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UniTest


2008

535
22.343
47
- -, ,
2007 .
:
;
-

47

, . .
. 1.0 [ ] : /
. . , . . , . . . . . (2 ). : , 2008. ( : 94-2007 / .
. . . ). 1 . . (DVD). . : Intel Pentium ( )
1 ; 512 ; 2 ; DVD ; Microsoft Windows 2000 SP 4 /
XP SP 2 / Vista (32 ) ; Adobe Reader 7.0 ( pdf).
ISBN 978-5-7638-1273-2 ()
ISBN 978-5-7638-1452-1 ( )
. 0320802571
06.12.2008 . ()
- , ,
, , -
. , . .
- . .

, , .
140400.68
140000 , .

, 2008

-
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: - ;

. . , , .

. 01.10.2008
2
: , 660041, , . , 79


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1. ,
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3. ............ 15
4.
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6. ........ 32
7.
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9.
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10.
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15.
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16.
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17. ..... 97
 .

-3-

............................... 103

 .

-4-


60-
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-5-

1. ,

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1925 .,
______________________
.

 .

-6-

1. ,


. 60- , , - , ,
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,
, . ,
, , , , , , .
- .
- .
,
, ,
P = E , . . ,
. :

, Ea , . Ea , ~ /2,
, e . ~ 108 , ~ 108109
/.
0,110 / . 106107 /.

.
, - , ,
. .
. . . . 1925 .  .

-7-

1. ,

( 1,5 %)
. , . ,
. , ,
( ).

, . .
, ,

. , . , ,
.

.
, .
, .
1 , 2
1 2 , , 1 + 2 = 2 1 (
1 = 2 = 1 2 ( 2 1 ) ). 1 2 ( 1 = 2 ). .

.

.  .

-8-

1. ,

,
, .
, . .
.
. , () . ,
, .

. . , ,
, , , .

, , . ;
, , .
.
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,
.

1962 ., 1965 .
,
.
. .
, ( ).
, . ,
,
 .

-9-

1. ,

, ,
, .

. , , , , ,
.
.
, -
. , . , . .

 .

-10-

2.
-
. . .
.
,
.
. .

. . - , 1961 . , , . 2.1. , = 6943 , .
, , . ,
( ), 2 = 2 , (2 = 2 ) =3471,5 . , , ,
.

. 2.1.

, .
,
;
, 100 %. , . . ()
-

 .

-11-

2. -

96 %. ,
50 %. . ,
, .
,
s = 1 2 ,

s = n1 m2 (n, m ).
, .
.
( ) , , , . ,
. , , .
. ,
, , .

,
.

(1962) . , 1345 1 .
, , ,
, . , .
 .

-12-

2. -

. 2.2.

, ,
.
, , ,
.
.
, , (
) . ,

.
( )
().

.
- , . , . , - . ,
. , . -,
. , , , , ,
.
. , - ,
,
.
. , -

 .

-13-

2. -

. :
, , 40-
, , .
. 2.1.
2.1

- ,
,
,

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,
,

- , ,

,
,


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, ,

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.

.
.


.
, ,

. . .

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, ,
, ,


. ,
.

, - , ()
, () .
- .

 .

-14-

3.
. .
. . . . .
.
- .
rotE =

1 H
1 E
, rotH =
, divD = 0, divH = 0 .
c t
c t

(3.1)


D = E + 4 P ,

(3.2)

P .
rotrotE +

1 2 E
4 2 P
=

,
c 2 t 2
c 2 t 2

(3.3)


1 2 E
4 2 P
E 2 2 = 2
.
c t
c t 2

(3.4)

(3.1), (3.2) ; . (3.1)(3.4)


, .
, . , ,
.
= (),

(3.5)

.
.
.
,  .

-15-

3.

, ,
E Ea . - .
(3.5) . ,
P = P( E ) = (1) E + (2) E 2 + (3) E 3 + (4) E 4 + .........

(3.6)


. ( ) .
(1) , (2) , (3) , (4) . , (1) , (2) ,
(3) . .
- .
(3.1)(3.6) - .

E = E0 cos(t kz ) = E0

1 i (t kz ) i (t kz )
+e
(e
).
2

(3.7)

(3.6)
, .
P = (2) E02 cos 2 (t kz ) = (2) E02

1
(1 + cos(2t 2kz ))
2

(3.8)

- : - 1
2

Pc = (2) E02 1
2

P2 = (2) E02 cos 2t Z.


(3.6) . , (3.7)
(3.6), , , . , ,

 .

-16-

3.

.

P = (1) E 2 + (3) E 3 .

(3.9)

n D = E + 4 P = E = n 2 E ,
n = 1 + 4 P E .

(3.10)

(3.9) (3.10)
,
n = n0 +

2 (3) 2
E ,
n0

(3.11)

n0 = 1 + 4 (1) .
(3.12)
I
. I = 2/8,
n = n0 + n2 ,

(3.13)

n0 ; ;
n2 =

16 2 (3)
.
n0 c

(3.14)

(3.13) , .
, , , , , , , . . n2,
, . ,
n2 = 31016 2/.
, (3.13),
, ,
. ,
( ),
,
 .

-17-

3.

(3.13) .
, (3.6) , . .
. ,
.
.
, , .
,
P = P + P .

(3.15)

(3.15) (3.3), (3.4),


rotrotE +

1 2 E 4 2 P
4 2 P
+
=

,
c 2 t 2 c 2 t 2
c 2 t 2

3.16)

1 2 E 4 2 P 4 2 P

= 2
.
c 2 t 2 c 2 t 2
c t 2

(3.17)

(3.16)(3.17) , ( , . .).
.
- z
v .
; , v
2 . (3.8).
2 ( ).
z . ,
, ; , .
z -
; z = 0 (. 3.1, ).
z ,
2 , v = c n( ) = k ; k = n( )( c) . -

 .

-18-

3.

z'
( z ) = 2t 2kz .

(3.18)

z , z', (z') K (z z').


K = n(2 )(2 c ) v(2) =
= /(2) 2 .

)
. 3.1

, z , z',
( z ) = 2t 2kz K ( z z ) = 2t Kz + kz (2).

(3.19)

k = K 2k , - .
, z , , z' z' = 0 z' = z:
z

E (2 ) = A cos ( z ')dz ' =A cos (2t Kz + kz ')dz ' ,

(3.20)

, z, k .
(3.20)
E (2 ) =

2 A k
kz
sin
).
cos(2t Kz +
2
k
2

(3.21)

(3.21)
z:
A(2 ) =

2 A kz
sin
.
k
2

 .

(3.22)

-19-

3.

. 3.1, z A(2 ) k ,
(3.22), .
. ( )

k = 0 , , K = 2k a n() = n(2).

(3.23)

, , .
.

. , , ,
, . , , .
. ,
, , (3.23), .
-
.
.
(3.22) A(2 ) z
k = 0 k 0 . (3.22) , ( k = 0) Z, : A(2 ) = Az. ( k 0 ) Z.
Z = 4 k .

(3.24)


l = /k/.
(3.25)
. l .

,
, , . . ,
.

 .

-20-

4.

. ; . - . .
.
, . , ,
, . .
.
; .
. , . ,
. ( ), () , .
;
10161014 . , () . 10131011 .
; 1010 .
, () . , . (, , - ) .
10 .
;
.
,
 .

-21-

4.

, . . (
). , , .
P = ( (1)ik ) E i

Pi = (1)ik Ek

(k = 1, 2,3) ,

(4.1)

k =1

ik .
;
:
(1)11

( (1)ik ) = 0
0

(1)
22

0 .
(1)33

(4.2)

, , = (1) 22 = (1)33 = (1) (4.2)


(1)
11

P = (1) E.

, 11 = 22 33 ,
( z). ,
. , (1)11 (1) 22 (1)33 , ( ,
). .
- .

. () - -,
, .

(4.1) :
3

Pi = ki ( E ) Ek .
(1)

(4.3)

k =1

, -

 .

-22-

4.

. (1) () :
3

(1)ik ( E ) = (1) jk + (2)ikj E j + (3)ikjm E j Em ,


j =1

(4.4)

j =1 m =1

(1)ik ; (2)ikj ; (3)ikjm ( 2- ); ( 3- ) ( 4- ). ,


(4.4)
.

:
2

(1)ik 1; (1)ikj 1011 1012 B ; (1)ikjm 1021 1022 (/) .

(4.4)

,
10 (/), , (4.4)
.
(4.4) (4.3),
:
9

Pi = Pi + Pi = (1) jk Ek + (2)ikj E j Ek + (3) ikjm Ek E j Em .


k

(4.5)

- - . ,
, (2)ikj .
, . , (2)122 , (2) 223 z.
: +
, +
, z+
z.
(2)
ikj ( ). (2)ikj .
, (2)ikj = (2)ikj , , (2)ikj = 0.
, , ,
. ; -. -
Pi = Pi + Pi = (1) jk Ek + (3)ikjm Ek E j Em .
k

 .

(4.6)

-23-

4.

, ,
, , , ,
, ,
.

, .
4.1

()
. .
. .

,
. - . 32
20 .
.
.
. , . ,

. ,
.
, . .
. , : 3 = 1 2 .
, .
, :
(2)ikj (1 2 , 3 ) .
: (2)ikj (1 2 ) , (2)ikj ,
. ,

(2)ikj , 93 = 27 .
(2)ikj (1 2 , 3 ) :

 .

-24-

4.

(2)ikj (2)ijk .

(4.7)
(4.7)
(2)
ikj 18.
; . ,

:
(2)123 = (2)132 = (2) 213 = (2)131 ;

312 (2) = (2)321 .

(4.8)

(4.7) (2)ijk
( i, j, k,
) ( i, l, i = 1, 2, 3; l = 1, 2, ..., 6).
(4.3) .
(2)
P (2) = DF
6

P( )i = Pi ( ) = dil Fl

(4.9)

l =1

(2)
Px
Py(2)
(2)
Pz



= d11 d12 d13 d14 d15
d 21 d 22 d 23 d 24 d 25
d
d
d
31 32 d33 34 d35


d16
=
d 26

d36

F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6

(4.10)

di1 = i11 ; d i 2 = i 22 ; d i 3 = i 33 ; d i 4 = i 23 ; d i 5 = i13 = i 31 ; d i 6 = i12 = i 21 .


F :
F1 Ex Ex ; F2 E y E y ; F3 Ez Ez ; F4 E y Ez + Ez E y ; F5 Ex Ez + Ez Ex ; F6 Ex E y + E y Ex .

(4.10),

0 0 0 d
0 0
14
.
D =
0 0 0 0 d14 0
0 0 0 0 0 d
36

(4.11)

, :

 .

-25-

4.

(2) ikj (1 + 2 ) = (2)ikj [ (1 + 2 ) 1 ] .

(4.12)

,

, .
(4.12) - . 1 = 2 =
(4.12) :
(2) ikj (2 ) = (2) kij (2 ) .

(4.13)

,
, (2)ikj .
.
:
(2) ikj = (2) kij = (2) jki = (2)ijk = (2) kji = (2) jik .

(4.14)

,

.

 .

-26-

5.

. . .
. .
.
, , , . ,
. , , . , ,
.
, ,
(3.16), (3.17), 3. , , :
E

2 E
c 2 t 2

4 2 P
.
c 2 t 2

(5.1)

, .
,
, . . / = / = 0;
, z.
:
E1 ( z, t ) = A1 ( z )ei (1t k1 z ) ,
E2 ( z, t ) = A2 ( z )ei (2 t k2 z ) ,
E3 ( z, t ) = A3 ( z )e

i ( 3t k3 z )

(5.2)

1, 2 3 ; Ai ( z )
i . , , . ,
i - z, .
, () .
 .

-27-

5.

(5.1) , (5.2)
(5.1) z (. . , k =

n( ), n( ) = ).

z, ( (5.1) 0).
i . (5.1) ,
1 , 2 , 3 ,
.
1 + 2 = 3 .

(5.3)

(5.3) , ,
. , ,
(1 + 2 ) , , 3 .

(4.5)
:
P (2) (1 ) = (2) A3 A2 e [

i ( 3 2 ) t ( k3 k2 ) z ]

P (2) (2 ) = (2) A3 A1ei[(3 1 ) t ( k3 k1 ) z ] ,


P (2) (3 ) = (2) A2 A1e [

i ( 1 + 2 ) t ( k1 + k2 ) z ]

(5.4)

(2) (4.14).
(5.1)(5.4) i . .
, ,
.
. .
(5.1) , , , 1 ,

 .

-28-

5.
2
2
2 E1
A1 ( z )
2 A1 ( z ) i ( 1t k1 z )
e
,
= k1 A1 ( z ) 2ik1
k1
z 2
z
z 2

2 E1
= 12 A1 ( z ) ei (1t k1 z ) ,
t 2
2 P (2) (1 )
= (3 2 ) 2 (2) A3 A2 ei[(3 2 ) t ( k3 k2 ) z ] .
2
z

(5.5)


.
2

, k 2 = n( ) n( ) = , ,
c

, k

dA
dz

d2A
, (5.5) dz 2

, (5.1), (5.3), (5.5) :


dA1
212 (2)
A3 A2ei ( k3 k2 k1 ) ,
= i
2
dz
k1c
dA2
222 (2)
A3 A1ei ( k3 k2 k1 ) ,
= i
2
dz
k2 c

(5.6)

dA3
232 (2)
A1 A2 e i ( k3 k2 k1 ) .
= i
dz
k3 c 2


. ,


. ,
, ( , :
k = k3 k2 k1
(5.7)
, - :
,
;
.
, .
(5.6) .
,
,
, , .  .

-29-

5.


.
, , 1 + 2 = 3 . , 1 2 , (5.6)

dA3
232 (2)
= i
A1 A2 e ikz ,
2
dz
k3c

(5.8)
A3 = i

2 (2)
A1 A2 e ik ,
k3 c
0
2
3
2

L ,
A3 = i

232 (2)
A1 A2 (e ikL 1) .
k3c 2 k

(5.9)

(5.8), (5.9)
. (5.6),
.
.
(5.6) ,
1 2,
. , . k = 0 ,
(5.6)
n1c dA1
= i 2 (2) A3 A2 ,
1 dz

(5.10)

n2 c dA2
= i 2 (2) A3 A1 ,
2 dz

(5.11)

n3c dA3
= i 2 (2) A1 A2 ,
3 dz

(5.12)

, (5.10) (5.11) (5.12),


n3c d ( A3 A3 )
n1c d ( A1 A1 ) n2 c d ( A2 A2 )
=
=
.
dz
dz
dz
1
2
3

(5.13)

,
S=

cn
2
AA
8

 .

(5.14)

-30-

5.

(5.13), ,
1 2 3
.
=
=
1
2
3

(5.13) , ,
. , ,
- , ,
, . (, : 1 + 2 = 3 )
, , . 1 = 3 2 , 3
1 , 2 . ,
,
, .
, , 3 1
2 , ,
1 2 3 .
2
, : () 3 2 . 2
,
. 1 .
2 ;
. , ,
, 2 .
, .
,
8.
, ,
,
- .

 .

-31-

6.
. . .
.
()
, , ,
, . ,
. . ,
- .
1 = 2 ,
: 21 = 3 . (5.8)
dA3
232 (2) 2 ikz
= i
.
A1 e
dz
k3 c 2

(6.1)

A3 ( z = 0) = 0
z (6.1)
A3 = i

232 (2) 2 ikz


1) .
A1 (e
k3c 2 k

(6.2)
2

(5.14) A3 ,
2

cn 232 (2) 2 2 sin x


S3 = 3
A1 z
,
8 k3c 2
x

(6.3)

x = kz 2 .
(6.3) , :
2

sin x
1. k 0
.
x

(6.2) (3.22), , 3.1.


2. k = 0
(z = L). , , , .
 .

-32-

6.

3. .
, , -
k = 0.
,
, , . , .
.
,
. - ( ); .
, , . ( ), , . ,
.
(ordinary) ; .
(traordinary) ; .
; .
. 6.1
, : , . , , o ne; . o (V0 =/). , . . ne < o , ne > o, . ,
, ,
. ne (nz2 no2 ) + (nx2 ne2 ) = 1 .

 .

-33-

6.

(. . 6.1)
ne( )

no

no

ne

ne

. 6.1.

(ne ) 2 cos 2 no2 ) + (ne ) 2 sin 2 ne2 ) = 1

(6.4)


n e ( ) = no ne

n02 (n02 ne2 ) cos 2 .

(6.5)

(6.5) , , ,
ve ( ) = c ne ( ) = c n02 (n02 ne2 ) cos 2 02 no ne

(6.6)

.

: . .
6.2 ( )
( ).
, ,
. 6.2
,

:
 .

-34-

6.

no ( ) = ne (2 ) .

(6.7)

(6.7) ,

, .
. ,
. .
. ( ).

, . .
,
, ,
;
-- , , --. ,
,
(--). --, - (. 6.1).
6.1


-
-


-
-

, ,
, . ,
,
: - -, -
-. .
, ,
.

, k = n c . .
--. --
1 + 2 = .
(6.8)

I | 1 | =| 2 |, ()
 .

-35-

6.

(6.8) :
2 1 = .

(6.9)

,
2n0 ( )

= n e (2 )

2
.
c

(6.10)

(6.5), :
cos c =

no (2 )
no ( )

( n ( ) n (2 ) ) ( n (2 ) n (2 ) ) .
2
o

2
e

2
o

2
e

(6.11)

.
no ( ) ne (2 ) .

(6.12)

= 90, 90-. , .
-- ,
, :
no ( ) +

no ( )ne ( )

2
2
2
2

no ( ) ( no ( ) ne ( ) ) cos c

2no (2 )ne (2 )

2
2
2
2

no (2 ) ( no (2 ) ne (2 ) ) cos c

. (6.13)

cos c , (6.11)
.
, .
1. . , .
2. 90- . .
3. : (2) . .

 .

-36-

7.


. . .
. .

.

j (5.6),
, ( j Ak)
( ) , . , (. 6),
, , -
.
Aj ( z ) = a j ( z ) exp i j ( z ) ,

(7.1)

a j ( z ) j ( z ) . (5.6), :
j = ( 2 2j (2) k j c 2 )

(7.2)

j- , k = k3 k1 k2 . (5.7):
dA1
= i 1 A3 A2 exp( i kz ),
dz
dA2
= i 2 A3 A1 exp( i kz ),
dz
dA3
= i 3 A1 A2 exp(i kz ).
dz

(7.3)

( - -
, A1 ( z ) = A2 ( z ), A3 ( z ) A2 ( z ) ) (7.3)

 .

-37-

7.

dA1 ( z )
= i 1 A1* ( z ) A2 ( z )exp( i kz ),
dz
dA2 ( z )
= i 2 A12 ( z )exp(i kz ).
dz

(7.4)

Aj(z)
aj(z) j(z),
d
da1
+ ia1 1 = i 1a1a2 exp[ i (21 2 + kz )],

dz
dz
d 2
da2
2
dz + ia2 dz = i 2 a1 exp[i (21 2 + kz )],

(7.4)

21-2+kz = , , , exp(i) = cos() isin()


da1
d
+ ia1 1 = i 1a1a2 (cos i sin ),
dz
dz
da2
d
+ ia2 2 = i 2 a12 (cos + i sin ).
dz
dz

,
2d1/dz 2/dz = d/dz kz,
1,2,-
:
da1
+ 1a1a2 sin = 0,
dz
da2
2 a12 sin = 0,
dz
d
k + ( 2 1a2 2 a12 a2 ) cos = 0.
dz

(7.5)

, , , , ,
. , .
. (5.7) k = k k k = 0 d/dz
=
= 2d1/dz-d2/dz (7.5) :
3

 .

-38-

7.

da1
+ 1a1a2 sin = 0,
dz
da2
2 a12 sin = 0,
dz
d
+ ( 2 1a2 2 a12 a2 ) cos = 0.
dz

(7.6)

.
. (7.6) 1, 2 ,

( 2 a12 ( z) + 1a22 ( z ) ) = 0 .
z

(7.7)

, z , , .
1U 2 ,
2 a12 ( z ) + 1a22 ( z ) = 1U 2

(7.8)

1U 2
( z = 0):
2 a12 (0) + 1a22 (0) = 1U 2 .

(7.9)

(7.6) 1 2, . ,
, 1,
da2
= 1 (U 2 a22 )sin ,
dz
U2

d
= 1
3a2 cos .
dz
a2

(7.10)

.
(7.10),
z, , :

. 1U 2 2 a12 (0) cos . ,
, = 2 , cos = 0,
d dz = 0 .
z, ,
, , -

 .

-39-

7.

(7.10).
, .
, (7.10)
= 2 :
da2
= 1 (U 2 a22 )
,
dz

(7.11)

: z = da2 1 (U 2 a22 ) ,
, 2(z), 2 (0) = 0, th = (e + e ) ( e + e ); th = ( ch ) 1 :
a2 ( z ) = Uth( 1Uz ) .

(7.12)

U1 = a1 (0) 1 2 , (7.12)
a2 ( z ) = a1 (0) 2 1 th

1 2 a1 (0) z .

(7.13)

(7.8),
1(z):
a1 ( z ) =

ch

a1 (0)

1 2 a1 (0) z

(7.14)

. 7.1.
1(z) 2(z), 1 2 1 ( 0 ) z

a 2 ( )

0.5

a1 ( )

a1 (0)

a1 (

= a (0)

)z

. 7.1.

(7.13), (7.14), . -

 .

-40-

7.


L=

1 2 a1 (0)

(7.15)

,
.
,
. = 2 const.
, , ,
, . . L,
(7.15).
(7.10) , , L,
, . . .
.
.
(7.10) (k = 0) . . c 1 (pump mode), a2 (second harmonic)
(phase) z ( .7.2 L,m = 0.03
z=

1 2 a1 (0)

), . 7.2.

(z = 0),
(0),
= /2 .

z=

1 2 a1 (0)

, -

7.1, (7.13),
(7.14).
z L = ( 1 2 a1 (0) )
1

2 1. .
1 2 , ,
= /2.

 .

-41-

7.

. 7.2

.
l = k . (3.25)

L = ( 1 2 a1 (0) ) . . 7.3 2(z) :


1

1) l L,

3) l

L,

4) l L,

5) 2) l << L.

a1 ( z ) a2 (0)
1
1
3
4
5
2

z
. 7.3

,
:
1.
.
2.
, /2.

 .

-42-

8.
. .
. . . .
.
, . ,
. ,

. .
. - , , .
. . , (). 6, 7 ,
. .
(5.14) ,
: , ,
. ,
: , ,

( )
. ,
, ,
. ,
,
. , (. . )
, .
, . , , , , ,

 .

-43-

8.

, .

.
, .
.
.
, , ,
. ,
,
,

.
.
, 3
, 1 2 , , ( ), (7.5) :
dA1
= i 1 A3 A2 exp( i kz ),
dz
dA2
= i 2 A3 A1 exp( i kz ),
dz
dA3
= 0.
dz

(8.1)


, . ,
, k = 0 , 3 = 1 + 2
. , (8.1)
dA1
+ i 1 A3 A2 = 0,
dz
dA2
i 2 A3 A1 = 0.
dz

(8.2)

,
AJ = e z . (8.2)

 .

-44-

8.

+ i 1 A3 = 0,
i 1 A3 + = 0,

, 0:
+ i 1 A3

i 2 A +

= 2 1 2 A3 = 0.

(8.3)

= 1 2 A3 ,

(8.4)

(8.2)
A1 ( z ) = c1e z + c2 e z ,
A2 ( z ) = c1e z c2 e z ,


A1 (0) = A10 = c1 + c2 A (0) = A20 = c1 c2 ,
1

(8.5)

A + A20 z A10 A20 z


A1 ( z ) = 10
e +
e ,
2
2

A + A20 z A10 + A20 z


A2 ( z ) = 10
e
e .
2
2

(8.6)

, . (8.4),
, :
2

g = = 1 2 A3 =

2
(2) 12 A3 ,
c n1n2

(8.7)

n1 , n2 , 1 , 2 , A3 ,
.
.
, , , . ,
R(R 1), gL 1 R, L
. , ,
1R . .
, aWO4:Nd+3 c : = 0,529
. ,
, . (1R) , 0,4 %. ,  .

-45-

8.

, ,
20 %. .
, 6,7 ;
15 50 c. ,
4x105 /2.
. . ,
, . 8.1, ,
0,7 2,0 .
,
. , .

40. 80. 120 . 160. 200. 240. 280


,
. 8.1


. .
2NNb515. -
, .
, , .
, .
.
1 2 ,
.

 .

-46-

8.

, , 1 , , .
. 8.2 . 8.3 ()
1
2 3 . ,
R . ()
k1 + k2 = k3 .

. 8.2

. 8.3

, 1 2 , 3 . , 3 , , , .
,
( , , ,
, . . ).
, , : ,
(),
:
,
( ),  .

-47-

8.

. ,
.
.
.
, ( ), , . , ( ,
) .
, , ,
( ).
1 2 , 3 ( 3 = 1 + 2 ) ,
: 2 *, 1 *
2 *( 3 *= 1 *+ + 2 *). . (. 8.1),
10 .
(. 8.1,
). , ;
. ( ). ,
.
, , ,

, , , .
, , , ,
,
.

 .

-48-

9.


. .
. .
.
.

.

5 ,
.
. , , , . . (5.1). , , , , .
,
. . . . .
, , ,
, .
2
. 2 A z<<
A 2 A <<
t2
A.
.

, (3.1), (3.2), (3.3), (3.4),
.
. , , , ,

 .

-49-

9.


E ( z , t ) = A( z , t )ei (t kz ) .

(9.1)

: P = (1) E . (3.6). , ()
( ).
P(z,t)

P( z , t ) = H (t ') E ( t t ')dt ' .

(9.2)

(t) .
,
. (3.4) , .
. (9.1) A( z, t t ')
,
t t:

A( z , t t ') = A( z , t ) +
n =1

n
1
n A( z , t )

(
t
')
n !
t n

(9.3)

(9.1) (9.3) (9.2) P(z,t):

P ( z, t ) = { ( ) A( z, t ) +
n =1

n
n
in
n ( ) A
(
1)

n !
n t n


exp i (t kz ) .

(9.4)

( )

( ) = H ( z, t ') exp i(t ' kz )dt ' .

(9.5)

( ) (9.4) ( )

( )A( z , t )
P ( z , t ) = ( ) A( z, t ) i

 .

exp i (t kz ) .

(9.6)

-50-

9.

(3.4) (9.1). (9.6)


,
,
A( z, t ) 1 A( z, t )
+
=0
u t
z

(9.7)

,
k:
2 (1 + 4 ( )) k 2 c 2 = 0 .

(9.8)

, (9.6),
1

k
u=
=
.
k

(9.9)

(9.7)
, .
,
(9.4) (9.6), ( ( ) ). , (9.7)
, .
.
(9.10)
A( z , t ) = A ( z ut ) ,

(9.10)

A ( z ut )
A( z = 0, t ) = A0 (t ) . , A (t ) , ,
u, . , (9.9),
, , :
k
u=

n ( )

= c n ( ) +
.

(9.11)

,
4 2 P
, c 2 t 2

 .

-51-

9.

(9.2).
.
, , . . (9.4) n = 2

( )A( z , t ) 1 2 ( ) 2 A( z , t )
P ( z , t ) = ( ) A( z, t ) i

t
t 2
2 2

exp i (t kz ) .

(9.12)

(9.7)
A( z, t ) 1 A( z, t ) 1 2 A( z, t )
+
i g
=0 ,
u t
2
z
t 2

(9.13)

2k

g = 2 = ( u 1 ) .

. , , , .
.
.
.
.
.
, . .
,
. , .
, , .
, . . z
E ( x, y, z ) = A( x, y, z )ei (t kz )

(9.14)

, , ,
. (9.14).
,

 .

-52-

9.

A
k
z

2 A
.
z 2

(9.15)

A
1
+ i A = 0 ,
z
2k

(9.16)

2 2
.
+
x 2 t 2

(9.15) ,
, k . (9.15) (9.16) , . ,
k, , . (9.16), , .

.
, ,
. ,
, . ,
, .
. , (9.13) (9.16). , ,
A( z, t ) 1 A( z, t ) 1 2 A( z, t )
1
+
i g
+ i A = 0 .
2
z
2
t
2k
u t

(9.17)

(9.17)
.

 .

-53-

10.

.
. . ; . .
.
.
. (9.17) ,
.
i- , :
( L j Aj )e

i ( j t k j z )

=0,

(10.1)

1 2
1
+
i gj 2 +i
.
2 t
2k j
z u j t

L j =


1 + 2 = 3 . (5.3). ,
, ,
, . (7.3),
(7.4):
L1 A1 = i 1 A3 A2 exp( i kz ),
L A = i A A exp( i kz ),
2

(10.2)

L3 A3 = i 3 A1 A2 exp(i kz ).

, . .
.
,
1011
. .
, , -

 .

-54-

10.

, (
1 1 2
i gj 2 .
L j = +
z u j t 2 t

:
. .
; .
, , ( k = 0 ). , .
, ( ).
. 10.1, --,

( 1) ( 2)
z .
0 () < u (2). , --
;
. -- (. . 10.1, )).

.10.1

 .

-55-

10.

( 1)
( 2). , .
, -. , .10.1,, :
( ) < ( ) < ue (2 ) .

( ). , , .
-- ( --); . 10.1, . 10.1,.
- ,
:
--, : u1 , 1 , l1 = c 1 n1
( , , ); u2 , 2 , l2 = c 2 n2 (
).
= (1 u1 ) (1 u2 )

(10.3)

.
:
l1 , l2 l ,

(10.4)

0.

(10.5)

(10.4) , l . , . (10.4),
. ,
u1 = u2 .

(10.6)

( () !).
( 2

 .

-56-

10.

). (10.6) (10.4), , .


= l

(10.7)

(
):
L = 1 / .

(10.8)

= l ,
,
. ,
1 .
. ,
1 , , l

L .

(10.9)

1 = 1,06 1 = 2 1012 L =15 c


DP (K2 PO4 x2(H2 O)) L =1 LiNbO3. ,

DP,
5 .
LiNbO3.
.

(-) ,
( ) . .
. , 10 13 .


Ld = 12 2

d 2k
d 2

(10.10)

 .

-57-

10.
2

d = 2ld 2 k d 2 .

(10.11)

,
1 d , , l

Ld .

(10.12)

d 2 k d 2 1027 2/, Ld = 5
1 = 1012 Ld = 5 1 = 1013 . , ( ) .
1 1013 . .

. , .

 .

-58-

11. -

(--) .
. , .
(--).
,
(9.17),
.
( ) (
).
, .
.
. , -. k S1
k z ( ). S2 ,
(. . 11.1, ; c , l ; d0
.

S2(x,l)

. 11.1


tg = sin 2 c (no 2 ne 2 ) no 2 .

 .

(11.1)

-59-

11. -

.
. 11.1 , . ;
().

( ). . 11.1 S2 (x,l);
, S1(, l) .
,
:
L = d o .

(11.2)

L c. (7.15) , , .
, d . i

1
A = 0
2k

(9.17).

,
,
.
- .
,
, , ,
, . ,
- . , . . , .
, , , -.
- . ,
-

 .

-60-

11. -

.
:
1. :
, ,
, ,
.
2. ,
.
.
, ,
. ,
. , , ,

. .
() .
, ( ) , . , ,
, .
, . , . ,

. g A3 ,
, .
, , 1 + 2 = 3 , k = 0 (. 8).

 .

-61-

11. -

, :
. . :
, , , .

.
, ,

. . , .
, . 45 , , . ,

, ,
.
1

. 11.2


.
: , .

.
, , .
, , .
. ,  .

-62-

11. -

, .
, .
, , . , ( ,
1 /2) .
, .
, ,
, ,
,
, .
. , 90 %,
15 % . 480 %. () . , . , . :
( 100 /2) . .
, .
, .
, ( ),
.
:
( ) ,
.
(~ 100) , .  .

-63-

11. -

, - . , .
, :
, (, ,
. .).
,
.
, , ,
, (, ), , . .
,
.

 .

-64-

12.


.
. .
.

.
(. . ) .
,
, ( k)
( S) ,
. left handed materials
(LHM).
, , .
,
, ,
.
LHM. , LHM,
- , .


LHM- . .
. . . . ,
, -
, LHM ( , ),
( = 1 ), ~ , , , .
(SHG)
 .

-65-

12.

, LHM . , . , , (. 9) , , , .
,
, ( ) 0, ( ) 0 , , ( ) =1 ~ ( , k ) , , , , , . , D, H , B ( E, D,
) D = ( ) E , B =( ) H E , D, B D = ~ ( , k ) E , . , .
,
v g v p ( ),
. , LHM
, ,
,
. , , .
.
, D, H , B , ,
, , , . ,

 .

-66-

12.

E =

1 B
;
c t

H =

1 D
; = 0;
c t

D = 0 , D

H P M : D = E + 4P B = H + 4M .
()

:

2 E 1 2 E 4 2 P( z , t ) 1
+
( M ) = 0
+
+
t
z 2 c 2 t 2 c 2
t 2


. ,

1
( M ) , , t

, , ,
.
, ,
, , , , ,
.
, E , D, B -, . . . . . E , D, B D = ~ ( , k )
E =

1 B
1 E
; B=
;
c t
c t

= 0; D = 0 .

~l = ,

(12.1)

~ ( , k )

k 2c 2
1
~
,
tr ( , k ) = ( ) + 2 1
( )

(12.2)

~l , ~tr ( , k ) .
.
k k = n c

 .

-67-

12.

n 2 = ~tr = ( ) ( ) .

(12.3)

~ ( , k )
( , k ) ,
, ,
~ ( , k ) = 1 + 4~ ( , k ) .

(12.4)
D E P ( , k )
D = ~ ( , k ) E = (1 + 4~ ( , k )) E = E + P ( , k ) .

(12.5)


,
9.

Z , (12.2)(12.5). E
(12.1) :
2 E 1 2 E 4 2 P ( z, t )
2 + 2 2 + 2
= 0.
c t
c
z
t 2

(12.6)

P ( z, t ) = P ( z, t ) + P nl ( z, t ) , ,

P ( z, t ) = dt ' dz ' ( z ', t ') E ( z z ', t t ') +

(2)
+ dt ' dt '' dz ' dz ''
( z ', t ', z '', t '') E ( z z ', t t ') E ( z z '', t t '') +

(12.7)

(3)
+ dt ' dt '' dt ''' dz ' dz '' dz '''
( z ', t ', z '', t '', z ''', t ''')

E ( z z ', t t ') E ( z z '', t t '') E ( z z ''', t t ''').

, , ... ,
, . ~ ( z , t ) , ~ ( 2) ( z ' , t ' , z ' ' , t ' ' ) ,
~ (3) ( z ' , t ' , z ' ' , t ' ' , z ' ' ' , t ' ' ' ) , . ,
, ,
.
 .

-68-

12.


. P(z,t) ( (12.7).

E ( z , t ) = A( z , t ) exp i (t kz )

(12.8)

A( z z ' , t t ' ) , z
t z t.

A( z z ' , t t ' ) = A( z, t ) +
n =1

n
n
1
n A( z , t )
n A( z , t )
+ ( z ' )
(t ' )
.
n!
t n
z n

(12.9)

(12.8) (12.9) (12.7) P(z,t):


P ( z , t ) = {~ ( , k ) A( z , t ) +
n~
n

.
n ~ ( , k ) n A( z, t )
in
n ( , k ) A
(
1
)
+
+

exp i (t kz )

n
n
n
n
k
z

t
n =1 n!

(12.10)

~ ( , k )
k

~ ( , k ) = dt ' dz ' ~ ( z ' , t ' ) exp i (t ' kz ' ) .

(12.11)

(12.10)

~( , k )A( z, t ) ~( , k )A( z, t )
P( z, t ) = ~ ( , k ) A( z, t ) i
+i
exp i (t kz ) . (12.12)

t
k
z

(12.6) (12.8) (12.12)


,
,
2i

A( z , t )
A( z , t )
+ 2i
=0 ,
z
t

(12.13)

 .

-69-

12.

= k

2 2 ~ ( , k )

; = 2
2
k
c
c

~ ( , k )) + 2 ( , k ) ,
(
1
4

(12.14)

,
k,
( ~ ( , k ) ):
2 (1 + 4~ ( , k )) k 2 c 2 = 0 .

(12.15)

,
(12.15)
~ ( , k )
2

2k 2 2


k
c

.
= =
vg =
~

(
,k)
k

~
(1 + 4 ( , k )) + 2

(12.16)

(12.2), (12.4) (12.16) , ,


,
k
k
2
( )
( )
vg =
=
~
~
1 ( ( ) ( ) )
( ( , k )) 1 ( , k )

( ) ( ) +


2
2

(12.17)

,
( ) () .
,

(~ ( , k ))

, ( ) ( ) .
(12.17)
, , ( ) .
() () ,
, .

, (12.5) (12.14):
=

k
=
( )

( )
;
( )

1 [ ( ) ( )]

( ) ( ) +
2
.
2

 .

(12.18)

-70-

12.

, .
.
,
,
. ,
,
.
,
, . ,
, , .
(j=1,2,3)
z
A j (z )
E j = A j exp i ( j t k j z ) . ( k
k = k+ik). ,
:
3 = 1 + 2 .

(12.19)

(12.6)

P1nl = 1 (2 , 3 ) A3 A2 expi [(3 2 ) t (k3 k2 ) z],
( 2)

P2nl = 2 (1 , 3 ) A3 A1 expi [(3 1 ) t (k3 k1 ) z],


( 2)

( 12.20)

P = 3 (1 , 2 ) A1 A2 expi [(1 + 2 ) t (k1 + k2 ) z],


( 2)

nl
3

1( 2) (2 , 3 ), 2( 2) (1 , 3 ), 3( 2) (1 , 2 ) ,

3( 2) (1 , 2 ) = dt ' dt '' dz ' dz '' ~ ( 2) ( z ' , t ' , z ' ' , t ' ' ) exp i[1t '+ 2 t ' 'k1 z 'k 2 z ' '] .

, (j 2) = ( 2) .

 .

-71-

12.

, A j (z )
, (12.13) (12.20),
A1 ( z, t )
A ( z , t ) 4 2 ( 2 )
+ i 2 1 1
= 2 1 A3 A2 exp ikz,
z
t

A2 ( z , t )
A2 ( z , t ) 4 2 ( 2)
i 2 2
+ i 2 2
= 2 2 A3 A1 exp ikz ,
z
t

A3 ( z , t )
A3 ( z , t ) 4 2 ( 2)
i 2 3
+ i 2 3
= 2 3 A1 A2 exp ikz .

z
t
i 21

(12.21)

k = k1 + k 2 k 3 , j j ,
, . (12.13).
(12.21) (. 9)
, . . ,

k 3 = k1 + k 2 .

(12.22)

(12.21) :
dA1 ( z )
= 1 A*2 ( z ) A3 ,
dz
dA2 ( z )
i 2 2
= 2 A*1 ( z ) A3 ,
dz
dA3 ( z )
i 2 3
= 3 A1 ( z ) A2 ( z ),
dz
i 21

(12.23)


j =

4 2j
c

( 2)

(12.24)

(12.23)
j , , -

 .

-72-

12.

. ,
, (.
10). (12.22)
. , , . ,

. Z , ,
j , . (12.23), , :
d
1 d
d
2
2
2
A1 ( z ) = 22
A2 ( z ) = 32
A3 ( z ) .
2
1 dz
2 dz
3 dz

(12.25)


( = k ) (. 5). j-
2
S j n ( ) A j ( z ) [E j B j ], , .

N j , (12.23)
dN 3
dN1 dN 2
=
=
.
dz
dz
dz

(12.26)

, ,
1 2 , , 3 . A3 , .
3 1 2 A1 , A2 , A3 .
( k )  .

-73-

12.

.
S ( , k ) =

c
Re( E E )
k ~ ( , k ) E E
8
16

,
j ( , k ) A
j2

8
2

Sj

(N )
j

(12.24)
(12.5), . ,
,
, .
.

G G
( k )
. , ,
, ,
(12.19) (12.22) .
,
, Z.
(12.25) (12.26). ( 1 ) LHM, 1 0 . Z ()
3 1 ,
LHM, .
2 (). , , ( ) ,
LHM, Z, ,
() 1 , 2 ()
3 .
, LHM . , ,
 .

-74-

12.

(12.26),
, , LHM, (12.25). ,
, , .
, ,
, . ,
,
.

 .

-75-

13.
-
- -
. . . .
.
- -
.


.

,
.
,
, . , ,
. ,
, : )
() (); ) ()
. , ,
. , .
, , , , - . . , . , - - .
, .
, , , , . , ,
, .
 .

-76-

13. -

, . , ,
. ,
.
, , ,
. (6.3).
.
, ,
( (3) , (5) , (7) ...... ), . .
3, 5 . .
. ,
. , ( , 3 ) ,
,
.
, ,
1, 2, 3, ( (3) n =
3)

31=1+1+1; 32=2+2+2; 33=3+3+3,

(13.1)

s=123.

(13.2)

(13.1) . . 13.1
, , s i. 31+ 2 = s, 3 2 1 s . .
(3,1,2,s), .

 .

-77-

13. -

1
1

1
k1 k1 k1

k1 k2 k3

ks

ks

k1
ks

k2

k3

. 13.1

,
k i + k i + k i = k s ; k1 + k 2 + k 3 = k s ; k3 k1 + k 2 = k s .

(13.3)

.
,
.
(7.3) j-
dA1
= i 1 As A3 A2 exp( i kz ) + F1 A1 ,
dz
dA2
= i 2 As A3 A1 exp( i kz ) + F2 A2 ,
dz

(13.4)
dA3
= i 3 As A2 A1 exp( i kz ) + F3 A3 ,
dz

dAs
= i s A3 A2 A1 exp(i kz ) + Fs A3 .
dz
j = ( 2 2j N Tj (3) k j c 2 )

(13.5)

j- (7.2); Tj (3)
()
, (13.2); N

 .

-78-

13. -

() (). ,

Fj Aj , . (7.3).
(13.4)
s=31:
dA1
= i 1 As ( A1 ) 2 exp( i kz ) i Cs1 ( As AS ) A1 i C11 ( A1 A1 ) A1 ,
dz

(13.6)
dAs
= i s ( A1 )3 exp(i kz ) i C1s ( A1 A1 ) As i Css ( As AS ) As .
dz

C11 , Cs1 , Css , C1s (13.5), (3) jk , Tj(3) (13.5). , (3)


, Tj(3) , jk
.
, . ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
, .
, ,
. 13.2.
3+1+2=s.
. 13.2 .
. (12.1) Wg = 0;
W1 = 1g ; W2 = 2g W3 = 3g , ig .

 .

-79-

13. -

3(W1=hg1)

Wg3
2 (W1=hg2)

Wg2
1(W1=hg1)

Wg1
g (Wg=0)
. 13.2

Tj (3) ()
Tj (3) = D

d g1d12 d 23 d3 g
3

(1 1g + i 1 )(1 + 2 2 g + i 2 )((1 + 2 + 3 3 g + i 3 )

(13.7)

, d g1d12 d 23d 3 g . . 13.2: 1-, 12-,


23-, 3- ; k ; D =.
,
.
(13.7) ,

, .
. , ,
1,2,3 , s,
. , ,
,

2g=1+2,

(13.8)

.
 .

-80-

13. -

,
.
(13.7) . ,
k , . . ng k . Tj(3) ,
() , (13.7) , ,
ng . , 1,2,3, ,
, ng . , ,
Tj(3) , () , . (13.7) 1 + 2 2 g + i 2 = i 2 . k
109 1, . . 106 . , Tj(3) , () , 8 . N 107 Tj(3) .
. -
. c
. .
,
- ,
.

.

 .

-81-

14.
: . . .
.
: . .

,
.
, , ,
.
s . , . , , ,
, .

. , ,
, .
, , -
. , , ()
. ,
,
. ,
, , , , , .

(13.6) Tj (3) ,
C jk (3) .
() , . ,
. 14.1, 21 .

 .

-82-

14.

1 1

2
s

2
s

g
)

)
. 14.1

s s = 21 +1 (), s = s1 +1, (), s1


mg. ,
s = s s + s ().
(13.4)
dAs
= i s ( A1 )3 exp(ikz ) i Cs1 ( A1 A1 ) As i Css ( As AS ) As .
dz

(14.1)

, (), ()
() . (), s
1. () 1 s
. 1 s ,
. () s .
() , (13.7).
():
Cs1(3) ~

d g 3d 32 d 23d 3 g
3

(3 3 g + i 1 ) 2 (3 1 2 g + i 2 )

(14.2)

( 3 1 2 g = 21 2 g = 0 )

 .

-83-

14.

Cs1(3) ~ d g 3d 32 d 23d 3 g

(3 3 g + i 1 ) 2 (i 2 ) ,

(14.3)

()
Css (3) ~

d g 3d 32 d 23d 3 g
3

(3 3 g + i 1 )3

(14.4)

(14.3)
. , , , .
,
() . ,
. , (14.3) (13.5), (13.7), (14.1)
dAs
= i s ( A1 )3 exp(ikz ) s D
dz

2 2j N

( A1 A1 ) As .
3
2
2
(3 3 g + i 1 ) 2 k j c
d g 3 d32 d 23 d3 g

(14.5)

2 2j N

= D 3

( A1 A1 ) k = 0 , 2
2
(3 3 g + i 1 ) 2 k j c
d g 3 d32 d 23 d3 g

(1 ), (14.5) , s :
As ( z ) =

i s ( A1 )3

(1 exp( z )) .

(14.6)

, 1
lim
As ( z ) =
z

i s ( A1 )3

. ,

. , ,
(),
1. ()
. s
()
() ,
3 . ,

. .
 .

-84-

14.

21
(. 14.2). s 2,
. 21 = s2. , . , .
, 1

. ,
- ,
1
s

- 1
-
. , - , -
. 14.2
, . .
.
, (14.4). . 14.3. Cs1 Css . , (13.4)
dAs
= i s ( A1 )3 exp(ikz ) i Cs1 ( A1 A1 ) As ,
dz

(14.7)

, (6.2),
exp(i kz ) 1
As ( z ) = i s ( A1 )3
,
i k

(14.8)

k = k Cs1 ( A1 A1 ) . , (6.2), As ( z ) ~ z k = 0
( ), . . . k = 0 k = Cs1 ( A1 A1 ) , . .
() 2
k K = Cs1 ( A1 A1 ) ~ A1 .
2

A1 ,
, ,  .

-85-

14.

. ,
.

2
1

g
)

g
)

)
. 14.3

, (
)
, .
, ,
100%- (. 7).

.
,
n( ) = 1 + 4 N (1) ( ) . N (1) ( ) << 1,
N
n( ) 1 + 2 N a (1) ( ) .

(14.9)


k = (3 c1 ) [ n(31 ) n(1 ) ] .

(14.10)


 .

-86-

14.


(1) ( j ) =

rc
4 2

1
k

2
k

fk
,
1 j2

(14.11)

rc = 2/818x1013; k , , fk , k- ; j , . k , ,
,
Nb b(1) ( ) .
n( ) 1 + 2 N a a(1) ( ) + 2 N b b(1) ( )

(14.12)

n( ) N a Nb k
, . . .
:
1. .
2.
, .

 .

-87-

15.

() . . .
() .
(), ,
. ()
() . s ,
0 :
s = n0 .

(15.1)

n . 106108 . , ,
s ,i
, i, 0,i .

+ 20
+ 0
, n0
+ 0
+ 20

. 15.1

, (. 15.1) 1
2
,
.
s = n0 c n 3
 .

-88-

15.

( ),
. ,
. , = + n0
( ).
().
.
, , .
, q:
(q ) = 0 + 0' q + ......


0' =
.
q q =0

(15.2)

q q =0 ;

, 0 :
p = (q) E = 0 E + 0' qE .

(15.3)

, q , (15.3) . , 0 (15.1),
( = 0 )
( a = + 0 ) .

(. 15.2). ,

s ,
. , , ,
, a , .

 .

-89-

15.

0
a)

)
. 15.2

,
. , (15.3)
W = pE = (q ) E 2 .

(15.4)

, 0' 0 ,
:
f =

W
2
'
2
=
E = 0 E .
q q q =0

(15.5)

,
1 2 ,
1 2 0 .
, , ,
.
,
;

 .

-90-

15.

( ). ,
.

. .
.
, .
(15.5), ( )
q+

2
1 ' 2
E ,
q + 02 q =
T
2m

(15.6)

; T .

, (15.6).
=+ ,
= (t , z ) exp i ( t k z ) + kc .

(15.7)

c = c (t , z )exp i (c t kc z ) + kc ,

(15.8)

= 0 .
(15.6) . ,
q = N ' q ,
, ,
2 E n 2 2 E 4 2 P
.

= 2
c t 2
z 2 c 2 t 2

(15.9)

(15.6), 0 = 2 T .
1 0 = 0 2 c = 1 cT .
, , q , (15,7)(15.8):
(15.10)
(15.6), (15,7)
(15.8), 0 =
q = Q (t , z ) exp i (0 t k0 z ) + kc .

 .

-91-

15.

q( z ) = Q ( z )exp i (0 t ) + kc;

Q( z) =

' T
20 mc n n

A ( z ) ( z ) .

(15.11)

, k0 k k: k0= k k
,
, , , , . , Q , (15.9)
:
1
= gA ,
z 2
1
=
gA .
z 2

(15.12)

: ,
,

g'=

4 TN ' c
.
c0 2mnc n

(15.13)

, (15.12)

Ac = A0 c exp gz .

(15.14)

0 , 2
; g =g' A .
, .
, .
. .
, ,
.

 .

-92-

16.

.
.
.
.
, () gz = 30.

, (5.13) . , lg = 30 g ,
.
, ;
:
2c = c 0 = 20 .

(16.1)

:
nc = n0 .

(16.2)
16.1

0 2 c ,

= 1

4161

0 ,

g,
/

5103

2109

0,05102

656

50103

0,2109

0,15102

2326

67103

0,16109

102

1086

1,1

0,01109

0,6102

, . . 16.1 , .
.

 .

-93-

16.

,
, , , . n ,
a = + n0 .

(16.3)


, . , , , (. . 16.1),
.
, . 16.1:
a = + = + 0 .

(16.4)

. 16.1 :
; .
:
k a = k + k k = 2 k k .

ka

(16.5)

kc

. 16.1

(16.5) , , .
 .

-94-

16.

, , .

(16.2),
(16.3) :
a + = + ,

ka + k = k + k ,

(16.6)


. , ,
(12.4), , , z,

dAc
= i c A A A ,
dz
dA
= i A A A .
dz

(16.7)

, z.
.
,

N1
. ,
=
. 01
+ 01
, , . . . N0
.
, -
. 16.2

- ,

 .

-95-

16.

. ,
01 ( N1 N 0 ) . . (16.2). , , . ,

= + 01 , , , . ,
, .
, .
, .

 .

-96-

17.
.
. .
.
, , ,
.
. ,

, .
, .
, , .
U(z,t) ( (z,t))
s k s ,
. (15.9):
U ( z, t ) = U 0 e z exp i (s t k s z ) + kc .

(17.1)

ks = s vs , vs = T ,
, 105 /.; ;
; . k s
s 5 109 , , 1015 .
(16.6), , . ,
, (z,t)
U(z,t).
n 2 = = 0 + U 0 exp i (s t k s z ) + kc.

(17.2)

() (),

= s ,

(17.3)
(15.9), (15.12),  .

-97-

17.

= i A U ei ( k ks k ) ,
z

= i A Ue i ( k ks k ) ,
z

(17.4)


k = k ks

(17.5)

, , . k , k s
ks ,
. ,
.
, . . ,
. ,
, .
,
A
s (17.1) ks ,
(17.5). ( )
U
= i u A Aei ( k ks k ) .
z

(17.6)

(17.2) . ,

.
, , .
(), , 107108 /2.
.
(17.3) ,

 .

-98-

17.

, ,
109. ( . 17.1, ) ( . 17.1, )
k

ks

ks

)
. 17.1


(. 17.1, ). (16.1) 109,
10141015, . , k k ( k = n( ) c )
( ). ,
, ( ).
.
(. 17.2). ,
2 , 1, 3 . 4, ,

5.
= + . . 17.3:
k1 + k2 = k3 + k4 .

 .

(17.8)

-99-

17.

2 5

. 17.2

k1

k2

k4 = k3
2

k 4 = k3

. 17. 3

1
1 2,
k1 k2 ,
. , 2
3, k3 , 2
A3 (k3 ) . 1.
(13.4) A4 (k4 )

A4 (k4 )
= i A1 A2 A 3 (k3 ) exp i (k1 + k2 k3 k4 ) .
z

(17.9)

, k1 = k2
(17.9), k4 = k3 . ,

A4 (k4 ) A3 (k3 ) ,
. , A4 (k4 ) , , 2
 .

-100-

17.

.
. ,
( ) ( ) A3 (k3 ) ( )
1 ( 2) 2 ( 1 ).
.
.
, : (, ) ( ) . , .
. , , , ,
. , .
:
1. ( . . ,
) ,
, 0,1 .
2. ,
(, ) ( ).
3.
, . ,
, , .

. , , .

, , . ,
-

 .

-101-

17.

 .

-102-

1. , . . . 2- . .
. / . . , . . . . : , 2004. 512 .
2. , . . / . . , . . . .
: , 2003. 512 .
3. , . . / . .
, . . , . . . . : , 1988. 326 .

1. , . . / . . , . . .
. : - , 1998. 655 .
2. , . . / . . , . . , . . . . : , 1981. 400 .
3. , . / . . . : . , 1980.
4. , . . / . . , . . ,
. . . . : , 1979.
5. , . / . , . . . : , 1976.
6. , . . /
. . , . . . . : , 2001. 311.
7. : 7 . . 7. . . : -, 2001 (: 1) . . ; 2) . . ; 3) . . ; 4) . .
; 5) . . ; 6) . . ; 7) .
. ).
8. , . . / . . , . . . : - . 2003. 265 .
9. , . . / . . , . . // . 2004. .174 (4). . 439447.
10. , . . , /
. . // . 2002. .172 (10). . 12151218.
11. Agranovich, V. M. Linear and nonlinear wave propagation in negative refraction materials / V. M Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, Baughman R. H., anl Zakharov.
Phys. Rev. B, v.69, 165112 (2004).
12. Ilya V. Shadrinov, A. A. Zharov, Yuri S. Kivshar Second-harmonic
generation in left-handed metamaterials. arXiv: physics/0506092 v1. 10 jun 2005.
13. A. K. Popov, V. V. Slabko and V.M. Shalaev. Second harmonic generation in non linear left-handed materials Las. hys. Lett. 15 (2006)/ DOI
10.1002/lapl. 200610008.

 .

-103-