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Farewell to Europe: Oct 31, 1891 (2 weeks after Filis publication), left Ghent for Paris, bade farewell to friends (Lunas, Taveras, Venturas), to Marseilles and boarded steamer Melbourne for Hongkong (HK) on Oct 18 bringing recommendation letter by Juan Luna for Manuel Camus with 600 copies of Fili; befriended many passengers who were mostly missionaries for China including Fr. Fuchs whom he described as A Father Damaso without pride and malice (letter to Blumentritt) Rizal and the German Ladies: conversed with them in perfect German and they treated him with respect and admiration despite his brown skin Arrived in HK: Nov 20, 1891, welcomed by Jose Ma. Basa and other friends, opened his medical clinic; Manuel Hidalgo: if the Queen Regent will not listen, we will write to Queen Victoria of England appealing for protection in the name of humanity Family Reunion in HK: before Christmas of 1891, parents, sisters, bro and brothers-in-law arrived; happiest yuletide celebration in his life; very much pleased with the English government Ophthalmic Surgeon in HK: made a living for himself and his family as an ophthalmologist; Portuguese Dr. Lorenzo P. Marques helped him build a wide clientele; successfully operated on his Moms left eye making her read and write again; Dr. Ariston Bautista Lin congratulated him from Paris and gave him a book on Diagnostic Pathology by Dr. H. Virchow; Dr. Antonio Vergel de Dios offered to buy books and equipments for him; Dr. Geminiano de Ocampo says Rizal had all the qualities that would make him an ideal ophthalmic surgeon Borneo Colonization Project: planned to move the landless Filipino families to the rich Britishowned island; went to Sandakan, Borneo on March 7, 1892 on board Menon to negotiate with the British authorities who in turn were willing to give the Filipino colonists 100,000 acres of land, a beautiful harbor, and a good government for 999 years, free of all charges; friends in Europe endorsed his Borneo colonization project; Lopez Jaena (May 26, 1892): I have a great desire of joining you. I shall go there to dedicate myself to the cultivation of sugarcane and the making of sugar. Brother-in-law Hidalgo objected saying, Why should we leave the Philippines, this beautiful country of ours? Why should we go to a foreign land without first exhausting all means for the welfare of the country which nurtured us from our cradles? Tell me that?!; Gov. Gen. Eulogio Despujol did not reply Rizals two letters and did not approve the Borneo project because the Philippines lacked laborers. Writings in HK: (1) Ang Mga Karapatan Nang Tao (translation of The Rights of Man proclaimed by the 1789 French Revolution); (2) A la Nacion Espaola; (3) Sa Mga Kababayan; (4) Una Visita a la Victoria Gaol; (5) In French, Colonisation du British North Borneo Par de Familles de Iles Philippines; (6) La Mano Roja (the Red Hand); and (7) Constitution of the Liga Filipina

Decision to Return to Manila: May 1892, in order to (1) confer with Despujol concerning Borneo colonization; (2) establish Liga Filipina; (3) prove Eduardo de Lete wrong that he abandoned the countrys cause; LS on April 15, 1892, he portrayed Rizal as cowardly, egoistic and opportunistic; Rizal protested against LS editor Del Pilar; To Ponce: it will lead many to believe that there is really a schism among us (May 23, 1892) Last HK Letters: relatives and friends opposed his decision to return; sister Trinidad said, for there they will kill you; (1) addressed to MY PARENTS, BRETHREN AND FRIENDS: the outcome judges things according to the consequences A man ought to die for duty and his principles should fate go against me I shall die happy in the thought that my death will end all your troubles; (2) TO THE FILIPINOS: My career, my life, my happiness all I have sacrificed for the love of my country: (3) To Despujol: to place himself under the protection of the Spanish government Rizal Falls into Spanish Trap: Rizal was issued the government guarantee of safety but a secret case (on June 21, 1892) was filed in Manila for anti-religious and anti-patriotic agitation; Despujol ordered his sec. Luis Dela Torre to find out if Rizal is a naturalized German who had the protection of a strong nation; Spanish duplicity


The battlefield is in the Philippines Arrival in Manila with sister Lucia (widow of Herbosa): stayed at Hotel de Oriente facing Binondo Church (June 26, 1892); at 4PM, went to Malacaan Palace to seek audience with Gov. Gen. Eulogio Despujol, Conde de Caspe; agreed to pardon his father but not his entire family; visited sisters Sisa and Neneng Visiting Friends in Central Luzon: June 27, in Malolos, San Fernando, Tarlac and Bacolor Other Interviews with Despujol: very much opposed to Borneo colonization Founding of the Liga Filipina (LF), Sunday, July 3, 1892: at the house of Chinese-Filipino mestizo Doroteo Ongjunco on Ylaya St., Tondo; with patriots who were mostly Mason (M): Pedro Serrano Laktaw, M & school teacher, (Panday Pira); Domingo Franco, M & tobacco shopkeeper (Felipe Leal); Jose Ramos, M (Socorro), owner of Bazar Gran Bretaa and first Worshipful Master of Nilad, the first Filipino Masonic Lodge*; Ambrosio Salvador, M, gobernadorcillo/ capitan municipal of Quiapo; Bonifacio Arevalo, M (Harem); Moises Salvador, M, (Araw);Luis Villareal, tailor & M; Faustino Villareal (Ilaw), pharmacist & M; Mariano Crisostomo, landlord; Numeriano Adriano (Ipil); notary public & M; Estanislao Legaspi, artisan & M; Teodoro Plata, court clerk & M; Andres Bonifacio, warehouse employee; Apolinario Mabini (Katabay), lawyer & M; and Juan Zulueta, playwright; Rizal explained the objectives and constitution of La Liga and was approved unanimously Constitution of the LF: Their objectives are to have (1) unity in the archipelago; (2) mutual protection in every want and necessity; (3) defense; (4) encouragement of education, agriculture & commerce; and (5) study and application of reforms; Motto: Unus Instar Omnium (One Like All); supreme Council, Provincial Council & Popular Council (in every town); Duties: (1) obey orders; (2) recruit; (3) keep strictest secrecy; (4) have a symbolic name which you cannot change till you become president of your council; (5) report to the fiscal; (6) behave well; and (7) help fellow members in all ways 21.6. Rizal was Arrested and Jailed in Fort Santiago (Wed, July 6, 1892): during an interview with Despujol, the latter suddenly showed him some printed leaflets allegedly found in Lucias pillow cases (entitled Pobres Frailes, a satire against Dominicans written by Fr. Jacinto); placed under arrest and was escorted by Ramon Despujol; was kept incommunicado in Ft. Santiago and could not talk to anyone except with the officer on duty 21.7. Arbitrary Deportation to Dapitan (July 7): for being disloyal to Spain, anti-Catholic and imprudently anti-friar; 12:30AM of July 15, 1892, was brought under heavy guard to the steamer Cebu under Captain Delgras; arrived 7PM of July 17 in Dapitan; handed over to Captain Ricardo Carnicero, Spanish commandant of Dapitan (till July 31, 1896 or 4 years & 13 days)

* (Marnel Tubles addendum: the first Masonic Lodge in the Philippines was Lodge Primera Luz Filipina which was established in 1856 by Admiral Jose Malcampo y Monge who would later on become a Governor General; this is based on the official list at the Plaridel Head Office of the Grand Lodge of the Philippines and attested to by the following websites: http://www.jacquesdemolay305.org/brief-history-of-freemasonry-in-the-philippines.html http://www.hiramlodge88.org/docs/Masonic%20Education/0408/ http://www.io.com/~janebm/churchlaw.html)


22.1. Beginning of Exile in Dapitan: with a letter from Fr. Pablo Pastells, SJ (provincial) to Fr. Antonio Obach, SJ, parish priest of Dapitan: Rizal could live at the parish convent if he (1) publicly retracts his errors concerning religion; (2) performs the Church rites and makes a general confession; and (3) conducts himself in an exemplary manner as a Spanish subject; Rizal did not agree; had warm and friendly relations with Captain Carcinero; wrote a poem A Don Ricardo Carcinero on Aug 26, 1892 22.2. Wins in Manila Lottery: Sept 21, 1892, lottery ticket # 9736 jointly owned by Carcinero, Rizal and Francisco Equilior won 2nd prize of PhP20,000; Rizals share was PhP6,200 gave P2,000 to his father; P200 to Basa and invested in purchasing agricultural lands in Talisay (never drank hard liquor nor smoked but a lottery addict); this was his only vice (Retana) 22.3. Rizal Pastells Debate on Religion (Rizals 4 letters & Pastells 4 replies Sept 1, Nov 11, 1892, Jan 9 & April 4, 1893): embitterment at his persecution by the bad friars; remained good friends and gave Rizal a copy of Imitacion de Cristo by Fr. Thomas a Kempis, and in turn Rizal gave Father Pastells a bust of St Paul which he had made; Rizal continued to hear Mass in Dapitan but his Catholicism was a Catholicism that inquires and enlightens like that of Fr. Teilhard de Chardin 22.4. Rizal Challenges a Frenchman to a duel: Mr Juan Lardet due to logs of poor quality in Rizals lands; apology solved it 22.5. Rizal and Father Sanchez: Pastells instructed Fr. Obach & Fr. Jose Villaclara, SJ (cura of Dipolog) to bring Rizal back to the Catholic fold and also Fr Sanchez, Rizals favorite teacher in Ateneo and the only Spanish priest to defend Rizals Noli in the public; Rizal gave Fr Sanchez a manuscript of his Estudios Sobre la Lengua Tagala 22.6. Idyllic Life in Dapitan: visited by his mother, sisters & nephews; built his house by the seashore of Talisay, a house for his school for boys and a hospital for his patients square, hexagram & octagonal, all made of bamboo, wood & nipa (to Blumentritt, Dec 19, 1893) fruit trees, rabbits, dogs, cats, etc 22.7. Encounter with the Friars Spy: Pablo Mercado (PM) posing as a relative in order to get his letters and writings Rizal reported him to Captain Juan Sitges (successor of

Carcinero)PMs real name is Florencio Namanan, 30, from Cagayan de Misamis hired by the Recoletos 22.8. As a Physician in Dapitan: gave free treatment and medicine to the poor; rich patients paid him handsomely; Mother and Maria lived with him for one year & a half; successfully operated mothers right eye; Don Ignacio Tumarong paid him P3,000; Don Florencio Azacarraga from Aklan, paid him a cargo of sugar; an Englishman paid him Php500. 22.9. Water System for Dapitan: American engineer H.F. Cameron praised his engineering feat in waterworks 22.10. Community Projects for Dapitan: lighting system of coconut oil lamps, beautification, and relief map of Mindanao 22.11. Rizal as Teacher: taught his boys reading, writing, languages, geography, etc; best pupil was emperor; gymnastics, boxing, wrestling, swimming & arnis 22.12. Hymn to Talisay: for his pupils to sing 22.13. Contributions to Science: collected specimens and sent them to museum of Europe, especially Dresden; scientists named some in his honor, e.g., draco rizali (flying dragon), apogonia rizali (small beetle) & rhacophorus rizali ( a rare frog) 22.14. Linguistic Studies: learned Visayan, Subanun & Malay; knew 22 languages: Tagalog, Ilokano, Visayan, Subanun, Spanish, Latin, Greek, English, French, German, Arabic, Malay, Hebrew, Sanskrit, Dutch, Catalan, Italian, Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese, Swedish & Russian 22.15. Artistic Works: worked with sisters of Charity, The Mothers Revenge, bust of Ateneo professor Fr. Guerrero, Dapitan Girl, woodcarving of wife Josephine Bracken & bust of St. Paul 22.16. Rizal as Farmer: bought 16 hectares of land in Talisay and later 70 hectares with 1,000 coconut trees, etc. 22.17. Rizal as Businessman: partnered with Ramon Carreon and ventured in fishing, copra & hemp industries; Jan 1, 1895 organized the Cooperative Association of Dapitan Farmers 22.18. Rizals Inventive Ability: invented a machine for making bricks (6,000 daily) 22.19. My Retreat: a beautiful poem about his serene life as an exile 22.20. Rizal and Josephine Bracken: Josephine, 18, slender, a chestnut blond Irish girl born in HK on Oct 3, 1876 of James Bracken & Elizabeth Jane McBride; mother died in childbirth and adopted by George Taufer who almost became blind and went to Dapitan with her for treatment accompanied by Manuel Orlac; fell in love at first sight and agreed to marry. Taufer disagreed and attempted suicide but was stopped by Rizal just in time returned to HK alone. Josephine stayed in Manila with Rizals family and went back to Dapitan; No priest to solemnize, so they

held hands together and married themselves before the eyes of God; wrote Josephine, Josephine; gave birth prematurely to Francisco and lived only for 3 hours. 12.8. Rizal and the Katipunan: Dr. Pio Valenzuela arrived in Dapitan on June 21, 1896 to confer with Rizal but the latter objected to Bonifacios armed revolution as premature 22.19. Volunteered as Military Doctor in Cuba at the advice of Blumentritt; wrote to Gov. Gen. Ramon Blanco on Dec 17, 1895 and received a reply on July 30 to receive a safe-conduct to work in the Medical Corps 22.20. The Song of the Traveler 22.21. Adios, Dapitan: end of exile on July 31, 1896, boarded steamer Espaa with Josephine, Narcisa and niece Angelica, 3 nephews & 6 pupils (4 years, 13 days)


23.0. Trip from Dapitan with stopovers in Dumaguete, Cebu, Iloilo, Capiz and Romblon 23.1. From Dpitan to Manila, July 31, on board steamer Espaa; Aug. 1, in Dumaguete spreads out on the beach big houses, some with galvanized iron roofing; visited a friend and former classmate, Herrero Regidor, the judge of Negros Oriental visited other friends, Periquet and Rufina families operated on a Spanish captain of the Civil Guards; in Cebu, at the house of Attorney Mateos and did two operations of strabotomy; landed at Iloilo, went shopping, visited Molo Church paintings are Biblical scenes by Gustave dore; Capiz, Romblon then Manila 23.2. Misses ship going to Spain: Espaa arrived in Manila Bay on Thursday AM, Aug 6, 19896 and failed to catch the mail ship Isla de Luzon for Spain; at midnight, was transferred to the Spanish cruiser Castilla by Blancos order and given accommodation by Captain Enrique Santalo and stayed there Aug 6 to Sept 2 pending availability of a Spain-bound steamer 23.3. Outbreak of the Philippine Revolution: Aug 19, 1896, Fray Mariano Gil discovered the Katipunan plot to overthrow Spanish rule, aggravated by Cry of Balintawak and Aug 30s attack in San Juan led by Bonifacio & Jacinto which prompted Blanco to declare state of war; Rizal learned of it through the newspapers 23.4. Departure for Spain: Aug 30, Rizal received 2 letters of introduction from Gov. Gen. Ramon Blanco to the Minster of War, Gen. Marcelo de Azcarraga about him exonerating him of any blame for the war; Sept 2, 1896 (day before departure), wrote to his Dearest Mother saying, do not worry about anything; we are all in the hands of Divine Providence at least die doing something good you two are the bond that unifies us all give me your blessings of which I am in much need; transferred to the steamer Isla de Panay for Barcelona on Sept 2 and met Don Pedro Roxas with son Periquin

23.5. Rizal in Singapore: Sept 7, sightseeing and shopping for souvenirs; there are more Chinese merchants and less Indian; Don Pedro advised him to stay in Singapore and take advantage of the protection of the British Law and also Don Manuel Camus; ignored them because of his word of honor to Gov. Blanco 23.6. Victim of Spanish Duplicity: without his knowledge, Gov. Blanco was secretly conspiring with the Ministers of War and the Colonies for his destruction; one of his greatest mistakes was to believe that Gov. Blanco was a man of honor and a friend; Blanco regarded him as a dangerous Filipino responsible for the raging Philippine revolution 23.7. Arrested Before Reaching Barcelona: Sept 28, while at the Mediterranean terminus of the Suez Canal, a passenger told him that he would be arrested by order of Blanco and would be sent to prison in Ceuta (Spanish Morocco), opposite Gribaltar; immediately wrote a letter to his best friend Blumentritt, unburdening his disgust and bitterness; Sept 30, notified by Captain Alemany to stay in his cabin 23.8. Arrival in Barcelona as a prisoner (Sept 30, 1896, 6:25PM); at Malta, Oct 3 at 10AM, arrived in Barcelona and kept in heavy guard in his cabin for 3 days under jailor Gen. Eulogio Despujol, the Military Commander of Barcelona; heard only cannon shots (recorded 31 of them in his diary) for St Francis of Assisi feast day celebration; Oct 6, 3AM, was awakened and brought to infamous prison-fortress named Monjuich; 8PM, shipped back to Manila on board transport ship Colon.

CHAPTER 24 LAST HOMECOMING AND TRIAL Last Home Coming October 8, 1896- Rizal learned that the Madridpapers were full of stories regarding therevolutions in the Philippines and he was blamedfrom it. October 11, 1896- Rizals diary was confiscatedduring his way to Port Said, his cabin wassearched nothing significant was found. OnNovember 11, 1896 his diary was returned. Unsuccessful Rescue inSingapore Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor and Sixto Lopez dispatchtelegrams to an English lawyer in Singapore namedHugh Fort to rescue Rizal when his arrive, by means of writ of habeas corpus When the Spanish steamer arrived Atty. Fort institutedproceedings at the Singapore Court for the immediateremoval of Rizal from the said steamer.

Chief Justice Loinel Cox denied the writ of habeascorpus on the ground because the steamer carrySpanish troops hence it is a warship of foreign powerwhich under the international law was beyond the jurisdiction of Singapore Authorities Arrival in Manila November 3, 1896- Rizal arrived at Manila Spanish authorities gather evidenceagainst Rizal while Deodato Arellano, Dr,Pio Valenzuela, Moises Salvador, JoseDizon, Domingo Franco, Temoteo Paez, andPedro Serrano Laktaw were brutallytortured to implicate Rizal Rizal owned brother was also arrested andtortured but never said anything against hisyounger brother. First Investigation November 20, 1896- preliminary investigationwas conducted. Rizal as the accused appeared before JudgeAdvocate, Colonel Francisco Olive. He wassubjected to a 5 day investigation, Rizal wasinformed about his charges and been given thechance to answer the questions they have onhim though he was never permitted to confrontthose people who testified against him. Two Evidences presented against him, namelydocumentary an d testimonial. Documentary Evidences: A letter from Antonio to Mariano Ponce dated MadridOctober 16, 1888, showing Rizal connection with theFilipino reform campaign in Spain. A letter of Rizal to his family, dated Madrid, August 20,1890, stating that the deportations are good for theywill encourage the people to hate tyranny. A letter from Marcelo H. del Pilar to Deodato Arellano,dated Madrid, January 7, 1889, implicating Rizal in thepropaganda movement campaign in Spain. A poem entitled Kundiman , allegedly written by Rizalin Manila on September 12, 1891 A letter from Carlos Oliver to an unidentified person, datedBarcelona, September 18, 1891, describing Rizal as the man tofree the Philippines from Spanish oppression. A masonic lodge document, dated Manila, February 9, 1892,honoring Rizal for his patriotic services. A letter signed Dimasalang ( Rizals pseudonym) to Tenlunz(Juan Zuluetas pseudonym), dated Hongkong, May 24, 1892,stating that he was preparing a safe refuge for Filipinos whomay persecuted by the Spanish authorities.

A letter to Dimasalang to an unidentified committee, datedHongkong, June 1, 1892, soliciting the aid of the committee inthe patriotic work Am anonymous and undated letter to the Editor of Hongkong Telegraph, censuring the banishment of Rizal toDapitan. A letter to Ildefonso Laurel to Rizal, dated Manila,informing an unidentified correspondent of the arrest andthe banishment of Doroteo Cortes and Ambrosio Salvador. A letter to Marcelo H. del Pilar to Don Juan A. Tenluz (JuanZulueta), dated Madrid, June 1, 1893 recommending theestablishment of a special organization, independent of Masonry, to help the cause of the Filipino people. Transcript of a speech of Pingkian (Emilio Jacinto) in areunion to a Katipunan on July 23, 1893, in which thefollowing cry uttered Long Live the Philippines! Long LiveLiberty!Long live Dr. Rizal Unity! Transcript of speech of Tik-Tik (Jose TurianoSantiago) in the same Katipunan reunion wherein the katipuneros shouted Long Live theeminent Dr. Jose Rizal! Death to the oppressornation! A poem by Laong Laan (Jose Rizal) entitled Talisay, in which the author makes Dapitanschoolboys sing that they know how to fight of their rights. The testimonial evidence consisted of the oral testimonies of Martin Constantino, Aguedo del Rosario, Jose Reyes, MoisesSalvador Jose Dizon, Domingo Franco, Deodato Arellano,Ambrosio Salvador, Pedro Serrano Laktaw, Dr. Pio Valenzuela,Antonio Salazar, Francisco Quison, and Temoteo Paez November 6, 1896- after the investigation, Col. Olivetransmitted the records of the case to Gov. Gen. RamonBlanco, and the letter appointed Capt. Rafael Dominguez asspecial Judge advocate to institute the corresponding actionagainst Rizal. Dominguez made a brief resume of the charges and returnedthe papers to the Governor General, who thereupontransmitted them to the Judge Advocate General DonNicholas de la Pea for an opinion. Pea submitted the following reccomendations: The accused should be immediately brought totrial He should be kept in prison An order of attachment be issued against hisproperty to the amount one million pesos as anindemnity, and He should be defended in court by an armyofficer, not by a civilian officer. Rizals defender: Rizal chooses a defense council which isthe only right given to him by the Spanishauthorities

December 8, 1896 100 first and secondlieutenants in the Spanish Army waspresented to Rizal Lt. Taviel de Andrade chosen by Rizal to behis defense, he was the brother of Jose Taviel de Andrade his previous bodyguard. Charges to the accused He was accused of being the principalorganizer and the living soul of theFilipino insurrection, the founder of societies, periodicals and booksdedicated to fomenting and propagatingideas of rebellion He pleaded not guilty to the crime of rebellion Manifesto to Some Filipinos Submitted on Dec 15 To inform the people that he condemned therebellion because he wanted their liberties tobe attained through education and lackedthe participation of those from above Was not published because it did notcondemn the rebellion in its totality but onlyin two aspects: lack of participation andpreparation Trial of Rizal Prosecution (Alcocer) asked for deathsentence; if pardon, permanentdisqualification and subjection tosurveillance of authority, indemnity of 20,000 pesos De Andrade in defense, delivered animpressive speech and claimed that theguilt of Rizal has not been legallyestablished. Rizal supplemented his defenders points indetail Polavieja signs Rizalsexecution Same afternoon (Dec 26), deathsentence was passed with the samecondition except that indemnity wasraised to 100,000pesos On Dec 28, Gov. Gen Polavieja approvedthe sentence, ordering Rizal beexecuted by firing squad two days laterat 7 a.m. Luneta


After being court-martialed, Rizal returned to his cell in Fort Santiago to prepare his rendezvous with destiny. During his last 24 hours on earth from 6:00 A.M. of Dec. 29 to 6:00 A.M. of Dec. 30, 1896 he was busy meeting visitors which includes his family and friends. He was also able to write his last poem his final contribution for the emancipation of the Filipino people. December 29, 1896 6:00 A.M. Captain Rafael Rodriguez read Rizals death sentence he will be shot at the back by firing squad at 7:00 A.M. in Bagumbayan. 7:00 A.M. Rizal was moved to the prison chapel where he spent his last moments. His first visitors were Jesuit priests. 7:15 A.M. Rizal reminded Fr. Luis Viza the statuette of the Sacred Heart of Jesus whom he carved as a student in Ateneo. 8:00 A.M. Rizal had a breakfast with Fr. Antonio Rosell. After breakfast, his attorney, Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade came. 9:00 A.M. Fr. Frederico Faura arrived. Rizal reminded the priest of his earlier prophecy about Rizal. 10:00 A.M. More Jesuit priests had visited him. After then, he was interviewed by Santiago Mataix for the newspaper El Heraldo de Madrid. 12:00 3:30 P.M. Rizal was left alone in his cell. He took his lunch and continued writing his farewell poem which he hid in an alcohol cooking stove. He also wrote his last letter to Professor Blumentritt. 3:30 P.M. Father Vicente Balaguer returned to his cell and discussed with Rizal his retraction letter. 4:00 P.M. Teodora Alonzo visited him. They had a very emotional encounter. Rizal gave the alcohol cooking stove to Trinidad which contains his farewell poem. Several priests have visited him afterwards. 6:00 P.M. Don Silvino Lopez, dean of the Manila Cathedral visited him. 8:00 P.M. Rizal had his last supper. He told Captain Dominguez that he forgave his enemies including the military judges. 9:30 P.M. Rizal was visited by Don Gaspar Cestano, fiscal of the Royal Audience de Manila. 10:00 P.M. The draft of the retraction letter sent by the anti-Filipino Archbishop Bernardino Nozaleda was given by Fr. Balaguer to Rizal for his signature. He had rejected it. Upon Rizals death, his supposedly retraction letter became of one of the most controversial documents in our history. This retraction letter allegedly contains his renunciation of the Masonry and his anti-Catholic religious ideas. Depending on whose side you are on, some Rizalists claims that it is fake while some believe it to be genuine.

There had been some evidences but so far these had only heated up the debate between the two factions. December 30, 1896 3:00 A.M. Rizal heard Mass, confessed his sins and took Holy Communion. 5:30 A.M. He took his last breakfast. After which he wrote his last letters for his family and his brother, Paciano. 5:30 A.M. Josephine Bracken arrived together with Rizals sister, Josefa, with tears in her eyes, bade him farewell. Rizal embraced him for the last time, and before she left, Rizal gave her a last gift a religious book, Imitation of Christ by Father Thomas Kempis. 6:00 A.M. As the soldiers were getting ready for the death march to Bagumbayan, Rizal wrote his last letter to his beloved parents. At about 6:30 A.M., a trumpet sounded at Fort Santiago, a signal to begin the death march to Bagumbayan. Rizal walked calmly with his defense counsel and two Jesuit priests at his sides. He was dressed elegantly in a black suit, black derby hat, black shoes, white shirt and black tie. His arms were tied behind from elbow to elbow. There a lot of spectators lining the street from Fort Santiago to Bagumbayan. As he was going through the narrow Postigo Gate, Rizal looked at the sky and said to one of the priests: How beautiful it is today, Father. What morning could be more serene! How clear is Corregidor and the mountains of Cavite! On mornings like this, I used to take a walk with my sweetheart. While he was passing in front of the Ateneo, he saw the college towers above the walls. He asked: Is that the Ateneo, Father? Yes, replied the priest. Rizal bade farewell to Fathers March and Vilaclara and to his defender, Lt. Luis Taviel de Andrade. Although his arms were tied, he had firmly clasped their hands in parting. One of the priests blessed him and offered him a crucifix to kiss. He requested the commander of the firing squad that he be shot facing them. His request was denied for the captain had implicit orders to shoot him at his back. A Spanish military physician, Dr. Felipe Ruiz Castillo, asked his permission to feel his pulse. He was amazed to find it normal, showing that Jose Rizal was not afraid to die. The death ruffles of the drums filled the air. Above the drum beats, the sharp command Fire was heard, and the guns of the firing squad barked. Rizal, with supreme effort, turned his bullet-riddled body to the right, and fell on the ground dead with face upward facing the morning sun. It was exactly 7:03 in the morning aged 35 years, 5 moths and 11 days.