
ZX

(a , b ) AZY ,

Z Z' ', b -

( ) .

Q = c 2 [( m1 + m2 ) ( m3 + m4 )] ,
m1 m2 - ; (m3 + m4) . Q > 0
, Q < 0 .

Q = (T1 + T2 ) (T3 + T4 ) ,

T1, T2, T3, T4 -, , .

dN N ( k 1)
( k -1) t / T
, N = N 0e
,
=
dt
T
N0 ; N t; T ; k .



( )

9,81 /c2

6,67 1011 3/( 2)

NA

6,02 1023 1

96,48 103 /

8,31 /

Vm

22,4 103 3/

1,38 1023 /

3,00 108 /

5,67 108 /(2 4)

2,90 103

h
= h/2

6,63 1034
1,05 1034

1,10 107 1

0,529 1010

me

9,11 1031

mp

1,6726 1027

mn

1,6750 1027

6,6425 1027

...

1,660 1027

mp/me

1836,15

1,60 1019

e/me

1,76 1011 /

2,43 1012

Ei

2,18 1018 (13,6 )

0,927 1023 2

8,85 1012 /

12,566 107 /

T 1
LMT

L1MT 2

1 2

, ,

L2MT 2

2 2

L2MT 3

2 3

( )

TI

,
,

L2MT 3I 1

2 3 A1

L2M 1T 4I 2

2 1 4 A2

L2MT 3I 2

2 3 A2

L2M 1T 3I 2

2 1 3 A2

L2MT 2I 1

2 2 1

MT 2I 1

2 1

L2MT 2I 2

2 2 2

L2J

(
)

T 1

L2T 2

2 2

, ...

1 = 1010
1 ... = 1,661027
1 = 3,16107
1 = 86 400
1 = 103 3
1 / = 0,278 /
1 = 6,28
1 = 105
1 = 9,81
1 /2 = 0,1
1 /2 = 9,81
1 = 9,81104
1 = 1,01105
1 . = 133,3
1 = 107
1 = 9,81
1 = 1,61019
1 = 4,19
1 / = 107
1 / = 9,81
1 q = 3,331010
1 U = 300
1 = 1,111012
1 = 79,6 /

,
,
/3

6,95 108

1,99 1030

1,41

25,4

6,37 10

5,98 1024

5,52

1,00

1,74 10

7,35 10

3,30

27,3

6
6

22

: 1,49 1011 .
: 3,84 108 .

,
106

57,87

0,241

0,056

108,14

0,615

0,817

149,50

1,000

1,000

227,79

1,881

0,108

777,8

11,862

318,35

1426,1

29,458

95,22

2867,7

84,013

14,58

4494

164,79

17,26

/3

/3

3,5

0,88

2,7

1,00

19,1

1,26

1,6

0,90

()

7,8

0,80

19,3

13,6

8,65

1,26

8,9

0,79

0,916

8,9

10,2

0,97

8,9

7,4

21,5

0,20

11,3

10,5

4,5

19,0

2,3

7,0

1,1

0,72

(
)

/3

1,25

0,77

0,09

1,293

1,43

0,72

1,98

3,21

()

, G,

70
130
16
200
60

26
40
5,6
81
30


m,

,
1

0,34
0,34
0,44
0,29
0,25

0,10
0,30
0,015
0,60
0,05

0,014
0,007
0,022
0,006
0,025
0,49

,
,

, /( )
q, /

0,90
0,46
2,09
0,39
0,13
0,23

374
467

329
89
210

660
1535
0
1083
328
960

321
270
333
175
25
88

. .

, /( )

0,59

0,023

0,20

2,90

10
1500
16
12

, /



, /( )
q, /( )

73
66
470
24

4,18
2,42
0,14
2,42

2250

284
853

. :

(20 ), ,
q .

(4)
r (40)

1,67
1,67

141,5
16,2

--


d,

CP
(
=

CV
)

18,9
22,1

0,20
0,35

0,132

32

b,

10

2 (2)

1,41

168,4

8,4

0,27

0,024

27

N2 (28)

1,40

24,3

16,7

0,37

0,137

39

2 (32)
2 (44)

1,40
1,30

24,4
23,2

19,2
14,0

0,35
0,40

0,137
0,367

32
43

2 (18)

1,32

15,8

9,0

0,30

0,554

30

(29)

1,40

24,1

17,2

0,35

. , .

,
t, C

p,

t, C

p,

t, C

p,

400

1070

40

7 335

609

1145

50

12 302

656

10

1225

60

19 817

704

12

1396

70

31 122

757

14

1596

80

47 215

811

16

1809

90

69 958

870

20

2328

100

101 080

932

25

3165

150

486240

1025

30

4229

200

1 549 890

81

1,00058

2,3
7,5

7,8

26

2,0

6,0

2,0

6,0

3,5

2,7

( 20),

,
1

25

4,5

1010

50

4,8

1015

90

6,5

1013

20

4,0

1013

16

4,3

1014

190

4,2

1014

15

4,1

1017

1, 106

1, 106

0,013

0,38

7,5

1,9

9,0

14

10,3

23

12,6

176

12,6

360

15,1

3400

176

0,063

n
n

1,00030

1,50

2,42

1,00029

1,33

1,46

1,47

()

1,50

1,00027

1,63

.
, n .

ne

no

ne

no

687

1,484

1,653

1,550

1,541

656

1,485

1,655

1,551

1,542

589

1,486

1,658

1,553

1,544

527

1,489

1,664

1,556

1,547

486

1,491

1,668

1,559

1,550

431

1,495

1,676

1,564

1,554

400

1,498

1,683

1,568

1,558

, /

275

120,0

344

70,6

373

58,8

405

48,9

436

41,5

49

31,1

590

21,8

656

17,4

670

16,6

( = 589 )
V, . /

2,59

0,016

0,053

1,072

3,74

2,15

4,84

2,29

4,25 5,29

4,62

2,39 4,28

4,50

4,47

3,92

4,36

4,27

1,89

4,58

2,27

3,74

Ei,

Ei,

2,18 10

13,6

3,94 10

24,6

1,21 10

75,6

1,66 10

10,4

18
18
17
18

, 2/( )

1,27 10

1,81 104

5,4 104

7,4 104

1,4 104

1,9 104

K-

23
26
27
28
29
30
42

226,8
174,1
160,4
148,6
138,0
128,4
61,9

47
50
74
78
79
82
92

48,60
42,39
17,85
15,85
15,35
14,05
10,75


( , )

,
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90

/ , 2/

0,48
0,75
1,3
1,6
2

0,16
0,18
0,29
0,44
0,66
1,0
1,5
2,1
2,8

0,16
0,28
0,47
1
2,0
3,4
5,1
7,4
11

0,36
1,5
4,3
9,8
19
32
48
70
98

3,8
4,9
14
31
54
90
139

100
150
200
250

2,6
3,8
15
131
8,7
12
46
49
21
28
102
108
39
51
194
198

d, 108

, 1014 1

d, 108

, 1014 1

0,741

8,279

HF

0,917

7,796

N2

1,094

4,445

HCl

1,275

5,632

1,207

2,977

1,413

4,991

F2

1,282

2,147

HI

1,604

4,350

S2

1,889

1,367

1,128

4,088

Cl2

1,988

1,064

NO

1,150

3,590

r2

2,283

0,609

0,971

7,035

I2

2,666

0,404


60

5,2 () 222Rn

3,8 ()

90Sr

28 ()

226Ra

1620 ()

10

138 ()

238U

4,5 109 ()


,
...

0,00867

0,01143

0,00783

12

0,01410

13

0,00335

0,01605

13

0,00574

0,01603

14

0,00307

0,00260

15

0,00011

0,01513

15

0,00307

0,01601

16

0,00509

0,01693

17

0,00087

0,00531

19

7
8
9

Li
Li

10

11


,
...

10
11

0,00160

10

20

Ne

0,00756

11

23

Na

0,01023

0,01294

24

Na

0,00903

0,00930

24

Mg

0,01496

0,01219
0,01354

12

. ...,
.

1018
1015
1012
109

a
f
p
n

101
102
103
106

da
h
k
M

106
103
102
101

m
c
d

109
1012
1015
1018

G
T
P
E

, ,



..

...
1.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3. .
1.4. .
1.5. .
1.6.
1.7. ()
.
2.

2.1. -
..
2.2. .
2.3. ,
3. .
3.1. ...
3.2.
3.3. ,
..
3.4. ..
3.5. .
3.6. ..
3.7.
4. .
4.1. .
4.2.
4.3. ..
5. . .
5.1.
..
5.2. .
5.3. .
5.4.
.
5.5. ..
5.6. ...
6.
, .
6.1. ..
6.2. .
6.3.

6.4. ...
6.5. ...
7.
7.1. ..
..

3
13
28
29
29
29
31
32
35
39
41
44
47
47
52
55
59
59
66
69
70
75
77
79
80
80
85
87
89
89
91
93
95
97
99
102
102
103
107
110
112
113
113
116

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