Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 74

.. , .. , ..

2009

517(075)
K 22.161.6
699
.., .., .. : . . .: , 2009. 74 .
.
. ,
.
, , ,

.
: - . , . ..
-. .-. , . . .

ISBN 978-5-7473-0418-5

, 2009


1.
..................................................................................5
1.1. . ...........................................5
1.2.
. ......................................9
1.3. . 11
2. . ......14
2.1.
.....................................................14
2.2. ,
..........................17
2.3. . ...........................25
3. 28
3.1. . ...................28
3.2. ....30
3.3. ......................................................32
4. . ...............................................................34
4.1. ..................................................34
4.2. .
. ...................44
4.3. - . ......................46
4.4. -...............................47
4.5. -..............48
4.6. . ..................................................................................50
5.
.....................................................53
6. . .........58
7.
. ....................................................................................59
7.1. ........................................59
7.2. ........................................................63
8.
. .........................................................................67

8.1. . .......................................67
8.2. . .......................................................68
9. .
. .......................................................................70
...................................................................................73

1.

1.1. .
,
, , , , , , ,
().
. ,
,
.
?
,
. (), , (, (x, t)
x t).

.
ut = u t , u x = u x, u xx = 2u x 2 ,.
:
ut = u xx
,
ut = u xx + u yy
,
1
1
urr + ur + 2 u = 0 r
r
,
utt = u xx + u yy + u zz
,

utt = u xx + ut + u .
.
( ) . , , . ,
ut = u xx
u ( x, t ) x t;
1
1
ut = urr + ur + 2 u
r
r
u ( r , , t ) r , , t .

u
u
mu
F x1 , x2 ,, xn , u ,
,,
,, k1 k2
x1
xn
x1 x2 xnkn

= 0,

(1.1)

x1 , x2 ,, xn ,
u = u ( x1 , x2 ,, xn ) ( ).
k1 , k2 ,, kn , ,
k1 + k2 + + kn = m .
.
, , , . .
1. .
, . ,
ut = uxx
,
ut = ux
,
.
ut = uu xxx + sin x

2. .
. ,
ut = u xx

x t,
1
1
ut = urr + ur + 2 u
r
r
r, , t .
3. .
.

.
,

..
,
:
Au xx + Bu xy + Cu yy + Du x + Eu y + Fu = G ,
(1.1*)

. ,
utt = e t u xx + sin t
,
uu xx + ut = 0
,
u xx + yu yy = 0
,
xu x + yu y + u 2 = 0
.
4. . (1.1*) , G ( x, y ) ,

. G ( x, y ) ,
.
5.
.

A, B, C , D, E , F (1.1*) , ( ).
6. . (1.1*) : ) ,
) , ) .
7


(1.1) m. C m ( D ) , D
m .
.
(1.1) D

x1 , x2 ,, xn
u = u ( x1 , x2 ,, xn ) C m ( D ) ,
(1.1) x1 , x2 ,, xn D .
1.1. u = u ( x, y )
u
(1.2)
= 0.
x
(1.2) , u x , y ,
u = ( y) .
(1.3)
, (1.3) (1.2)
. (1.2).
1.2. u = u ( x, y )
2u
= 0.
xy

(1.4)

u
= v . (1.4)
y

v
= 0 .
x
u
= ( y ) . v = ,
y
u
= ( y ) . y ( x ),
y
u ( x, y ) = ( y ) dy + g ( x ) ,

g ( x ) . ( y ) ,

y; f ( y ) . (1.4)
u ( x, y ) = f ( y ) + g ( x ) ,
(1.5)
f ( y ) , g ( x ) ).
(1.5) 2-
(1.4) .
(1.4),
(1.4) (1.5)
f g .
, , . ,
, , .
1.3.
2
2
u u
+ =0
x y
u ( x, y ) = const ,
2

u u
+ +1 = 0
x y
.

.
, , , .. ,
, .
1.2.
.

, ,

, ; .
1.4.
2
2
2u
2 u
=
x
+ e x ;
2
2
x
y
u
u
2u u
2
y x + u = 0, u 2 +
= x 2 y x
y
x
y
.
2-
x, y

2u
2u
2u
+ C ( x, y ) 2 +
A ( x , y ) 2 + 2 B ( x, y )
x
xy
y
(1.6)
u
u
+ a ( x , y ) + b ( x , y ) + c ( x, y ) u = f ( x, y ) ,
x
y
A ( x, y ) , B ( x, y ) ,, c ( x, y ) , f ( x, y ) x, y , D xOy . f ( x, y ) 0 D , (1.6) ,
.
(1.6) L [u ] , (1.6)
L [ u ] = f ( x, y ) .
(1.7)
:
L [u ] = 0.

(1.8)

L ,
C 2 ( D ) u = u ( x, y ) .
L, ,

.

10

1. u ( x, y ) (1.8), cu ( x, y ) , c , (1.8).
2. u1 ( x, y ) u2 ( x, y )
(1.8), u1 ( x, y ) + u2 ( x, y )
.
. u1 ( x, y ) , u2 ( x, y ) ,,
uk ( x, y ) (1.8),
c1u1 ( x, y ) + c2u2 ( x, y ) + + ck uk ( x, y ) ,
c1 , c2 ,, ck ,
.


, ,
,
.
1.5.
u
=0
y
u = ( x) , ,
, 1, x, x 2 , , .
1.3.

u ( x, y ) , :
u ( x, y ) = v( , ) ,
(1.9)

11

, x, y :
= ( x, y ) , = ( x, y ) .
v( , ) , .
u ( x, y ) x y,
u u 2u 2u 2u
,
,
,
,
(1.6),
x y x 2 y 2 xy
v( , ) ,
.


u ( x, y ) v( ( x, y ), ( x, y )) .
(1.10)
, (1.10) x y,
u v v
x = x + x

.
(1.11)

u = v + v
y y y
.
(1.11) x, :
2u v v 2 v v 2
=
+
+
+
. (1.12)
x 2 x x x 2 x x x 2



x
(1.11):

=
+
.
(1.13)
x x x
(1.12), :

12

2u 2 v 2 v v 2
=
+
+
+

x 2 x 2 x x x 2
2 v 2 v v 2
+
+
+
=
2
2
x x x x
2

2
2 v
v
2
=
+
+
2
x x
x

(1.14)

2
2
2
v v v
.
+
+
+

2
x 2 x 2
x
2v
2v

.


, , (1.14) x y,

2
2u 2 v
2 v
=
+
+
2

y 2 y 2
y y
(1.15)
2
2 v v 2 v 2
+
+
+

2
y 2 y 2
y
2u

, xy
(1.13) (1.11),
2u 2 v 2 v
=
+
+
+

xy x y 2 y x t x
(1.16)
2 v v 2 v 2
+
+
+
.
t x 2 xt xt
(1.11) (1.14) (1.16) , v u.
u
1.6.
, u ( x, y ) = y, = x,

= x + y.
: y = x = ,

13

=
( ) = 1.

2.

2.1.

,
a ( x, y )u xx + 2b( x, y )u xy + c( x, y )u yy = ( x, y, u, u x , u y ),

(2.1)

a + b + c 0 , ..
, ( ):
, b 2 ac > 0;
, b 2 ac = 0;
, b 2 ac < 0.
a ( x, y )(dy ) 2 2b( x, y )dxdy + c( x, y )(dx) 2 = 0 , (2.1), . (dx) 2 dy

,
dx
b b 2 ac
dy
=

a
dx 1,2

ady (b + b 2 ac )dx = 0,
(2.2)
ady (b b 2 ac )dx = 0.
(2.3)
2
: b ac > 0.
( x, y ) = c1, ( x, y ) = c2
(2.2) (2.3) .
(2.1). = ( x, y ), = ( x, y ) (2.1) :
u = 1 ( , , u , u , u ).
14

: b 2 ac = 0.
(2.2) (2.3) .
( x, y ) = c (2.2) (2.1).
= ( x, y ), = ( x, y ) , ( x, y )
, , (2.1) :
u = 1 ( , , u , u , u ).
: b 2 ac < 0.
( x, y ) + i ( x, y ) = c (2.2),
( x, y ) ( x, y ) .
= ( x, y ), = ( x, y ) (2.1)

u + u = 1 ( , , u , u , u ).
2.1. u xx + 5u xy + 4u yy = 0 .

b 2 ac = 6,25 4 > 0 , ,
dy (2,5 + 6, 25 4)dx = 0
.

dy (2,5 6, 25 4)dx = 0
, :
y = 4x + c
dy 4dx = 0
dy = 4dx

y = x+c
dy dx = 0
dy = dx
y 4 x = c y x = c
. :
= y 4 x,
= y x,

u x = 4u u , u y = u + u ,
u xx = 16u + 4u + 4u + u ,

15

u xy = 4u 4u 4u u ,
u yy = u + 2u + u ,
, , :
9u = 0 u = 0
2.2. u xx 6u xy + 13u yy = 0 .

b 2 ac = 9 13 = 4 < 0 , . :
(dy ) 2 6dxdy + 13( dx) 2 = 0
(2.4)
dy (3 + 2i )dx = 0

dy (3 2i )dx = 0.
(2.4)
dy = (3 + 2i )dx
y = 3 x + 2ix + c
y + 3x 2ix = c.
:
= y + 3x
= 2 x
:
u x = 3u 2u , u y = u
u xx = 9u 12u + 4u
u xy = 3u 2u
u yy = u .
, ,
:
27u + 17u = 0.
2.3. y 2U xx 2 xyU xy + x 2U yy = 0 .

b 2 ac = ( xy ) x 2 y 2 = 0 x, y, . 2

16

y 2 dy + xydx = 0 . , ,
y = 0 ydy + xdx = 0 .
ydy = xdx,
y2
x2
= + c.
2
2
y 2 x2

+
= c , 2
2
, y 2 + x 2 = C .
= y 2 + x 2
, = y + x

= y + x
, ,
( x, y ) ( , ) ,
U xx = 4 x 2U + 4 xU + U ,
U xy = 4 xyU + 2 xU + 2 yU + U ,
U yy = 4 y 2U + 4 yU + U .
, :

(x

+ y 2 ) U = 0 U = 0.

2.2.
,

, , . , .
.
,
:
1. (, L = 2 )
2 ., ,
17

, .
. .
2.
T0 ( C )
. ,
.
T0 = 100 C .
3.
, t = 0 , .
T1 T2 (, , T1 = 00 C , T2 = 500 C ).

, , T1 T2 ,
()
.
4.
( )
.
,
.
.
.
1. ,
.
2. ,
.
3. ,
.
.
:
ut = 2u xx , 0 < x < L, 0 < t < .
(2.5)

18

: ut ( /) u xx u ( x, t ) (
).
(2.5)
.
, u ( x, t ) (
t x ) ( ut > 0 )
( ut < 0 ) ,
u xx . . 2.1.
, u xx
. , u xx

. 2.1.
ut = 2u xx

19

1
u ( x + x, t ) 2u ( x, t ) + u ( x x, t ) .
x2

2 u ( x + x, t ) + u ( x x, t )
u ( x, t ) .
u xx ( x, t )
2
2
x

u xx ( x, t ) =

u xx :
1. u ( x, t )
, u xx > 0 (
x );
2. u ( x, t )
, u xx = 0 (
);
3. u ( x, t )
, u xx < 0 (
).
, x ,
x x
x + x , x . , ,
ut , .
2 .
(). . ,

.
. x = 0 x = L e
T1
T2 ,
u ( 0, t ) = T1 ,
(2.6)

u ( L, t ) = T2 .

20

().

( t = 0 ),
. ,
T0 ,
(2.7)
() u ( x,0 ) = T0 , 0 x L.

. (2.5), (2.6), (2.7)

:
() ut = 2u xx , 0 < x < L, 0 < t < .
u ( 0, t ) = T1 ,
(2.8)
()
u ( L, t ) = T2 .

() u ( x,0 ) = T0 , 0 x L.
, :
u ( x, t ) , (2.8),
?
.
ut = 2u xx + f ( x, t )
, (
t). , , .
.
e . , .
( ). ,

21

e 2.2, ,
g1 ( t ) g 2 ( t ) .

. 2.2

, ,
.

. ,
, ..
g1 ( t ) g 2 ( t ) , . ,
,
.
( ). ,
,
.
. g1 ( t ) g 2 ( t ) .
, ,
g1 ( t ) . e
g 2 ( t ) ( 2.3).

22

2.3. K :
g1 ( t ) ;
g2 (t )

, , . :
,
, , .
x = 0 x = L , :
x = 0
h u ( 0, t ) g1 ( t ) ,
x = L
h u ( L, t ) g 2 ( t ) ,
(2.9)
h , ,

.
, . ,
,
. (2.9) .
( (2.9)) .
,
. ( ):

23

, ,

.
u
k .
(2.10)
n
, D ( 2.4),
D.
:
u
x = 0 k
(2.11).
x
u
x = L k ,
x
k , , .
,
, ,
.
2.9 2.11 , ,
e 2.4, :
u ( 0, t ) h
= u ( 0, t ) g1 ( t ) ,

k
x

u ( L, t ) = h u ( L, t ) g ( t ) .
2

x
k

0 < t < ,

h

k

u x ( 0, t ) = u ( 0, t ) g1 ( t ) ,

u x ( L, t ) = u ( L, t ) g 2 ( t ) .

24

2.4. :

u
> 0 ,
n

u
< 0 , ; n
n
u
;
n
u
u
n ;
=
n
( n )

2.3.

L,
:
1 .

. 2.5

25

2 (
).

3 , , .

[ x, x + x ]
,
:
[ x, x + x ] =
= ,
(2.12)
+
+ ,
[ x, x + x ] .
, , ( x +x

[ x, x + x ] =

c Au ( s, t )ds , ( c

( ), , A ), (2.12) :
x + x
x + x
d
c Au ( s, t ) ds = c A ut ( s, t ) ds =
dt x
x
(2.13)
x + x
= kA u x ( x + x, t ) u x ( x, t ) + A

f ( s, t ) ds,
x

k (
), f ( x, t )
(/.).
, (2.13)
, .
.
26

. f ( x ) [ a, b ] , , ,
[ a, b ] ,
b

f ( x ) dx = f ( )( b a ).
a


(2.13) :
c Aut ( , t ) x = kA u x ( x + x, t ) u x ( x, t ) + Af ( , t ) x,
x < < x+ x

k u x ( x + x, t ) u x ( x, t ) 1
ut ( , t ) =
f ( , t ) .

+
c
x
c
, x 0 ,
ut ( x, t ) = 2u xx ( x, t ) + F ( x, t ) ,
(2.14)
k
,
2 =
c
1
F ( x, t ) =
f ( x, t ) .
c
,
. ,
u ( x, t )
, .
ut = 2u xx ( x, t ) u + F ( x, t ) ,
(2.15)

.

27

3.

3.1. .


2
2u
2 u
(3.1)
=
a
.
t 2
x 2
u ( x, t )
t . t u = u ( x, t ) e t.
e ,
= x at , = x + at.
(3.2)

, (3.1)
1
2u
= 0.


u
= 0,

u
= ( ) , ( ) .

, (
) e,
u = ( ) + 2 ( ) ,

2 ( ) . ,

( ) = ( ) ,
1

u = 1 ( ) + 2 ( ) .

x, t,
1

(3.1),
.

28

u ( x, t ) = 1 ( x ab ) + 2 ( x + at ) .

(3.3)

,
u ( x, t ) , (3.3), 1 2
, (3.1). ( ) (3.1):
(3.1)
(3.3) 1 2 . , (3.3) (3.1).

u = 1 ( x at )
(3.4)
. t = 0 u = 1 ( x ) (.3.1).
, t = 0
x = c 0x,
dx
a.
= a , ,
dt
x ( 0 ) = c , x c = at x at = c . , u = 1 ( x at ) = 1 ( c ) = const t 0 .
, u ,
(3.4), e
1 ( c ) .
, (3.4) ,

x a. 1 ( ) sin ,
.

29

u = 1 ( x )

1 ( )

.3.1

3.2.

u = 2 ( x + at ) , a x.
, (3.3)
.
t:
u = 1 ( x ) u = 2 ( x ) ,
t = 0 , ,
,
at > 0 , u = 1 ( x ) , u = 2 ( x )
. ,
.
: u ( x, t ) 2 ,

30

2
2u
2 u
=
a
, t > 0, - < x < +,
t 2
x 2

u
= 1 ( x ) ,
< x < +
u t =0 = 0 ( x ) ,
t t =0

0 ( x ) C 2 ( R1 ) , 1 ( x ) C1 ( R1 ) . t = 0

0 ( x ) , 1 ( x )
u
e
.
t
, ; e
u ( x, t ) = 1 ( x at ) + 2 ( x + at ) .
(3.5)
1 2 (3.5) :
u ( x,0 ) = 1 ( x ) + 2 ( x ) = 0 ( x ) ,
(3.6)
ut ( x,0 ) = a 1' ( x ) 2' ( x ) = 1 ( x ) .

(3.7)

(3.7),

1 ( x ) 2 ( x ) =

1
1 ( s ) ds + C ,
a 0

.

1 ( x ) + 2 ( x ) = 0 ( x ) ,

x
1

x
x

1 ( s ) ds + C
1( ) 2 ( )
a 0

x
1
1
C
1 ( x ) = 0 ( x ) 1 ( s ) ds + ,
2
2a 0
2
x

1
1
C
2 ( x ) = 0 ( x ) + 1 ( ) d .
2
2a 0
2
31

1 2 (3.5),

1
1
u ( x, t ) = 0 ( x at )
2
2a

x at

x + at

1
1
( ) d + 2 ( x + at ) + 2a ( ) d ,z
1

:
u ( x, t ) =

0 ( x at ) + 0 ( x + at )
2

x + at

1
1 ( ) d .
2a xat

(3.8)

3.3.

(3.8) , u ( x, t )
t
( x, t ) P ( x, t )
0 1

p = [ x at , x + at ]
p
x.
p x

x at
x+ at


. 3.2
(.3.2).
0 , , 1
p .
, u ( P )
p .

32

3.1.

utt = a 2u xx ,

sin x

,
u ( x,0 ) =
x

ut ( x,0 ) = 1 + x 2 .
:
u ( x, t ) = f ( x at ) + g ( x + at ) .

(3.9)

(3.9) :
sin x

f ( x ) + g ( x ) = x ,

af ' ( x ) + ag ' ( x ) = x ,
1 + x2

S 0 x :
x
S
af ( x) + ag ( x) =
dS + c
1+ S2
0
x

1
S
c
(3.10)
dS +
2

a 0 1+ S
a
(3.10) :
x
1
S
c sin x
g ( x) =
dS +
+
,
2

2a 0 1 + S
2a
x
(3.10)
x
1 sin x 1
S
c
f ( x) =

dS .
2

2 x
2a 0 1 + S
2a

x + at
1 sin( x at ) sin( x + at ) 1
S
+

u ( x, t ) =
dS .

2 x at
x + at 2a xat 1 + S 2
f ( x) + g ( x) =

33

4.

4.1.

, :
1. ( ).
2.
u x ( 0, t ) + u ( 0, t ) = 0,

u x (1, t ) + u (1, t ) = 0,

, , ( ,
, ). ( ) , -, ( ,
).

. 4.1.
. ( ,
)

.
:
() ut = 2u xx , 0 < x < 1, 0 < t < ,

u ( 0, t ) = 0,
()
0 < t < ,
u (1, t ) = 0,

34

() u ( x,0 ) = ( x ) , 0 x 1.
,
. ,
,
, (
, ).
.
u ( x, t ) .
.


u ( x, t ) = X ( x ) T ( t ) ,
X ( x ) , x, T ( t )
t. -
, u ( x, t ) , , t (. . 4.2).

.4.2 X ( x ) T ( t ) t

,
( ).
un ( x, t ) = X n ( x ) Tn ( t ) (
) ,
.
u ( x, t ) -

35

X n ( x ) Tn ( t ) ,

A X ( x )T ( t ) .
n

n =1

,
.
.
.
1.
.
u ( x, t ) , :
ut = 2u xx , 0 < x < 1,
u ( 0, t ) = 0,
0 < t < ,

u ( l , t ) = 0,
u ( x,0 ) = ( x ) , 0 x 1.
,
u ( x, t ) = X ( x ) T ( t ) . X ( x ) T ( t )
.
X ( x ) T ( t ) = 2 X ( x ) T ( t ) . , : 2 X ( x ) T ( t ) ,
T (t )
X ( x )
.
=
2
T (t ) X ( x )
, , .. t,
x, x t ,
. k,
T (t )
X ( x )
=
= k.
2
T (t ) X ( x )

36

T ( t ) k 2T ( t ) = 0,

X ( x ) kX ( x ) = 0.

. . (,
,
.)
: k .
X kX = 0 X ( 0 ) = X ( l ) = 0
X ( x ) 0 , T ( t )
t . , k = 2 ,
( 2 ).
T ( t ) + 2 2T ( t ) = 0,

X ( x ) + 2 X ( x ) = 0.
. .
T ( t ) = Ae t ,
X ( x ) = A sin ( x ) + B cos ( x ) .
,
2 2
u ( x, t ) = e t A sin ( x ) + B cos ( x ) ,
, ,
ut = 2u xx .
, , .
2

37

2. , .
, .
2 2
e t A sin ( x ) + B cos ( x ) ,
(4.1)

u ( 0, t ) = 0,
0 < t < .

u ( l , t ) = 0,
(4.1) .
u ( 0, t ) = Be t = 0 B = 0,

2 2t
sin ( ) = 0 sin = 0.
u ( l , t ) = Ae

:
sin = 0 . , ,
u (1, t ) = 0 , ,
= , 2 ,

n = n, n = 1,2,
,
, A = 0 ,
(4.1) , .. .
,
2
n t
un ( x, t ) = An e ( ) sin ( n x ) ,
(4.2)
.
, .
. 2

38

. . 4.3 .

. 4.3
u 4 ( x, t ) = A 4 e

( 4 ) t

sin ( 4 x )

3. , , .
,
,

u ( x, t ) = An e
n =1

( n ) t

sin ( n x ) ,

, , , . 39

An ,

u ( x,0 ) = ( x ) .

( x ) = An sin ( n x ) .

(4.3)

n =1

:
( x ) , , , ,

A1 sin( x) + A2 sin(2 x) + A3 sin(3 x) + ...?

. , .
: An ?
.
{sin ( n x ) ; n = 1, 2,},
. { X n } , (. [6])
l

: X k , X n = X k ( x) X n ( x)dx = 0 ,
0

k n , X n , X n = X n ( x) X n ( x)dx = X n ,
0

i (. [6]).

1
0, m n
0 sin ( m x ) sin ( n x ) dx = 1 2, m = n .
.4.4
.
40

. 4.4.

, Ai :

( x ) = A1 sin( x) + A2 sin(2 x) + A3 sin(3 x) + ...

sin ( m x ) , m , x .
1
1
Am
2

x
sin
m

x
dx
=
A
..
(
)
(
)
m sin ( m x ) dx =
0
2
0
,
{sin ( n x ) ; n = 1, 2,} . Am ,
1

Am = 2 ( x ) sin ( m x ) dx .
0

(4.3), ,

u ( x, t ) = An e
n =1

( n ) t

sin ( n x ) ,

(4.4)

An
1

An = 2 ( x ) sin ( nx ) dx.
0

41

,
. 3.
, . , , .
, ..
1 u x ( 0, t ) + 1 u ( 0, t ) = 0,
(4.5)
2 u x ( l , t ) + 2 u ( l , t ) = 0.
,
ut = 2u xx , 0 < x < l , 0 < t <
1 u x ( 0, t ) + 1 u ( 0, t ) = g1 ( t ) ,
( ), (4.6)

2 u x ( l , t ) + 2 u ( l , t ) = g 2 ( t ) .
u ( x,0 ) = ( x ) , 0 x l.

.
.
. ,
k1 k2 , ..

ut = 2u xx , 0 < x < l ,
u ( 0, t ) = k1 ,
0 < t < ,

u ( l , t ) = k2 ,

(4.7)

u ( x,0 ) = ( x ) , 0 x l.

, ,
,

42

. , t , ( x) k1 k2 (. 4.5). , ,
:
x

u ( x, t ) = k1 + ( k2 k1 ) + U ( x, t ) (l

) + ( ,
).
U ( x, t ) .
x

u ( x, t ) = k1 + ( k2 k1 ) + U ( x, t )
l

(4.7),
U ( x, t ) . -

U ( x, t )

,
u ( x, t ) . (4.7),

U t = 2U xx , 0 < x < l ,
U ( 0, t ) = 0,
(4.8)
0 < t < ,

U
l
,
t
0,
=
(
)

U ( x,0 ) = ( x ) k1 + ( k2 k1 ) = ( x ) ,
l

( x ) , .

, -

43

, e .

. 4.5. (4.7) :
u ( x,0 ) = ( x ) ;
x
u ( x, ) = k1 + ( k2 k1 ) ;
l

4.2.
. .


.
, , , , [6].


u
2 u ( x, t )
= a2
+ f ( x, t ),
(4.9)
t
x 2
u ( x, t ) x
t > 0.

44

,
(4.9),

u ( x,0) = ( x), 0 < x < l


(4.10)
. ,
, :
u (0, t ) = 0, u (l , t ) = 0, t > 0.
(4.11)
(4.9) (4.11)
. :
du
2
= a Au (t ) + f (t ), t > 0,
(4.12)
dt
u (0) = .
d2
A = 2 ; f (t ) f ( x, t ) ; u (t ) u ( x, t ) ; = ( x) .
dx
(4.11) , u (t ) Co2 [ 0, l ] t > 0 ,
Co2 [ 0, l ] {u ( x) C 2 [ 0, l ] : u (0) = u (l ) = 0}.

(4.13)

C [ 0, l ] ,
[ 0,l ]
.
d2

,
dx 2
D( A) = Co2 [ 0, l ] .
, f 0
(4.12)
, T (t ) X ( x) .
n
n ,
(4.12) ( f 0 ):
du (t )
= Au (t ), u (t ) = (u1 (t ),..., un (t )) n , t > 0,

(4.14)
dt
u (0) = = ( ,..., ) n ,
1
n

2
o

n n .
45

e1 ,..., en :
(4.15)
Aek = k ek , k = 1,..., n .
u (t )

n

u (t ) = Tk (t )ek , = k ek .

(4.16)

(4.14),
n
n
n
n
dTk (t )
=

=
k ek , (4.17)
e
T
(
t
)
e
,
T
(0)
e

k
k k
k
k
k
dt
k =1
k =1
k =1
k =1

dTk (t )
= k Tk (t ), t > 0, Tk (0) = k .
(4.17)
dt
Tk (t ) = k ek t , ,
n

u (t ) = k ek t ek .

(4.18)

k =1

(4.15) (4.18)
d2
A = 2 .
dx
4.3. -

- : D( A) = C02 [ 0, l ]
X 1 ( x),..., X k ( x),... :
AX k = k X k ;
(4.19)

X k D( A), X k 0.
(4.19) ,
X k( x) = k X k ( x), 0 < x < l ,
(4.20)

X k (0) = X k (l ) = 0, X k ( x) 0.
4.1. ,
X 1 ,..., X k ,... (4.12) f ( x, t ) 0 , (4.18):

46

u ( x, t ) = e a k t k X k ( x),
2

(4.21)

k =1

k { X k } .
, (4.21) (4.19)
(4.12). () (4.12). (4.21) (4.12),
t
x, .. .

l

u, v = u ( x)v( x)dx u , v L2 [ 0, l ] .
0

4.4. -

(4.12)
x
x
X k ( x) = Ak e k + Bk e k .
(4.22)
(4.20),
Ak + Bk = 0
(4.23)

l
l
Ak e k + Bk e k = 0.
,
Ak = Bk = 0 X k ( x) 0 , (4.20). , k
1
1
l
l
= e k e k = 0.
(4.24)
k l
k l
e
e

l
l
2 l
e k = e k e k = 1.
(4.25)
2 k l = 2k i , k Z
2

k i
k
k =
k =
(4.26)
.
l
l
k 0 . , k 0 .

47

, k .
X k ( x) = 0 . ,
(4.23) . , :
Bk = Ak . (4.22) , (4.26),
k i
k i
x
x
k x
X k ( x) = Ak (e l e l ) = Ak 2i sin
.
(4.27)
l
.
ei e i = 2i sin .
X k ( x)
,
k x
X k ( x) = sin
, k = 1,2, ;
(4.28)
l
k > 0, k = 0
X0 ( x) 0.
4.5.
-

1. X k ( x ) L2 ( 0, l ) ( ).
2. :
l

X k , X n = X k ( x) X n ( x)dx = 0 k n .
0

(4.29)

3. : k ~ k2 k . .

lim
k

48

k 2

> 0, X k ( x )

. 4.6

A =

d2
[0, l]
dx 2

:
X k ( 0 ) = 0, X k ( l ) = 0;
(4.30)
X k ( 0 ) = 0, X k ( l ) = 0;
(4.31)
X k ( 0 ) = 0, X k ( l ) = 0.
(4.32)
(4.30):
2
1
1

(
)
(k + ) x
+
k

2
2
k =
, X k ( x) = sin
, k = 0, 1, 2,.
l
l

. . 4.6.

. 4.7

(4.31):

49


1
k + 2

k =
l

1
k + 2 x
, k = 0, 1, 2,.
X k ( x) = cos
l

. . 4.7

.4.7

(4.32):
2
k x
k
, k = 0, 1, 2,. . . 4.8.
k = , X k ( x) = cos
l

. 4.8

4.6.
-

k x
, k = 1, 2, l
L2(0,l), . -

sin

50

L2(0,l) , ,
( x) L2 (0,1) :

( x) = k X k ( x) .

(4.33)

k =1

k , (4.29): (4.33) X k ( x ) 0 l.
l

k =1

2
( x) X n ( x)dx = k X k ( x) X n ( x)dx = n X n ( x)dx ,

(4.34)

(4.34) k n
! (4.33) , (4.33) L2(0,l),
L2(0,l)
.
, (4.34) :
l

n =

( x) X

( x)dx

2
n

( x)dx

2
( x) X n ( x)dx .
l 0

(4.35)

4.1. ( x) ,
: 1) (4.33) [ 0,l ] ;
2) (4.33) .
:
1) ( ),

< .

(4. 36)

k =1

, :
( x) C1 [ 0, l ] ; (0) = (l ) = 0.

(4.37)

2) (4.33) , ( x) . ,
, ,

51

k < .

(4.38)

k =1

(4.37),
( x) C 3 [ 0, l ] , (0) = (l ) = 0 .
k x
4.2. sin
, k = 1, 2,
l
:
1) ( x) 1 , 0<x<l.
:
l
k x
cos
l
2
2
2
2
k x
l
1 (1) k .
=
cos k + 1] =
k = sin
dx =
[
k
l 0
l
l
k
k
l
0
, (4.36) .
, ( x) 1 (. 4.9)

. 4.9

2) ( x) x , 0<x<l.
:
, :
kx
( cos
)
l
l
2
2
k x
l dx = 2 l (1) k .
dx = x
k = x sin
k
l 0
l
l 0
k
l

52

1
- , (l ) 0 (. . 4.10)
k

. 4.10

5.

, (4.9) (4.11). ,
(,t) 0.
u
2u
= a 2 2 , u (0, t ) = u (l , t ) = 0 , t>0,
(5.1)
t
x
u ( x,0) = ( x) , 0 < x < l.
(5.2)
(,t) 0 , 6.
(5.1), (5.2)

k x
u ( x, t ) = Tk (t ) X k ( x) ; X k ( x) = sin
.
(5.3)
l
k =1
u(,t),
u(,t) L2(0,l) t. k x
sin

l
k x
L2(0,l). sin
l

, (5.1). ,
(5.3) ,
k x
(5.1).
sin
l
53

u(,t)
k x
k(t) ( sin
l
); k(t)
(5.3) (5.1) (5.2).
5.1. (5.1) u(,t) (5.3)
, (5.3). (5.3) ( ).
1. .
. (5.3) (5.1): t > 0

k 2 k x
k x
2

1 Tk (t )sin l = a 1 Tk (t ) l sin l , 0<x<l. (5.4)

t
2
.
x 2
.
.
, (5.4)
2
2
k x
k x
k
sin
=
(5.5)
sin
2
x
l
l
l
- (4.19)
(4.20). , -
,
- (4.22). , (5.4) k x
L2 (0,l), sin

:
2
2
ak

2 k
Tk(t ) = a
Tk (t ) =
Tk (t ) , t > 0, k = 1, 2, (5.6)
l
l

54


.
2
ak
k =
(5.7)
.
l

2

Tk (t ) = Ck e
(5.3),

ak

t
l

(5.8)

ak

t
l

k x
.
(5.9)
l
k =1
. k (5.9) (5.2). , (5.3) (5.2),
:

k x
Tk (0)sin
= ( x) , 0 < x < l.
(5.10)

l
k =1
, Tk(0)
k x
(x) sin
(. (4.28)):
l
l
2
k x
(5.11)
Tk (0) = k ( x)sin
dx.
l 0
l
(5.8)
k = k
(5.12)
, (5.9)

u ( x , t ) = Ck e

sin

ak

t
l

k x
(5.13)
l
k =1
5.1.
u
2u
9
( x, t ), 0 < x < 5, t > 0,
=
t
x 2

u (0, t ) = u (5, t ) = 0
u ( x,0) = 1

u ( x, t ) = k e

sin

55

. (5.13):

u ( x, t ) = k e
k =1

3 k

t
5

sin

k x
,
5

k (5.11):
5
2
k x
2
1 (1) k .
k = sin
dx =
50
5
k
5.2.
ut ( x, t ) = 4u xx ( x, t ), 0 < x < 3, t > 0,

(5.14)
u (0, t ) = 0, u x (3, t ) = 0,
u ( x,0) = x.

.
- (. . 4.6)
1

k + x

2
.
(5.15)
u ( x, t ) = Tk (t )sin
3
k =0
(5.14),
1
1
1

k + x
k +
k + x

2
2
2

) 2T (t )sin
.
= 4 (
Tk(t )sin

k
3
3
3
k =0
k =0
(5.16)
k = 0, 1, 2, .
2

2 k + 2

1
t

k

2
+
3

Tk (t ) Tk (t ) = Ck e
. (5.17)
Tk(t ) =
3

(5.15) (5.14),
1

k + x

2
Tk (0)sin
= x.

3
k =0

56

3
k + x
2
2
, Tk (0) = x sin
dx
30
3
3

1
1

k + x
k + x
2
2

cos
3 cos
2
2
3
3
= x
+
dx =
1
1
3
30

+
+
k

2
2

3
3
0
3

k + x
2
1
2
sin k +
sin
2
3
2
3
=
=0+
=
2
2
3
1
1

k + 2
k + 2

3
3

2 (1) k 9
6(1) k
.
=
2
2
3
1 2
1 2
k +
k +
2
2

(5.17) k = k(0), , k(t) (5.15),


2
1

1
4 2 k + t
k + x
k
2

6(1)
2
9
u ( x, t ) =
e
sin
.
2
3
1 2
0
k +
2

.
=

57

ut ( x, t ) = 16u xx ( x, t ), 0 < x < 3, t > 0,

u x (0, t ) = u x (3, t ) = 0,
u ( x,0) = x.

6.


utt ( x, t ) = a 2u xx ( x, t ), 0 < x < l , t > 0,
u (0, t ) = 0, u (l , t ) = 0,
u ( x,0) = ( x), ut ( x,0) = ( x).

(6.1)
(6.2)
(6.3)

, (4.9),

d 2u (t )
2
dt 2 = a Au (t ), t > 0,

u (0) = , u (0) = .

t
(6.1) (6.3).
:

k x
u ( x, t ) = Tk (t )sin
.
l
k =1
. (6.5) (6.1), :

Tk(t )sin

58

(6.5)

k x
k x
k
= a2
.
Tk (t )sin
l
l
k =1
k =1 l
, L2(0,l),

2
ak

Tk (t ) =
Tk (t ), k = 1, 2,....
l

ak
ak
Tk (t ) = Ak cos
t + Bk sin
t.
l
l

(6.4)

(6.6)
(6.7)

(6.8)

. k Bk (6.3):

k x

(
,0)
=
= ( x) Tk (0) = k , (.(5.11))
u
x
Tk (0)sin

l
k =1

u ( x,0) = T (0)sin k x = ( x) T (0) = = 2 ( x)sin k x dx.

k
k
k
t
l
l 0
l
k =1

(6.8), :
Tk (0) = Ak = k .
Tk(0) = Bk

k
ak
= k Bk =
l
ak

(6.9)

(6.8)

k
ak
ak
sin
t+
t.
l
l
ak

l
(6.5),


k
ak
ak k x
u ( x, t ) = k cos
t+
t sin
t.
sin
l
l
l
ak
k =1

Tk (t ) = k cos

(6.10)

7.

7.1.
.
(
):

59

2
u
2 u
=
+ f ( x, t ), 0 < x < l ,
a
t
x 2

(7.1)
u (0, t ) = 0, u (l , t ) = 0,
u ( x,0) = ( x).

(5.3), (6.5):

k x
u ( x, t ) = Tk (t ) sin
.
(7.2)
l
k=1
-:

k x
f ( x, t ) = f k (t ) sin
;
l
k =1
(7.3)
l
k x
2
f k (t ) = f ( x, t ) sin
dx.
l 0
l

k x
L2 (0, l ),
sin
l
f ( x, t ) L2 (0, l ) t > 0.
. Tk (t)
(7.2), (7.3) (7.1):
2

(t ) sin k x = a 2 k T (t ) sin k x +
T
1 k

k
l
l
k =1 l
(7.4)

k x
+ f k (t ) sin
.
l
k =1
, (. 4.1),
2
a x
Tk(t ) =
Tk (t ) + f k (t ), t > 0, k = 1,2,.... (7.5)
l
,
. , (7.1)

60

Tk (0) sin
k =1

k x
2
k x
= ( x) Tk (0) = ( x) sin
dx. (7.6)
l
l 0
l

, (7.1) (7.2) ( k x
1
sin
), Tk (l ) = O 2 .
l
k
. .
7.1.
0 < x < 7, t > 0.
ut = 16u xx + 2,

(7.7)
u x (0, t ) = u (7, t ) = 0,
u ( x,0) = 0.

. ,
- (. . 4.7):
1

k + x

2
u ( x, t ) = Tk (t ) cos
.
(7.8)
7
k =0
(7.7), (7.5)

1
4 k + 2

Tk(t ) =
7

Tk + f k ,

t > 0, k = 1, 2...

(7.9)

k + x
1

2
sin
7
k + x
2
4
( 1) k
2

7
f k = 2cos
dx =
=4
. (7.10)
1
70
7
7
1

+
k

2
2

61

, , ,
(7.11)
Tk (0) = 0.
(7.9), (7.11).
(7.9) :
Tk (t ) = Tko (t ) + Tk (t ),
(7.12)
o
Tk :
1
4 k + 2

Tko (t ) = Ck e
.
(7.13)

: Tk (t ) = Ak .
(7.9),
2

1
k

4
+


2
Ak + f k Ak =
0 =
7

(7.14)

k
49 f k
49(1)
.
=
=
2
3
1
1

16 k +
4 k +
2
2

(7.13) (7.14) (7.12),

Tk (t ) = Ck e

1
4 k + 2

49(1) k

1
4 k +
2

(7.15)

(7.11):
49(1) k
49(1) k
0 = k +
Ck =
.
(7.16)
3
3
1
1

4 k +
4 k +
2
2

, (7.15) (7.8),

62

4 k + 1

72 t
k + x

49
2

u ( x, t ) = (1) k
. (7.17)
e
+ 1 cos
3
7
k =0

4 k +

7.2.

7.2. ( > 0) .
utt ( x, t ) = 25u xx + sin( t ) x(3 x), 0 < x < 3, t > 0,

(7.18)
u (0, t ) = u (3, t ) = 0,
u ( x,0) = 0, u ( x,0) = 0
t

.
. (7.18),
-:
k x
.
(7.19)
3
1
sin( t ) x(3 x) (7.18)
k x
:
sin
3

k x
,
(7.20)
sin( t ) x(3 x) = sin( t ) g k sin
3
1

u ( x, t ) = Tk (t )sin

g k = 2 x(3 x)sin k x dx = 36 3 (1 + (1) k ).


3 0
3
( k )
. k(t).
(7.19) (7.20) (7.18) k x
, , (6.7)
sin
3

63

5k
Tk =
(7.21)
Tk (t ) + g k sin( t ) .
3
(7.19) (7.18), ,
,
(7.22)
Tk (0) = 0, Tk(0) = 0.
(7.21) (7.22)
Tk(t).
, (7.21)
(7.23)
Tk ( t ) = Tk0 ( t ) + Tk ( t ) ,

Tk0 ( t )
:
5k
5k t
Tk0 ( t ) = Ak cos
t + Bk sin
,
(7.24)
3
3
Tk ( t ) (7.21).

: .
1. : k N
5k

.
(7.25)
3
Tk ( t )
(7.26)
Tk ( t ) = A sin ( t ) .
(7.21) e
2
5k
2 A sin ( t ) =
A sin ( t ) + g k sin ( t )
3
(7.25)
gk
=
.
2
5k
2


3
(7.23)
5k
5k g k sin(t )
Tk ( t ) = Ak cos
t + Bk sin
t+
. (7.27)
2
3
3 5k
2

64

, (7.22)
g k
5k
k = 0, Bk
+
=0
2
3
5k
2


3
gk
Bk =
.
(7.28)
2

5k 5k
2


3 3

, , (7.25)
k = 1, 2, ,
u ( x, t ) =

gk

=
2
1 5k
2 5k
3 3

k x (7.29)
5k
t + sin( t ) sin
sin
.
3
3

2. : m N
5m
=
.
(7.30)
3

Tm ( t ) = t A cos ( t ) + B sin ( t ) .
(7.31)
(7.21) e ( k = m)
2 A sin ( t ) + B cos ( t ) +

+t A 2 cos ( t ) B 2 sin ( t ) =

(7.32)

5m
=
t A cos ( t ) + B sin ( t ) + g m sin ( t ) .
3

d2
t A cos ( t ) + B sin ( t ) .
dt 2
(7.30), (7.32)

65

2( A sin( t ) + B cos( t )) = g m sin( t ) .


(7.33)
cos ( t ) sin ( t )
:
2 A = g m .
2 = 0,
>0,
g
B=0, A = m .
(7.34)
2
,
g
Tm (t ) = t m cos( t ).
(7.35)
2

5k
5k g m
cos( t ). (7.36)
Tm (t ) = Am cos
t + Bm sin
tt
3
3 2
(7.22),
3g m
5m g m
Am = 0 ;

= 0 Bm =
.
Bm
3
2
10m

3g m
5k g m
Tm (t ) =
sin
tt
cos( t ).
10m
3
3
, m
(7.30), ( (7.29):

gk
u ( x, t ) =
2
k =1 5k
2
k m

3

k x

5k

sin
(7.37)
t + sin( t ) sin
+
3
5k 3

3g m
m x
5k g m
sin
cos( t ) sin
.
tt
+
3
3 2
10m

7.1.
(7.29) , t,

66

(7.30) (7.37) t .
u ( x, t ) ,
(, u ( x, t ) l < 0,1 )
, .
, (7.37) (7.18)

.
8.

. ,
.
8.1.
8.1.
ut = 9u xx , 0 < x < 4, t > 0,

(8.1)
u (0, t ) = f (t ), u (4, t ) = g (t ),
u ( x,0) = 0.

.
v(x,t), :
v(0, t ) = f (t ), v(4, t ) = g (t ), t > 0.
(8.2)
, , :
x
4 x
(8.3)
v( x, t ) = g (t ) +
f (t ).
4
4
w = u v. w :
w(0, t ) = 0, w(4, t ) = 0, t > 0.
(8.4)

67

. w?
. u = w + v (8.1),
wt + vt = 9( wxx + vxx ),
(8.5)

w( x,0) + v( x,0) = 0.

wt = 9 wxx + 9(vxx vt ),
(8.6)

w( x,0) = v( x,0).
, w , u! (8.4) , w ,
7; u = w + v (8.1). , (8.1) .
8.2.
8.2.
utt = 16u xx , 0 < x < 5, t > 0,

(8.7)
u (0, t ) = 0, u x (5, t ) = sin(t ),
u ( x,0) = 0, u ( x,0) = 0.
t

.
.
v( x, t ) = x sin(t )
(8.8)
. w u v
wtt = 16wxx + 2 x sin(t ), 0 < x < 5, t > 0,

(8.9)
w(0, t ) = 0, wx (5, t ) = 0,
w( x,0) = v( x,0) = 0, w ( x,0) = v ( x,0) = x.
t
t

. 7 w
1

k + x

2
.
w( x, t ) = Tk (t )sin
5
0

68

(8.10)

(8.9):
1

k + x

2
,
2 x sin( t ) = 2 sin( t ) k sin
5
0

5
k + x
2
2
k = x sin
dx =
50
5
1

k + x

2
5
2
=
=
5 xd cos

1 0
5
5
k

1
1

x
k + x (8.11)
+

5
2
2
x cos
dx =
=
cos

1
5
5

0
k +

k + x

25
10
k
2
=
=
1) .
sin
2
2 (
5

1
1
k + 2
k + 2

0
. (8.10) (8.11) (8.9),
Tk (t ) :
2

1
k + 2
T (t ) + 2 sin( t ) , k = 0,1,2. (8.12)
Tk(t ) = 16
k
k
5

(8.9) Tk (0) = 0 , (8.11), :

69

5
k + x
2
10 (1) k
2
(8.13)
Tk(0) = x sin
dx =
.
2
50
5

1
k + 2

(8.12) (8.13) , 7.
.

9. .

.
= [0, ] [0,b]:

2u 2u

u
(
x
,
y
)

+ 2 = 0, (0 < x < a, 0 < y < b),

2
x
y

(9.1)
u (0, y ) = 0, u (a, y ) = 0,
u ( x,0) = f ( x), u ( x, b) = g ( x).

. 9.1

, u
.

70

. (9.1) 8, t , (9.1) (8.1). :

k x
.
(9.2)
u ( x, y ) = Yk ( y )sin
a
1
=0 = (9.1) . (9.2) (9.1).
Y ():
k 2
(9.3)

Y ( ) + Yk( y ) = 0 , 0 < y < b.



(9.1) = 0 = b
a

2
k x
dx,
Yk (0) = f k f ( x)sin
a0
a

(9.4)

a
Y (b) = g 2 g ( x)sin k x dx.
k
k
a 0
a

(9.3) :
k

Yk ( y ) = Ak e a + Bk e a .
k k (9.4):
k

(9.5)

Ak + Bk = f k ,
Ak e a + Bk e a = g k .
(9.6)
,
k
b

1
a
),
Ak = k b k b ( g k f k e
a
a

e e
(9.7)

k
b
1
B =
( f k e a g k ).
k
k
k
b
b
e a e a

, (9.1) (9.2), (9.5),


(9.7).
. ( ).
9.1.

71


u ( x, y ) = x 2 y, (0 < x < a, 0 < y < b);

(9.8)
u (a, y ) = 0;
u (0, y ) = 0,

u ( x, b)
u ( x,0) = 0,
= 0.
y

, =0, = =0 , = b (. . ).
. =0, =
-:

k x
.
(9.9)
u ( x, y ) = Yk ( y )sin
a
1
:
a

k x
2
k x
x 2 y = y g k sin
, g k = x 2 sin
dx.
(9.10)
a
a0
a
1
(9.8),
k = 1,2, ....
2

k
''

Yk ( y ) + Yk ( y ) = yg k , 0 < y < b; Yk (0) = Yk(b) = 0. (9.11)


a

k y
k y

yg k
Yk ( y ) = Ak e a + Bk e a +
.
(9.12)
2
k

a
k k (9.11):
Ak + Bk = 0,

k
gk
k ka b
k a b
e + Bk
e
+
= 0. (9.13)
Ak

2
a
a
k

a
, k k .
: (9.9) (9.12).

72

1. . .
. .: , 1981.
2. . . ./ . .: , 1982.
3. . . . .: , 1975.
4. . . .-. - , 1993.
5. .
. . .
.: , 1985.
6. . . . .
. .: ,
1972.

73


,
,

..
..
. .
05.03.09
. . . 4,75

. . 293
Times

200 .
60901/8


- ,
125993, , ., 22/2

- ,
125993, , ., 22/2

74