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65
ISBN 9785915900102

. ., 2010
, 2010


........................................................................................ 6
1.
................................................................. 20
1.1. ................................................20


1.2. ..........................29



,

1.3. ......................45




...........................................................................................................................................54

2.
..................................... 56
2.1.
.......................................................................56



2.2.
.......................................................60




2.3.
.......................70

...........................................................................................................................................74

3.
.................................. 75
3.1.

.........................................................................75





3.2.


...............................................................................................................81


3.3.


.........................................................................88


3.4.

................................................................................................................103

3.5. ...........................................................................117
........................................................................................................................................120

4.

. 124
4.1. .......................................................................124
4.2.
............................129



4.3.
......................132





4.4.

......................138




........................................................................................................................................143

5.
..... 144
5.1.

..................................................................144



5.2.

...................150


5.3.
160

5.4.

.........................................168




........................................................................................................................................176

........................................................................ 179
...................................................................... 183




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. [47], 

, 

66

Microsoft
Windows Linux.

, 

.
. 1838 . [67]

(

).
, . 

, ,
! 


,
(
,
Intel
Microsoft Windows).


(
Intel AMD), 
Microsoft Win#
dows Linux).

, , 
, 
,


.
. , . .
1989 . [77]  

, .
67

. .
2001 . [189], . 2004 . [99]

.
1996 . . . [11] 
Intel Microsoft ,
, 
Co#Opetition 
.
2003 . .  . [48]
 
Intel Microsoft,
,
, ,

Microsoft
, Intel
Microsoft 
,
(. . ,
.  . [44]).
. . . 2000 . [175] 
, 

, , , 
. 
Intel
,
.
. . [14, 15] 

, 
. 
, 



( ).
68

. . . 2007 . [187] 

,

, . 

, , 
.
. , . . [186] (2006 .)

:
, 
. . , . .

. , 

,
. 

.

. 1996 .
[193], . . 1996 . [195, 194],
. 1998 . [200], . . 2002 . [27], 

.


, ,
, ,
,
, . . ,
. . 2004 . [19].
. , .
. 2008 . [49]

(Intel AMD) 
(Microsoft). [49] ,
, 
69

.
(Intel
Microsoft),
(Intel AMD).

2.3.


, 

,

:


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; . 
. , .
.


, 
,


, 
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;
70

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;
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;


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71

, 
;
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.


:




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,
; 

,
72


,
, 
;



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;





;



;




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, 
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;
 

.

73




 .
,

, ,
( 40, 15
45% ).



.
, 

, ,
,
,
.

74

3.

3.1.



. 1838 . [67]. 

, [162]
(2008 .).
,
( I,
Intel),
(W Windows) .
, 

,

.

, ,
, 
( 
).
75


pI

(
);

pW
;
qIW pI pW ( 
);

e I fI v I q I W
;

fI
;
vI

;
e W fW v W q I W 
;

fW
;
vW

.

,
, 
.


,
( 
 , 
).

,
, ( ,
) 
( 

. .,
1 .). 

76


, .
, 


,
.
,

.





pI, 
:

I pI vI qIW pI pW fI max .

(3.1.1)

, 
, : #
pW, #
:

W pW vW qIW pI pW fW max .

(3.1.2)

. 
[67]. 
, .
3.1.1. ,

, #
#
, #
, #
.
77

. 
(3.1.1), (3.1.2):
dqI W pI pW
I
0;
p qI W pI pW pI vI d p p

I
W
I

W q p p p v dqI W pI pW 0
IW
I
W
W
W
pW
d pI p W

(3.1.3)

pI vI pW vW

(3.1.4)

I fI W fW .

(3.1.5)

vW vI 1 ,

fW fI ,

(3.1.4) , 
, (3.1.5)


.
.


: 1.3,
2010 . 
Microsoft
Windows 7 2500 .




(3.1.3)
1

dq I W pI pW
p W vW
0.
q I W pI p W d pI p W

( ), 

78


pI.
dq I W pI pW dq I W pI pW
.

d pI p W
dpW



dqI W pI pW
pI p W

d pI p W
q I W pI p W
dq p pW
pI p W
,
IW I
dpW
q I W pI p W

I W

(3.1.2) :
1

pW vW dqI W pI pW / dpW
0
pI p W q I W pI p W / pI p W
p vW
p pW
1 W
I W I W I
.
pI pW
p W vW

I W

pI pW
p W vW


vW = 0, 
2010 ., pI = 2500 ., 
Microsoft Windows 7,
pW = 2500 ., 
:

I W

pI pW 2500 2500

2.
p W vW
2500 0

,
, , 
,
, , 
79




, 

(
, Microsoft Mi#
crosoft Windows
Microsoft Office).

, O 1 .

pO ( O
Microsoft Office);
fO 
;
vO 
.

:
W pW vW O pO vO qI W pI pW fW fO max .

W
qI W pI pW
pW

pW vW O pO vO
1

80

dqI W pI pW
0
dpW

pW vW O pO vO dq I W pI pW / dpW
0
pI p W
q I W pI p W / pI p W

pW vW O pO vO
pI p W
.
I W I W
pI p W
pW vW O pO vO

, 
(. . O 0,25 )

I W

pI p W
pW vW O pO vO


vW = vO = 0,
2010 ., pI = 2500 .,
Microsoft
Windows 7, pW = 2500 .
Microsoft Office Standard 2007 Profession#
al, pO = 13 500 ., :
IW

2500 2500
0,85 .
2500 0 0,25 13 500 0



.

3.2.





(Microsoft Linux) 
(Intel).
81



, . 
, . . 2008 .
[49],

(Intel AMD) 
(Microsoft).

, Intel ( I)

(), 
Microsoft Windows (
W) Linux (
L).
,
:


;


;
Windows Linux,
, , 
Windows
10% .
Windows 
, Linux , 
. ,
Windows Linux.
, 
( )
, 
.
:
;
q max

I

;
82

I + W



(I + W > I );

pI

();
pW

;
qW

;
qL

;
qI = qW + qL
;
fI

;
fW


;

vI
;

vW

;
I qI pI vI fI

;
W qW pW vW fW 
.
:

qI W (p) qmax 1

IW

Intel
Windows;

qI L (p) qmax 1
I
Intel
Linux.
83


Intel pI,
Microsoft Windows pW,

Intel Windows

p pW
q W qmax 1 I
I


Intel Linux

p
qL qmax 1 I
I

pI pW

q
max

1
I

pW

q
.
max

, 
( 
) , 

(. 3.2.1).

p pW
qI qmax 1 I
I

pW

pI

q
q
max
max

I
I

(3.2.5)(3.2.5) 
.
3.2.1. #
#
(
); #
( #
);

, .
84

p
I + W
p

qmax 1

I W

p
qI L (p) qmax 1
I

pI + pW

pI

p pW
qmax 1 I
I


Intel
Windows

p pW
qmax 1 I
I W

p
qmax 1 I
I

qmax q


Intel
Linux

. 3.2.1.
Intel
Windows Linux

85




, 
,
pI,

I qI pI vI fI

(3.2.1)

p
qmax 1 I pI vI fI max .
I
,

W qW pW vW fW

(3.2.2)

p pW
qmax 1 I
pW vW fW max .

pW.
3.2.2. #
,
pI

I vI
2

(3.2.3)

I vI

qmax

4 I

fI ;

(3.2.4)


p W

I 2 v W vI
4

(3.2.5)

I 2vW vI

qmax
86

16 I

fW ;

(3.2.6)

dpW
1

,
dpI
2

(3.2.7)

#

,

qmax 3I 3vI 2vW I vI 2vW 16I (fI fW ). (3.2.8)


.
(3.2.1)
dI
2pI vI
vI
.
0 qmax I
0 pI I
dpI
I
2

( 3.2.1) 

.
, 
, 
.
(3.2.2), 

W
pW

pI pI const

vW pI 2pW
0 qmax I
I

I vW pI
p
.
2

(3.2.9)


p I , (3.2.5)
(3.2.4), (3.2.6)

.
(3.2.9) pW p I , 
(3.2.7).
,

I vI

qmax

4 I

I 2vW vI

fI qmax

16 I

fW
87

4 I vI I 2vW vI
qmax
fI fW
16 I
2

q max 3 I 3 v I 2 v W I v I 2 v W 16 I ( fI fW ).

, (3.2.7) 
1 . . 

0,5 . ., (3.2.8)



.

3.3.





(Intel AMD)
(Microsoft Linux).
, ,
.
, 
, ,
AMD
, Intel,

, 
.
:
88



;
A + W


(I + W > I );
pA
AMD;

qI + W
Intel 
;
qI + L

Intel 
;
qA + W

AMD 
;
qA + L

AMD 
;
qI = qI + W + qI + L

Intel;

qA = qA + W + qA + L
AMD;
fA vA

AMD;
A qA pA vA fA 
AMD.

(. 3.3.1). . 3.3.2 
.

89

I + W
p

qI W (p) qmax 1

I W

A + W

q A W (p) qmax 1

A W
p
qI L (p) qmax 1
I

qA L (p) qmax 1

A
pI + pW

pA + pW

pI
pA

p pW
qmax 1 I
A

p pW
qmax 1 A
A

p pW
qmax 1 I
I W

p
qmax 1 I
A

p
qmax 1 A
A
p
qmax 1 I
I
p pW
qmax 1 A
A W

. 3.3.1.
Intel AMD
Windows Linux

90

qmax q

Intel Windows
AMD Windows
Intel Linux
AMD Linux

p pW
qmax 1 I
A

p
qmax 1 I
A
p
pA pW
qmax 1 A
qmax 1

A
A

qmax q

. 3.3.2.
Intel AMD
Microsoft Windows Linux


. 3.3.13.3.2, Intel 
pI, AMD
pA, Microsoft 
Windows pW,
Intel
Windows
p pW

q I W q max 1 I
;


Intel Linux
p

q I L q max 1 I
A

pA pW

max 1
A

q max pA pW pI
;


AMD Windows

p pW
q A W qmax 1 A
A

pI pW

q
max 1
A

qmax pI pA
;

91

AMD
Linux :
p

q A L q max 1 A
A

pI

q
max

q max pI pA .

Intel
qI qI W qI L

p pW qmax pA pW pI qmax A 2pI pA


qmax 1 I

A
A
A

AMD
q A q A W q AL
q p pA qmax pI pA 2qmax pI pA
max I

;
A
A
A

Windows
q W qI W q A W

p pW qmax pI pA
pA pW
q
qmax 1 I

max

1
,

A
A
A
Linux
qL qI L q AL

q max p A p W pI q max pI p A q max p W


.

A
A
A



:

I pI vI qI fI
q p vI A 2pI pA
max I
fI max;
A
92

A pA vA qA fA
2q p vI pI pA
max I
fI max;
A

W pW vW qW fW

qmax pW vW A pA pW
fW max.
A

3.3.1.
.
. 
:
pA pI vI 2 pA / pI
I
;
0 pI pA A
pI
4 pA / pI

(3.3.1)

p p vI
A
;
0 p A pI 2pI pA vI I A
pA
p I p A / p A

(3.3.2)

A pA pW vW 1 pA pW / pW
W
0 pW pA
.
2 pA pW / pW
pW
p I p A p A
AMD (3.3.2), 
,
.


( (3.3.1)
(3.3.2) 
).
AMD , 
Intel, . .

pA
0,
p I
(3.3.1)(3.3.2) ,
pI p A

A p A p I 2v I
;
4
93

pW pA

A pA p W vW
.
2

qmax pI vI A 2pI pA
fI
A
q p vW A pA pW
max W
fW
A

I W

qmax p2W 2pI2 A pI pW pA pI pW


A

qmax vW A pA pW vI A pA 2pI
A

fI fW ,

Intel
. Microsoft , ,
, , AMD
, .
Microsoft , Intel ,
.


,

.
,
, . .
. 
[160, 161] (2009 .).

, 
, . . 
.

, 
94

. AMD 
Windows , 
Intel Linux:
pI p W p A p W pI p A ,

(3.3.3)

pI p W pI p A p W p A .

(3.3.4)


.
. 3.3.1.

, 
, .
,
0 q I q max ,

0 q A q max ,

0 q W q max .

(3.3.3) ,
2pI pA A ,

p A pI ,

pI pA

A
,
2

pA pW A , (3.3.5)

A
,
2

cA cW A . (3.3.6)

(3.3.4) ,
p A pI p W A ,

pI p W p A

, 
,
.
pI(t ) p(At ) Intel AMD, p(Wt )
Windows t 0,1, 2,
pI(0) , pA(0) p (0)
W t 0
(3.3.5) (3.3.6) (3.3.3)
(3.3.4) .
, t 
, 

t 1 .
95

3.3.1

Intel

qI qmax

Micro'
soft

Intel

AMD

Micro'
soft

(3.3.3)
I qI pI v I fI

A 2pI pA
A

pA pW
qW qmax A
A

qI qmax

pA pW
qW qmax A
A

fI

pI

A 2v I pA
4

2qmax pI pA pA v A
A

fA

pA

W qW pW vW fW

qmax A pA pW pW vW
A

fW

qmax A pI pW pI v I
A

fI

A vW pA
2

pI

A v I pW
2

pA

pI pW v A
2

pW

A vW pA
2

A q A pA v A fA

2qmax pI pW pA pA v A
A

fA

W qW pW vW fW

qmax A pA pW pW vW
A

fW

pI v A
2

pW

(3.3.4)
I qI pI v I fI

A pI pW
A

p pW pA
qA 2qmax I
A

qmax A 2pI pA pI v I
A qA pA v A fA

p pA
qA 2qmax I
A

AMD

.
3.3.1.
t 0 (3.3.4),
(3.3.3) #
.
. 
(3.3.4):
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
p I(0) p (0)
W pI p A p W p A ,

, . 3.3.1,

A vI p(0)
W
p
;
4
(1)
I

96

pI(0) p(0)
W vA
p
;
2
(1)
A

A vW c(0)
A
p
.
2
(1)
W

(1)
(1)
p (1)
A p W pI , :

(0)
2pI(0) 3p(0)
W 2pA A 2vA 2vW vI
p p p
0,
4
(1)
A

(1)
W

(1)
I

p I(0) p A(0) , 
.
(1)
(1)
, . . (3.3.3).
, p (1)
A p W pI
t 1
(3.3.3):
p I( t 1) p (Wt 1) p (At 1) p (Wt 1) p I( t 1) p (At 1) .

, . 3.3.1,

pI(t)

A 2vI p(At 1)
p(t 1) vA
vW pA(t 1)
; p(At) I
; p(Wt) A
.
4
2
2

p (At ) p (Wt ) pI(t ) , :


p(At ) p(Wt ) pI(t )

2 pI(t 1) pA(t 1) A pA(t 1) 2 vA vW vI


0,
4

p I( t 1) p A( t 1) , p A( t 1) A , 
.
.

3.3.2.
pI lim pI(t )

2 A 4vI vA
;
7

pA lim p(At )

A 2vI 4vA
;
7

pW
lim p(Wt )
t

6 A 7vW 2vI 4vA


.
14

. . 3.3.1,
pI(t 2) vA
2vI p
2vI pI(t 2) vA
2
pI(t ) A

4
4
4
8
A 2vI pI(t 4) vA

vA
A 2vI
4
8

4
8
( t 1)
A

A 2vI

97

A 2vI A 2vI pI(t 4) (1 8)vA


4
48
82
2vI A 2vI A 2vI
2v
A

A [t/2]1I
2
4
48
48
48
(t 8)
2
[ t/2]1
vA
1 8 8 8
p
I

[ t/2]
8
1 1
1
A 2vI 1 2 [t/2]1 pt 2[t/2] 1 8 82 8[t/2]1 v
8
8 8
I
A

[ t/2]
4
8
1
2 A 4vI vA 1 [t/2] pt 2[t/2]
8 I
,

7
8[t/2]

2A 4vI vA 1 [t/2] pt 2[t/2] 2 4v v

8 I
I
A
lim pI(t) lim
.
A
t
[
/2]
t
t
7
8
7

A 2vI p(At 2)
vA
pI(t 1) vA
A 2vI 4vA p(At 2)
(t )
4
pA

2
2
8
8
A 2vI 4vA A 2vI 4vA pA(t 4)

2
8
82
8
2vI 4vA A 2vI 4vA
A 2vI 4vA pA t 2[t/2]
A

2[t/2]

8
82
82[t/2]
8
1
A 2vI 4vA 1 2[t/2] pt 2[t/2]
8
A
;

82[t/2]
7
A 2vI 4vA 1 1/ 82[t/2] pAt 2[t/2]

A vW
2[t/2]
vW p(At )
7
8
p(Wt ) A

2
2
6 A 7vW 2vI 4vA A 2vI 4vA pA t 2[t/2]
,

14
14 82[t/2]
2 82[t/2]

A 2vI 4vA 1 2[t/2] pt 2[t/2] 2v 4v

8
A
I
A
lim p(At ) lim
,
A
t
t
7
82[t/2]
7

98

6 7vW 2vI 4vA A 2vI 4vA pA t 2[t/2]


(t )
lim pW
lim A

t
t
14
14 82[t/2]
2 82[t/2]
6 7vW 2vI 4vA
,
A
14

3.3.3. #

qmax A 2pI(t ) p(At ) pI(t ) vI


lim lim
fI
t
t
A
(t )
I

2q 2 A 3vI vA
max
fI ;
49 A
2

2qmax pI(t) p(At ) p(At) vA


lim lim
fA
t
t
A
(t )
A

2q 2vI 3vA
max A
fA ;
49 A
2

qmax A p(At) p(Wt ) p(Wt ) vW


lim lim
fW
t
t
A
(t )
W

q 6 A 2vI 4vA 7vW


max
fW .
196 A
2


p , p A( t ) p(Wt ) .
(t )
I

,
pI

2 A
,
7

pI pW

8q max A
fI ,
49

p A
5 A
,
7

A
,
7

pW

pA pW

2q max A
fA ,
49

3 A
;
7
4 A
;
7

9q max A
fW .
49

, ( 
Intel Windows)
5 
( AMD
99

Linux), Intel 2
AMD, Windows
1,5 Intel 3
AMD. ( 
) Intel AMD
4 , Microsoft Intel
12,5%. , 

3.5.





.

Intel, , 
, AMD Microsoft 
:
p

A 2 A vI pA
pI

,
pI (pA , pW )
pA
4
pI
p

pI 1 I
pA
pA (pI , pW )
p
2 I
pA

vA
,

A vW 1 A
pW
pW (pA , pI )
p
2 A
pW

100

pA

pI p A ,
pA pI vA 2, p A p I 1/ 2,
pII (pA , pW )
pAI (pI , pW )
I
pW
(pA , pI )

2 A 3vI vA
,
6

2 A 3vI 7vA
,
12

10 A 3vI 7vA 12vW


;
24

q 2 A 3vI vA
max
fI ,
24 A
2

I
I

q 2 A 3vI 5vA
max
fA ,
72 A
2

I
A

q 10 A 3vI 7vA 12vW


max
fW .
576 A
2

I
W

, ,
I I

q max A
fI ,
6

I

q max A
fA ,
18

I

25q max A
fW .
144

, Intel 
Intel (
) 0,3%, AMD
1,5%, Micro#
soft 1%.

Intel, , AMD, Microsoft

, Intel.
101

AMD 
:
pIA (pA , pW )

7 A 14vI 3vA A

,
24
24

pAA (pI , pW )
 A
pW
(p A , pI )

A 2 vI 3 v A A

,
6
6

5 A 2 v I 3 v A 6 v W 5 A

;
12
12

q 7 A 10vI 3vA
49qmax A
max
fI
fI ,
288 A
288
2

 A
I

q 2vI 3vA
q
max A
fA max A fA ,
24 A
24
2

 A
A

q 5 A 2vI 3vA 6vW


25qmax A
max
fW
fW .
144 A
144
2

 A
W

,
AMD ,
AMD , 
Intel. , 
AMD .
, Microsoft
,

.

, 

, 
, ( )
, ,

.
102

3.4.



,


, 

.
:

I + PW A + PW

Intel AMD 

Windows;
pPW

Windows;

qI + PW qA + PW
Intel AMD 

Windows;
fPW vPW

;
PW qPW pPW vPW fPW .
Intel AMD,
Windows, 
Linux Windows
q I q I W q I PW q I L ,
q A q A W q A PW q A L ;
q W qIW q AW ,
103

q L q I L q AL ,
q PW q I PW q A PW .

, 

AMD Linux,

q(p) qmax 1
.


p pW
qI W q max 1 I
A

q max A pI pW
;

p pPW
qI PW qmax 1 I
A

qI L qmax 1 I
A

pA pW
q

max 1
A

qmax pA pW pI pPW
;
A

pA pPW

max

1
A

p pW
q A W q max 1 A
A

q AL qmax 1 A
A

q max pA pPW pI
;

pI p W
q

max 1

p pPW
q A PW q max 1 A
A

q max pI pA
;

pI pPW
q

max

pI

1
max

qI qI W qI PW qI L

qmax pI pA
;

qmax pI pA
;

qmax A pI pW

qmax pA pW pI pPW qmax pA pPW pI qmax A 2pA 3pI


;

A
A
A

104

q A q A W q AL q APW

3qmax pI pA
;
A

q W qIW q AW

qmax A pI pW qmax pI pA qmax A pA pW


;

A
A
A
q PW q I PW q A PW

qmax pA pW pI pPW qmax pI pA qmax pW pPW

;
A
A
A

qL qI L q AL

qmax pA pPW pI qmax pI pA qmax pPW


.

A
A
A

Intel, AMD, Microsoft 


(
Linux, 
):
qmax (pI vI )( A 2pA 3pI )

(
p
v
)
q
f

fI max;
I
I
I
I
I

3qmax (pA vA )(pI pA )

fA max;
(
p
v
)
q
f
A
A
A
A
A

W (pW vW )q W fW qmax (pW vW )( A pA pW ) fW max;

PW (pPW vPW )qPW fPW qmax (pPW vPW )(pW pPW ) fPW max.

 
.

I
A
0 , PW 0
0,
0
pW
pPW
p A
pI
:
105

A 2pA vI 3 2 A
pI

pI* pI* (pA , pW , pPW )


p
62 A
pI
p

pI vA 1 I
pA
p*A p*A (pI , pW , pPW )
p
2 I
pA

A p A vW 1 A
pW
p*W p*W (pI , pA , pPW )
p
2 A
pW

*
pPW

pW

pW vPW 1
pPW
*
pPW
(pI , pA , pW )
pW
2
pPW


.
( 
):

pA pI pA pW

0.
pI pA pW pPW

pI

pW

A v A 3 vI
;
5

9 A 10vW 6vA 3vI


;
20


106

p A

pPW

A 6 v A 3 vI
;
10
9 A 30vPW 6vA 3vI
40

A 2pA 3vI

;
I
6

p pI v A ;
A
2

p W A p A vW ;

p vPW
.
pPW W
2

qmax A pI pW
qmax 7A 2vA 9vI 10vW ;

A
20 A

IW

I PW

I L

A W

PW

qmax A 2vA 3vI 4vW 6vPW


;
8 A

qmax pA pPW
pI qmax A 2vA 3vI 6vPW
;

8 A
A

qmax pA pW
pI pPW

APW

AL

qmax pI pA qmax A 4vA 3vI


;

10 A
A

qmax A 2pA 3pI


A

3qmax A vA 2vI
;
5 A

3qmax pI pA 3qmax A 4vA 3vI

;
A
10 A

qmax A pA pW
qmax 9A 6vA 3vI 10vW ;

20 A
A

qmax pW
pPW
qmax 9A 6vA 3vI 20vW 30vPW ;

40 A
A

107

q 9 A 30vPW 6vA 3vI


q max pPW

max
.
A
40 A

, 

qI q A

3qmax A vA 2vI 3qmax A 4vA 3vI

5 A
10 A
3q 3 A 2vA vI
max
10 A

qW
qPW
qL

qmax 9 A 6vA 3vI 10vW

20 A

qmax 9 A 6vA 3vI 20vW 30vPW

40 A
q 9 A 30vPW 6vA 3vI 3qmax 3 A 2vA vI
max

.
40 A
10 A

qI q A q W
qPW
qL

3qmax 3 A 2vA vI 9qmax


,

10 A
10

. . 10% .

3q vA 2vI
max A
fI ;
25 A
2

3q 4vA 3vI
max A
fA ;
100 A
2

W
108

qmax 9 A 10vW 6vA 3vI 9CA 6vA 3vI 10vW


fW ;
400 A


PW

qmax 9 A 10vPW 6vA 3vI 9 A 20vW 6vA 3vI 30vPW


fPW .
1600 A


,
A
;
5

pI

p A

A
;
10

q I
W

7q max
;
20

q I
PW q I L

q I

3q max
;
5

q A

q max
;
8

3q max
;
10

qW

9 A
;
20

pPW

9 A
;
40

q A W q APW q A L
9q max
;
20

q PW
q L

3q max A
fI ;
25

3q max A
fA ;
100

81q max A
fW ;
400

PW

81q max A
fPW .
1600

pW

q max
;
10

9q max
;
40

pW
: pPW
: pI : pA 18:9:8:4;

qI
W : qI PW : qI L : q A W : q APW : q AL 14:5:5:4:4:4;

qI : qW
: qPW
: qL : qA 24:18:9:9:3;


W fW : I fI : PW fPW : A fA 324:192:81:48.

,
AMD, Intel
,
Windows 12,5% Intel, 
Windows , 
.
30% 
AMD,
Win#
109

dows, Windows, Linux; 60%



Intel, 35%
Intel 
Windows,
12,5% Intel
Windows, 12,5%
Intel Linux.
Windows 
45% , 22,5%

Windows, 22,5% Linux.

AMD, 68,75% ,
AMD, Intel 4 AMD (
2,37 ), 
Microsoft 68,75% , Intel.
,

,
Microsoft ,
, 
, Microsoft 

, AMD 
.

,
pI

2 A
3

; pA A ; pW
A;
7
7
7

8qmax A
2qmax A
fI ;
fA ;
A
49
49
9qmax A

fW ,
W
49

,
Windows
110

Microsoft 24,03%, Intel,


AMD 26,5%; Intel
AMD Windows 
9% 3,75%, Intel
AMD Linux 30%;
Intel, AMD Windows 
5% , 
Linux 47,5%.



, 
.
, 
()

.
, 
Intel AMD, 
(Windows Linux).
Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Office Micro#
soft , 
Linux OpenOffice 

.

, .
, 14
:
Intel/AMD 

/ Windows
Microsoft Office/OpenOffice;
Intel/AMD 

Linux
OpenOffice.
111

, 
Intel
AMD, 
Windows 
Linux, Microsoft Office OpenOffice.

, .
,
,
.

: I + W + M, I + W + PO, I + W + O, I + PW + M, I + PW + PO, I + PW + O, A + W + M,
A + W + PO, A + W + O, A + PW + M, A + PW + PO A + PW + O 

Intel AMD /
Windows / 
Microsoft Office
OpenOffice; pI pA
Intel AMD; pM 
Microsoft Office; pPM 
Microsoft Office; qI + L + O, qA+ L + O,
qI + W + M, qI + W + PO, qI + W + O, qI + PW + M, qI + PW + PO, qI + PW + O, qA + W + M, qA + W + PO,
qA + W + O, qA + PW + M, qA + PW + PO qA + PW + O ; fM 
Microsoft, M 
Microsoft, P .


.

q j qmax 1 ,
j
j {A L O, I L O, I W M, A W O, A W PO,
A PW M, A PW O, A PW PO, I W M, I W O,
I W PO, I PW M, I PW O, I PW PO};
q I q I L O q I PW O q I PW PO q I PW M q I W O q I W PO q I W M ,
q A q A L O q A PW O q A PW PO q A PW M q A W O q A W PO q A W M ;
112

q L q I L O q A L O ,
q PW q I PW O q I PW PO q I PW M q A PW O q A PW PO q A PW M ,
q W q I W O q I W PO q I W M q A W O q A W PO q A W M ;
q O q I L O q I PW O q I W O q A L O q A PW O q A W O ;
q PO q I PW PO q I W PO q A PW PO q A W PO ;
q M q I PW M q I W M q A PW M q A W M ;

I qI pI vI fI ,
A qA pA vA fA ,

M qW pW vW qM pM vM fM ,
P qPW pPW vPW qPO pPO vPO .
j 
, ,
.

p pW pM
qI W M qmax 1 I
,

q A W M
p p W pM
qmax 1 A

pI p W p M
qmax 1

qmax pI pA
,

p pW pPO
pA pW pM
qI W PO qmax 1 I
qmax 1

q p pM pI pPO
max A
,

p pW pPO
pI pW pPO
q A W PO qmax 1 A
qmax 1

q p pA
max I
,

p pW
pA pW pPO
qI W O qmax 1 I
qmax 1

q p pPO pI
,
max A

113

p pW
q A W O qmax 1 A

pI pW
qmax 1

qmax pI pA
,

p pPW pM
p A pW
qI PW M qmax 1 I
qmax 1

q p pW pI pPW pM
max A
,

p pPW pM
pI pPW pM
q APW M qmax 1 A
qmax 1

q p pA
max I
,

p pPW pPO
pA pPW pM
qI PW PO qmax 1 I
qmax 1

q p pM pI pPO
max A
,

p pPW pPO
pI pPW pPO
q APW PO qmax 1 A
qmax 1

q p pA
max I
,

p pPW
pA pPW pPO
qI PW O qmax 1 I
qmax 1

q p pPO pI
,
max A

p pPW
q APW O qmax 1 A

pI pPW
qmax 1

qmax pI pA
,

p pPW qmax pA pPW pI


p
qI LO qmax 1 I qmax 1 A
,

p pPW qmax pA pPW pI


p
qI LO qmax 1 I qmax 1 A
,

p
q AL O qmax 1 A

114

pI
qmax 1

qmax pI pA
,

qI

q max 6p A 7pI
,

qA

7q max pI p A
,

q PW

q max pW pPW
,

qW
qM

q max p A pW
,

q max 2pM pA pPW


,

q PO
I

q max 6pA 7pI pI


fI ,

A
M

2q max pM pPO
;

7q max pI pA pA
fA ,

q max pA pW pW q max 2pM pA pPW pM

fM ,

q max p W pPW pPW 2q max pM pPO pPO



:

I
6pA
,
0 pI
14
pI

A
p
0 pA I ,
pI
2
M
pA
0 pW
,
pW
2
M
pA pPW
0 pM
,
pM
4
115

M
p
0 pPW W ,
pPW
2
M
p
0 pPO M .
pPO
2

6pA

,
I

14

p pI ,
A 2

pA
,
pW

pM pA pPW ,

p
pPW W ,
2

pM
pPO 2 ,

:
64
32
, pA
,
704
704
336
168
126
63
pW
, pPW
, pM
, pPO
,
704
704
704
704
448q max
224q max
qI
, qA
,
704
704
168q max
336q max
252q max
126q max
, qW
, qM
, q PO
,

704
704
704
704
28672q max
7168q max
I
fI , A
fA ,
2
704
7042
144648q max
36162q max
M

f
,

.
M
P
7042
7042
pI

q PW

,
Windows 
10 
116

AMD,
, Microsoft 
5 Intel 20
AMD,
Intel.

3.5.
, 
(
)
(
, ,
Microsoft Windows Linux).

,
,


, 
.

,

.

, , , 

, 
, 
CRM.

,
,

.

.
117




, ,

, .
,


Windows (45%
),
Windows Linux
( 22,5%) 
1.3
(
45%, 20% 20% ).
,
. 

, , , 
.

Microsoft, Intel AMD, 
1.3 , Micro#
soft 1,3 9,2
Intel AMD, Intel 7,2 ,
AMD,
,
(. . ) Intel 4 AMD, 
Microsoft 68,75% , Intel.
,
.
, (, 
IDC, ) 2009 . 
51,41 . ., 800%
AMD, 
68% .

8,39 . ., AMD
118


AMD (5,4 . .),
AMD
1,68.
,
,
.
, 

( 
), , 

, , ,
,
, ,
. ,
. 1301 


10 . 5 . . [28], 


150 . .
250 . .

, .




, 
.
, , 

, , , 

.

, 
119


.
, 
Windows Linux
.

, , ,

, , 
Windows Linux
40%, 17 100%
.


, , ,
, , ,


,
.

,

.

Microsoft Intel
,
.
1838 . ,

,
Microsoft Intel .


Microsoft

120

(
Microsoft , 
, Microsoft Of#
fice).

(Microsoft Linux) 
(Intel) 


,
Microsoft , Intel.

(Intel AMD)

(Microsoft Linux) , . .

.

(Intel AMD), 
(Microsoft Windows Linux) 
( Intel 
Windows) 5 
( AMD
Linux), Intel 
2 AMD,
Windows 1,5 Intel
3 AMD.
( )
Intel AMD 4 , Micro#
soft Intel 12,5%.
Intel 
Intel ( 
) 0,3%, AMD 
1,5%, Microsoft 
1%.
AMD, Microsoft
, 
Intel.
121

AMD, 
AMD
, , 
Intel.
Microsoft
, 

.

(Intel AMD), 
(Microsoft Windows Linux)

AMD,
Intel ,
Windows 12,5%
Intel, Windows
, .
30%
AMD,
Windows, 
Windows, Linux; 60%

Intel, 35%
Intel 
Windows, 12,5% 
Intel Windows, 12,5% 
Intel Linux.
Windows 
45% , 22,5%

Windows, 22,5% Linux.

AMD, 69% ,
AMD, Intel 4 AMD (
2,37 ), 
Microsoft 69% , Intel.

, 
122

Windows Mi#
crosoft 24%, Intel, AMD
27%; Intel AMD
Windows 9% 4%,
Intel AMD 
Linux 30%; Intel,
AMD Windows 5% 
, Linux 48%.

(Intel AMD),
(Microsoft Windows Linux), 
(Microsoft Office
OpenOffice)
Windows 
10 
AMD, 
,
Microsoft 5 Intel
20 AMD,
Intel.

123

4.


4.1.


( ,
Microsoft Windows) ( 
, Linux) 
.
, 
[131, 132, 134, 142] (20082009 .),
, 
. . [169] . [124], 
, . 
. [47].

 ,
a:
a 
, . . 
t
N(t) = N0 + at.
, 
: 
Windows, Linux.
124

n W (t) n L (t ) 
, t 
Windows Linux .
q (t ) 
, t
Windows, ,
Linux, 1 q (t ) ,
t

nW (t) aq()d ,

(4.1.1)

nL (t) a 1 q() d .

(4.1.2)

Linux 
( ), 
Microsoft 

Windows p . .

. [178].
Windows

p W nW (t), nL (t) (1 q)
Linux

p L nW (t), nL (t) (1 q)

,

, .
. 4.1.1
Windows ( ) Linux (
) t.
, 
, 
, . 4.1.1 q(t)
Windows , p . ., 1 q(t) ,
p . .
125

W nW (t ), nL (t )
L nW (t ), nL (t )
p

p W nW (t ), nL (t ) 1 q(t )
p L nW (t ), nL (t ) 1 q(t )

q(t)
q(t)

1 q(t)

. 4.1.1. Windows Linux


, Linux 
,
: t
p 0; L nW (t), nL (t) 
, 
p . .
,
Linux ,
Windows: Linux


, 
.
W nW (t), nL (t) L nW (t), nL (t) ,
. [178], #
.
, 
t
126

y(t) y nW (t), nL (t) nW (t) snL (t)

(4.1.3)

, Win#
dows Linux:

W nW (t), nL (t) W nW (t) snL (t)

(4.1.4)

W y nW (t), nL (t) W y(t),

L nW (t), nL (t) L nW (t) snL (t)

(4.1.5)

L y nW (t), nL (t) L y(t) .


s = 1
Win#
dows Linux
.
s
:

y
,
nL

s > 1 n L (t ) Linux
Linux,
Windows, s < 1 .
,
W nW (t), nL (t) L nW (t), nL (t) 
:

,
, :
W nW (t), nL (t)
0;
n W

L n W (t), nL (t)
0;
n L


,
:
127

lim W (y) W ;

lim L (y) L ;

,
, 
, :
lim W (y) lim L (y) 0 .

1. , ,

W nW (t), nL (t)
0;
nL

L nW (t), nL (t)
0,
nW

. . , , 
.
2. , ,
W (y) 0; L (y) 0 .
y (; )
3. , 
Linux , Windows: W L .
y

W (y) L (y)
Windows
Linux, 
.

(y) W (y) L (y)

(4.1.6)

,
y y

d 2
0,
dy2

. . ,
Windows, 
.
4. , 
, y .

128

4.2.





, 
Windows.
Microsoft
p(t), #
( #
)

J aq(t)p(t)et dt max

(4.2.1)

dy
aq(t) ;
dt

(4.2.2)

p(t) W y(t)1 q(t) ;

(4.2.3)

p (t ) 0 .

( 
) , ,
,
, 
(
).




129

([131, 132],
2008 .).
4.2.1. #

,
#
, #

#
;
#
.
. (4.2.3)
q(t) 1

p(t)
W y(t)

(4.2.4)

(4.2.1) (4.2.2), :

p(t)

a 1 y(t) p(t)e
0

dt max


dy
p(t)

;
a 1
W y(t)
dt

p(t) 0 .
[ 
m(t)et :
p(t)
p(t)

H a 1
p(t)e t m(t)e t a 1

W y(t)
W y(t)

p(t)

a e t 1
p(t) m(t) .

(
)
y
t


:
y(t) m(t)
H
;
0 p(t) W
p
2

130

(4.2.5)

a W y(t) p(t) p(t) m(t)


d m(t)e t
dm
H
;

m(t)
dt
dt
y
2W y(t)
dy
H
dy
p(t)

a 1
t
.

dt m(t)e
dt
y
t

(
)

(4.2.6)

(4.2.7)

(t) (4.2.5) (4.2.6) (4.2.7),


:

a W y(t) 2W y(t) m2 (t)


dm
m(t)
;
4 2W y(t)
dt
dy a
m(t)
.
1
W y(t)
dt 2
,

lim y (t) ,

lim W y(t) W ,

. . :

p W (1 q) ,
,

lim p (t)

W
,
2

lim m t ,

(4.2.4)

1
lim q (t) .
t
2

lim aq (t)p (t)


t

a W
.
4

.
131




, 2.3.
, 
.

4.3.





M



.
Windows Linux
(4.1.4) (4.1.5) , Linux
, Windows t 
p (t ) 0, Windows, 

,

W y(t)1 q(t) p(t) L y(t)1 q(t) .

p(t) W y(t) L y(t) 1 q(t)

p(t) y(t)1 q(t) ,


132

( y ) (4.1.6).
, t Microsoft 
Windows, p(t),
q(t) 1

p(t)
y(t)

, ,

Windows Linux Windows, 

,
1 q(t)

p(t)
y(t)


Linux.
(4.1.1)(4.1.3) ,
t

y(t) nW (t) snL (t) aq()d s a 1 q() d


0

a q() s 1 q() d a (1 s)q() s d .


,
Microsoft, :
(t) , #
( #
)

J aq(t)p(t)et dt max

(4.3.1)

dy
a (1 s)q(t) s ;
dt

(4.3.2)

133

q(t) 1

p(t)
;
y(t)

(4.3.3)

p (t ) 0 ;

(4.3.4)

y(0) 0 .

(4.3.5)




4.3.1 ([134, 142], 2008 .).
4.3.1. #

, s 1,
#
,
.
. , s1 
, Linux
,
Windows. s 1 .
q(t) (4.3.4) (4.3.2) (4.3.3), 
(4.3.2)(4.3.6):

p(t)

a 1 y(t) p(t)e

dt max

dy
p(t)

a (1 s) 1
s ;
dt
y
(
t
)

p(t) 0 ;
y(0) 0 .

p(t)
p(t)

H a 1
p(t)e t m(t)e t a (1 s) 1

s
y
t

(
)

y(t)

134

p(t) p(t) (1 s)m(t)

a et p(t) m(t)

y(t)

[ m (t ) e t ].

: m(t)
Microsoft
Windows
Linux [. .
y(t) nW (t) snL (t) ].

:
y(t) (1 s)m(t)
H
;
0 p(t)
2
p

(4.3.6)

a y(t) p(t) p(t) (1 s)m(t)


d m(t)e t
dm
H

m(t)
; (4.3.7)
y
2 y(t)
dt
dt
dy
H
dy
(1 s)p(t) .

a 1
t
dt m(t)e
dt
y(t)

(4.3.8)

(t) (4.3.6) (4.3.7) (4.3.8),


:
a y(t) 2 y(t) (1 s)2 m 2 (t)
dm
;
m(t)
dt
42 y(t)
2
dy a (1 s) y(t) (1 s) m(t)
.

dt
2 y(t)

(4.3.9)
(4.3.10)


(4.3.9)(4.3.10) (m; y) 

a(y) 2 (y) (1 s)2 m2


dm
,
m
dt 0,
42 (y)

2
dy
(1
)
(
)
(1
)
a
s
y
s
m

0
0
dt

2(y)

135


42 (y)
2
2

s
m
m 2 (y) 0,
(1
)

a(y)

m (s 1)(y)

(1 s)2

(y) 2(y) 422 (y) a2 (1 s)2 (y)


m
,
2

a
s
y
(1
)
(
)

(s 1)(y)

m
.
2

s
(1
)

, :

(y) 2(y) 422 (y) a2 (1 s)2 (y)


m
,
2

(y)

a
s
(1
)

(s 1)(y)

(1 s)2

(4.3.11)

(y) 2(y) 422 (y) a2 (1 s)2 (y)


m
,
2

(y)

a
s
(1
)

(s 1)(y)
m (1 s)2 .

(4.3.12)

(4.3.11) :
m 0; y y , y

W (y) L (y)

(. 4.1): y 0 ,
(4.3.11) y y );

m m ; y y , y

(y) (s 1)

,
as
(y)

(4.3.13)

(y) 2(y) 422 (y) a2 (1 s)2 (y)

a(1 s)2 (y)


136

(s 1)(y) ,
(1 s)2

(s 1) y
.
m
(1 s)2

(4.3.14)

, . 4.3.1, 
, m 0; y y 

, m m
; y y .
m

dy/dt = 0

y0

dm/dt = 0
y

. 4.3.1.
,

m m
; y y , 
[78], .
(4.3.12) m 0; y y ,
, 
, (. .
Microsoft
Windows
Linux) , 
.
(4.3.14) (4.3.6) t ,

y W

lim p (t)
;
t
1 s
2

(4.3.15)

y W , s > 1.
q (t) (4.3.3)
lim p (t) (4.3.15)
t

137

lim q (t)

s
1
;
1 s 2

y W , s > 1.

as y a W

.
lim aq (t)p (t)

t
(1 s)2
4
.

, (4.3.15) 
, 2.3 

( 

, ).
, 

Microsoft
, .

4.4.







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, 
. w
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138

J aq(t) p(t) w et dt .
0

, , 
,
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Windows, 1 
Linux,
Windows
t

nW (t) a q() d ,
0

Linux
t

nL (t) a 1 q() d ,
0

Windows (4.3.1)
q(t) 1

p(t)
.
y(t)


dy dn W
dn

s L a q(t) sa 1 q(t)
dt
dt
dt

a q() s 1 q(t) a (1 s)q(t) s(1 ) .


,
,
:

J aq(t) p(t) w e t dt max

(4.4.1)

dy
a (1 s)q(t) s(1 ) ;
dt

(4.4.2)

139

q(t) 1

p(t)
;
y(t)

(4.4.3)

p (t ) 0 ;

(4.4.4)

y(0) 0 .

(4.4.5)


4.4.1 ([163], 2008 .), 
.
4.4.1. #
, #
, ,
w,
, #

.
. , s1 . 
s 1 .
q(t) (4.4.3) (4.4.1) (4.4.2),
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p(t)

a 1 y(t) p(t) w e

dt max

dy
p(t)

a (1 s) 1
s(1 ) ;
dt
y(t)

p(t) 0 ;
y(0) 0 .

p(t)

H a 1
p(t) w e t
y(t)

140

p(t)

m(t)et a (1 s) 1
s(1 )
y(t)

p(t)

a et 1
p(t) w

y(t)

p(t)

(1 s) 1
s(1 ) m(t)

y(t)

[ m (t ) e t ].

:
y(t) (1 ) w (1 s)m(t)
H
;
0 p(t)
2
p

(4.4.6)

d m(t)e t
H

dt
y
a y(t) p(t) p(t) (1 s)m(t) w
dm
;

m(t)
2 y(t)
dt

(4.4.7)

dy
H
dy
p(t)

a (1 s) 1
s(1 ) .
t
dt m(t)e
dt
y(t)

(4.4.8)

p(t) (4.4.6) (4.4.7) (4.4.8), 


:

a y(t) 2 y(t) (1 )2 w (1 s)m(t)


dm
m(t)
; (4.4.9)
dt
42 y(t)
2

y(t) 1 s (2 )(1 s) w(1 s) (1 s)2 m(t)


dy
a
. (4.4.10)
2 y(t)
dt

(4.4.9)(4.4.10) (m; y)
2

a(y) 2 (y)(1 )2 w (1 s)m(t)


,
m
42 (y)

2
a y(t) 1 s (2 )(1 s) w(1 s) (1 s) m(t) 0,

2 y(t)

141

a(y)(1 s)w 22 (y)

(y)(1 s)2

(y) 422 (y) 4wa(y)(1 s) a2 (y) (1 )2 (1 s)2



,
a(y)(1 s)2

m w(1 s) (y) 1 s (2 )(1 s) .


(1 s)2



(4.4.9)(4.4.10), 

m m
; y y ,

w(1 s) a(y) (1 s) s ( 1)(1 s) 1

(y) s 1 (2 )(1 s) ;

(4.4.11)

w(1 s) y 1 s (2 )(1 s)
.
m
(1 s)2

(4.4.12)

(4.4.11)

dy

(4.4.13)
d

a(y) 2( 1)(1 s)2 s( 1) 1 (1 s) (y)(2 )(1 s)

(y) s 1 (2 )(1 s) a(y) (1 s) s ( 1)(1 s) 1

dy

dw

(4.4.14)

(1 s)
.

a(y) (1 s) s ( 1)(1 s) 1 (y) s 1 (2 )(1 s)

(4.4.12) , 
(. . 
Microsoft 
Windows 
Linux) , Microsoft
, . . Windows .
(4.4.13) , 

dy d 0 , . .
, Windows.
142

(4.4.14) , w

dy d w 0 , . . Windows .
.

, ,
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Microsoft , Linux
Windows s > 1, s1
Windows Linux , Linux
Windows (
s 
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Windows , , 
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.

143

5.

5.1.



, 
[138, 149] (2008 .).
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( 
Microsoft), 
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.

, 

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144

c 
;
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;
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l > 2c
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,

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, [201].

M

(. 5.1.1).
, 
: 
.
,

, .
145

(p)

(1 p)

(q)

(1 q)

(q)

(1 q)

(c; c l)

(c; c)

(d f; f l)

(d; 0)

. 5.1.1.

,
, 

(c; )
(c; c l)
( f d; f l) (d; 0) .


():

;
.


():

.
146

p (p ; 1 p ) ,

q (q ; 1 q )

: 
p 
[ (1 p) ], 
q [
(1 q) ].
5.1.2.


, #

1 1
pN ;
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q N (0; 1) ;

cd
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2


c
2 .
2
. 

. 5.1.2.


max{c; d f} c ,

max{c l; 0} 0 .


ABC, ,
,
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147

c( d)
BC 1; 2 1
1 [c; d] .
cd

2
f

fl

=0
fd

cl

=
= c
c

. 5.1.2.

(., , [57])
N(1; 2 ) ( 
):
148

max N(1; 2 ) max (1 )(2 )

( 1 ; 2 )BC

( 1 ; 2 )BC

c( d)

c( d)(1 c) c(c d)
,
max 1 (c) 1
0 max 1

1[ c; d ]
cd
cd
4

1[ c; d]

cd
,
2

c
2 ,
2

1 1
pN ; ,
2 2

qN (0; 1) .


,

,
.
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.
,
d. , c = d, ,
,

( ).

149

5.2.



, , 

:
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( , , , 
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, 
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.

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, , 
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150

), 
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q max

j
j +, +, +, +, , + ;
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qi
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i;
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i;

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q j (p) qmax 1
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j +, +, +, +, , +.

j j j j ,
151

j , j j ,
,
const,

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const,

(1 q ),

1,

( q q

).

, . . 
,
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.



( + )
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q+ qmax 1 ,

q+ q q 0 ,

+ q+ p v f qmax 1 p v f,


+ q max

, ,
152

v
.

q+

qmax
vq
max
.
2
2

( + ) 
( + ),
(),
, q qmax , q 0 ,
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q+
q+

1
p 1

q
q
max
max

q+
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1 qmax 1
p 1 qmax 1
q
max

qmax

p
,
qmax 1
1 qmax 1

+ q

p
p v f,
p v f qmax 1

1
1
q

max

1 qmax 1 v

+ qmax

4 1 qmax 1

1 qmax 1 v

.
2

( + )
( + ),
153

p
p

q+ (p) qmax 1 qmax 1


,

q
1

+ q+ p v f qmax 1
p v f,

1
q

+ qmax

1 q v

4 1 q

, ,

1 q v

.
2


,

q q

p+
v
1

q
qmax 1

max

2 2 1 q ,
q

p+

1 qmax
v

2
q
2
1

,
2
2

v
1

v
1 qmax 2

2
1
q

f.
qmax
v

4 1 qmax

2 2 1 q

( + ) 
( + ),
( + op), 
154

, q q qmax ,
( + )

q+
1
qmax

q+

p 1

q
max

q+

1 qmax 1 qmax 1
p
q
max

q+
1 qmax 1 qmax 1

q
max

q+ qmax 1

,
1
1
1
q
q

max
max

+ q+
p v f

qmax 1

p v f,

q
q
1
1
1


max
max

+ qmax

1 q 1 q

max

max

1 v

4 1 qmax 1 qmax 1

1 qmax 1 qmax 1 v

.
2

qmax

f,
4
155

qmax 1 qmax 1

f,
4
q
qmax 1 max
2 f,

+
4
qmax 1 qmax 1 qmax 1

f.
4

+ + 
.
5.2.1.
( + ) #
( + ).
5.2.1 .
5.2.2. #
, #
.
.
5.2.3. #
( + ) ,

qmax 1 1 1 0,

2
1 1.
qmax 1 qmax 1 qmax
2

. . #

.
.
:
qmax 1 1 1 0,

+
+

2
+ +

q
1 qmax
1
max
1 1.
max
2




( + ).
156

5.2.4.
( + ) 0 ,
. . ,

.
. 
:

+ + ,
q max 1 1 q max ,
2

+ +
1 q 1
max

0 .



5.2.1 ,
, 
, 
, 
, 
, 
.
5.2.2
Microsoft,
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,
5.2.3.


, 
, ,

.

,
157

, 
. , 

. 
Linux,
.

Microsoft .
Linux
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( 
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5.2.4, Apple, 
MacOS X ,

.
5.2.15.2.4
. 5.2.1.

, , ,
(. 5.2.2).
,
,
, , 


:



( + );
158




( + );
( + ).

( + )

( + )



( + )

. 5.2.1.

( + )

( + )
( + )

. 5.2.2.


159

5.3.


, 
.

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q max ;

j
p

p
qj
fi
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160

j , , ;
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;
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);
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);
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i.

p
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max 1 , j 0,
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0,
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qmax , 0,
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,
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#

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i , ,
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p
p q f p qmax 1

f ;

161

p qmax f , ,
p q f
2 ;
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f , 2 ,
p p qmax 1
2

2 .
f ,

() q
,

q
1
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q
p

qmax

p
p
q qmax 1
qmax 1 2 ,

q qmax q

qmax p
2


( 2 ),

( 2 ). ,

p q p q f

p p
f , 2 ,
p qmax 1

p q 1 p f ,
2 .
max

162





5.3.15.3.4.
5.3.1.
p

#
, (), #

q max
f .
4

5.3.2.

#
, (), #

p qmax f .

.
p q max f

2 , ,

p q max f ,

163

5.3.3. #
(), #
#

2 2 3p 2 p 4 2
2p 3 p 32 4 3 4 p 2 5 0,

p


p

p
2

p qmax
2

f .

. 

p

p p qmax 1
f max
2

:
( 1)p p

qmax

0,
2

0,

2
2
0
qmax p p p 2 p p p
0

2 2

2 p
,
p
1

2
2

3p 2p 4 2
2p 3p 32 4 3 4p 25 0.


,
164

p qmax
2

12 2

f ,

5.3.4. #
(), #

p
p


qmax


f .
4
. 2

p q max 1 2 f
2

2p q max 0,

p q max 1 2 f max
2

. , 2 .
p p

p q max 1 2

.
f , max
2

p
:
165

p 2p

0 q max 1 2
p

2 p

.
p

2p p
p q max 3

p q max
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p
p


p
qmax


f .
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5.3.5
5.3.6, 
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q
max
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p
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,
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166

, , , 
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167

5.4.



, 
 
.

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r
;
fi v i 
i ;
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pi
;
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yi
, 
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y2 q2 q1 p1 , p2 .

:

p1 v1 q1 p1 f1

1
p2 v2 q2 q1 p1 , p2 f2 max.
1 r


168


p 0,
1

0
p2
1
q1
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p
v
q
p
p
v

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1
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r
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2
1
1
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qi
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qi
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i
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p2 v2 q2

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0,
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1 1 2
169


, ,
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q2
0,
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p2 v2 q2
1 r q1
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t 

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170

, 
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g y, p
0,
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t [0, T].



:
171

J et p1 v1 g y(t), p1 dt f1
0

et p2 v2 g y(t), p2 dt f2 max,
t

dy
g y(t), p ,
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y(0) 0.

t :

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0 p1 v1 g y t , p1 p2 v2 g y t , p2 . (5.4.1)

t
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, 
(I), 
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172

( 
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rM
.
(pi vi)g(y, pi)

(p2 v2)g(y, p2)

(p1 v1)g(y, p1)

y(t )

)
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(p2 v2)g(y, p2)


(p1 v1)g(y, p1)

y(t )

)
(pi vi)g(y, pi)

(p2 v2)g(y, p2)

(p1 v1)g(y, p1)

y(t )

. 5.4.1.

173

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;
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;
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174

a rI ; a rM

c; c rM

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;
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175

5.4.1

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1.
. ., . ., . .
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