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II

(1962-1965)


II

konstituciebi
dekretebi
deklaraciebi

qristianuli Teologiisa da kulturis centris gamocema


Tbilisi
2006

CONCILIUM VATICANUM II
Constitutiones, Decreta, Declarationes

mTargmneli
lela aleqsiZe

Ringraziamo
Pontificio Consiglio per lUnit dei Cristiani
(Pres. Card. Walter Kasper)
Remerciements
Association Culture Amiti Partage (France)
LOeuvre dOrient (France)
Danke
Renovabis (Deutschland)

ISBN 99940-65-61-0
qristianuli Teologiisa da kulturis centri, 2006

sarCevi
juzepe pazoto
winaTqma vatikanis II krebis aqtebis
qarTuli gamocemisaTvis 7
merab RaRaniZe
vatikanis II krebis aqtebis qarTvel mkiTxvels 10
pier diumuleni
vatikanis II kreba 12
benediqte XI-is mimarTvidan romis kuriis wevrebisadmi 20
*
1. konstitucia wmida liturgiis Sesaxeb

(Sacrosanctum Concilium)35
2. dekreti sazogadoebrivi kominikaciis saSualebaTa Sesaxeb
(Inter mirifica)63
3. dogmaturi konstitucia eklesiis Sesaxeb
(Lumen gentium)73
4. dekreti aRmosavleTis kaTolike eklesiaTa Sesaxeb
(Orientalium Ecclesiarum)125
5. dekreti ekumenizmis Sesaxeb
(Unitatis redintgratio)135
6. dekreti eklesiaSi episkoposTa samoZRvro msaxurebis Sesaxeb
(Christus Dominus)151
7. dekreti samoweseo cxovrebis ganaxlebis Sesaxeb
(Perfectae caritatis)173
8. dekreti mRvdelTa aRzrdis Sesaxeb
(Optatam totius)185
9. deklaracia qristianuli aRzrdis Sesaxeb
(Gravissimum educationis)199
10. deklaracia eklesiis damokidebulebis Sesaxeb
araqristianuli religiebis mimarT
(Nostra aetate)211
11. dogmaturi konstitucia saRmrTo gamocxadebis Sesaxeb
(Dei verbum)217
12. dekreti saeroTa mociqulobis Sesaxeb
(Apostolicam actiositatem)229
13. deklaracia religiuri Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb
(Dignitatis humanae)253
14. dekreti eklesiis samisionero moRvaweobis Sesaxeb
(Ad gentes divinitus)265
15. dekreti mRvdelTa msaxurebisa da cxovrebis Sesaxeb
(Presbytororum ordinis)297
16. samoZRvro konstitucia Tanamedrove samyaroSi eklesiis Sesaxeb
(Gaudium et spes)325
*

saZieblebi

bibliuri citatebi 393

wmida mamebi da eklesiis moZRvarni, saeklesio mwerlebi 403

romis papebi411

krebebi418

liturgiuli dokumentebi 422

sxva wyaroebi, dokumentebi da damowmebani 423

Tematuri sagnobrivi saZiebeli 427

winaTqma
vatikanis II krebis aqtebis
qarTuli gamocemisaTvis
SesaZloa, cota ucnaurad Candes sixaruli im aqtebis qarTul Targmanis
gamocemis gamo, romelic saqarTvelodan Sors, romSi, 40 wlis winaT Catarebulma saeklesio krebam miiRo, magram darwmunebuli var, rom qristianuli Teologiisa da kulturis centris mier gamocemuli am aqtebis Targmans
udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs yvelasaTvis, visac dRevandeli kaTolike eklesiis sulisa da guliscemis Secnoba surs.
vatikanis II saeklesio kreba (1962-1965 ww.) mravalmxrivi mniSvnelobis
movlenaa: mis momzadebaSi zRva energia Caiqsova, _ mTeli msofliodan
momavali winadadebebisa da gamoxmaurebebis raodenobam gadaaWarba nebismieri sxva saeklesio krebis momzadebisas dafiqsirebul gamoxmaurebaTa
raodenobas. krebis sesiaTa muSaobaSi monawileoba miiRo msoflios yvela
kuTxis warmomadgenelma uamravma episkoposma (maT Soris iyo 2440 kaTolike
episkoposi da sxvadasxva qristianul eklesiaTa _ maT Soris marTlmadidebeli eklesiebis _ delegaciebi), vinc namdvilad warmoadgina msoflio
eklesiis saxe da azrovneba. aseve pirvelad moxda, rom aTasamde Jurnalisti
dawvrilebiT aSuqebda krebis saqmianobas da sazogadoebas daubrkoleblad
awvdida informacias misi msvlelobis Sesaxeb.
saeklesio krebis mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare, im periodis movlenebs
krebamdelsa da krebisSemdgoms uwodeben, rac naTlad metyvelebs vatikanis II saeklesio krebis gavleniT kaTolike eklesiaSi momxdar cvlilebebze, romlebic TvalnaTliv aisaxa aseve yvela qristianuli eklesiis cxovrebasa da istoriaze.
sxva saeklesio krebaTagan gansxvavebiT, vatikanis II saeklesio krebas
aravin ganukiTxavs da aravin gaukicxavs, ar gamoucia kanonebi da arc rwmenis sakiTxebze miuRia gadamwyveti dadgenilebebi. es axali tipis saeklesio kreba _ samwyso kreba _ iyo, romelmac dRevandel samyarosTan
saxarebis miaxloeba scada. darwmunebuli var, rom es saxasiaTo niSani am
krebis sidiadeze metyvelebs da yvela Semdegi saeklesio krebis momavalze aisaxeba.
rogorc cnobilia, Tavisi Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, yoveli saeklesio
kreba ganmartavs da xorcs asxams samociqulo tradicias, romelSic, Tavis
mxriv, Tavisi gansakuTrebuli wvlili Seaqvs. cxadia, es ar gulisxmobs eklesiis sarwmunoebriv memkvidreobaSi siaxleTa Setanas an arsebul moZRvrebaTa gauqmebas. TiToeuli saeklesio kreba ganviTarebis, ganmartebisa
da gamorkvevis procesia, romelic suli wmidis TanxlebiT mimdinareobs da,
amgvarad, eklesiis mTliani tradiciis Semadgenel nawilad iqceva. amitomac saeklesio kreba mudam win iyureba _ da ara ukan _ moZRvrebis ufro
farTod, mkafiod da aqtualurad gadmocemisken swrafvaSi. saeklesio krebas ar SeuZlia SeewinaaRmdegos wina krebebs, mas SeuZlia mxolod Seavsos,
daazustos, ganagrZos da xeli Seuwyos manamde Camoyalibebul WeSmaritebaTa wvdomas. swored amis Tqma SegviZlia vatikanis II krebis Sesaxeb, romlisTvisac tradicia namdvilad gaTavisebuli arsia. es wrfeli dajerebuloba
gamosWvivis nikeis II krebis (787 w.) gansazRvrebaSi: raki saqme amgvaradaa,

Sesavali

garkveuli TvalsazrisiT mTavar gzas davadeqiT da RmrTivSTagonebuli


Cveni mamebis moZRvrebasa da kaTolike eklesiis gadmocemas gavyeviT: es
ukanaskneli, rogorc viciT, saTaves iRebs suli wmididan, romelic masSi
cocxlobs.
vatikanis II krebac aRiarebs tradiciasTan Tavis mWidro kavSirs: krebis
aqtebSi mravali miniSnebaa tradiciaze, xSiradaa damowmebuli wina krebebi,
papTa enciklikebi, eklesiis mamebi da didi RmrTismetyvelni.
magram saeklesio krebis sidiade tradiciis wiaRSi dRevandeli dRis
aqcentirebis warmatebul mcdelobaSia. dRevandeli problemebi pasuxis
gacemas saWiroebs da vatikanis II krebam didebulad gaarTva Tavi am amocanas, upasuxa arsebul kiTxvebs da winaswar ganWvrita axalTa warmoSoba. es
kreba swored imitom aris samwyso kreba, rom is Tanamedrove adamians daudga gverdiT.
darwmunebuli var, rom am aqtebis gacnobiT, maTze dakvirvebiTa da gansjiT SesaZloa imis SegrZneba, Tu rogor imoqmeda suli wmidam da rogor
Seitana haeris cocxali nakadi eklesiis cxovrebaSi.
Cemi azriT, mkafiod ikveTeba ramdenime mimarTuleba, romelic saeklesio krebam dRevandeli eklesiis cxovrebaSi daamkvidra:

Tanamedrove samyarosa da kulturasTan dialogis mimarTuleba (ix.


samoZRvro konstitucia Tanamedrove samyaroSi eklesiis Sesaxeb
_ Gaudium et spes; dogmaturi konstitucia eklesiis Sesaxeb _ Lumen
gentium; dekreti sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis saSualebaTa Sesaxeb
_ Inter mirifica). ar SeiZleba ganvixiloT eklesia gancalkevebul, izolirebul sinamdviled, romelic WeSmaritebas inaxavs sakuTar TavSi, is Tanamedrove samyaros cxovrebis aqtiuri nawilia, _ eklesia,

romelic axlosaa adamianTan.


Tavis xalxTan erTianobaSi myofi RmrTis gamocxadebis miRebis mimarTuleba. RmrTis cxovrebaSi anu samerTian arsebaSi (comunione trinitaria) SesvliT SeiZleba CavwvdeT qristianis misias, iyos erTianobisa da mSvidobis wyaro adamianTa Soris (ix. dogmaturi konstitucia
saRmrTo gamocxadebis Sesaxeb _ Dei verbum; dekreti aRmosavleTis
kaTolike eklesiaTa Sesaxeb _ Orientalium Ecclesiarum; dekreti ekumenizmis Sesaxeb _ Unitatis Redintegratio; deklaracia eklesiis damokidebulebis Sesaxeb araqristianuli religiebis mimarT _ Nostra aetate),
_ eklesia, romelic usmens.
liturgiuli mimarTuleba, romelic liturgias qristianuli
cxovrebis wyarod da mwvervalad aqcevs, magram imisaTvis, raTa
is gasagebad iqces RmrTis xalxisTvis, liturgias aTavisuflebs
moZvelebuli formebisagan _ morwmunis RmrTis saidumlos SuagulSi Sesayvanad (ix. konstitucia wmida liturgiis Sesaxeb _ Sacrossantum Concilium; dekreti samoweseo cxovrebis ganaxlebis Sesaxeb _
Perfectae caritatis), _ eklesia, romelic loculobs.
damowmebis mimarTuleba, romelic naTlobaSi debs misionerul moxmobas, qristianuli uwyebis mauwyeblebad viqceT _ TiToeuli Tavisi gansakuTrebuli mowodebis Tanaxmad Tavisi cxovrebiTa da qmedebiT (ix. dekreti eklesiis samisionero moRvaweobis Sesaxeb _ Ad
Gentes divinitus; dekreti saeroTa mociqulobis Sesaxeb _ Apostolicam
actuositatem), _ eklesia, romelic auwyebs.
pasuxismgeblobis mimarTuleba, romelic yvelas mogvixmobs, viyoT
cocxali eklesia im qarizmaTa gaerTianebiT, romlebic TiToeulma yvelas sasikeTod miiRo, vemsaxuroT upiratesad Raribebsa da

juzepe pazoto

mitovebulebs (ix. deklaracia religiuri Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb _


Dignitatis humanae; deklaracia qristianuli aRzrdis Sesaxeb _ Gravisimum educationis; dekreti eklesiaSi episkoposTa samoZRvro msaxurebis Sesaxeb _ Christus Dominus; dekreti mRvdelTa aRzrdis Sesaxeb _
Optatam totius; dekreti mRvdelTa msaxurebisa da cxovrebis Sesaxeb _
Presbyterorum ordinis), _ eklesia, romelic emsaxureba.
ratom aris mniSvnelovani am aqtebis qarTulad Targmna?
saqarTvelos istoria da kultura ieso qristes movlenaSia fesvgadgmuli. sirTuleebis xangrZlivi periodis Semdeg saqarTvelo axla win iyureba, dRevandeli dRisadmi yuradRebiTa da, amave dros, sakuTari tradiciis
SenarCunebisa da dacvis surviliT. namdvili momavlis Sesaqmnelad xalxma
yuradReba unda miaqcios rogorc materialurs, iseve suliers. am aqtebSi Tavmoyrili da gadmocemuli gansjis gamocdileba SesaZloa, daexmaros
maT, visac win yureba surs.
kaTolike eklesia, romelic marTlmadidebel eklesiasTan erTad mudam
aqtiurad monawileobda saqarTvelos cxovrebaSi, moxarulia, rom am masalebis meSveobiTac SeuZlia gaacnos sazogadoebas Tavisi moqmedebis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi da darwmunebulia, rom es nabiji mis ufro ukeT gacnobas Seuwyobs xels. ukeTesad gacnoba ki ueWvelad gamoiwvevs qristianul
konfesiaTa megobrobis gaRrmavebas, maT Soris sruli da ufro mtkice erTianobis samomavlo perspeqtivis TvalsazrisiTac.
am wignSi Tavmoyrili aqtebi gviCveneben im mimarTulebebs, romlebsac
mihyveba kaTolike eklesia zogjer nela da sirTuleebis gadalaxviT, zogjerac ufro swrafad da msubuqad. droTa ganmavlobaSi gasagebi xdeba, rom
TiToeuli aqti rCeba im sabadod, romelsac unda davewafoT da romelic kvlavac mimarTulebis mimcemia eklesiis dRevandel arCevanTaTvis.
am mimarTulebebma, romelTa meSveobiTac eklesia RmrTis erTguli rCeba, radganac dRes adamianis gverdiT dgas da misTvis iRwvis, daipyro Cemi
guli da mimaRebines gadawyvetileba, mTeli Cemi sicocxle mivuZRvna im eklesiis siyvarulsa da msaxurebas, romelzec ocnebobs vatikanis II kreba da
romelzec mec vocnebob.
episkoposi juzepe pazoto
laTinuri wesis kaTolikeTa
samociqulo administratori saqarTveloSi

vatikanis II krebis aqtebis qarTvel mkiTxvels


Tundac sakmao dagvianebiT, magram dRes qarTveli mkiTxveli wasakiTxad xelSi iRebs vatikanis II krebis aqtebs mSobliur enaze, _ saeklesio-saRmrTismetyvelo azrovnebis fundamentur teqstebs, _ riTac igi
uSualod igrZnobs da gaigebs sayovelTao eklesiis sunTqvas, mis fiqrsa da
gansjas, dafuZnebuls wmida werilisa da wmida gadmocemis uryev erTgulebaze, tradiciis siRrmiseul gaazrebasa da ganviTarebaze, awmyoSi msxemi
eklesiisa da awyoSi mkvidri am soflis saR xedvaze, momavlis mkafio da arsebiT Wvretaze. es aqtebi naTlad aCvenebs, Tu sad idga kaTolike eklesia
XX saukunis 60-ian wlebSi da saiT iyo mipyrobili misi mzera, Tu gzis saiT
gagrZeleba airCia da gadawyvita qristes eklesiam, romelsac _ sZalsa da
dedas _ arasodes uRalatia macxovris erTgulebisaTvis da romelic cvalebad samyaroSi _ erTaderTi _ gzaaurevlad mihyveboda uflis aRTqmasa
da danapirebs. es aqtebi imasac aCvenebs, Tu ras sTavazobs eklesia am krTomad da ryevad sofels, ra ucvlel da uryev Rirebulebebs icavs Tavad da
saiT mouwodebs, mouxmobs mas.
am wignis mkiTxveli iRebs ueWvel da naTel pasuxebs im kiTxvebze,
rasac dRevandeli samyaro uyenebs Tanamedrove adamians, _ morwmunesa
Tu urwmunos, _ da aq eklesia metyvelebs Tavisi Seumcdari sityviT, romelsac uflis mcnebaTa midevnebis oriaTaswlovani memkvidreoba akiafebs.
gansakuTrebulia winamdebare gverdebis saRmrTismetyvelo _ JamTa svlaze amaRlebuli _ Rirebuleba, magram es wigni morwmune kaTolikisaTvis
Seucvleli da sando megzuricaa dRevandeli samyaros monacvle (xSirad
amRvreul da uTavbolo) dinebaTa wiaR, xolo arakaTolikes, araqristians
Tu urwmunos is awvdis kaTolike eklesiis sajaro da dadasturebul xedvas,
sajaro damokidebulebas ara marto Sidaeklesiuri sakiTxebis, aramed gare
samyaros sixarulTa Tu SeWirvebaTa mimarT. is ki, vinc gadawyvets gaigos,
Tu rogoria eklesiis TviTganazreba, vinc eklesiis Sesaxeb saRmrTismetyvelo moZRvrebas moiZiebs, uciloblad versad naxavs saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi ufro mniSvnelovan naTqvams, vidre imas, rasac igi amoikiTxavs vatikanis
II krebis dogmatur konstituciaSi eklesiis Sesaxeb (Lumen gentium). magram
gamoqveynebul aqtebs Soris mkiTxveli moipovebs pasuxs ara marto imis Sesaxeb, Tu ras fiqrobs deda eklesia sakuTari Tavis Sesaxeb, eklesiis misiis,
eklesiis Sidawyobisa da SidamimarTulebaTa, samRvdelo-samonazvno dasisa
Tu morwmune mrevlis _ erTgulTa gamo, magram, amasTanave, iseTi saukunovani mwvave sakiTxebis Sesaxebac, rogoricaa eklesia da sazogadoeba, eklesia da mecniereba, eklesia da kultura, eklesia da politika.

warmodgenili aqtebi TavianTi Seqmnis drois suliskveTebas asaxavs,
maT SemqmnelTa kuTvnilebasa da pasuxismgeblobas garkveuli Jamisadmi,
magram romis wmida petres bazilikis gumbaTqveS Sekrebili mamebi _ konstituciaTa, dekretTa, dekalaraciaTa avtorebi _ mzeras usworebdnen,
upirveles yovlisa, qristes eklesiis mcire Tu did, xilul Tu uxilav, xelSesaxeb da xelTuqmnel taZrebSi mogizgize waruval siwmideebs, eklesiis
sulier keraTa sacavebSi daunjebul da gaRvivebul sulierebas, da, kidev
erTxel, vatikanis borcvze aRmarTuli am diadi bazilikis mRvimes _ wmida
petres saflavs, im petresi, romelsac, rogorc qvas, daefuZna jojoxeTis

10

merab RaRaniZe

bWeTagan uZleveli eklesia da romelsac _ swored petresa da mis memkvidre romis eklesis meTaurebs _ miando ufalma eklesiis gaZRola saukuneTa
dasasrulamde, aRsasrulamde soflisa.

aRsaniSnavi da RirSesaniSnavia, rom yvela aqti, romelic gamosca
vatikanis II krebam, pirvel yovlisa, dialoguria, _ yovel maTganSi xilulad feTqavs dialogis mxurvale muxti: mkiTxvelis yurs daubrkoleblad
swvdeba dialogi ufalsa da mis eklesias _ siZesa da sZals _ Soris, magram,
amasTanave, aSkaraa swrafva dialogisa ara marto Sidaeklesiur, aramed Sidaqristianul farglebSi, swrafva dialogisa kaTolikeTa da arakaTolikeTa, kaTolikeTa da araqristianTa, kaTolike eklesiasa da garemomcvel
samyaros Soris.

vatikanis II kreba 1965 wlis 8 dekembers daixura, _ netari qalwuli
mariamis taZrad miyvanebis dRes. Tavis dadgenilebaTa ganxorcieleba deda
eklesiam eklesiis dedas _ ganxorcielebuli sityvis dedas, RmrTismSobel
mariams _ Seavedra, mis yovladmfarvel meoxebas miando.

Tuki dRevandeli saqarTvelo Tavs msoflio mdinarebaTa nakadSi
xedavs da moiazrebs, Tuki dRevandeli saqarTvelo sayovelTao saukunovan RirebulebaTa erTgulebas acxadebs, maSin Cveni qveynis sazogadoebas
saSualeba unda hqondes, uSualod icnobdes romis kaTolike eklesiis _
msoflio anu sayovelTao eklesis _ Sinagan cxovrebas, mis arCevans, mis mimarTebebsa da damokidebulebebs; amgvari codna ki SeuZlebelia eklesiis
iseTi fuZemdebluri teqstis, rogoricaa vatikanis II krebis aqtebi, axlo
da safuZvliani gacnobis gareSe; yovel SemTxvevaSi, Cveni qveynis moqalaqeebs naTlad unda SeeZloT imis warmodgena, Tu ras niSnavda XX saukunis
qristianuli samyarosaTvis vatikanis II kreba (anu XXI msoflio kreba), romelmac saxec ucvala eklesias _ tradiciisagan mouwyvetliv _ da momavali ganviTarebis Wdeebic aRiqva da Seafasa.
mkiTxveli pirvelad iRebs vatikanis II krebis aqtebis qarTul Targmans... Znelia iTqvas, ukanasknelad rodis iTargmna qarTulad ara marto
aseTi siRrmis, aramed, aseve, aseTi sirTulis saRmrTismetyvelo teqstebi.
amitomac, rogorc imTaviTve ivaraudeboda, misi Targmna advili saqme ar
yofila, rac mTlianad sakuTar Tavze ido filosofiis doqtorma, profesorma lela aleqsiZem. bunebrivia, Targmans srulyofilad arc mTargmneli
miiCnevs da arc gamomcemlebi, miT umetes, rom rakiRa aqtebis gamoqveyneba
metad saSurad iyo miCneuli, momavlisTvis gadaido misi safuZvliani Teologiuri da stiluri redaqtireba, _ teqstebi amJamad im saxiT ibeWdeba,
rogorc is mTargmnelma warmoudgina gamomcemelT. Targmnili teqstebis
Semdgomi daxvewa momdevno gamocemisaTvis ivaraudeba, romelSic uTuod
iqneba gaTvaliswinebuli SemoTavazebebi da SeniSvnebi. mkiTxvels ki gvinda
vTxovoT, rom Tuki aqtebis qarTuli Targmanis romelime monakveTis kiTxvisas igi odnav mainc SeWoWmandeba, zedmeti ar iqneba, teqstebis laTinur
originals (an sxvaenovan Targmanebs) mihmarTos Tavisi SeeWvebis Sesamowmeblad an dasadastureblad.
CvendaTavad, wignis mkiTxvels sulier gancdaTa da ganWvretaTa
mraval nayofier wuTsa da saaTs vusurvebT, romelic mas ueWvelad elis am
furclebis CaRrmavebuli kiTxvisas da wvdomisas.
merab RaRaniZe
15 agvisto, 2006
wmida mariamis zecad aRyvanebis dRe

11

vatikanis II kreba
Sesavali
vatikanis meore kreba mimdinareobda 1962 wlis 11 oqtombridan 1965 wlis
8 dekembramde. krebis oTxi sesia yovel Semodgomas tardeboda (1962, 1963,
1964, 1965 w).
papis pius XI-is aRsaydrebisTanave dadga sakiTxi, dabrunebodnen vatikanis I krebas, romelic 1870 wels Sewyda, magram es Canafiqri imJamad ver
ganxorcielda. ioane XXIII-m arCevisTanave ganacxada krebis mowvevis aucileblobis Sesaxeb, rac ganpirobebuli iyo sruliad axali perspeqtiviT,
sadac umTavresi yuradReba samwyso moRvaweobasa da ekumenur orientacias
unda dasTmoboda.
qristianTa erTobis sabWos Seqmna, arakaTolike damkvireblebelTa
aqtiuri monawileoba (kerZod, iseTi aqtebis SeqmnaSi, rogorebicaa Dignitatis humanae da Unitatis redintegratio), amasTanave, araerTi teqstis kenWisyriT miReba qristianTa gaerTianebis saqmeSi mniSvnelovani win gadadgmuli nabiji
gaxda. konstantinopolis sapatriarqom Tavisi damkvirveblebi gamogzavna
mxolod III sesiaze, magram 7 marTlmadidebeli eklesiis warmomadgenlebi,
maT Soris ruseTis eklesiis warmomadgenlebi, krebas Tavidanve eswrebodnen. damkvirvebelTa raodenoba nel-nela 31-dan 93-mde gaizarda, romlebic
8 eklesiasa da aRmsareblobas warmoadgendnen. isini eswrebodnen yvela sesias da gamoTqvamdnen TavianT mosazrebebs sxvadasxva Sekrebebze.
meore mxriv, gadawyvetileba cvlilebaTa Sesaxeb (maT Soris, liturgiaSi), gamorCeuli maxvilis dasma konstituciaze eklesiis Sesaxeb da sxva
aqtebze (episkoposTa kolegialobis Sesaxeb, saeroTa ufro aqtiuri monawileobis Sesaxeb eklesiis cxovrebaSi) metyvelebda eklesiis Rrma ganaxlebaze. amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am krebas, romelic sruliad gansxvavdeboda wina krebebisagan, udidesi samwyso, ekumenuri da eklesiologiuri
mniSvneloba hqonda. arcerTi dogmaturi gansazRvreba, arcerTi anaTema ar
sdevda Kkrebis muSaobis nayofs: 3 deklaracias, 9 dekretsa da 4 konstitucias.
momzadeba
Tavisi arCevis umal, 1959 wlis 25 ianvars, papma ioane XXIII-m ganacxada Tavisi Canafiqris Sesaxeb, moewvia saeklesio kreba. mTeli msofliodan romSi
miiwvies kardinalebi, raTa maT amasTan dakavSirebiT TavianTi mosazrebani gamoeTqvaT. 1959 wlis 17 maiss Seiqmna mosamzadebeli komisia, romelSic
romis ZiriTadi kongregaciebis mdivnebi Sevidnen da romelsac saTaveSi
Caudga kardinali tardini. Mman komisiis mdivnad monsiniori feliCi airCia.
komisias daevala ufarToesi konsultaciebis mowyoba im mizniT, raTa gansazRvruliyo krebaze gasatani sakiTxebi.
18 ivniss episkoposebs, nunciusebsa da sasuliero ordenebis winamZRvrebs mimarTes TxovniT, gamoegzavnaT TavianTi winadadebebi, 18 ivliss
ki Catarda teqnikuri konsultacia Teologiisa da kanonikuri samarTalis
fakultetebis warmomadgenelTa monawileobiT. nel-nela _ sxvaTa Soris,

12

pier diumuleni

eklesiis cxovrebaSi krebebis rolisa da momavali Tavyrilobis savaraudo


miznebis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva publikaciaTa wyalobiT _ miRweul iqna kaTolikuri sazogadoebrivi azris garkveuli ganwyoba.
1960 wlis 5 ivnisiss Camoyalibda aTi komisia (saRmrTismetyvelo, eparqiebis marTvisa, sasuliero pirTa da qristiani xalxis wesrigisa, saidumloebaTa, moweseTa ordenebisa, liturgiisa, swavlebisa da seminariebisa,
aRmosavleTis eklesiebisa, misiebisa, saeroTa msaxurebisa) da ori sabWo (masobrivi informaciis saSualebebisa da qristianTa erTobisa). maT muSaobas
centraluri komisia warmarTavda, romelsac, amas garda, momavali Sekrebis
reglamentis SemuSaveba daevala.
gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miipyro samma faqtma: saeroTa msaxurebis
komisiis Seqmnam; qristianTa erTobis sabWos ACamoyalibebam, romelmac male
gamoavlina Tavi umniSvnelovanes Suamavlad romis eklesiis ekumenur moZraobasTan daaxloebis saqmeSi; sakuTriv komisiis wevrTa arCevam, sadac
saRmrTismetyvelo da samwyso mimdinareobebs, sxvebTan erTad, warmoadgendnen is adamianebi, romlebic aqamde idevnebodnen integristulad ganwyobili jgufebis mier (kerZod, iv kongari da anri de lubaki).
1960 wlis 14 noembers sazeimod daiwyo komisiaTa muSaoba, romelTac
nel-nela SeimuSaves 70 proeqti.
krebis muSaobis dasawyisi.
I sesia (11.10 _ 08.12.1962)
oTxwliani mzadebis Semdeg, 1962 wlis 11 oqtombers, wmida petres bazilikaSi ioane XXIII-m kreba sazeimod gaxsna. Ppapis Sesavali sityva umal sensaciad iqca: man imiT daiwyo, rom SekrebilT TxovniT mimarTa, krebis mimdinareobisas moridebodnen gakicxvaTa Cveul formebs. Ppapma xazgasmiT
aRniSna, rom krebis samuSao procesi unda gamsWvaluliyo namdvili samwyso
suliskveTebiT da orientirebuliyo ekumenizmze.
krebis gaxsnas eswreboda 2386 monawile (2800 mowveulidan), agreTve, is
qristiani damkvirveblebi, romlebic ar imyofebian TanaziarebaSi romis
eklesiasaTan: marTlmadideblebi, protestantebi, anglikanebi, Zvelmowese
kaTolikeebi. krebas Riaoba maTma yofnamac mianiWa! krebas aseve eswreboda
daaxloebiT 300 eqsperti: RmrTismetyvelni, liturgistebi, kanonistebi.
isini sajaro debatebSi ar monawileobdnen, magram maT kompetenciaSi Sedioda dokumentebis redaqtireba da komisiebisaTvis konsultaciebis gaweva.
Zalian male gamomJRavnda, rom Sekrebilebi gaiyvnen umravlesobad da
uciresobad. umravlesoba Riaobis suliskveTebis erTguli iyo, romelsac warmoadgenda papi ioane XIII: isini yuradRebiT ekidebodnen Tanamedrove samyaros sinamdviles, _ moTxovnas, miaxloebinaT misTvis eklesia ise,
rom saxarebiseuli uwyeba yvelasTan misuliyo; gaeTvaliswinebinaT qristianTa erTobis saWiroebebi; aucileblad mieCniaT, myarad dafuZnebuliyo saRmrTismetyvelo azri da saeklesio cxovreba wmida werilze. aq unda
davasaxeloT kardinalebi lienari, fringsi, lerkaro, siunensi, romlebic
upovarTa namdvil mauwyeblebad iqcnen.
umciresobis warmomadgenlebi Tavs sarwmunoebis damcvelebad miiCnevdnen da amitomac isini sifrTxiliT uyurebdnen yovelgvar cvlilebebs.
ramdenadac krebas konsensusis miRweva surda, amitom umciresobam SeZlo
garkveuli zemoqmedebis moxdena,Mrac zog SemTxvevaSi ufro mkacri formulirebebis miRebiT gamoixateboda, zogjer ki _ teqstebis SerbilebiT.Ees
jgufi ZiriTadad romis kuriis wevrebisagan da qristianuli qveynebis _
italiis, espaneTis, laTinuri amerikis _ episkoposebisgan Sedgeboda. maT

13

Sesavali

Soris unda movixsenioT kardinalebi otaviani, rufini, broune da episkoposi marsel lefevri, romelic SemdgomSi eklesiisgan gamoyofili tradicionalisturi sakrebulos damfuZnebeli gaxda.
krebis dawyebidan dasrulebamde samuSao procesi Tavisuflebis suliskveTebiT iyo gamsWvaluli, rac xSirad daZabul situaciebs qmnida.
Ppirvel rigSi krebam liturgiis ganaxlebis sakiTxi ganixila. pirvelive
redaqciis debulebaTa umetesi nawili uZveles tradiciebs eyrdnoboda, magaliTad, im mniSvnelobas, rac RmrTis sityvas eniWeboda, agreTve, morwmuneTa aqtiur monawileobas, cocxali enebis gamoyenebas RmrTismsaxurebaSi,
erTobliv msaxurebas, ori saxis ziarebas (puriTa da RviniT) da a. S. Kkritikis
miuxedavad, am proeqtis (romelic SemdgomSi iqca konstituciad Sacrosanctum Concilium) ZiriTad mimarTulebas damswreTa 97%-ma dauWira mxari.
saRmrTo gamocxadebis Sesaxeb proeqtis gamo (momavali konstitucia Dei
Verbum) SemuSavda rekomendacia, rom saWiro iyo misi gadamuSaveba, _ ekumenur urTierTobebTan uSualo kavSiris gaTvaliswinebiT. am mizniT Seiqmna
Sereuli komisia, romlis wevrTa naxevars qristianTa erTobis sabWos wevrebi Seadgendnen.
I sesiis dasrulebisTanave, 1963 wlis 9 aprils, papma gamoaqveyna enciklika mSvidobisa da samarTlianobis Sesaxeb (Pacem in terries).
1963 wlis 3 ivniss ioane XIII moulodnelad gardaicvala. Aam ambavma SeZra
mTeli msoflio. bevrma gauCnda eWvi, gaagrZelebda Tu ara kreba muSaobas.
papi pavle VI da krebis muSaobis ganaxleba.
II sesia (22.09 _ 4.12.1963)
1963 wlis 21 ivniss papad airCies milanis mTavarepiskoposi, kardinali
jovani batista montini, romelmac pavle VI-is saxeli miiRo. 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi igi pius XII-sTan, romis kuriaSi, saxelmwifo samdivnoSi muSaobda.
Ppavle VI sruliad iziarebda ioane XXIII-is miswrafebebs da mas Semdeg, rac
ganaaxla krebis muSaoba, mas sruliad axali suliskveTeba Cahbera da ufro
nayofierad aqcia. man daniSna oTxi moderatori, romlebic cnobilni iyvnen
TavianTi reformatoruli mimarTulebiT: kardinalebi lerkaro, dopfneri, siunensi da aRajaniani. maTi misia iyo, rom xeli SeewyoT debatebis winsvlisaTvis. papma gadawyvita, daZabuli situaciebisas Tavad piradad Careuliyo xolme, yoveli teqstisaTvis rac SeiZleba meti xmis mosapoveblad. man
Seqmna presis samsaxuri, raTa uzrunvelyofiliyo krebis muSaobis Sesaxeb
yoveldRiuri informaciis miwodeba, agreTve, damkvireblebad miiwvia saero pirebi, romlebic aqtiur monawileobas iRebdnen saeklesio cxovrebaSi
(maT Soris iyo filosofosi da mwerali Jan gitoni). mogvianebiT mowveuli
iyo ramdenime monazoni da sakrebuloTa 38 winamZRvari.
MII sesiaze sabolood SemuSavda konstitucia liturgiis Sesaxeb (Sacrosanctum Concilium), romelic 2147 xmiT 4-is winaaRmdeg iqna miRebuli. amis Semdeg
krebis mamebi ufro rTuli sakiTxebis ganxilvas Seudgnen. es sakiTxebi eklesiis bunebasa da eklesiis saqmianobas Seexeboda. romis centralizmis
momxreebi debatebSi episkoposTa kolegiuri erTianobis winaaRmdeg gamovidnen. NnoemberSi krebis 50-ze metma mamam episkoposTa sinodis daarsebis
survili gamoTqva. sinodis sxdomebi garkveuli periodulobiT da papis TavmjdomareobiT unda Catarebuliyo.
sesiis dasrulebis Semdeg, 1964 wlis ianvarSi, pavle VI-m wmida miwa moiloca. es erTdroulad iyo gawyveta im tradiciasTan, romelic papebs italiis miwasTan ajaWvavda da, amave dros, pirvelsawyisebTan dabrunebis simbolo da didi ekumenuri mniSvnelobis demarSi, radganac papi ierusalemSi

14

pier diumuleni

konstantinopolidan sagangebod Camosul msoflio patriarqs aTenagoras


Sexvda, romelTanac man mSvidobis ambori gacvala.
1964 wlis 6 agvistos papma gamoaqveyna enciklika eklesiaSi dialogis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb (Ecclesiam Suam), romelsac didi mniSvneloba hqonda, Tumca mas naklebi yuradReba mieqca. masSi igrZnoboda ukve Catarebuli ori
sesiis suliskveTebac da amoicnoboda krebis Semdgomi muSaobis mimarTulebac.
III sesia (14.09 _ 21.11.1964)
mesame sesia gaixsna wirviT, romelic 24-ma kardinalma da episkoposma
aRavlina. es wirva gaxda praqtikuli ganxorcieleba im SesaZleblobebisa,
romelic liturgiulma reformam gamoavlina.
sesia Zalze nayofieri aRmoCnda. masze TiTqmis erTxmad SemuSavda da
miRebul iqna dogmaturi konstitucia eklesiis Sesaxeb (Lumen gentium) _
krebis RmrTismetyvelebisa da mis reformaTa qvakuTxedi. magram gardauvali gaxda kamaTic, romelic gansakuTrebiT gaZlierda ori teqstis gamo: religiuri Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb (romelsac ekamaTeboda tradicionalistTa
frTa) da ebraelTa Sesaxeb (romlis gamoc zogi SiSobda, rom mas arabTa
agresiuli reaqcia mohyveboda). am ori teqstis safuZvelze papma pavle VI-m
ori calke deklaraciis Sedgena gadawyvita. papma, konservatiuli umciresobis Sesustebis mizniT, konstitucias eklesiis Sesaxeb daurTo SeniSvna,
romlebic ganmartavda urTierTdamokidebulebas episkoposTa kolegiurobasa da papis Zalauflebisa Soris, xolo dekretSi ekumenizmis Sesaxeb
Seitana Sesworebebi, romelic arakaTolikeebs Seexeboda; dabolos, papma
wmida qalwuli mariami eklesiis dedad gamoacxada. dekreti ekumenizmis
Sesaxeb (Unitatis Redintegratio) 1964 wlis 21 noembers xmaTa umravlesobiT iqna
miRebuli, iseve, rogorc dekreti aRmosavleTis eklesiaTa Sesaxeb (Orientalium Ecclesiarum). gadamuSavda proeqti episkoposTa samoZRvro msaxurebis
Sesaxeb. miuxedavad gadawyvetilebisa, rom proeqtebis raodenoba 70-dan 16de Semcirebuliyo, araerTi mniSvnelovani teqsti darCa gansaxilveli da
misaRebi. aSkara gaxda, rom saWiro iyo meoTxe sesiis mowveva, romelic, papis
gadawyvetilebiT, daskvniTi unda yofiliyo. sesiis dasrulebis umal papi
bombeiSi, indoeTSi, gaemgzavra, sadac warmoTqva SesaniSnavi sityva msoflioSi SimSilisa da evqaristiuli puris Sesaxeb.
IV sesia (15.09 _ 7.12.1965)
sesiis dasawyisSi papma episkoposTa sinodis dafuZnebis Sesaxeb ganacxada.
pirveli xuTi sxdoma daeTmo proeqts religiuri Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb, romelic xelaxla SeimuSava amerikelma iezuitma k. miureim. am teqstma seriozuli winaaRmdegobebi gamoavlina. umciresoba, maT Soris marsel lefevri, kicxavda indeferentizms _ pozicias, romelic absolutur
WeSmaritebas da mis uflebebs aTanabrebda; umravlesoba religiurobis
safuZvlad adamianis Sinagan Tavisufal arCevans miiCnevda, romelic arasgziT ar SeiZleba Tavsmoxveuli iyos, radgan darwmunebuli iyo, rom sindisis
Tavisufleba ukavSirdeba adamianis pirovnebis Rirsebas da misi erT-erTi
ganuyofeli uflebaa.
situacia Cixidan gamosayvanad aucilebeli gaxda papis Careva, romelmac
Mam dokumentis teqsts mxari dauWira. deklaracia religiuri Tavisuflebis
Sesaxeb miRebuli iqna 1965 wlis 7 dekembers 2308 xmiT 70-is winaaRmdeg. amis
Semdeg situacia ganimuxta da SesaZlebeli gaxda muSaobis gagrZeleba ufro

15

Sesavali

mSvid viTarebaSi: umciresobam uaryo obstruqciis taqtika da moindoma,


rom kreba rac SeiZleba male dasrulebuliyo.
deklaracia religiuri Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb (Dignitatis humane) Tavisi suliskveTebiT eTanxmeboda deklaracias araqristianul religiaTa Sesaxeb
(Nostra Aetate).Aam dokumentis miRebiT krebam Rrma pativiscema gamoxata araqristianuli religiebis sulier da zneobriv RirebulebaTa da RmrTis Secnobis
im gzaTa mimarT, romelic maTTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. deklaracia gvaxsenebs
eklesiis warmoSobas ebrauli wiaRidan, gmobs ebraelTa devnas da ar akisrebs
maT saerTo pasuxismgeblobas qristes sikvdilis gamo. es deklaracia miRebul
iqna 1965 wlis 28 oqtombers oTx sxva dokumentTan erTad. esenia dekretebi
eklesiaSi episkoposTa samoZRvro msaxurebis (Christus Dominus), samoweseo
cxovrebis ganaxlebis (Perfectae caritasis), mRvdelTa aRzrdisa (Optatam totius) da
deklaracia qristianuli aRzrdis Sesaxeb (Gravissimum edicationis).
18 noembers gamoqveynda dekreti saeroTa mociqulobis Sesaxeb (Apostolicam actuositatem) da dogmaturi konstitucia saRmrTo gamocxadebis Sesaxeb
(Dei Verbum) _ brwyinvale teqsti, romelsac maqs turianma qristianTa erTobisken mimavali gzis gadamwyveti etapi uwoda.
dabolos, miRebul iqna konstitucia Tanamedrove samyaroSi eklesiis
Sesaxeb (Gaudium et spes). zogierTma es dokumenti metismetad progresulad
da radikalurad miiCnia, zogma ki, piriqiT, zedmetad mokrZalebulad miiRo.
konstituciis teqsti gadasamuSaveblad harons gadaeca da 1965 wlis 7 dekembers miRebul iqna 2309 xmiT 75 winaaRmdeg. es dokumenti samwyso konstituciaa da srulad gamoxatavs krebis suliskveTebas. igi krebis erT-erTi
umTavresi dokumentia, romelsac kelinim eklesiasa da kacobriobas Soris
siyvarulis WeSmariti SeTanxmeba uwoda.
pavle VI-m uaryo samRvdeloebis uqorwineblobis sakiTxis ganxilva, romelic jer moumwifeblad miiCnia da gamoTqva SiSi, rom m
isi ganxilva zogierTi mRvdlis eklesiidan gasvlis provocirebas gamoiwvevda. 7 dekembers
miRebul iqna dekreti mRvdelTa msaxurebisa da cxovrebis Sesaxeb (Presbiterorum ordinis). erT-erTi paragrafis Tanaxmad, samwyso moTxovnilebidan gamomdinare, mRvdelTaTvis nebadarTulia fizikuri Sroma.
swrafva dialogisaken gamovlinda pavle VI-is msofliosaTvis gamaognebeli stumrobisas gaeroSi, niu iorkSi, sadac sesiis msvlelobisas, igi mSvidobisa da Tanxmobis mauwyebeli aRmoCnda.
krebis bolo kvira mravali simboluri JestiTa da gadawyvetilebiT
aRiniSna. 1965 wlis 4 dekembers wmida petres taZarSi pavle VI-m arakaTolikeebTan erTad wirva aRavlina.
6 dekembers gakeTda gancxadeba wmida dawesebulebis reformis Sesaxeb,
romelsac amieridan ewoda sarwmunoebis moZRvrebis kongrecia.
7 dekembers vatikansa da konstantinopolSi, erTdroulad, romis eklesiam da konstantinopolis sapatriarqom dagmes da gaauqmes 1054 wlis urTierTanaTemebi.
dabolos, 8 dekembers vatikanis II krebis sazeimo daxurvis ceremoniaze,
wmida petres moedanze, 81 qveynis mTavrobaTa da 9 saerTaSoriso organizaciis delegaciaTa TandaswrebiT, pavle VI-m da krebis mamebma solidarobis,
imedisa da mSvidobisken mouwodes msoflios.
daskvna
vatikanis II krebis Rvawli Zalze didia. krebam 16 umniSvnelovanesi aqti miiRo. am aqtebSi xazgasmiT aRiniSneba, rom eklesia aris adgilobriv eklesiaTa
erToblioba, rom yY oveli adgilobrivi eklesia warmoadgens sayovelTao ek-

16

pier diumuleni

lesias, romelsac romis episkoposi uZRveba. eE


s faqti episkoposTa erTianobis praqtikul ganxorcielebasa da ekumenur moRvaweobas daedo safuZvlad.
eklesiis RmrTis erad gamocxadebam gazarda TiTeuli misi wevris pasuxismgebloba da uzrunvelyo saeroTa gansakuTrebuli daniSnuleba. SemoRebul iqna,
aRorZinda da ganaxlda mravali praqtika: RmrTismsaxurebaSi cocxali enebis
gamoyeneba, mudmivi diakvnoba, episkoposTa sinodi, qristianTa erTobis sabWos saqmianoba. magram mTavaria, rom krebis wyalobiT eklesia axali suliskveTebiT aRivso, romelic gansakuTrebiT igrZnoba episkoposTa wiaRSi da romelic vrceldeba samRvdeloTa da saeroTa Soris. aA xla saWiro iyo miRebuli
reformebisa da gadawyvetilebebis cxovrebaSi gatareba.
1995 wels monsiniorma elSingerma, erT-erTma ukanasknelma episkoposma,
romelic krebas Tavidan bolomde eswreboda, Tqva: zogierTi miiCnevs, rom
vatikanis II kreba moZvelda, sinamdvileSi mxolod axla viwyebT mis dadgenilebaTa cxovrebaSi ganxorcielebas.
krebis aqtebi
1. konstitucia wmida liturgiis Sesaxeb (Sacrosanctum Concilium) _
4.12.1963
am dokumentis miRebam yvelaze swrafi da aSkara Sedegebi gamoiRo. es
dokumenti mouwodebs morwmuneebs, miiRon liturgiaSi gacnobierebuli
da qmediTi monawileoba da, am mizniT, liturgiaSi daSvebul iqna cocxali
enebis gamoyeneba. dokumentSi xazgasmulia, rom yoveli evqaristiuli liturgia aris gaxseneba qristes sikvdilisa da aRdgomisa, romlis wyalobiT
miiRweva cxovrebis sisavse.
2. dogmaturi konstitucia eklesiis Sesaxeb (Lumen gentium) _ 21.11.
1964
es doqtrinuli xasiaTis fuZemdebluri teqstia. eklesia gansazRvravs
sakuTar Tavs ara marto rogorc iuridiul da ierarqiul dawesebulebas,
aramed rogorc RmrTis mier Sekrebil xalxs. am sakrebulos TiToeul wevrs
pasuxismgeblobis Tavisi wili akisria. eklesia aris RmerTTan Sexvedris
momlodine xalxi, mowodebuli sakuTar TavSi moicvas mTeli kacobrioba.
3. dogmaturi konstitucia saRmrTo gamocxadebis Sesaxeb (Dei Verbum)
_ 18.11. 1965
rogor SeuZlia qristians RmerTs mier gamocxadebuli WeSmaritebis aRqma?
am kiTxvaze dokumenti upasuxebs: wmida werili moicavs yvelafers, rac RmerTs swadda adamianisTvis euwyebina sakuTari Tavisa da sakuTaris nebis saidumlos Sesaxeb da, sulis wyalobiT, eklesiis gadmocema dauRlelad sazrdoobs
am moZRvrebidan Secdomis riskis gareSe. dokumenti dadebiTad afasebs Tanamedrove bibliur mecnierebaTa mier Catarebul kvlevaTa Sedegebs.

4. samoZRvro konstitucia Tanamedrove samyaroSi eklesiis Sesaxeb
(Gaudium et spes) _ 7.12.1965
miuxedavad imisa, rom teqsti ar iyo bolomde damuSavebuli, es konstitucia yvelaze originaluri da yvelaze damaxasiaTebelia krebis yvela
aqtebs Soris. konstitucia mowmobs ufarToes TvalTaxedvas adamiansa da
samyaroze; is cdilobs, daamyaros dialogi eklesiasa da Tanamedrove msoflios Soris yvela mniSvnelovani sakiTxis irgvliv. am dialogma unda moicvas problemebi, romelic exeba kacobriobis beds: piradi da socialuri
cxovreba, kultura, ekonomika da politika, mSvidobis SenarCuneba da samarTlianobis damyareba.

17

Sesavali

5. dekreti masobrivi informaciis saSualebaTa Sesaxeb (Inter mirifica)


_ 14.12.1963
es dokumenti xmaTa minimaluri raodenobiT iqna miRebuli, radgan miaCndaT, rom igi cotaTi umwifaria. amis miuxedavad, mas ori damsaxureba aqvs:
erTi mxriv, aRiarebs, rom Tanamedrove msoflio SeuZlebelia masobrivi informaciis saSualebaTa gareSe da, meore mxriv, urCevs, SemuSavebul iqnes
masobrivi informaciis saSualebaTa Sesaxeb ufro Rrmad gaazrebuli teqsti.
1971 wels vatikanma miiRo am dekretis Semavsebeli teqsti urTierToba
da progresi.
6. dekreti ekumenizmis Sesaxeb (Unitatis redingratio) _ 21.11.1964
ekumenuri dialogis namdvili qartia; teqsti erTdroulad frTxilicaa,
_ radgan gvaxsenebs, rom kaTolike eklesia flobs gamocxadebis sisavses,
magram, amave dros, mtkicea, _ radgan aRiarebs sxva eklesiaTa faseulobebs
da mouwodebs qristianebs erTobisaken. Aam dekretis miRebiT eklesiam pirvelad oficialurad daadastura Tavisi ekumenuri pozicia.

7. dekreti mRvdelTa aRzrdis Sesaxeb (Optatam totius) _ 28.10.1965
dekretma bolo mouRo seminariaTa tradiciul erTsaxovnebas da mosTxova episkoposTa yovel erovnul konferencias, mRvdelTa momzadebis programebi Seufardon maTi momavali msaxurebis pirobebs. dekreti upiratesobas aniWebs RmrTismetyvelebis gulis _ bibliuri RmrTismetyvelebisa
da eklesiis mamaTa naSromebis Seswavlas. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda
mieqces momavali mRvdlebis gonebisa da sulis met Riaobas.
8. dekreti samoweseo cxovrebis ganaxlebis Sesaxeb (Perfectae caritatis)
_ 28.10.1965
esaa mowodeba samoweseo ordenebis cxovrebis gasaaxleblad, romlebic
unda daeyrdnon or wyaros: pirvel yovlisa, saxarebas, meore, ordenis fuZemdeblis nebas.
9. dekreti eklesiaSi episkoposTa samoZRvro msaxurebis Sesaxeb (Christus Dominus) _ 28.10.1965
es dokumenti avsebs dogmatur konstitucias eklesiis Sesaxeb (Lumen
gentium) episkoposTa kolegiuri erTianobis sakiTxSi. azustebs da afuZnebs
struqturebs, romelic saSualebas aZlevs TiToeul episkoposs, iyos pasuxismgebeli rogorc Tavis eparqiaze, aseve sruliad eklesiaze sxva episkoposebTan da papTan erTad. dekreti afuZnebs episkoposTa sinods.
10. dekreti saeroTa saeroTa mociqulobis Sesaxeb (Apostolicam actiositatem) _ 18.11.1965
es dokumenti azustebs da praqtikul mniSvnelobas aniWebs eklesiis
Sesaxeb dogmaturi konstituciis (Lumen gentium) zogierT debulebas, romlebic exeba saeroTa rols eklesiaSi. aRniSnulia, rom saeroebs SeuZliaT
Seqmnan sabWoebi, raTa Seasrulon garkveuli samsaxurebi eklesiaSi, AaRwers
saeroTa mociqulobis sxvadasxva formebs, mouwodebs maT, aiRon qristianuli pasuxismgebloba sazogadoebis mimarT.
11. dekreti aRmosavleTis kaTolike eklesiaTa Sesaxeb (Orientalium Ecclesiarum) _ 21.11. 1964
aRmosavleTSi arsebobs rogorc romTan kavSirSi myofi eklesiebi, aseve
iseTebic, romlebmac masTan kavSiri gawyvites. romis eklesia saWirod miiC-

18

pier diumuleni

nevs, mxari dauWiros pirvelebs, magram imgvarad, rom ar gamoiwvios meoreTa


kidev ufro meti gaucxoeba. dekreti mouwodebs qristianuli erTobisaken
da aRiarebs aRmosavleTis qristianul eklesiaTa faseulobebs.

12. dekreti eklesiis samisionero moRvaweobis Sesaxeb (Ad gentes divinitus) _ 7.12.1965
misionerobis ganxilvisas dekreti midis ufro Sors adreul SexedulebebTan SedarebiT, romelic misias SoreTSi ganixalavda. iwvevs mTel eklesias, raTa iq, sadac is imyofeba, gaavrcelos saxareba, axaros mTel msoflios bedniereba, romelic RmerTma ganumzada adamianebs qristeSi.
13. dekreti mRvdelTa msaxurebisa da cxovrebis Sesaxeb (Presbytororum
ordinis) _ 7.12.1965
Ddokumentze muSaobisas gaTvaliswinebuli iyo samRvdeloebis krizisi.
teqsti axsenebs mRvdlebs maT gansakuTrebul rols: yvela qristiani naTlobis ZaliT mRvdeli xdeba, magram xeldasxmuli mRvdeli monawilea TviT
qristes, rogorc eklesiis meTauris, Zalauflebisa da mowodebulia aRaSenos eklesia _ misi sxeuli. monazonTagan gansxvavebiT, romelTac, pirvel
yovlisa, RmerTTan pirad urTierTobas uZRvnes Tavi da ganaxorcieleben
TavianTi ordenis gansakuTrebul qarizmas, mRvdeli eZebs siwmides sulTa
msaxurebis gzaze.
14. deklaracia qristianuli aRzrdis Sesaxeb (Gravissimum educationes)
_ 28.10.1965
am dokumentSi krebis mamebma ganixiles kaTolikuri skola saboloo mizanTan mimarTebaSi da, amave dros, miiCnies aRzrdis sxva gzebis mniSvnelobac.
15. deklaracia eklesiis damokidebulebis Sesaxeb
araqristianuli religiebis mimarT (Nostra aetate) _ 28.10.1965
am deklaraciaSi oficialurad aRiarebulia araqristianuli religiebis
Rirebulebebi: yvela religias aqvs RmrTis Semecnebis esa Tu is safexuri.
qristianebic amas yuradRebiT unda aRiqvamdnen. dokumentSi xazgasmulia
Rrma kavSiri, romelic qristianebsa da ebraelebs Soris arsebobs, rac mowodebad JRers Zmuri dialogisaken.
16. deklaracia religiuri Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb (Dignitatis humanae) _
7.12. 1965
am deklaraciis miRebiT krebam daamowma adamianis religiuri Tavisuflebis ufleba da samoqalaqo xelisuflebas miuTiTa misi dacvis valdebulebaze. sindisis Tavisuflebis amgvari pativiscema iribad gmobda gonebaze Zaldatanebis, Zaladobisa da diqtatis yovelgvar gamovlinebas sindisis
sakiTxebSi. es teqsti (eklesiis Sesaxeb konstituciasTan erTad) yvelaze
metad iyo sakamaTo tradicionalistebisaTvis.
mama pier diumuleni

19

benediqte XVI-is
mimarTvidan romis kuriis wevrebisadmi
2005 wlis 22 dekemberis audienciaze
ra iyo vatikanis II msoflio krebis Sedegi? iyo ki is kargad gagebuli?
ra iyo aRqmuli sworad da ra _ araadekvaturad Tu mcdarad? ra aris jer
kidev gasakeTebeli am mimarTulebiT?
veravin uaryofs, rom eklesiis bevr sferoSi krebis gadawyvetilebaTa
ganxorcieleba Zalian rTuli aRmoCnda. amasTan dakavSirebiT ar SeiZleba
ar gagvaxsendes nikeis krebis Semdgomi periodis wm. basiliseuli aRwera _
wm. basili, eklesiis didi maswavlebeli, im mdgomareobas sazRvao brZolas
adarebs, romelic sibneleSi qariSxlis dros mimdinareobs da erTgan aRniSnavs, rom mTeli eklesia aavso gaugebarma Worebma da laybobam, uwyvetma
xmaurma da SfoTma, im adamianTa Caxrinwnuli xmiT yvirilma, romelnic ar
eTanxmebian da upirispirdebian erTmaneTs, rac gadacdenebsa Tu Secdomebs
badebs da eklesiis WeSmarit moZRvrebas ayalbebs... (De Spiritu Sancto, XXX, 77;
PG 32, 213 A; SCh 17 ff., p. 524).
Cven ar gvsurs, rom es aRwera zustad mivusadagoT vatikanis II krebis
Semdgom periods, Tumca amis msgavsi ram nadvilad xdeboda. ai, swored aq
ibadeba amgvari kiTxva: ratom aRmoCnda krebis gadawyvetilebaTa ganxorcileba eklesiis bevr sferoSi aseTi rTuli?
saqme isaa, rom es yovelive damokidebulia krebis swor interpretaciaze,
anu, rogorc axla vityodiT, _ mis saTanado hermenevtikaze, romelic namdvili gasaRebi iqneboda krebis gagebisa da gamoyenebisaTvis. vatikanis II
krebis gadawyvetilebaTa ganxorcileba swored imitom gaWirda, rom erTmaneTs ori hermenevtika daupirispirda da SeebrZola. pirvelma gaugebroba
da SeSfoTeba gamoiwvia, xolo meorem _ uCumrad, magram xilulad nayofi
gamoiRo da axlac iRebs nayofs.
erTi mxriv, esaa interpretacia, romelsac me wyvetisa da memkvidreobiTobis rRvevis hermenevtikas vuwodeb. is xSirad sargeblobs masmediis simpaTiiT da, amave dros, axali Teologiis erT tendenciasa Tu mimdinareobas
warmoadgens. meore mxriv, esaa _ reformis hermenevtika, an, sxvagvrad,
erTi uwyveti subieqtis, eklesiis, ganaxlebis hermenevtika _ im eklesiisa,
romelic Tavad ufalma gviboZa. swored eklesiaa imgvari subieqti, romelic izrdeba da viTardeba, magram Tan yovelTvis igive rCeba _ erTi subieqti
uflis xalxis msxemobisa.
wyvetis hermenevtika emuqreba safrTxe, rom sabolood daacilos erTmaneTs krebamdeli da krebis Semdgomi eklesia. is acxadebs, rom krebis dokumentebi ar gamoxatavs Tavad vatikanis II krebis suliskveTebas. wyvetis
hermenevtika miiCnevs, rom es dokumentebi kompromisTa Sedegia, radganac
maSin saWirod miiCnies bevri moZvelebuli debulebisa Tu tradiciis SenarCuneba da dadastureba, rac, am poziciis Tanaxmad, axla aSkarad azrs
kargavs. rogorc am poziciis wamomadgenelT miaCniaT, krebis WeSmariti
suliskveTeba am kompromisebSi ki araa, aramed siaxlisken swrafvis im impulsebSi, romelTac krebis zogierTi dokumenti Seicavs.
zogierTebma oden es inovaciebi miiCnies krebis WeSmariti suliskveTebis gamoxatulebad. ufro metic, maT isic miiCnies, rom winsvla SesaZlebe-

20

benediqte XVI

lia mxolod am inovaciebis mixedviT _ inovaciebisa, romlebic, amave dros,


aTvlis wertili unda gaxdes. swored imitom, rom, am poziciis Tanaxmad, dokumentebi oden arasrulyofilad asaxavs krebis suliskveTebasa da mis siaxles, aucilebeli xdeba, rom Tamamad gavcdeT arsebuli teqstebis sazRvrebs
da WeSmarit siaxles davuTmoT Sesaferisi adgili _ im siaxles, romelSic
krebis namdvili ganazraxi iqneba gamoxatuli, rogori bundovanic ar unda
iyos es ukanaskneli.
maSasadame, wyvetis hermenevtika mogviwodebs, rom mivsdioT ara krebis
dokumentebs, aramed Tavad krebis suliskveTebas. TavisTavad cxadia, rom
amgvari midgoma did sivrces tovebs SekiTxvisaTvis, Tu ras niSnavs krebis
suliskveTeba. es ki, Tavis mxriv, farTod uRebs kars warmosaxvis Zalas.
yovelive zemoT aRniSnuli kargad gviCvenebs, rom krebis arsi arasworadaa gagebuli. wyvetis hermenevtikis Tanaxmad, saeklesio kreba
damfuZnebeli krebis msgavsi instituciaa, romelic erT konstitucias
meoreTi cvlis. magram damfuZnebel krebas sWirdeba is, vinc krebas Tavis
uflebebs gadascems da vinc am uflebebs daamowmebs kidec _ xalxi, romelsac konstitucia unda emsaxuros. krebis mamebs amgvari davaleba ar hqoniaT
da arc arasdros miucia vinmes maTTvis amgvari davaleba. ufro metic, aseTi
davalebis micema arc aravis SeeZlo, radganac eklesiis ZiriTadi konstitucia uflisaganaa. is imitom gveboZa, rom maradiul cxovrebas mivaRwioT da,
swored amgvari perspeqtividan gamomdinare, gavanaToT da gavasxivosnoT
rogorc Tanamedrove cxovreba, ise Tavad dro.
unda aRiniSnos, rom episkoposebi saidumloTa miRebis wyalobiT uflis
ZRvenis ndobiT aRWurvili wamomadgenelni da RmrTis saidumlos mouravni arian (1kor., 4, 1). swored amis gamo, isini erTgulni da brZenni (luk.
12, 41_48) unda iyvnen. es imas niSnavs, rom maT maT es ZRveni samarTlianad
unda gankargon, raTa is raRac saidumlo sacavSi damaluli ar aRmoCndes da
xiluli nayofi gamoiRos, raTa ufalma, sabolood, mouravs ase mimarTos:
radganac mciredze erTguli iyavi, mravalze gqondes xelmwifeba (maT.
25,14-30; luk. 19,11-27). am saxarebiseul igavebSi gamoxatulia erTgulebis
dinamika, romelic uflis msaxurebaSi moqmedebs. amitomac, rogorc Tavad
krebis dros, axlac dinamiuroba da erguleba erTmaneTs unda Seerwyas.
wyvetis hermenevtikas reformis hermenevtika upirispirdeba, romelic
jer papma ioane XXIII-m, xolo Semdeg papma pavle VI-m gamoxates, pirvelma vatikanis II krebis gaxsnisas _ 1962 wlis 11 oqtombers, xolo meorem _ daxurvisas, 1965 wlis 7 dekembers. me msurs ioane XXIII-is cnobili sityvebi gavixseno, sadac reformis hermenevtika calsaxadaa Camoyalibebuli. papi aRniSnavs, rom krebis ganazraxi Tu intencia Semcirebisa da damaxinjebis gareSe
moZRvrebis wmidad da Seuryvnelad gadacemaa. amis Semdeg is dasZens: Cven
valdebulni varT ara oden davicvaT es saunje _ oRond ara ise, TiTqos raRac raritets vinaxavdeT, aramed uSiSrad da energiulad mivuZRvnaT sakuTari Tavi im saqmes, rasac Cveni dro Cvengan moelis... aucilebelia, rom
es zusti da ucvleli moZRvreba, romelic erTgulad unda davicvaT, _
amave dros, gavaRrmavoT da imgvari saxiT warvudginoT Taanamedroveobas,
rom is dRevandeli dRis moTxovnas Seesabamebodes. vinaidan erTia rwmenis
dacva _ anu im WeSmaritebaTa erTguleba, romelTac Cvens mier aRiarebuli
moZRvreba Seicavs, xolo meore _ maTi gadmocemis forma, romelic, amave
dros, ucvlelad unda inaxavdes imave sazrissa da uwyebas (S. Oec. Conc. Vat. II
Constitutiones Decreta Declarationes, 1974, pp. 863-865).
TavisTavad cxadia, rom garkveuli ideis axleburad gamoxatva am ideis
axlebur gaazrebas, misadmi axal da cocxal damokidebulebas moiTxovs.
aseve, cxadia, rom es axali sityva oden gamosaxatavi WeSmaritebis kargad

21

Sesavali

gaTavisebuli gagebidan SeiZleba daibados. amave dros, rwmenis gaazreba


rwmeniT cxovrebas niSnavs. am TvalsazrisiT, ioane XXIII-is mier SemoTavazebuli programa ukiduresad momTxovni da rTuli iyo iseve, rogorc Zalian
rTuli amocanaa rwmenisa da dinamiurobis praqtikuli sinTezis miRweva. magram yvelgan, sadac ki vatikanis II krebis amgvari interpretacia damkvidrda, axali cxovreba daiwyo da axali nayofic momwifda. krebis damTavrebidan
ormoci wlis Semdeg Cven SegviZlia Tamamad ganvacxadoT, rom misi dadebiTi
Sedegebi bevrad meti da bevrad cocxalia, vidre es 1968 wlis mRelvarebaTa
dros SegveZlo warmogvedgina. dRes vxedavT, rom keTili Tesli nela, magram
mainc TandaTanobiT da Seupovrad izrdeba iseve, rogorc Cveni madliereba
im Sromisadmi, romelic krebam gawia.
pavle VI-m krebis daxurvisas warmoTqmul sityvaSi kidev erTi gansakuTrebuli mizezi dagvanaxa, ris gamoc wyvetis hermenevtika SesaZloa
damajerebladac ki mogveCvenos. saqme isaa, rom adamianis Sesaxeb mimdinare
im mwvave da did diskusiaSi, romliTac aRbeWdilia Tanamedrove samyaro, vatikanis II msoflio saeklesio krebas Tavisi sityva unda eTqva. amitomac, gansakuTrebuli yuradReba swored anTropologias daeTmo. am mimarTulebiT,
krebas or SekiTxvaze unda epasuxa: ra mimarTebaa eklesiasa da rwmenas Soris? _ erTi mxriv, xolo, meore mxriv, _ ra mimarTebaa adamiansa da samyaros Soris (ibid., pp. 1066 s.)? kiTxva kidev ufro cxadi gaxdeba, Tu zogadi
gamoTqmis _ Tanamedrove samyaro _ nacvlad, ufro zust definicias gamoviyenebT: krebas axleburad unda ganesazaRvra eklesiisa da axali drois
urTierTmimarTeba.
es urTierToba galileis winaaRmdeg aRZruli procesiT sakmaod problemurad daiwyo. Semdeg urTierTmimarTeba, faqtobrivad, Sewyda, roca
kantma religia oden wminda gonebis farglebSi dasazRvra da gansazRvra,
xolo safrangeTis revoluciis radikalurma fazam saxelmwifosa da adamianis imgvari xati warmoSva, romelic eklesiisa da rwmenisaTvis aranair
adgils aRar tovebda. eklesiis rwmenis radikalur liberalizmTan Sejaxebam, erTi mxriv, xolo, meore mxriv, rwmenis Sejaxebam sabunebismetyvelo
mecnierebebTan, romelTac surdaT dagrovili codnis meSveobiT realobis
mTlianad mocva am realobis sazRvrebiTurT, radganac mecniereba jiutad
moiTxovda RmrTis Sesaxeb hipoTezis uaryofas _ swored am Sejaxebam XIX
saukuneSi pius IX-s dros eklesia aiZula Tanamedrove epoqis suliskveTeba
mwvaved da radikalurad gaekicxa. amgvarad, rogorc Cans, saerTod aRar
darCa adgili pozitiuri da nayofieri dialogisaTvis, ufro metic _ maT,
visac Tavi axali drois warmomadgenlebad miaCndaT, rame Tanxmobaze saubris gagonebac ki ar surdaT.
amasobaSi axalma epoqamac garkveuli cvlilebebi ganicada. aRmoCnda,
rom amerikulma revoluciam Tanamedrove saxelmwifos imgvari modeli SemogvTavaza, romelic gansxvavdeboda im Teoriuli modelisagan, romelic
safrangeTis revoluciis meore fazis radikalurma tendenciebma warmoSva.
Tavis mxriv, sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebmac ufro naTlad gaiazres sakuTari SezRuduloba, romelic maTive meTodidan gamomdinareobda. miuxedavad imisa, rom am meTodis meSveobiT bevri diadi Canafiqri ganxorcielda,
realobis mTeli sisruliT mocva, sabolood, mainc SeuZlebeli aRmoCnda.
amgvarad, orive mxare erTmaneTisadmi ufro gaixsna. msoflio omTa Soris
SualedSi, ufro metad ki meore msoflio omis Semdeg, kaTolike saxelmwifo
moRvaweebma daamtkices, rom SesaZlebelia arsebobdes Tanamedrove saero
saxelmwifo, romelic RirebulebaTa mimarT neitraluri ar iqneba, radganac qristianobis mier warmoCenili mZlavri eTikuri saTaveebidan sazrdoobs. kaTolike eklesiis socialuri doqtrina, romelic TanadaTanobiT

22

benediqte XVI

viTardeboda, radikaluri liberalizmisa da saxelmwifos marqsistuli


Teoriis alternatiuli modeli gaxda. sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebma,
romlebic uapalaciod iyenebdnen sakuTar meTods, sadac RmrTisaTvis adgili saerTod ar iyo darCenili, ufro naTlad gaiazres, rom maTi meTodi
realobis yvela mxares ver moicavs da, Sesabamisad, isev gauRes kari RmerTs,
radganac cxadi gaxda, rom realoba sabunebismetyvelo meTodologias bevrad aRemateba da rom rCeba is, rasac am meTodiT ver moixelTeb.
amitomac, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Camoyalibda sakiTxTa sami Tematuri
cikli, romelTaTvisac vatikanis II krebas pasuxebi unda gaeca. upirveles
yovlisa, aucilebeli iyo rwmenisa da Tanamedrove mecnierebaTa urTierTmimarTebis gansazRvra. es, cxadia, exeboda ara oden sabunebismetyvelo
mecnierebebs, aramed _ istoriasac. saqme isaa, rom istoriul-kritikuli
meTodis wamomadgenelni miiCnevdnen, rom bibliiis interpretaciaSi saboloo sityva swored maT ekuTvnodaT. es interpretacia ki Tavisi midgomis
absolutur gansakuTrebulobas iCemebda da sakmaod principul sakiTxebSi
arsebiTad upiripirdeboda wmida werilis eklesiiseul interpretacias.
meore mxriv, saWiro iyo eklesiisa da Tanamedrove saxelmwifos urTierTmimarTebis dadgena. Tanamedrove saxelmwifo xom iseT institucias
warmoadgens, romelmac Tanabrad unda dauTmos sakuTari sivrce sxvadasxva
aRmsareblobisa Tu ideologiis adamians; romelic am religiaTa mimarT
miukerZoebeli unda iyos da, amave dros, pasuxismgebloba unda aiRos sakuTar moqalaqeTa tolerantul da mowesrigebul Tanacxovrebaze, sadac nebismieri adamiani sakuTar religias aRiarebs.
am sakiTxs ukavSirdeboda sakiTxTa mesame Tematuri wre _ religiuri
Semwynareblobis ufro zogadi problema, romelic qristianobisa da sxva
msoflio religiebis urTierTmimarTebaTa gansazRvras moiTxovda. aq mniSvnelovani iyo uaxlesi istoriuli gamocdilebac _ nacional-socialisturi reJimis danaSauli. amave dros, mZime da rTuli istoriuli gzis
gaTvaliswinebiT, aucilebeli gaxda eklesiisa da israelis rwmenis urTierTmimarTebis axleburi Sefaseba. TiToeul Temas Zalian didi mniSvneloba
hqonda _ amitomac, krebis meore nawilSi isini gamowvlilviT ganixiles.
samwuxarod, ufro detalurad amaze dRes veRar SevCerdebiT.
TavisTavad cxadia, rom am sakiTxebis ganxilvisas _ sakiTxebisa, romlebic, faqtobrivad, erT kompleqsur problemas ayalibebs, SeiZleboda,
rom wyvetisa Tu memkvidreobiTobis rRvevis garkveuli tendencia gamoxatuliyo. ufro metic, es wyveta namdvilad warmoCnda. Tumca, rodesac erTmaneTisagan ganvasxvavebT konkretul istoriul situaciebsa da maT moTxovnebs, amave dros, isic unda davinaxoT, rom narCundeba is, rasac principTa memkvidreobiToba ewodeba. es faqti SeiZleba gamogvrCes kidec, Tu
yuradRebas ar davZabavT.
WeSmariti reformis buneba memkvidreobiTobisa da wyvetis sxvadasxva
doneze gamoxatul erTianobaSia. siaxlisa da memkvidreobiTobis am procesis meSveobiT Cven ufro konkretulad unda gagvego, vidre es aqamde gvesmoda, rom eklesiis gadawyvetilebani, romlebic warmaval da amqveyniur
movlenebs Seexeba _ magaliTisaTvis, liberalizmis romelime konkretul
formasa Tu bibliis liberalur interpretacias _ Tavad aris uciloblad warmavali, radganac cvalebad realobas miemarTeba. aucilebeli iyo,
agreTve, gveswavla imis aRiarebac, rom amgvar gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis
dros memkvidreobiTobis aspeqts oden principebi gamoxatavs, romlebic
ukana planze imyofeba da gadawyvetilebaTa motivacias Signidan ganapirobebs. xolo, rac Seexeba konkretul formebs, isini _ piriqiT _ cvalebadobis sferos ganekuTvneba da sulac ar aris mudmivi.

23

Sesavali

maSasadame, fuZemdebluri gadawyvetilebani ucvlelia, maSin roca maTi


gamoyenebis xerxebi axal-axal konteqstebSi mudmivad icvleba. magaliTisaTvis, rodesac religiuri Tavisufleba adamianis mier WeSmaritebis vermiRwevis gamoxatulebad miiCneva da, faqtobrivad, relativizmis kanonizebas
warmodgens, maSin es Tavisufleba socialuri da istoriuli aucileblobidan metafizikis sferoSi (aqve SevniSnavT, sruliad mcdarad) gadainacvlebs da, amitomac, kargavs Tavis WeSmarit sazriss. swored amis gamo, amgvarad gagebul religiur Tavisuflebas namdvilad ver gaiTavisebs adamiani, romelsac swams, rom RmrTaebrivi WeSmaritebis Secnoba SesaZlebelia
da rom adamiani (WeSmaritebis Sinagani Rirsebis safuZvelze) imanenturad
dakavSirebulia amgvar SemecnebasTan.
sruliad sxva saqmea, roca religiur Tavisuflebas ganvixilavT rogorc
adamianTa Tanacxovrebidan gamomdinare aucileblobas, ufro metic, _
roca es Tavisufleba WeSmaritebis Sinagani bunebidan gamomdinareobs,
romelic ar SeiZleba garedan moaxvio vinmes da romelic adamianma oden
darwmunebis Sedegad unda miiRos. vatikanis II krebam aRiara Tanamedrove
saxelmwifos ZiriTadi principi da SeuerTda mas religiuri Tavisuflebis
Sesaxeb dekretis meSveobiT. magram amiT eklesia Tavis uRrmes memkvidreobas miubrunda _ is acnobierebs, rom religiuri Tavisuflebis aRiareba
srul SesabamisobaSia TviTon qristes moZRvrebasTan (Sdr. maT. 22, 21) da,
amasTanave, mowameTa eklesiasTan, yvela drois mowameebTan. Zveli eklesia,
ra Tqma aunda, loculobda mefeTa da yovelTa mbrZanebelTaTvis (Sdr.
1tim. 2, 2), radganac es Tavis valad miaCnda; magram, roca is mefeTaTvis
loculobda, Tayvans sulac ar scemda maT, riTic sruliad calsaxad uaryofda saxelmwifo religias.
Tavdapirveli eklesiis mowameni TavianTi rwmenisaTvis daiRupnen, maT
im RmrTis rwmenisaTvis gawires sicocxle, romelmac ieso qristeSi sakuTari Tavi gaacxada. maT Tavi Sewires rogorc sindisis, ise sakuTari rwmenis
aRiarebis Tavisuflebas _ rwmenis imgvar aRiarebas, romelsac veranairi
saxelmwifo ver mogaxvevs da romelic oden RmrTis madliT SeiZleba mogeces sindisis srul TavisuflebaSi.
misionerulma eklesiam, romelmac icis, rom is mowodebulia, raTa yvela
xalxs axaros uflis uwyeba, amave dros, Tavisi yuradReba aRmsareblobis
Tavisuflebis problemebsac unda miapyros. eklesias surs, rom TiToeul
adamians gadasces WeSmaritebis ZRveni, magram, amasTanave, is arwmunebs yvela xalxsa da xelisufalT, rom amiT eklesias ar surs am xalxTa TviTmyofadobisa da kulturuli identobis dangreva, piriqiT _ is iZleva pasuxs,
romelsac TiToeuli adamiani sakuTari sulis siRrmeebSi eZebs. es imgvari
pasuxia, romlis miRebiTac kulturaTa mravalferovneba ar ikargeba. am
pasuxis miRebiT izrdeba xalxTa erTianoba da, amasTanave, xalxTa Soris
mSvidoba myardeba.
vatikanis II krebam, romelmac eklesiis rwmenasa da Tanamedrove azrovnebis ramdenime mTavar aspeqts Soris axali urTierTmimarTeba daadgina, amave
dros, gadaxeda da Seaswora garkveuli istoriuli gadawyvetilebani. magram
memkvidreobiTobis am moCvenebiTi wyvetis miRma eklesiam SeinarCuna da gaaRrmava sakuTari WeSmariti buneba, sakuTari WeSmariti identoba. rogorc krebamde, ise krebis Semdeg eklesia igive eklesiaa _ erTi, wmida, kaTolike da
samociqulo, romelic msxemobs yvela droSi; is aRasrulebs Tavis msxemobas
wuTisofliseul devnaTa da saRmrTo nugeSiscemaTa Soris, auwyebs jvarsa
da uflis sikvdils, vidre igi movidodes (Sdr. Lumen gentium, 8).
vinc imedovnebda, rom safuZvelmdebi diax-is TqmiT eklesiasa da Tanamedrove epoqas Soris arsebuli daZabuloba mTlianad ganqardeboda da

24

benediqte XVI

amgvarad ganxorcilebuli samyarosadmi gaxsniloba wmida harmoniiT


dagvirgvindeboda, man jerovnad ver Seafasa TviTon Tanamedrove epoqis
Sinagani daZabuloba da winaaRmdegobani, adamianuri bunebis saxifaTo simyife _ anu yovelive is, rac nebismier istoriul drosa Tu epoqaSi sulieri
zrdisaTvis ZiriTad safrTxes warmoadgens. cxadia, am safrTxem, romelic
namdvilad arsad gamqrala, adamianis axal SesaZleblobebTan da axali tipis
ZalauflebasTan erTad (romelic dRes materiasa Tu Tavad adamianze xorcieldeba) sruliad gansakuTrebuli masStabebi SeiZina _ Tanamedrove istoria amis TvalsaCino magaliTia.
eklesia Cvens droSic sacilobeli niSania (luk. 2, 34). amitom, sulac
araaESemTxveviTi, rom ioane pavle II-m, jer kidev kardinalad yofnisas,
swored amgvari saTauri misca rekoleqciebs, romelic 1976 wels papis _
pavle VI-isa da romis kuriisaTvis Caatara. vatikanis II krebas namdvilad
ver eqneboda imis ganzraxva, rom adamianuri safrTxisa da Secdomebisadmi
saxarebiseuli Sedaveba gaeqarwylebina. piriqiT _ krebis ucilobeli
survili mcdar da zedapirul winaaRmdegobaTa mokveTa iyo, raTa saxarebis momTxovneloba da simkacre Cveni epoqis winaSe mTeli sidiadiTa da siwmidiT gamoCeniliyo.
nabiji, romelic krebam Tanamedrove epoqisaken gadadga da romelic,
samwuxarod, sakmaod arazustad iqna saxeldebuli rogorc samyarosadmi
gaxsniloba, sinamdvileSi rwmenisa da gonebis urTierTmimarTebis maradiul problemaze migviTiTebs _ problemaze, romelic yovelTvis, nebismier droSi axal-axali formebiT warmoCndeba xolme. amocana, romelic
krebas unda gadaewyvita, SeiZleba wina istoriuli epoqebis movlenebs SevadaroT. magaliTisaTvis, wm. petre Tavis pirvel epistoleSi qristianebs
arigebda, raTa isini mudam mzad yofiliyvnen, pasuxi gaecaT (apo-logia) yvelasaTvis, vinc maT qristianuli rwmenis logos-is _ safuZvlis _ Sesaxeb
pasuxs mosTxovda (Sdr. 1pet. 3, 15). es imas niSnavda, rom bibliur rwmenas
diskusia berZnul kulturasTan unda gaemarTa, am rwmenas unda eswavla
interpretaciis gziT rogorc wyalgamyofi xazis, ise msgavsebisa da urTierTgadakveTis amocnoba RmrTis mier boZebul erTian safuZvelze.
rodesac XIII saukuneSi ebrael da arab filosofosTa meSveobiT aristotele saSualo saukuneebis qristianul kulturas dauaxlovda _ kulturas, romelic platonur tradiciaSi Camoyalibda _ wm. Toma akvinelma
rwmenisa da aristoteles filosofiis am xelaxali Sexvedrisas Suamavalis
funqcia itvirTa. amiT man qristianul rwmenas Tavisi epoqis dominantur
saazrovno formasTan dialogSi pozitiuri mimarTuleba mianiWa.
qristianuli rwmenisa da Tanamedrove gonebis damRleli da momqancveli
diskusia, romelic Tavidan galileis winaaRmdeg aRZruli procesiT negatiurad daiwyo, ra Tqma unda, uamrav fazas moicavs. magram vatikanis II kreba
swored imis niSani aRmoCnda, rom dadga bevri movlenis axleburad gaazrebis dro. cxadia, am diskusiis Sinaarsi krebis dokumentebSi oden zogadi monasmebiTaa moxazuli, magram, amasTanave, moniSnulia mTavari mimarTuleba.
amitomac, rwmenisa da gonebis dialogma, romelic ase mniSvnelovania swored dRevandel dRes, vatikanis II krebis safuZvelze Tavis kalapoti ipova.
axla am dialogis ganviTarebas esaWiroeba rogorc azris sifarTove, ise
gansjis sicxade _ Tanamedrove samyaro Cvengan swored amas moelis.
ase rom, Cven dRes madlierebiT unda gavixsenoT vatikanis II msoflio
saeklesio kreba _ Tu Cven mis dokumentebs swori hermenevtikiT aRWurvilni vkiTxulobT da aRviqvamT, maSin is aris da momavalSi kidev ufro iqneba
eklesiisaaTvis mudmivad aucilebeli ganaxlebis sawindari.

25

vatikanis
II
kreba
konstituciebi
dekretebi
deklaraciebi

vatikanis II krebis sesiebi


I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X

11.10.1962 (krebis gaxsna)


29.9.1963
4.12.1963 (miiRes konstitucia Sacrosanctum Concilium da dekreti Inter mirifica)
14.9.1964
21.11.1964 (miiRes konstitucia Lumen gentium da dekretebi Orientalium
Ecclesiarum da Unitatis reditegratio)
14.9.1965
28.10.1965 (miiRes dekretebi Christus Dominus, Perfectae caritatis, Optatam totius
da deklaraciebi Gravissimum educationis da Nostra aetate)
18.11.1965 (miiRes konstitucia Dei verbum da dekreti Apostolicam
actuositatem)
7.12.1965 (miiRes deklaracia Dignitatis humanae da dekretebi Ad gentes
divinitius da Presbyterorum ordinis da konstitucia Gaudemus et spes)
8.12.1965 (krebis daxurva)

29

Semoklebani
krebis aqtebis Semoklebuli saxelwodebani:
AA
AG
CD

DH
DV
GE
GS

IM
LG
NA

OE

OT
PC
PO
SC
UR

dekreti saeroTa mociqulobis Sesaxeb (Apostolicam actiositatem)


dekreti eklesiis samisionero moRvaweobis Sesaxeb (Ad gentes divinitus)
dekreti eklesiaSi episkoposTa samoZRvro msaxurebis Sesaxeb (Christus
Dominus)
deklaracia religiuri Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb (Dignitatis humanae)
dogmaturi konstitucia saRmrTo gamocxadebis Sesaxeb (Dei verbum)
deklaracia qristianuli aRzrdis Sesaxeb (Gravissimum educationis)
samoZRvro konstitucia Tanamedrove samyaroSi eklesiis Sesaxeb
(Gaudium et spes)
dekreti sazogadoebrivi kominikaciis saSualebaTa Sesaxeb (Inter mirifica)
dogmaturi konstitucia eklesiis Sesaxeb (Lumen gentium)
deklaracia eklesiis damokidebulebis Sesaxeb
araqristianuli religiebis mimarT (Nostra aetate)
dekreti aRmosavleTis kaTolike eklesiaTa Sesaxeb (Orientalium
Ecclesiarum)
dekreti mRvdelTa aRzrdis Sesaxeb (Optatam totius)
dekreti samoweseo cxovrebis ganaxlebis Sesaxeb (Perfectae caritatis)
dekreti mRvdelTa msaxurebisa da cxovrebis Sesaxeb (Presbytororum ordinis)
konstitucia wmida liturgiis Sesaxeb (Sacrosanctum Concilium)
dekreti ekumenizmis Sesaxeb (Unitatis redintgratio)

bibliur wignTa Semoklebuli saxelwodebani:


bar.
gal.
gam.
gamocx.
dab.
dan.
ebr.
ezek.
es.
efes.
zir.
1Tes.
2Tes.
iak.
igav.
ier.
ioan.
1ioan.
3ioan.
iud.

30

baruq winaswarmetyveli
pavles epistole galatelTa mimarT
gamosvlani
ioanes gamocxadeba
dabadeba
daniel winaswarmetyveli
pavles epistole ebraelTa mimarT
ezekiel winaswarmetyveli
esaia winaswarmetyveli
pavles epistole efeselTa mimarT
sibrZne ziraqisa
pavles pirveli epistole TesalonikelTa mimarT
pavles meore epistole timoTes mimarT
iakobis epistole
igavni solomonisa
ieremia winaswarmetyveli
ioanes saxareba
ioanes pirveli epistole
ioanes mesame epistole
iudas epistole

Semoklebani

kol.
1kor.
2kor.
luk.
maT.
2mak.
mal.
mark.
1mef.
2mef.
miq.
neem.
os.
1pet.
2pet.
ricx.
rom.
rjl.
saqme
sibrZ.
sof.
1tim.
2tim.
tit.
tob.
fsalm.
filip.
qeb.

pavles epistole koloselTa mimarT


pavles pirveli epistole korinTelTa mimarT
pavles meore epistole korinTelTa mimarT
lukas saxareba
maTes saxareba
meore makabelTa
malaqia winaswarmetyveli
markozis saxareba
pirveli mefeTa
meore mefeTa
miqa winaswarmetyveli
neemia
osia winaswarmetyveli
petres pirveli epistole
petres meore epistole
ricxvni
pavles epistole romaelTa mimarT
meore rjuli
mociqulTa saqme
sibrZne solomonisa
sofonia winaswarmetyveli
pavles pirveli epistole timoTes mimarT
pavles meore epistole timoTes mimarT
pavles epistole tites mimarT
tobiTi
fsalmunni
pavles epistole filipelTa mimarT
qebaTaqeba solomonisa

sxva Semoklebani:
AAS
ASS
Denz.
CChr.
CSEL
GCS
MGH
p.
pp.
Patr.Or.
PG
PL
SChr.

Acta Apostolicae Sedis


Acta Sanctae Sedis
Denzinger
Corpus Cristianorum
Corpus Scriptorum
Criechlische cristliche Schriftsteller der ersten Jahrhundert
Monumente Germaniae Historica
gverdi
gverdebi
Patres Orintales
Patrologia Greca
Patrologia Latina
Sources Chrtiens

31

konstituciaA
wmida liturgiis Sesaxeb
SACROSANCTUM CONCILIUM

pavle episkoposi,
RmrTis msaxurTa msaxuri,
wmida krebis mamebTan erTad,
samudamo saxsovrad

konstituciaA
wmida liturgiis Sesaxeb
Sesavali
1. wmida kreba miznad isaxavs Semdegs: izrunos erTgulTa Soris qristianuli cxovrebis momwifebisTvis; Cveni drois moTxovnilebebs ukeT Seusabamos is instituciebi, romlebic cvalebadobas eqvemdebareba; xeli Seuwyos
yvela im adamianis erTobas, visac qriste swams; ganamtkicos is, rac yvelas
uxmobs eklesiis wiaRSi. amitom Tavis gansakuTrebul movaleobad krebas miaCnia, izrunos liturgiis aRorZinebisa da ganviTarebisTvis.
2. liturgiis meSveobiT, upirveles yovlisa, evqaristiis saRmrTo
msxverplSi, sruldeba Cveni gamomsyidvelis saqme1. is umaRles doneze
uzrunvelyofs imas, rom erTgulebma Tavisi cxovrebiT gamoxaton da
yvelasTvis gamoavlinon qristes saidumloeba da WeSmariti eklesiis namdvili buneba. misi Tviseba aris, iyos erTdroulad adamianuri da saRmrTo, xiluli da Tan uxilavi sinamdviliT mdidari, qmediTad mgznebare
da mWvretelobisTvis moclili, samyaroSi dafuZnebuli da Tan msxemi. is,
rac eklesiaSi adamianuria, saRmrTos unda Seesabamos da mas daeqvemdebaros, xiluli uxilavs, qmediTi mWvretelobas, amJamad arsebuli
momaval qalaqs, romelsac veZebT2. liturgia yovel dRe aSenebs maT, vinc
Sig aris, taZrad wmidad uflisa mier, samkdreblad RmrTisa suliTa3,
vidre zomamde hasakisa savsebisa mis qristesisa4. am dros is maT gansacvifreblad Zalas hmatebs, raTa qriste iqadagon. ase aCvenebs liturgia eklesias maT, vinc gareT aris, viTarca niSans, aRmarTuls erebSi5, romlis
qveS Svilni ganbneulni RmrTisani Sekribnes erTad6, vidre iqneba erT
samwyso da erT mwyems7.
3. amitom, liturgiis ganviTarebasa da ganaxlebasTan dakavSirebiT, wminda krebas saWirod miaCnia, gaixsenos qvemoT xsenebuli principebi da daadginos praqtikuli normebi.
am principebsa da normebs Soris zogierTi SeiZleba da unda miesadagos
rogorc romaul wess, aseve yvela sxva wess. rac Seexeba qvemoT xsenebul
praqtikul normebs, isini unda ganvixiloT mxolod romaul wesTan mimarTebaSi, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sakiTxi imas ar exeba, rac Tavisi bunebiT sxva
wesebzec zemoqmedebs.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

ormocdameaTe dRis momdevni 9-e kviris saZRvno locva (secreta).


Sdr. ebr. 13, 14.
efes. 2, 21, 22.
efes. 4, 13.
Sdr. es. 11, 12.
ioan. 11, 52.
ioan. 10, 16.

35

vatikanis II kreba

4. wmida kreba erTgulad misdevs tradicias. igi acxadebs, rom, kanonisa


da Rirsebis Tanaxmad, wmida deda eklesiisTvis yvela wesi Tanasworia da mas
momavalSic maTi Senaxva da maTTvis yovelmxrivi xelSewyoba surs. krebas
unda, rom saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, maTi sruli gadasinjva moxdes, gonivrulad da jansaRad, raTa maT axali Zala SeiZinon, dRevandeli viTarebisa da
moTxovnilebebis Sesabamisad.
Tavi I
wmida liturgiis ganaxlebisa
da ganviTarebis zogadi principebi

I. wmida liturgiis buneba


da misi mniSvneloba eklesiis cxovrebaSi
5. roca moiwia JamTa sisavse, RmerTma, romelsa yovelTa kacTa hnebavs cxoreba da mecnierebasa WeSmaritebisasa moslva (1tim. 2, 4), da romelic mravliT kerZo da mravliT saxiT maSinve [...] etyoda mamaTa winawarmetyuelTa mier (ebr. 1, 1), moavlina Tavisi Ze, ganxorcielebuli sityva,
maxareblad glaxakTa, gankurnebad SemusrvilTa guliTa8, xorciel da
sulier mkurnalad9. Suamdgomelad RmrTisa da kacTa10. swored misi adamianoba, saRmrTo sityvasTan erTobaSi (in unitate personae Verbi), gaxda iaraRi Cveni
gamoxsnisa. amitom qristeSi moxda Cveni Serigebis sruli wyaloba (placatio),
da mogveniWa saRmrTo kultis sisavse11.
adamianTa gamosyidvisa da RmrTis sulyofili gandidebis saqme, romelsac Zveli aRTqmis xalxis saswaulebi uZRoda, ufalma qristem daasrula. man
es, upirveles yovlisa, aRdgomis saidumloebiT (paschale mysterium) aRasrula: netari vnebis, mkvdreTiT aRdgomisa da didebuli (gloriosae) amaRlebis
meSveobiT man sikvdiliT daTrguna Cveni sikvdili, xolo aRdgomiT cxovreba aRadgina12. jvarcmuli qristes ferdidan aRmocenda mTeli eklesiis
gansacvifrebeli saidumlo13.
6. amitom, rogorc qriste moivlina mamis mier, aseve Tavad man moavlina mociqulebi, suli wmidiT savseni. isini moivlinen ara mxolod imisTvis, raTa saxarebis qadagebiT yvela dabadebulisaTvis euwyaT14, rom
Ze RmrTisam Tavisi sikvdiliTa da aRdgomiT gagvaTavisufla eSmakis Zalisagan15 da gadagviyvana RmrTis sasufevelSi, aramed imisTvisac, raTa
ganexorcielebinaT is, rasac auwyebdnen: gamoxsnis saqme msxverplisa da
saidumloTa meSveobiT, romelTa irgvliv brunavs mTeli liturgiuli
cxovreba. ase, naTlobiT adamianebi CaerTnen qristes aRdgomis saidumloSi: Tanamkvdarni, Tanadaflulni, TanaaRmdgarni16, isini iReben Svilobis (adoptionis filiorum) suls, romliTac vRaRadebT: abba, mamao! (rom.
8, 15), da ase xdebian WeSmariti Tayvanismcemlebi, romlebsac mama eZiebs17.
8
es. 61, 1; luk. 4, 18.
9
S. IGNATUS M., Ad Ephesios, 7, 2: FUNK I, 218.
10
Sdr. 1tim. 2, 5.
11
Sacramentum Verinense (Leonianum): MOHLBERG, Romae 1956, n. 1265, p. 162.
12
Praefatio paschalis in Missali Romano.
13
Sdr. locva, romelic mohyveba wmida SabaTis meore sakiTxavs romauli wirvis
wesSi, wmida kviris ganaxlebamde.
14
mark. 16, 15.
15
Sdr. saqme 26, 18.
16
Sdr. rom, 6, 4; efes. 2, 6.
17
Sdr. ioan. 4, 23.

36

SACROSANCTUM CONCILIUM

yovelTvis, uflis serobis miRebisas, isini uflis sikvdils auwyeben vidre mis mosvlamde18. amitom ormocdameaTe dRes, rodesac eklesia samyaros moevlina, Seiwynares sityua petresi da naTel-iRes. da iyvnes gankrZalul moZRurebasa mas mociqulTasa da ziarebasa da gantexasa
purisasa da locvasa ...aqebdes RmerTsa, da aqunda madli yovlisa mimarT
erisa (saqme 2, 41-47). amieridan eklesia mudam ikribeba aRdgomis saidumloebis dResaswaulze, raTa waikiTxos yovelTagan wignTa misTs (luk.
24, 27), aRasrulos evqaristia, romelic gamoxatavs sikvdilze mis gamarjvebasa da triumfs19, da, imave dros, uTxras madli RmerTsa gamouTqmelTa maT niWTa misTa zeda (2kor. 9, 15), ieso qristeSi, saqebelad
didebisa misisa (efes. 1, 12), suli wmidis ZaliT.
7. am didi saqmis Sesasruleblad qriste mudam gverdSi udgas Tavis
eklesias, upirveles yovlisa, liturgiul qmedebebSi. is imyofeba wmida wirvis msxverplSi (Missae Sacrificio), rogorc msaxuris saxiT (radgan
axla RmrTismsaxurebas eZleva is (offerens sacerdotum ministerio), vinc maSin jvarze misca Tavi (qui seipsum tunc in cruce obtulit) 20, aseve, gansakuTrebiT, evqaristiuli saxeobebiT (sub speciebus eucharisticis). Tavisi ZaliT is
aris saidumloebSi: roca vinme naTlavs, Tavad qriste naTlavs 21. is aris
Tavis sityvaSi: is Tavad laparakobs, rodesac eklesiaSi wmida werils
kiTxuloben. da bolos, is aqvea, roca eklesia loculobs da galobs,
Tavad igi, romelmac aRgviTqva: sadaca iyvnen orni gina samni Sekrebul
saxelisa CemisaTs, mun var me Soris maTsa (maT. 18, 20).
marTlac, am didi saqmiT, romelic srulyofilad ganadidebs RmerTs da
wmidayofs adamianebs, qriste mudam ukavSirdeba eklesias, Tavis sayvarel
sZals, romelic Tavis ufals mouwodebs da misi meSveobiT saukuno mamas
Tayvans scems.
amitom liturgia samarTlianad miiCneva ieso qristes samRvdlo funqciis ganxorcielebad: masSi adamianTa wmidayofa aRiniSneba grZnobiT aRsaqmeli niSnebiT da sruldeba TiToeulisTvis Sesaferisi saxiT, da ieso
qristes mistikuri sxeuliT, ese igi TaviTa da misi asoebiT sruldeba sruli sajaro Tayvaniscema.
maSasadame, yovelgvari liturgiuli msaxureba (celebratio) warmoadgens
qriste-mRvdlisa da misi sxeulis eklesiis _ saqmes. amitom es aris gansakuTrebiT wmida qmedeba, romlis efeqturobas xarisxiTa da masStabiT eklesiis verc erTi sxva qmedeba ver gautoldeba.
8. miwier liturgiaSi monawileobiT moveliT zeciurs. is sruldeba wmida
qalaqSi ierusalemSi, romliskenac miviswrafiT msxemobaSi. iq qriste ars
marjueniT RmrTisa mjdomare, wmidaTa msaxuri da karvisa mis WeSmaritisa22.
yvela zeciur mxedrobasTan erTad vugalobT ufals didebis himns; wmidanTa
xsovnis TayvaniscemiT, maTTan ziarebisa da urTierTobis imedi gvaqvs; moveliT Cvens macxovars, ufals ieso qristes, vidre Tavad gamocxaddeba igi, Cveni
cxovreba, da Cven gamovcxaddebiT masTan erTad didebiT23.
18
Sdr. I kor. 11, 26.
19
CONC. TRID., Sess. 13, 11 oct. 1551, decr. De ss. Eucharist., c. 5: CONC. TRID., Diariorum, Actorum, Epistolarum, Tractatum nova collectio, ed. Soc. Goeresiana, t. VII, Actorum pars IV, Friburgi Brisgoviae
1961, p. 202.
20
CONC. TRID., Sess. 22, 17 sept. 1562, doctr. De ss. Missae sacrif., c. 2: CONC. TRID., ed. cit., t.
VIII. Actorum pars V, Friburgi Brisgoviae 1919, p. 960.
21
Sdr. S. AUGUSTINUS, in Io. Evang. Tract. VI, I, 7: PL 35, 1428.
22
Sdr. gamocx. 21, 2; kol. 3, 1; ebr. 8, 2.
23
Sdr. fil. 3, 20; kol. 3, 4.

37

vatikanis II kreba

9. eklesiis mTeli qmedeba wmida liturgiiT ar amoiwureba. sanam adamianebi liturgias Seudgebodnen, isini sarwmunobisa da moqcevisTvis unda iqnen moxmobilni: viTar ukue xadon, romlisa mimarT ara hrwmena? anu viTarme hrwmenes, romlisa ara ismines? anu viTar-me isminon Tnier qadagebisa?
anu viTar-me qadageben, ara Tu waravlinnen? (rom. 10, 14-15).
amitom auwyebs eklesia gamoxsnas maT, vinc morwmune ar aris, raTa
yvela adamianma Seicnos erTaderTi WeSmariti RmerTi, romelmac moavlina ieso qriste, da datovos Tavisi gza da Seinanos24. xolo morwmuneebs is mudam unda uqadagebdes rwmenasa da monaniebas. eklesia maT,
upirveles yovlisa, saidumloebisTvis unda ganawyobdes, aswavlides,
daimarxon yoveli, rac qristem amcno25, da ubiZgebdes yvela im saqmisken,
romlebsac siyvaruli, RmrTismosaoba da mociquloba hqvia. am saqmeTa
meSveobiT cxadi unda gaxdes, rom Tumca qristes erTgulni ama qveynisani ar arian, isini mainc arian qveynis naTeli da mamas adamianTa winaSe
ganadideben.
10. liturgia aris mwvervali, romliskenac miiswrafvis eklesiis qmedeba da, amasTanave, is aris wyaro, romlidanac mTeli misi Zala momdinareobs.
mociquluri garja mimarTulia imisken, rom yvela, vinc sarwmunoebiTa da
naTlobiT RmrTis Svili gaxda, Seikribos, adidebdes RmerTs eklesiaSi, monawileobdes msxverplSi da miiRos uflis seroba.
Tavis mxriv, liturgia ubiZgebs erTgulebs, aRsavses aRdgomis saidumloebiT, iyvnen RmrTismosaobiT erTianni (pietate concordes)26. is loculobs, raTa maT cxovrebiT SeinarCunon is, rasac sarwmunoebiT Caswvdnen27.
evqaristiaSi adamianebTan uflis kavSiris ganaxleba erTgulebs qristes
gadaudebeli siyvarulisken izidavs da aRagznebs. amgvarad, liturgiidan, upirveles yovlisa ki evqaristiidan, rogorc wyarodan, CvenSi madli
moedineba da uaRresad qmediTi xdeba qristeSi adamianTa is naTelyofa da
uflis gandideba, romliskenac, rogorc miznisken, eklesiis yvela sxva saqme miiswrafvis.
11. am Sedegis srulad misaRwevad aucilebelia, rom erTgulni liturgias swori ganwyobiT (cum recti animi) miudgnen, Tavisi goneba sakuTar xmas
Seuwyon da uzenaes madlTan iTanamSromlon, raTa igi ara amaod Seiwynaron28. amitom sulTa mwyemsebma yuradReba unda miaqcion liturgiul qmedebaSi wesebis dacvas, raTa maTi Sesruleba qmediTad da sworad moxdes, xolo
erTgulebma masSi Segnebulad, aqtiurad da nayofierad miiRon monawileoba.
12. magram sulier cxovrebas mxolod wmida liturgiaSi monawileoba ar
Seadgens. marTalia, qristiani mowodebuli aris erToblivi locvisken, magram is unda Tavis senakSi Sevides, raTa mamis mimarT farulad ilocos29.
metic: mociquli gvaswavlis, rom man mouklebelad unda ilocos30. imave mociqulisgan vswavlobT, rom mudam vatarebT iesos sikvdils Cvens sxeulSi,
raTa iesos cxovrebac gamocxaddes Cvens mokvdav xorcSi31. amitom wirvis
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

38

Sdr. ioan. 17, 3; luk. 24, 27; saqme 2, 38.


maT. 28, 20.
saaRdgomo RamisTevisa da aRdgomis kviris ziarebis Semdgomi locva.
aRdgomis samSabaTis mesis locva.
Sdr. 2kor. 6, 1.
Sdr. maT. 6, 6.
Sdr. 1Tesal. 5, 7.
Sdr. 2kor. 4, 10-11.

SACROSANCTUM CONCILIUM

msxverplSi ufals vevedrebiT, rom sulieri msxverplis miRebiT (hostiae spiritualis oblatione suscepta) misTvis gvsrulyos saukuno saCuqrad (munus)32.
13. mxurvaled rekomendirebulia qristiani xalxis RmrTismosavi msaxurebani (pia... exercitia), rodesac isini Seesabameba eklesiis kanonebsa da normebs, gansakuTrebiT Tu maTi Sesruleba samociqulo saydris (Apostolicae Sedis) gankargulebiT xdeba.
gansakuTrebiT Rirebulia calkeul eklesiaTa wmida msaxurebani, romlebic episkoposTa gankargulebiT sruldeba, Cveulebebisa Tu kanonierad
miCneuli wignebis mixedviT.
es msaxurebani unda ganwesdes liturgiul droTa gaTvaliswinebiT, raTa
isini Seewyos wmida liturgias, garkveulwilad misgan momdinareobdes da
masTan xalxi miiyvanos, imitom, rom Tavisi bunebiT liturgia maT didad
aRemateba.

II. liturgiuli momzadeba da aqtiuri monawileoba


14. deda eklesias didad surs, rom yvela erTgulma srulad, Segnebulad
da aqtiurad monawileoba miiRos liturgiul msaxurebaSi, romelsac Tavad
liturgiis buneba iTxovs. naTlobis ZaliT, es aris ufleba da movaleoba
qristiani xalxisa, romelic aris naTesavi rCeuli, sameufo samRdelo,
Tesli wmida, eri mogebuli (1petr. 2, 9; Sdr. 2, 4-4).
mTeli xalxis es sruli da aqtiuri monawileoba gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania wmida liturgiis ganaxlebisa da ganviTarebisTvis. igi marTlac
pirveli da aucilebeli wyaroa, romlidanac erTgulebma WeSmaritad qristianuli suli unda miiRon. amitom mTels samwyso saqmianobaSi, saTanado
momzadebis safuZvelze, sulieri mwyemsebi mas didi gulisyuriT unda ekidebodnen.
magram amaod unda gvqondes amis miRwevis imedi, Tuki manamde sulieri
mwyemsebi Tavad Rrmad ar ganimsWvalebian liturgiis suliTa da ZaliT da
mis moZRvrebad ar iqcevian. amitom upirveles yovlisa aucilebelia, rom
samRvdeloebis (cleri) liturgiuli momzadeba moxdes. amitom wmida krebam
gadawyvita gamoetana Semdegi dadgenilebebi:
15. moZRvrebma, romlebic wmida liturgiis disciplinebs seminariebSi,
samoweseo saswavlo saxlebSi (studiorum domibus religiosis) da Teologiis fakultetebze aswavlian, Tavisi funqciis Sesasruleblad gansakuTrebuli momzadeba unda gaiaron specialurad am miznisTvis gankuTvnil institutebSi.
16. wmida liturgiis disciplina unda ganekuTvnebodes aucilebel da
prioritetul disciplinaTa ricxvs seminariebSi da samoweseo saswavlo saxlebSi, xolo Teologiis fakultetebze umTavres disciplinaTa ricxvs.
misi gadmocema saWiroa rogorc Teologiuri da istoriuli, aseve sulieri,
samoZRvro (pastoralis) da iuridiuli aspeqtiT. garda amisa, sxva disciplinaTa moZRvarni, upirveles yovlisa, dogmaturi Teologiisa, wmida werilisa,
sulieri da samoZRvro Teologiisa, unda ecadon, TiToeuli sagnis Sinagani moTxovnilebebidan gamomdinare ise ganmarton qristes saidumloeba da
gamoxsnis istoria, rom naTlad warmoCndes maTi kavSiri liturgiasTan da
samRvdlo momzadebis erTianoba.

32

ormocdameaTe dRis momdevno orSabaTis saZRvno locva (secreta).

39

vatikanis II kreba

17. seminariebsa da samoweseo saswavlo saxlebSi samRvdeloebam sulieri


cxovrebisTvis liturgiuli aRzrda unda miiRos. es unda moxdes saTanado
xelmZRvanelobiT, romlis daxmarebiT isini gaacnobiereben wmida wesebs da
mTeli suliT maTi monawileni gaxdebian, agreTve wmida saidumloTa RmrTismsaxurebiT da RmrTismosaobis sxva formebiT, romlebic wmida liturgiis
suliT arian gamsWvalulni. amasTanave, maT unda iswavlon liturgiuli kanonebis dacva, raTa seminariebSi da moweseTa institutebSi cxovreba Rrmad
ganimsWvalos liturgiuli suliT.
18. mRvdelmsaxurebs, rogorc sekularuls, aseve moweseebs, romlebic
ukve moqmedeben uflis venaxebSi, yvela SesaZlo saSualebiT unda gaewios
daxmareba, raTa sul ufro srulyofilad gaacnobieron is, rasac RmrTismsaxurebisas (in functionibus sacris) akeTeben, da raTa icxovron liturgiuli
cxovrebiT, romelsac maTTvis mindobil erTgulebTan erTad gaiziareben.
19. sulTa mwyemsebma gulmodgined da moTminebiT unda izrunon liturgiuli momzadebisa da erTgulTa aqtiuri, rogorc Sida, aseve gareSe, monawileobisTvis, maTi asakis, mdgomareobis, cxovrebis wesisa da religiuri kulturis
donis Sesabamisad. amgvarad, maT unda Seasrulon RmrTis saidumloebaTa erTguli ganmgeblis (dispensatoris) erTerTi mTavari funqcia, da Tavis samwysos am
saqmeSi ara marto sityviT unda xelmZRvanelobdnen, aramed magaliTiTac.
20. mRvdelmsaxurebis (actionum sacrarum) gadmocema radioTi da televiziiT, gansakuTrebiT Tu saqme exeba wmida wirvas, unda mimdinareobdes mokrZalebiTa da RirsebiT, im piris xelmZRvanelobiTa da pasuxismgeblobiT,
romelsac es samsaxuri episkoposma daakisra.

III. wmida liturgiis ganaxleba


21. RmrTismosav deda eklesias surs, gulmodgined izrunos zogadad
liturgiis ganaxlebisTvis. liturgia Sedgeba ucvleli, RmrTivdadgenili
nawilisgan da cvalebadi nawilebisgan, romlebic droSi SeiZleba icvlebodes da kidec unda icvlebodes, Tu maTSi SemTxveviT moxvdeba is, rac ar Seefereba liturgiis Sinagan bunebas, an Tu Tavad es nawilebi Seusabamoa.
am ganaxlebis Sedegad teqstisa da wesebis organizacia ise unda moxdes,
rom maT ufro naTlad gamoxaton is siwmideebi, romlebsac aRniSnaven. qristiani xalxi maT SeZlebisdagvarad advilad unda Caswvdes. mas unda SeeZlos,
srulad da aqtiurad monawileoba miiRos erTobliv RmrTismsaxurebaSi.
amitom wmida krebam daadgina Semdegi zogadi normebi:

a. zogadi normebi
1. wmida liturgiis warmarTva mTlianad damokidebulia eklesiis uflebamosilebaze, xolo is ganekuTvneba samociqulo saydars, da, kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad (ad normam iuris), episkoposs.
2. kanoniT miniWebuli ZalauflebiT, garkveul farglebSi liturgiis
sferoSi xelmZRvaneloba SeuZliaT agreTve episkoposTa sxvadasxva gaerTianebebs, romlebic kompetenturia garkveul teritoriaze da kanonierad
aris damtkicebuli.
3. amitom aravis, mRvdelmsaxursac ki, ar SeuZlia sakuTari mosazrebiT
liturgiaSi rame Caamatos, amoiRos an Secvalos.

40

SACROSANCTUM CONCILIUM

23. saWiroa jansaRi tradiciis SenarCuneba, magram progresic aucilebelia. amitom liturgiis calkeul nawilTa gadasinjvas mudam win unda uZRodes safuZvliani Teologiuri, istoriuli, samoZRvro gamokvleva. gasaTvaliswinebelia liturgiis struqturisa da arsis zogadi kanonebi, agreTve
gamocdileba, romelic momdinareobs ukanaskneli liturgiuli ganaxlebidan da sxvadasxva adgilas daSvebuli indultebidan. dabolos, siaxleebi
mxolod im SemTxvevaSi unda iqnas daSvebuli, Tu es namdvilad da uciloblad aucilebelia eklesiisTvis. yuradReba imasac unda mieqces, rom axali
formebis aRmoceneba moxdes organulad, ukve arsebuli formebidan.
SeZlebisdagvarad saWiroa imaze fiqric, rom ar gaCndes mniSvnelovani
sxvaobebi mezobel regionTa wesebSi.
24. wmida werilis mniSvneloba liturgiaSi Zalian didia. misgan momdinareobs sakiTxavebi, romlebsac kiTxuloben da homiliebSi ganmartaven,
agreTve fsalmunni, romlebsac galoben; misgan momdinare STagonebiTa da
aRmafreniT iqmneba locvebi da liturgiuli sagaloblebi, da misgan iZenen Tavis mniSvnelobas qmedebebi da niSnebi. wmida liturgiis ganaxlebis,
progresisa da adaptaciisTvis xeli unda Seewyos wmida werilis tkbil da
cocxal siyvaruls, romelsac mowmobs aRmosavluri da dasavluri wesebis
pativdebuli tradicia.
25. liturgiuli wignebi SeZlebisdagvarad swrafad unda iqnes gadasinjuli. amisTvis saWiroa specialistebis mowveva da dedamiwis sxvadasxva
kuTxeSi episkoposebTan TaTbiri.

b. normebi, romlebic momdinareobs liturgiis,


rogorc ierarqiuli da sazogadoebrivi qmedebis bunebidan
26. liturgiuli qmedebebi ar aris kerZo qmedebani, aramed RmrTismsaxurebani (celebrationes) eklesiisa, romelic aris saidumloTa erToba, e. i. wmida xalxi, episkoposTagan Sekrebili da warmarTuli33.
amitom es qmedebebi ganekuTvneba eklesiis mTel sxeuls, isini mas gamoavlenen da masze moqmedeben. Tavis calkeul wevrTan maT Taviseburi Sexeba
aqvs, xarisxebis (ordinum), funqciebisa da realuri monawilebis mixedviT.
27. yovelTvis, roca wesebi, TiToeuli Taviseburad, gulisxmobs erTobliv RmrTismsaxurebas, romelSic erTgulebi xSirad da aqtiurad iReben
monawileobas, maSin sasurvelia, rom SeZlebisdagvarad, maT mieniWos upiratesoba, calkeul da erTgvarad kerZo RmrTismsaxurebasTan SedarebiT.
es exeba, upirveles yovlisa, wirvis aRsrulebas (mas mudam aqvs sajaro
da socialuri buneba), agreTve saidumloTa gangebulebas (administratione).
28. liturgiis yvela monawilem iqneba is msaxuri Tu erTguli, Tavisi
Ffunqciis SesrulebiT mxolod da mxolod is unda akeTos, rac mas Seefereba
saganTa bunebisa da liturgiuli normebis safuZvelze.
29. ministrantebi, leqtorebi, komentatorebi da mgaloblebi (ii qui ad
scholam cantorum pertinent) WeSmaritad liturgiul msaxurebas (ministerio) ewevian. amitom Tavisi funqcia maT iseTi gulrwfeli RmrTismosaobiTa da we33
S.CYPRIANUS, De cath. eccl. unitate, 7: CSEL (Hartel) III, 1, pp. 215-216. Sdr. Epist. 66, n. 8, 3: ed.
cit., III; 2, pp. 732-733.

41

vatikanis II kreba

siT unda Seasrulon, romelic aseT msaxurebas Seefereba da romelsac RmrTis eri maTgan samarTlianad moiTxovs.
amitom aucilebelia, rom isini gulmodgined ganimsWvalon liturgiis
suliT, TiToeuli Taviseburad, da moemzadon, sworad da wesierad Seasrulon Tavisi roli.
30. aqtiuri monawileobisTvis xelSesawyobad saWiroa yuradReba daeTmos xalxis SeZaxilebsa da pasuxebs, fsalmodiebs, antifonebs, galobas,
agreTve qmedebebs, anu Jestebsa da sxeulis mdgomareobas (habitus). saTanado
dros unda iyos daculi wmida dumili.
31. liturgiuli wignebis gadaxedvisas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda
mieqces imas, rom wesebSi (rubricae) gaTvaliswinebul iqnas erTgulTa monawileobac.
32. garda im gansxvavebisa, romelic liturgiuli funqciidan da wmida
xarisxidan momdinareobs, agreTve im pativisa, romelic liturgiuli kanonebis Tanaxmad, samoqalaqo xelisuflebas ekuTvnis, ar unda iqnas gaTvaliswinebuli kerZo pirebi Tu garemoebani, arc ceremoniebSi, arc gareT Catarebul zeimSi.

g. normebi, romlebic liturgiis didaqtikuri


da samoZRvro bunebidan momdinareobs
33. wmida liturgia ZiriTadad aris saRmrTo didebis kultmsaxureba
(cultus divinae maiejstatis). amasTanave, didia misi roli erTguli eris aRzrdis
saqmeSi34. liturgiaSi RmerTi elaparakeba Tavis ers. qriste kvlav gvauwyebs
saxarebas. eri RmerTs galobebiT da locviT upasuxebs.
metic: RmrTisadmi mimarTul locvebs warmoTqvams mRvdelmsaxuri,
romelic sakrebulos (coetui) qristes piriT uZRveba. maT igi mTeli saRmrTo xalxis (plebis sanctae) da yvela damswris saxeliT ambobs. xiluli niSnebi,
romlebsac wmida liturgia mimarTavs uxilavi saRmrTo sinamdvilis aRsaniSnad, qristes an eklesiis mier aris arCeuli. amitom ara marto maSin, rodesac ikiTxeba is, rac Cuenda samoZRurebelad daiwera (rom. 15, 4), aramed
maSinac, rodesac eklesia loculobs, galobs an moqmedebs, monawileTa rwmena sazrdoobs, azri (mentes) RmrTisken aRiswrafvis, raTa mas gonivruli
msaxureba warudginos da misi madli ufro uxvad miiRos.
amitom ganaxlebasTan dakavSirebiT Semdegi zogadi normebis dacva aris
saWiro.
34. dae, wesebi keTilSobili simartiviT elvarebdes, iyos mokle da gasagebi, umizno gameorebebis gareSe. dae, isini Seesabamebodes erTgulTa SesaZleblobebs. sazogadod, isini vrcel ganmartebebs ar saWiroebs.
35. raTa naTlad gamoCndes, rom liturgiaSi wesi da sityva mWidrod aris
erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli, saWiroa Semdegi:
1. mRvdelmsaxurebaSi (in celebrationibus sacris) unda dawesdes wmida werilis
ufro vrceli, mravalferovani da Sesaferisi kiTxva.
2. qadageba aris liturgiuli qmedebis nawili. misTvis Sesaferisi adgili
wesdebaSic (rubricis) unda mieTiTos, ramdenadac amis uflebas wesi (ritus) iZ34
Sdr. CONC. TRID., Sess. 22, 17 sept. 1562, doctr. De ss. Missae sacrif., c. 8: CONC. TRID., ed. cit.,
VIII, 961.

42

SACROSANCTUM CONCILIUM

leva. qadagebis msaxureba Zalze erTgulad da zustad unda sruldebodes.


qadagebis wyaro, upirveles yovlisa, wmida werili da liturgia unda iyos,
radgan is aris RmrTis sakvirvelebaTa (mirabilium) uwyeba gamoxsnis istoriaSi anu qristes saidumloebaSi, romelic mudam CvenTan aris da CvenSi moqmedebs, gansakuTrebiT liturgiul msaxurebebSi.
3. yovelmxriv xazi unda gaesvas katexizaciis uSualod litiurgiul Sinaarss. Tavad wesebSi, aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi, gasaTvaliswinebelia mokle damoZRvrani (admonitiones). maT mRvdeli an uflebamosili msaxuri warmoTqvams, oRond mxolod saWiro momentebSi, dadgenili teqstiT an msgavsi
gamoTqmebiT.
4. xeli unda Seewyos RmrTis sityvis aRsrulebas diddResaswaulTa wina
dReebSi, adventisa da didi marxvis zogierT dRes, agreTve kvira dReebSi
da sadResaswaulo dReebSi, gansakuTrebiT iseT adgilebSi, sadac ar aris
mRvdelmsaxuri. aseT SemTxvevaSi msaxurebas (celebrationem) unda xelmZRvanelobdes diakoni an sxva piri, episkoposis mier arCeuli.
36. 1. laTinuri enis gamoyeneba unda SenarCunebul iqnas laTinur wesebSi, garda zogierTi gamonaklisi wesisa.
2. wmida wirvisas, saidumloTa gangebulebaSi da liturgiis sxva
nawilebSic xalxisTvis xSirad SeiZleba Zalian sasargeblo iyos adgilobrivi enis gamoyeneba. mas SeiZleba meti yuradReba daeTmos, gansakuTrebiT
sakiTxavebsa da damoZRvraSi, zogierT locvasa da galobaSi, im kanonTa mixedviT, romlebic momdevno TavebSi calkeuli SemTxvevebisTvis dgindeba.
3. amgvari normebis dacviT, adgilobrivi saeklesio xelisufleba
(ix. 22-e muxlis 2) uflebamosilia, imave enis matarebeli mezobeli regionebis episkoposebTan TaTbiris Sedegad, dadgenileba gamoitanos imis Taobaze, unda iqnas Tu ara gamoyenebuli adgilobrivi ena, an ra saxiT unda moxdes misi gamoyeneba. es aqtebi unda moiwonos an daadasturos samociqulo
saydarma.
4. laTinuri teqstis Targmna adgilobriv enaze, liturgiaSi misi
gamoyenebis mizniT, unda aprobirebul iqnas uflebamosili adgilobrivi
saeklesio xelisuflebis mier, romlis Sesaxeb zemoT iyo laparaki.

d. normebi, romlebic xels uwyobs liturgiis misadagebas


erTa xasiaTisa da tradiciebisadmi
37. im sferoSi, romelic ar moicavs mTeli sazogadoebis rwmenasa da
keTildReobas, eklesia ar miiswrafvis mkacri da erTferovani formis
dakanonebisken. mas es liturgiaSic ki ar surs. eklesia, piriqiT, asazrdoebs da xels uwyobs sxvadasxva xalxebisa da erebis sulieri Rirebulebebisa da niWebis ganviTarebas. is keTilad aris ganwyobili yvelafris mimarT, rac erTa zne-CveulebebSi uimedod ar aris crurwmenebsa
da SecdomebTan gadajaWvuli. eklesia, SeZlebisdagavard, cdilobs aseTi Rirebulebebis Senaxvasa da jansaRad SenarCunebas da maT zogjer liturgiaSic ki CarTavs xolme, Tuki es WeSmariti da namdvili liturgiuli sulis principebs Seesabameba.
38. romauli wesis arsebiTi erTianoba unda SenarCunebul iqnas. amasTanave adgili unda hqondes kanonier saxesxvaobebsa da adaptaciebs sxvadasxva
jgufebTan, regionebsa da erebTan mimarTebaSi, upirveles yovlisa, misiaTa
adgilebSi, agreTve liturgiuli wignebis gadasinjvisas. Sesabamisad, amis
gaTvaliswineba aris saWiro wesTa struqturisa da wesdebaTa dadgenisas.

43

vatikanis II kreba

39. sazRvrebSi, romlebic dadgenilia liturgiuli wignebis tipiur gamocemebSi, adgilobrivi saeklesio xelisuflebis uflebamosileba (ix. 22-e
muxli, 2) mdgomareobs SemdegSi: man unda gansazRvros adaptacia, upirveles yovlisa, saidumloTa gangebulebis (administrationem Sacramentorum), sakramentaliebis (Sacramentalia), procesebis, liturgiul enis, sasuliero musikisa da xelovnebis sferoSi, oRond im normebis mixedviT, romlebic mocemul
konstituciaSi aris warmodgenili.
40. sxvadasxva adgilas da sxvadasxva viTarebaSi aucilebeli xdeba liturgiis ufro safuZvliani adaptacia. es damatebiT sirTuleebs qmnis:
1. uflebamosilma adgilobrivma saeklesio xelisuflebam, romelsac
exeba 22-e muxlis 22, gulmodgined da safuZvlianad unda ganixilos sakiTxi, Tu risi daSveba SeiZleba RmrTismsaxurebaSi ama Tu im eris tradiciidan da xasiaTidan. mizanSewonilad an aucileblad miiCneuli adaptaciebi
unda waredginos samociqulo saydars da misi Tanxmobis Sedegad iqnas SemoRebuli.
2. adaptacia saTanado sifrTxiliT unda ganxorcieldes. amasTan dakavSirebiT, samociqulo saydarma SeiZleba, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, uflebamosili gaxados igive adgilobrivi saeklesio xelisufleba, dauSvas winaswari
cdebi da uxelmZRvanelos maT garkveuli drois manZilze garkveul, am saqmisTvis Sesaferis, jgufebSi.
3. aseTi adaptaciis pirobebSi sagangebo sirTules warmoadgens liturgiuli kanonebi, gansakuTrebiT misiebSi. amitom maT dasadgenad saWiroa saqmeSi gamocdili adamianebis mowveva.

IV. liturgiuli cxovrebis ganviTareba


diocezebsa da sakrebuloebSi
41. episkoposi unda miviCnioT misi samwysos mTavar mRvdelmsaxurad. misgan momdinareobs, garkveulwilad, da masze aris damokidebuli mis erTgulTa cxovreba qristeSi.
amitom yvelam udidesi pativi unda sces diocezis liturgiul cxovrebas, romlis centrSi episkoposi dgas. es, upirveles yovlisa, sakaTedro taZarSi unda moxdes. isini darwmunebulni unda iyvnen, rom eklesiis ZiriTadi
gamovlineba (manifestationem) xdeba maSin, rodesac RmrTis mTeli wmida xalxi
srulad da aqtiurad monawileobs erTsa da imave liturgiul msaxurebaSi
(celebratione), upirveles yovlisa, evqaristiaSi, erT locvaSi, erT sakurTxevelTan, romelsac warmarTavs (praeest) episkoposi, garemoculi Tavisi mRvdlebiTa da msaxurebiT35.
42. episkoposs ar SeuZlia, Tavis eklesiaSi yovelTvis da yvelgan TviTon gauZRves Tavis samwysos. amitom man aucileblad unda Camoayalibos
erTgulTa jgufi. maT Soris gamoirCeva sakrebuloebi, lokalurad organizebuli mRvdlis xelmZRvanelobiT, romelsac episkoposis adgili
ukavia. es jgufebi garkveulwilad warmoadgens xilul eklesias, dedamiwaze daarsebuls.
amitom erTgulebisa da samRvdeloebis cnobierebasa da praqtikaSi unda
gaRrmavdes sakrebulos liturgiuli cxovreba da misi kavSiri episkoposTan. amasTanave xeli unda Seewyos sakrebulos erTobis SegrZnebis ganmtkicebas, upirveles yovlisa, kviris wirvis erTobliv msaxurebaSi.
35

44

Sdr. S. IGNATIUS M., Ad Magn. 7; Ad Phil. 4; Ad Smyrn. 8: FUNK I, 236, 266, 281.

SACROSANCTUM CONCILIUM

V. samoZRvro liturgiuli qmedebis ganviTareba


43. samarTlianad aris miCneuli, rom wmida liturgiis ganviTareba da
ganaxleba aris Cveni epoqis mimarT RmrTis providencialuri gangebulebis
(dispositionum) niSani, suli wmidis gadmosvla (transitus) mis eklesiaSi. is gansakuTrebul daRs asvams eklesiis cxovrebas da mTlianobaSi Cveni droisTvis damaxasiaTebel religiur grZnobasa da moqmedebas.
amitom, eklesiaSi samoZRvro liturgiuli qmedebis Semdgomi ganviTarebisTvis, wmida krebam daadgina:
44. mizanSewonilia, rom uflebamosilma adgilobrivma saeklesio xelisuflebam, romlis Sesaxeb aris laparaki 22-e muxlis 2-Si, Camoayalibos liturgiuli komisia. mas unda daexmaron is adamianebi, romlebic gamocdilni
arian liturgiul mecnierebaSi, musikaSi, sasuliero xelovnebasa (Arte sacra)
da samoZRvro saqmianobaSi (re pastorali). am komisias SeZlebisdagvarad mxarSi
unda edgas samoZRvro liturgiis instituti. saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, misi
wevrebi mocemul sakiTxSi kompetenturi saero pirebic unda gaxdnen. am komisiis amocana iqneba, saeklesio xelisuflebis xelmZRvanelobiT (mis Sesaxeb zemoT iyo laparaki) warmarTos misTvis rwmunebul sivrceSi samoZRvro
liturgiuli qmedeba da xeli Seuwyos kvlevasa da aucilebel cdebs, yovelTvis, roca saqme exeba im adaptaciebs, romlebic gansaxilvelad samociqulo saydars unda waredginos.
45. amave mizeziT, calkeul sakrebuloSi unda moqmedebdes wmida liturgiis komisia, raTa, episkoposis xelmZRvanelobiT, ganviTardes liturgiuli qmedeba.
zogjer SeiZleba mizanSewonili iyos, rom ramdenime sakrebulom erTi
komisia Seqmnas, romelic gaerTianebuli ZalebiT liturgiis saqmes moemsaxureba.
46. wmida liturgiis komisiis garda, TiToeul sakrebuloSi SeZlebisdagvarad unda Seiqmnas sasuliero musikisa da sasuliero xelovnebis komisiebic.
am samma komisiam aucileblad SeerTebuli ZalebiT unda imuSaos. xSirad
sasurvelic ki aris erT komisiad maTi gaerTianeba.
Tavi II
evqaristiis wmida saidumloeba
47. saidumlo serobisas, im Rames, roca gacemul iqna (tradebatur), Cvenma macxovarma daawesa sxeulisa da sisxlis evqaristuli msxverpli, raTa
saukunod egos jvris msxverpli, vidre mis mosvlamde. man eklesias sayvarel sZals miando xsovna Tavisi sikvdilisa da aRdgomis Sesaxeb: RmrTismosaobis saidumlo, erTobis niSani, siyvarulis kavSiri (vinculum)36, saaRdgomo
trapezi (convivium paschale), romelzec qristeTi vikvebebiT (sumitur), goneba
ivseba madliT da gveZleva momavali didebis windi37
48. eklesia gulmodgined zrunavs imisaTvis, rom qristes erTgulebi
rwmenis am saidumloebas rogorc gareSe da munji mayureblebi ki ar eswre-

cat.

36
Sdr. S. AUGUSTINUS, In Io. Evang. Tract. XXVI, VI, 13: PL 35, 1613.
37
Breviarium Romanum, In festo Sanctissimi Corporis Christi. Ad

II Vesperas, antiphona ad Magnifi-

45

vatikanis II kreba

bodnen, aramed mas kargad Caswvdnen, wesebisa da locvebis gziT, gacnobierebulad da mowiwebiT (pie). maT aqtiuri monawileoba unda miiRon wmida
qmedebaSi, ganaTldnen RmrTis sityviT, momagrdnen uflis sxeulis trapeziT (mensa), madloba uZRvnan RmerTs, Seswiron ubiwo msxverpli ara marto
mRvdelmsaxuris xeliT, aramed masTan erTadac. maT sakuTari Tavis msxverplad mitanac iswavlon. isini unda yoveldRiurad srulqmnilni xdebodnen
Suamavali qristes meSveobiT (Christo Mediatore)38, RmerTTan da erTmaneTTan
erTobaSi, raTa bolos RmerTi iyos yvelaferi yvelaferSi.
49. wirvis msxverplma Tavisi saweso formiTac (rituum forma) srul samoZRvro qmediTobas unda miaRwios. amitom wmida kreba iTvaliswinebs im wirvebs,
romlebic xalxis TavmoyriT sruldeba, upirveles yovlisa, kvira dRes da
dadgenil dResaswaulebze. amasTan dakavSirebiT kreba adgens:
50. wirvis wesis gadaxedva aris saWiro, ise, rom ufro naTlad warmoCndes
TiToeuli nawilis Sinaarsi da ufro advili gaxdes erTgulTa RmrTismosavi da aqtiuri monawileoba.
wesebi unda gamartivdes, oRond ise, rom maTi arsi safuZvlianad SenarCunebul iqnas. saWiroa imis gamotoveba, rac droTa svlaSi meordeboda an
usargeblod iqna damatebuli. da piriqiT: wmida mamebis Zveli normebis Sesabamisad, unda aRdges zogierTi iseTi ram, rac drois usamarTlobiT gaqra,
Tuki es xelsayrelia da aucilebeli.
51. raTa RmrTis sityvis trapezi (mensa) erTgulebisTvis ufro uxvi iyos,
saWiroa bibliis saunjis ufro farTod gaReba, raTa wlebis gansazRvrul
manZilze xalxis winaSe wakiTxul iqnas wmida werilis arsebiTi nawili.
52. liturgiuli wlis ganmavlobaSi homilia wmida teqstidan gadmoscems
sarwmunoebis saidumloebebs da qristianuli cxovrebis normebs. Zalze
sasurvelia, rom homilia iyos Tavad liturgiis nawili. metic: is ar unda
iqnas gamotovebuli (Tu ara raime seriozuli mizeziT) mesebSi, romlebic
kviraobiT da dagenil dResaswaulebze xalxis TavmoyriT sruldeba.
53. saxarebisa da homiliis Semdeg, gansakuTrebiT kvira dReobiT da dadgenil dResaswaulebze (festis de praeceptio), unda aRdges erToblivi anu erTgulTa locva, raTa xalxis monawileobiT hyon vedreba (obsecrationes) wmida
eklesiisTvis, Cvens mTavarTaTvis, SeWirvebulTaTvis, yvela adamianisaTvis
da mTeli samyaros gamosaxsnelad39.
54. mesaze, romelic xalxis monawileobiT sruldeba, saTanado adgili SeiZleba daeTmos adgilobriv enas, gansakuTrebiT sakiTxavebsa da erTobliv locvaSi, agreTve, garemoebaTa mixedviT, xalxisTvis gankuTvnil
nawilebSic, mocemuli konstituciis 36-e muxlis mixedviT.
amave dros, gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom qristes erTgulebs unda SeeZloT
laTinur enazec mesis (Ordinarii Missae) im nawilebis erTad Tqma an galoba,
romlebic maTTvis aris gankuTvnili.
iq, sadac mizanSewonili Cans mesaSi adgilobrivi enis ufro farTod gamoyeneba, unda gaTvaliswinebul iqnas mocemuli konstituciis 40-e muxlis
miTiTeba.
38
39

46

Sdr. S. Cyrillus Alex., Comment. in Io. Evang., lib. XI-XII: PG 74, 557-564.
Sdr. 1 tim. 2, 1-2.

SACROSANCTUM CONCILIUM

55. Zalze sasurvelia mesaSi srulyofili monawileoba, rac imas niSnavs,


rom erTgulebi mRvdelmsaxuris ziarebis Semdeg imave msxverplSewirvidan
uflis sxeuls iReben.
ucvlelia tridentis krebis mier dadgenili dogmaturi principebi40.
amasTanave, samociqulo saydris mier gansazRvrul SemTxvevebSi, episkoposTa gadawyvetilebiT, SesaZlebelia ziarebis daSveba orive saxiT, rogorc
samRvdeloTaTvis da moweseebisTvis, aseve saero pirTaTvis: magaliTad,
xeldasxmulTaTvis maTi xeldasxmis wmida mesaSi (veluti ordinatis in Missa sacrae suae ordinationis), RmrTivSewirulTaTvis maTi samoweseo aRTqmis dadebis
mesaSi (professis in Missa religiosae suae professionis), neofitebisTvis im mesaze,
romelic naTlobas mosdevs.
56. ori nawili, romlebisganac garkveulwilad Sedgeba wirva, e. i. sityvis liturgia da evqaristia, ise mWidrod aris erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli, rom isini kultmsaxurebis (cultus) erT aqts qmnian. amitom wmida kreba dabejiTebiT mouwodebs sulTa mwyemsebs, rom katexizaciisas
(in catechesi tradenta) erTgulebs gulmodgined aswavlon mTels mesaSi monawileobis aucileblobis Sesaxeb, upirveles yovlisa, kvira dReebSi da
dadgenil dResaswaulebSi.
57. 1. Tanamsaxureba (concelebratio), romelic kargad avlens mRvdelmsaxurebis erTianobas, eklesiaSi dRemde aris Semonaxuli, rogorc aRmosavleTSi, aseve dasavleTSi. amitom krebam ineba, Tanamsaxurebis SesaZlebloba
Semdeg SemTxvevebzec gaavrcelos:
1. a) didi xuTSabaTi, rogorc mironkurTxevis mesa, aseve mwuxris wirva.
b) wirvebi, romlebic sruldeba krebebze, episkoposTa Sekrebasa da
sinodebze.
g) winamZRvris kurTxevis wirva (ad Missam in Benedictione Abbatis).
2. agreTve, ordinariusis nebarTviT, romelic uflebamosilia, gansazRvros Tanamsaxurebis mizanSewoniloba, Semdeg SemTxvevebSi:
a) samonastro wirva da mTavari wirva eklesiebSi, rodesac erTgulTaTvis saWiroeba ar moiTxovs yvela damswre mRvdlis individualur msaxurebas.
b) wirva yvela saxis mRvdelmsaxuris (rogorc saeroTa, aseve moweseTa) Sekrebaze.
2. 1. episkoposTa funqcias warmoadgens diocezSi Tanamsaxurebis wesis warmarTva.
2. amasTanave, mRvdels yovelTvis unda hqondes SesaZlebloba, individualurad aRasrulos wirva, magram ara erTsa da imave dros, erTsa
da imave eklesiaSi, da ara did xuTSabaTs (nec feria V in Cena Domini).
58. unda Sedges Tanamsaxurebis axali wesi, romelic Seva romis pontifikalSi da wirvis wesSi.
Tavi III
sxva saidumloni da sakramentaliebi
59. saidumloebi mimarTulia adamianTa wmidayofisken, qristes sxeulis
Senebisken, da bolos, RmrTis Tayvaniscemisken. magram, rogorc niSnebs, maT
saswavlo funqciac aqvT. maTSi ara marto igulisxmeba (supponunt) sarwmunoe40
Sess. 21, 16 iul. 1562. DOCTRINA DE Communione sub utraque specie et parvulorum, c. 1-3: CONC.
TRID., ed. cit., VIII, 698-699.

47

vatikanis II kreba

ba, aramed isini sityvebiTa da saqmeebiT mas asazrdoeben, ganamtkiceben da


gamoxataven. amitom maT rwmenis saidumloni ewodeba. ra Tqma unda, maT madli moaqvT. amasTanave, maTi aRsruleba saukeTesod ganawyobs erTgulebs
imisTvis, rom maT madli nayofierad miiRon, RmerTs saTanadod scen Tayvani
da siyvaruliT icxovron (ad caritatem exercendam).
amitom Zalze didi mniSvneloba aqvs imas, rom erTgulebs advilad esmodeT saidumloTa niSnebi, da dabejiTebiT mimarTon saidumloT, romlebic
qristianul cxovrebas asazrdoeben.
60. garda amisa, wmida deda eklesiam sakramentaliebic daawesa. es aris wmida niSnebi, romelTa meSveobiT, saidumloTa erTgvari mibaZviT, xdeba, upirveles yovlisa, sulier qmedebaTa (effectus) aRniSnva da, eklesiis SuamdgomlobiT, maTi miReba. maTi meSveobiT adamianebi ganewyobian saidumloTa qmedebebis misaRebad da xdeba cxovrebis sxvadasxva garemoebaTa wmidayofa.
61. amgvarad, saidumloTa da sakramentaliebis liturgiis Sedegad, saTanadod momzadebuli erTgulebisTvis, saRmrTo madliT, xdeba TiTqmis yvela cxovrebiseuli movlenis wmidayofa. madli momdinareobs qristes saaRdgomo vnebis, sikvdilisa da aRdgomis saidumloebidan, romlidanac Zalas
iZens yvela saidumlo da sakramentaliebi. faqtiurad, nebismier patiosan
sargeblobas materialuri nivTebiT SeiZleba miznad hqondes adamianis wmidayofa da RmrTis dideba.
62. saidumloTa da sakramentaliebis wesSi, droTa svlasTan erTad, iseTi
ram Seipara, ramac maTi buneba da mizani Cveni droisTvis naklebad gasagebi
gaxada. amitom saWiroa, zogierTi ram Cveni epoqis moTxovnilebebs miesadagos. maT gadasinjvasTan dakavSirebiT wmida kreba adgens:
63. saidumloTa da sakramentaliebis gangebulebaSi SeiZleba didi sargebloba hqondes adgilobrivi enis gamoyenebas. mas ufro farTo adgili unda
daeTmos, qvemoT CamoTvlili normebis mixedviT:
a) saidumloTa da sakramentaliebis gangebulebaSi SesaZlebelia adgilobrivi enis gamoyeneba, 36-e muxlis Tanaxmad.
b) romauli wesis axali gamocemis Tanaxmad, uflebamosilma adgilobrivma
saeklesio xelisuflebam, romlis Sesaxeb aris laparaki mocemuli konstituciis 22-e muxlis 2-Si, unda SeZlebisdagvarad swrafad moamzados sagangebo
ritualebi, romlebic calkeuli regionebis moTxovnilebebs Seesabameba, maT
Soris enis sferoSi. samociqulo saydris mier aqtebis gadasinjvis Semdeg
unda moxdes Sesabamis regionebSi maTi gamoyeneba. am ritualebisa Tu wesebis
sagangebo krebulebis Seqmnisas ar unda iqnas gamotovebuli is miTiTebani,
romlebic romaul wesSi win uZRvis calkeul wesebs, rogorc samoZRvrosa da
sawesos, aseve maT, romlebsac sagangebo socialuri datvirTva aqvT.
64. unda aRdges mozrdilTa katexizacia, mraval safexurad danawilebuli. adgilobrivi ordinariusis gadawyvetilebiT, saWiroa misi xmarebaSi Semotana. amis safuZvelze SeiZleba wmidayofil iqnas katexizaciis dro,
saTanado ganaTlebisTvis gankuTvnili. es xdeba wmida wesebis saSualebiT
romlebic droTa viTarebaSi mimdevrobiT sruldeba.
65. garda imisa, rac qristianul tradiciaSia mocemuli, misiis qveynebSi SeiZleba daSvebul iqnas iniciaciis is elementebic, romlebic ama Tu im
xalxisTvis aris Cveuli, ramdenadac es SeiZleba Seesabamos qristianul
wess, mocemuli konstituciis 37-40-e muxlis Tanaxmad.

48

SACROSANCTUM CONCILIUM

66. unda gadaisinjos mozrdilTa naTlobis orive wesi, rogorc ufro


martivi, aseve ufro sazeimo, aRdgenili katexumenatiT. romaul wirvaSi
unda Setanil iqnes sagangebo wirva: naTlobisaTvis (In collatione Baptismi).
67. unda gadaisinjos bavSvTa naTlobis wesi. is unda Seesabamos yrmaTa
namdvil mdgomareobas. Tavad wesSi ufro metad unda iyos warmoCenili mSobelTa da maTi STamomavlebis (patrinorum) funqciebi.
68. naTlobis wesSi saWiroa adaptaciebi, romlebic ganxorcieldeba adgilobrivi ordinariusis gadawyvetilebiT, mosanaTlav pirTa didi raodenobiT Tavmoyris SemTxvevaSi. garda amisa, unda Sedges ufro mokle wesic,
romelic SeiZleba gamoiyenon katexistebma, gansakuTrebiT misiis qveynebSi,
da sazogadod, erTgulebmac, sikvdilis safrTxis winaSe, rodesac ar aris
mRvdelmsaxuri an diakoni.
69. nacvlad wesisa, romelsac ewodeba: wesi imis damatebisa, rac yrmis naTlobisas iqna gamotovebuli, unda Sedges axali wesi, sadac ufro naTlad
da Sesaferisad iqneba aRniSnuli, rom yrma, Semoklebuli wesiT naTelRebuli, ukve miRebulia eklesiaSi.
unda Sedges agreTve axali wesi maTTvis, vinc ukve moinaTla uflebamosilad da moiqca wmida kaTolikur sarwmunoebaze, raTa aRiniSnos,
rom isini daSvebulni arian eklesiasTan erTobaSi (in Ecclesiae communionem admitti).
70. naTlobis wyali, saaRdgomo drois garda (extra tempus paschale), SeiZleba
nakurTxi iqnes Tavad naTlobis wesSi, miRebuli (probata) mokle formuliT.
71. unda gadaisinjos mironcxebis wesic, raTa naTlad warmoCndes am
saidumlos Sinagani kavSiri mTel qristianul iniciaciasTan. amitom mizanSewonilia, rom am saidumlos miRebas win uswrebdes naTlobis aRTqmaTa ganaxleba.
saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi mironcxeba SeiZleba mesis msvlelobaSi aRsruldes. rac Seexeba wess, romelic mesis gareSe sruldeba, unda momzaddes formula, romelic misi Sesavali iqneba.
72. sinanulis wesi da formulebi ise unda gadaisinjos, rom maT ufro naTlad gamoxaton saidumlos buneba da moqmedeba.
73. zeTis cxeba (Extrema Unctio), romelsac agreTve SeiZleba vuwodoT
(da ase ukeTesic aris) sneulTa cxeba, ar aris mxolod maTi saidumlo, vinc
sicocxlis ukidures zRvarze dgas. amitom mis misaRebad saTanado dro
dgeba, udaod, ukve maSin, rodesac erTgulebi sikvdilis safrTxis winaSe
dganan, sneulebis an siberis gamo.
74. sneulTa cxebisa da zeTis kurTxevis (Viatici) calkeuli wesis garda,
unda Sedges dadgenili (continuus) wesi, romlis mixedviT sneulTa cxeba moxdeba aRsarebisa da zeTis miRebis Semdeg.
75. cxebaTa ricxvi garemoebaTa mixedviT unda ganisazRvros, xolo
locvebi, romlebic avadmyofTa cxebis wess exeba, unda gadaisinjos. isini im
avadmyofTa mdgomareobas unda upasuxebdnen, romlebic saidumlos iReben.

49

vatikanis II kreba

76. unda gadaisinjos xeldasxmis wesebi, rogorc ceremoniebis, aseve teqstebis TvalsazrisiT. episkoposis sityva, yoveli xeldasxmisa Tu aRyvanebis (Consecrationis) dasawyisSi, SeiZleba adgilobriv enaze warmoiTqvas.
episkoposis aRyvanebaze yvela damswre episkoposisTvis nebadarTulia
xelis dasxma.
77. unda gadaisinjos da gamdidrdes qorwinebis aRsrulebis wesi, romelic romaul ritualSi arsebobs, raTa masSi ufro naTlad aRiniSnos saidumlos madli da xazi gaesvas meuRleTa funqciebs.
wmida krebas didad surs, rom mTlianad SenarCunebul iqnas is kargi
Cveulebebi da ceremoniebi, romlebsac sxvadasxva regionSi qorwinebis saidumlos aRsrulebisas mimarTaven41.
garda amisa, uflebamosil adgilobriv saeklesio xelisuflebas, romlis Sesaxeb laparakia mocemuli konstituciis 22-e muxlis 22-Si, SesaZlebloba eZleva, 63-e muxlis Tanaxmad, SeimuSavos sakuTari wesi, romelic
adgilobriv da erovnul Cveulebebs Seesabameba. amasTanave ZalaSi rCeba kanoni, romlis Tanaxmad damswre mRvdelmsaxuri svams kiTxvas da pasuxs iRebs
meqorwineTa Tanxmobis Sesaxeb.
78. Cveulebriv qorwineba wirvis dros unda aRsruldes, saxarebis kiTxvisa da homiliis Semdeg, erTgulTa locvamde. sasZlos dalocva ise unda
Seswordes, rom xazi gaesvas orive meuRlis movaleobas, iyvnen erTmaneTis
erTgulni. is adgilobriv enaze unda iTqvas.
79. saWiroa sakramentaliebis gadasinjva. amasTanave ZiriTadi norma
unda iyos erTgulTa Segnebuli, aqtiuri da martivi monawileoba, agreTve
Cveni drois moTxovnilebebis gaTvaliswineba. 63-e muxlis Sesabamisad ritualebis gadasinjvisas SesaZloa daematos axali sakramentaliebi, Tu es
aucilebelia.
kurTxevaTa ricxvi mcire unda iyos. kurTxevaTa ufleba mxolod episkoposebisa da ordinariusebisTvis aris dasaSvebi.
gansakuTrebul viTarebaSi da ordinariusis gadawyvetilebiT, SesaZlebelia, zogierTi sakramentaliebi ganagon saero pirebma, romlebic saTanado TvisebebiT arian dajildovebulni.
80. unda gadaisijos qalwulTa kurTxevis wesi, romelic romaul pontifikalSi aris mocemuli.
garda amisa, unda Sedges samoweseo aRTqmisa (professionis religiosae) da aRTqmaTa ganaxlebis wesi, romelic iqneba ufro didi erTianobis, zomierebisa (sobrietatis) da Rirsebis safuZveli. am wess unda misdion maT, vinc mesaze
aRasrulebs an ganaaxlebs samoweseo aRTqmas. amasTanave ZalaSi rCeba kerZo
kanonebi.
sasurvelia, rom samoweseo aRTqma wirvisas daidos.
81. dakrZalvis wesma ufro naTlad unda gamoxatos qristianuli sikvdilis saaRdgomo xasiaTi da ukeTesad upasuxos calkeuli regionis viTarebebsa da tradiciebs, iseT sakiTxSic ki, rogoric aris liturgiuli feri.
82. unda gadaisinjos bavSvTa damarxvis wesi. mas sakuTari wirva sWirdeba.
41
CONC: TRID., Sess. 24, 11 nov. 1563, de reformatione, cap. 1: CONC. TRID., ed. cit., IX. Actorum
pars VI, Friburgi Brisgoviae 1924, p. 969. Sdr. Rituale Romanum, tit. VIII, c. II, n. 6.

50

SACROSANCTUM CONCILIUM

Tavi IV
saRmrTo msaxureba (de officio divino)
83. axali da Zveli aRTqmis uzenaesma mRvdelmsaxurma, ieso qristem,
miiRo adamianuri buneba. man miwier ltolvilebaSi is himni Semoitana, romelsac zeciur samkvidrebelSi (in supernis sedibus) saukunod galoben. man Semoikriba adamianTa mTeli sazogadoeba da is qebis saRmrTo simReris erToblivi galobiT SemoierTa.
am samRvdelmsaxuro movaleobas igi ganagrZobs eklesiis meSveobiT,
romelic ara marto evqaristiis aRsrulebiT, aramed sxva saSualebebiTac
upirveles yovlisa, saRmrTo msaxurebiT, ufals gamudmebiT aqebs da
Suamdgomlobs mTeli samyaros gamoxsnisaTvis.
84. Zveli qristianuli tradiciiT, Jamni ise aris agebuli, rom dRisa da
Ramis mTeli mdinareba RmrTis qebas unda mieZRvnas. rodesac qebis am WeSmaritad gansacvifrebel galobas saTanadod asruleben mRvdelmsaxurni da
sxvani, eklesiis istituciis mier am saqmisaTvis rCeulni, an qristes erTgulni, romlebic mRvdelmsaxurTan erTad miRebuli formiT loculoben,
maSin es WeSmaritad aris xma im sZlisa, romelic siZes esaubreba. metic: es
aris qristes locva, romelsac is Tavis sxeulTan erTad mamisadmi aRavlens.
85. amitom yvela, vinc amas aRasrulebs, asrulebs eklesiis movaleobas
da, imave dros, eziareba qristes sZlis uzenaes pativs: RmrTis gandidebiT,
isini RmrTis saydris (thronum) winaSe deda eklesiis saxeliT warsdgebian.
86. mRvdelmsaxurni, romlebic wmida samRvdlo msaxurebiT arian dakavebulni, miT ufro mondomebiT Seasruleben JamTa sadidebels, rac ufro
cocxlad gaacnobiereben, rom maT exeba pavles darigeba: mouklebelad
ilocevdiT (1Tes. 5, 17), radgan mxolod ufals ZaluZs mianiWos warmateba da zrda im saqmes, romlisTvisac isini iRwvian. igi ambobs: Tnier Cemsa
arara Zal-gic yofad (ioan. 15, 5). amitom mociqulebma, diakonebis dawesebisas, Tqves: xolo Cuen locvasa da msaxurebasa amis sityvsasa ganvekrZalneT (saqme 6, 4).
87. mocemul viTarebaSi, mRvdelmsaxurTa Tu eklesiis sxva wevrTa mier
saRmrTo msaxurebis ukeTesad da ufro srulyofilad Sesrulebis mizniT,
wmida krebam (igi ganagrZobs samociqulo saydris mier warmatebiT wamowyebul ganaxlebas) ineba, msaxurebis Sesaxeb, romelic romauli wesis Tanaxmad
sruldeba, Semdegi daedgina:
88. msaxurebis mizani aris dRis wmidayofa. amitom Jamnis tradiciuli mimdinareoba ise unda ganaxldes, rom Jamni SeZlebisdagvarad WeSmarit dros
Seesabamos. amasTanave gasaTvalsiwinebelia dRevandeli cxovrebis viTareba, romelSic upirveles yovlisa isini imyofebian, vinc samociqulo saqmeebiT aris dakavebuli.
89. amgvarad, msaxurebis ganaxlebisas Semdegi normebi unda iqnas daculi:
a) qebani, rogorc ciskris locvebi, da mwuxrni, rogorc saRamos locvebi, sayovelTao eklesiis pativdebuli tradiciiT, unda miCneul iqnas yoveldRiuri msaxurebis ormag RerZad, da amgvarad unda Sesruldes.
b) kompletoriumi ise unda ganwesdes, rom dRis bolos saTanadod
Seewyos.

51

vatikanis II kreba

g) Jamni, romelsac matutinum ewodeba, inarCunebs gundSi Ramis qebis


Taviseburebas. amasTanave, misi adaptacia aris saWiro, raTa misi warmoTqma
dRis nebismier saaTze SeiZlebodes. is unda Seicavdes naklebi raodenobis
fsalmunebs da ufro vrcel sakiTxavebs.
d) pirveli Jamni unda moixsnas.
e) gundSi unda SenarCunebul iqnes mcire Jamni: mesame, meeqvse, mecxre.
gundis gareSe samidan erTis amorCeva SeiZleba, romelic dRis dros ufro
Seefereba.
90. saRmrTo msaxureba, rogorc eklesiis sajaro locva, aris RmrTismosaobis wyaro da pirovnuli locvis sazrdo. amitom mRvdelmsaxurni da
yvela, vinc saRmrTo msaxurebis monawilea, mowodebulni arian ufalSi, rom
misi Sesrulebisas goneba xmas SeuTanxmon. imisaTvis, rom es ukeT SeZlon,
isini unda eziaron ufro farTo ganaTlebas liturgiisa da bibliis, gansakuTrebiT fsalmunTa sferoSi.
am ganaxlebis ganxorcielebisas romauli msaxurebis saukunovani saganZuris adaptacia ise unda moxdes, rom misi ufro farTod da advilad gamoyeneba SeZlon maT, visac is aris mindobili.
91. imisaTvis, raTa JamTa mimdinareoba, 89-e muxlSi warmodgenili, realurad iqnas daculi, fsalmunni unda ganawildes ara erT kvireulze, aramed drois ufro vrcel monakveTze.
fsalmunTa gadasinjvis saqme, warmatebiT wamowyebuli, SeZlebisdagvarad swrafad unda iqnas bolomde miyvanili. amasTanave saWiroa qristianuli laTinurisTvis yuradRebis miqceva, rac gulisxmobs mis gamoyenebas
liturgiaSi, maT Soris galobisas, agreTve laTinuri eklesiis mTeli tradiciis gaTvaliswinebas.
92. sakiTxavebTan dakavSirebiT gasaTvaliswinebelia Semdegi:
a) wmida werilis sakiTavi ise unda ganewyos, rom saRmrTo sityvebis
saunje martivad da meti sisruliT iyos xelmisawvdomi.
b) ukeT unda iqnes amorCeuli sakiTxavebi, amokrebili mamaTa, moZRvarTa da saeklesio mweralTa Txzulebebidan.
g) wmidanTa wamebani an cxovrebani istoriulad sarwmuno unda iyos.
93. himnebi, Tu es mizanSewonilia, unda aRdges pirvandeli formiT. amasTanave, himnebidan unda amoRebul iqnas an Seicvalos is, rasac miTologiuri elferi aqvs an rac qristianul RmrTismosaobas naklebad Seesabameba.
saWiroebisda mixedviT, dasaSvebia sxva himnebic, romlebic sagalobelTa
saganZurSi moipoveba.
94. dRis WeSmaritad wmidayofisTvis, agreTve imisaTvis, rom Jamnis kiTxvas sulieri sargebloba hqondes, saWiroa Jamnis gangebulebisas drois
dacva, romelic maqsimalurad uaxlovdeba calkeuli kanonikuri Jamnis
namdvil dros.
95. sakrebuloebma, romlebic gunds warmoadgenen, konventuri wirvis
garda, yoveldRiurad unda aRasrulon saRmrTo msaxureba gundSi, kerZod:
a) mTeli msaxureba unda aRasrulon kanonikebis, monazoni Zmebisa da debis ordenebma, romlebic kanonmdeblobiT an konstituciiT movaleni arian,
gundi warmoadginon.
b) sakaTedro an kolegiurma kapitulebma unda aRasrulon saRmrTo msaxurebis is nawilebi, romlebic maT sazogado an kerZo kanonmdeblobiT evalebaT.

52

SACROSANCTUM CONCILIUM

g) xolo im sakrebuloTa yvela wevrma, vinc an ufro maRal xarisxs ganekuTvneba, an is, visac sazeimod aRTqmebi aqvs dadebuli (garda konversebisa), martom (soli) unda ikiTxos Jamnis is nawilebi, romlebsac is gundSi
ar asrulebs.
96. samRvdeloni, romlebic ar arian valdebulni, gundSi monawileobdnen, valdebulni arian, Tu isini ufro maRal xarisxSi imyofebian, yoveldRiurad aRasrulon mTeli msaxureba, an erToblivad, an marto, 89-e muxlis normis Tanaxmad.
97. wesebma unda gansazRvros, Tu aris mizanSewonili saRmrTo msaxurebis Senacvleba liturgiuli qmedebiT.
calkeul SemTxvevaSi da sapatio mizeziT ordinariusebma SeiZleba
mTlianad an nawilobriv gaaTavisuflon Tavisi qvemdgomni msaxurebis aRsrulebis valdebulebisgan, an es valdebuleba Secvalon.
98. nebismieri srulyofili cxovrebis institutis wevrebi, romlebic,
konstituciaTa ZaliT, saRmrTo msaxurebis zogierT nawils asruleben, eklesiisTvis sajaro locvas aRasruleben.
sajaro locvas isini maSinac aRasruleben, Tu, konstituciebis ZaliT,
warmoTqvamen mcire msaxurebas, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu is msaxurebis Sesabamisad
aris Sedgenili da saTanadod aprobirebuli.
99. saRmrTo msaxureba aris xma eklesiisa anu mTeli mistikuri sxeulisa,
romelic RmerTs sajarod adidebs. amitom sasurvelia, rom samRvdelo pirebma, romlebsac gundSi monawileoba ar evalebaT, da upirveles yovlisa,
mRvdelmsaxurebma, romlebic erTad cxovroben an erTad ikribebian, saRmrTo msaxurebis erTi nawili mainc erToblivan aRasrulon.
vinc msaxurebas an gundSi aRasrulebs, an erToblivad, man es funqcia
rac SeiZleba srulyofilad unda Seasrulos. es niSnavs rogorc Sinagan sulier mowiwebas, aseve mis garegan gamoxatulebas.
100. dae, sulTa mwyemsebma izrunon imisTvis, rom umTavresi Jamni,
upirveles yovlisa mwuxrni, erToblivad Sesruldes eklesiaSi kviradReobiT da, gansakuTrebiT, sazeimo dResaswaulebze. rekomendirebulia, Tavad saero pirebmac warmoTqvan saRmrTo msaxureba, an mRvdelmsaxurebTan erTad, an roca erTmaneTTan arian Sekrebilni, an Tundac
TiToeulma martom.
101. 1. laTinuri wesis saukunovani tradiciiT, samRvdelo pirebma saRmrTo msaxurebaSi unda SeinarCunon laTinuri ena. calkeul SemTxvevaSi ordinariuss eniWeba uflebamosileba, dauSvas, 36-e muxlis normis Tanaxmad,
adgilobriv enaze Sesrulebuli Targmanis xmareba im samRvdeloTaTvis, visTvisac laTinuri enis xmareba seriozul dabrkolebas warmoadgens msaxurebis jerovnad Sesrulebis saqmeSi.
2.Uuzenaesma kompetenturma pirma SeiZleba ufleba misces monazon debs da srulyofili cxovrebis intitutebis wevrebs, rogorc
arasamRvdelo mamakacebs, aseve qalebs, saRmrTo msaxurebaSi, agreTve
gundSi msaxurebisas, gamoiyenon adgilobrivi ena, Tuki Targmani mowonebulia.
3. yoveli samRvdelo piri, romelsac saRmrTo msaxureba aqvs mindobili, da romelic mas erTgulTa jgufTan an maTTan erTad, vinc 2-Si iyo

53

vatikanis II kreba

dasaxelebuli, adgilobriv enaze asrulebs, akmayofilebs misTvis dakisrebul movaleobas, Tu Targmanis teqsti mowonebulia.
Tavi V
liturgiuli weliwadi
102. RmrTismosavi dedaeklesia Tavs valdebulad miiCnevs, izeimos Tavisi saRmrTo siZis macxovnebeli saqme. amas is akeTebs wlis ganmavlobaSi,
garkveul dReebSi, wmida mogonebiT. yovel kviras, im dRes, romelsac man
uflis dRe uwoda, is moigonebs uflis aRdgomas. amasTanave, eklesia mas
aRniSnavs weliwadSi erTxel, aRdgomis udidesi zeimiT, mis netar vnebebTan
erTad.
wliuri ciklis ganmavlobaSi eklesia ganmartavs qristes saidumloebas,
dawyebuli ganxorcielebiTa da SobiT, vidre amaRlebamde, vidre ormocdameaTe dRemde da netari imedis molodinamde da uflis mosvlamde.
ase ixsenebs eklesia gamomsyidvelis saidumloebebs. is cxads xdis erTgulebisTvis uflis siqveleTa da damsaxurebaTa simdidreebs. amgvarad,
maT yvela droSi awmyooba eniWeba, xolo erTgulebi mas exebian da gamoxsnis
madliT aRivsebian.
103. qristes saidumloebaTa am wliuri ciklis aRniSnvisas (celebrando),
wmida eklesia gansakuTrebuli siyvaruliT scems Tayvans netar mariams,
RmrTis dambadebels. is urRvevi kavSiriT aris dakavSirebuli Tavisi Zis gamoxsnis saqmesTan. mariamSi eklesia aRfrTovanebulia gamosyidvis ubrwyinvalesi nayofiT da mas ganadidebs. eklesias surs da imedi aqvs, iyos Tavadve mTlianad is, rasac igi mariamSi, rogorc uwmindes xatSi, sixaruliT
Wvrets.
104. wliur brunvaSi eklesiam Seitana mogonebebi martvilebsa da sxva
wmidanebzec, romlebmac RmrTis mravalsaxovani madliT srulyofilebas
miaRwies da gamoxsna ukve miiRes. isini srulyofil qebas ugaloben RmerTs
caTa Sina da CvenTvis Suamdgomloben. wmidanTa mosaxsenebel dReebSi eklesia qadagebs aRdgomis saidumloebas qristesTan erTad Tanavnebul da Tanagandidebul wmidanebSi. igi erTgulebs maT qmedebebs rogorc magaliTebs
sTavazobs, romlebic qristes meSveobiT yvelas mamisken miizidavs. wmidanTa damsaxurebebiT eklesia RmrTis wyalobas gamoiTxovs.
105. dabolos, wlis sxvadasxva dros, tradiciuli discipilinebis mixedviT, eklesia srulyofs erTgulTa ganaTlebas, sulisa da sxeulis RmrTismosavi wvrTniT, darigebebiT, locviT, agreTve sinanulisa da gulmowyalebis saqmeebiT.
amitom ineba wmida krebam, daedgina Semdegi:
106. samociqulo tradiciiT (is dasabams Tavad qristes aRdgomidan
iRebs), aRdgomis saidumloebas eklesia zeimobs yovel merve dRes. mas samarTlianad ewodeba uflis dRe anu kvira. am dRes qristes erTgulni
unda erTad Seikribon, raTa RmrTis sityvis mosmeniTa da evqaristiaSi monawileobiT, moigonon ufali iesos vneba, aRdgoma da dideba, da uTxran madloba RmerTs, romelmac isini kvlav Soba sasoebad cxoelad aRdgomiTa
ieso qristesiTa mkudreTiT (1petr. 1, 3). amitom aris uflis dRe upirvelesi dResaswauli. RmrTismosav erTgulebs is mudam Tvalwin unda edgas da
mis Sesaxeb axsovdeT, raTa igi sixarulisa da Sromisagan dasvenebis dRec

54

SACROSANCTUM CONCILIUM

gaxdes. sxva zeimebi (Tu ara marTlac umniSvnelovanesi) masze upiratesad


ar unda migvaCndes, radgan igi aris saZirkveli da birTvi mTeli liturgiuli weliwadisa.
107. liturgiuli weli ise unda gadaisinjos, rom Cveni epoqis garemoebaTa Sesabamisad wmida TariRebTan dakavSirebuli Cveulebebisa da wesebis
Senaxvisa da aRdgenisas SenarCunebul iqnas maTi dasabamieri saxe, raTa erTgulTa RmrTismosaoba saTanadod sazroobdes qristianuli gamosyidvis
saidumloebaTa dResaswaulebze, gansakuTrebiT aRdgomis saidumloebisas.
adaptaciebi, adgilis garemoebaTa mixedviT, Tuki isini aucilebelia, unda
Seesabamos 39-e da 40-e muxlis normebs.
108. erTgulTa sulebi unda mimarTuli iyos, upirveles yovlisa, uflis
DdResaswaulebze, romlebzec wlis ganmavlobaSi aRiniSneba gamoxsnis saidumloebani. amitom uflis dResaswaulebma (Proprium de Tempore) misTvis Sesaferisi adgili unda daikavos, romelic aRemateba wmidanTa dResaswaulebs,
raTa gamoxsnis saidumloebaTa mTeli cikli saTanadod aRiniSnos.
109. didi marxvis periods ormagi datvirTva aqvs. is, upirveles yovlisa,
naTlobis mogonebiT an misTvis mzadebiT, agreTve sinanuliT, erTgulebs
ganawyobs imisTvis, rom ufro mondomebiT isminon uflis sityva, miecnen
locvas da izeimon saaRdgomo saidumloeba. es ufro naTlad unda warmoCndes rogorc liturgiaSi, aseve liturgiul katexizaciaSi. aqedan gamomdinare,
a) didi marxvis liturgiisTvis damaxasiaTebeli naTlobis elementebi
ufro farTod unda iqnas gamoyenebuli. saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, zogierTi
ram Zveli tradiciidan unda aRdges.
b) igive unda iTqvas sinanulis elementebze. rac Seexeba katexezacias,
erTgulTa gulebSi unda aRibeWdos, codvis socialur SedegebTan erTad, sakuTriv sinanulis buneba, romelsac sZuls codva, rogorc RmrTis
Seuracxyofa. amasTanave gasaTvaliswinebelia eklesiis roli sinanulis
qmedebaSi. yuradReba unda mieqces locvas codvilTaTvis.
110. didi marxvis ganmavlobaSi sinanuli ara marto Sinagani da individualuri unda iyos, aramed garegani da socialuric. saWiroa sinanulis
praqtikisTvis xelSewyoba, Cveni epoqisa da sxvadasxva regionebis SesaZleblobaTa mixedviT, agreTve, erTgulTa mdgomareobis mixedviT. xelisufalni, romlis Sesaxeb aris laparaki 22-e muxlSi, amis rekomendacias unda
iZleodnen.
wmida unda iyos aRdgomis marxva, vnebis paraskevs da uflis sikvdilis
dRes. misi aRniSnva yvelgan unda moxdes da, Tu saWiroa, SabaTsac gagrZeldes, rom amgvarad, amaRlebuli da Ria guliT, uflis aRdgomas SevxvdeT.
111. tradiciis mixedviT, wmidanebs Tayvans scemen eklesiaSi, agreTve
maT namdvil da warmosaxviT nawilebs. wmidanTa dResaswaulebi qadagebs
qristes saswaulebs mis msaxurTa saxiT da erTgulebs sTavazobs Sesaferis
magaliTebs misabaZad.
wmidanTa dResaswaulebs ar unda hqondes upiratesoba im dResaswaulTa mimarT, romlebic Tavad gamoxsnis saidumloebas zeimoben. amitom bevri
maTgani aRiniSneba calkeul eklesiaSi, ersa Tu moweseTa saZmoSi (Religiosae
Familiae). xolo sayovelTao eklesiaze is dResaswaulebi unda gavrceldes,
romlebic marTlac sayovelTao mniSvnelobis wmidanebs moigonebs.

55

vatikanis II kreba

Tavi VI
sasuliero musika
112. sayovelTao eklesiis musikaluri tradicia fasdaudebeli saunjea,
romelic xelovnebis sxva dargebs aRemateba, upirveles yovlisa imitom,
rom sasuliero galoba, sityvebTan Serwymuli, warmoadgens sazeimo liturgiis aucilebel da ganuyofel nawils.
marTlac, sasuliero galobis gandideba xdeboda rogorc wmida weriliT42, aseve wmida mamebisa da romis pontifeqsebis mier, romlebmac ukanasknel dros, wmida pius X-sTan erTad, meti sizustiT warmoaCines sasuliero
musikis msaxurebiTi funqcia RmrTismsaxurebaSi.
amitom sasuliero musika miT ufro wmida iqneba, rac ufro mWidrod iqneba is dakavSirebuli liturgiul qmedebasTan, Tu is saamurad (suavis) gamoxatavs locvas, an xels Seuwyobs erTsulovnebas, an ufro mdidruls da
sazeimos gaxdis wmida wesebs. amasTanave, eklesia iwonebs da RmrTismsaxurebaSi dauSvebs WeSmariti xelovnebis yvela formas, romlebic saTanado
moTxovnilebebs akmayofilebs.
wmida kreba icavs saeklesio tradiciis normebsa da miTiTebebs da iTvaliswinebs sasuliero musikis daniSnulebas, romelic RmrTis didebasa da
erTgulTa wmidayofaSi mdgomareobs, da adgens Semdegs:
113. liturgiuli qmedeba ufro keTilSobil saxes iZens, rodesac saRmrTo msaxureba sazeimod sruldeba simReriT, romlis aqtiuri monawilenic
arian mRvdelmsaxurni da agreTve xalxi.
rac Seexeba enas, romelic am dros unda iqnas gamoyenebuli, unda dacul
iqnas 36-e muxlis miTiTebani; mesasTan dakavSirebiT 54-e muxli; saidumloebTan dakavSirebiT 63-e muxli; saRmrTo msaxurebasTan dakavSirebiT
101-e muxli.
114. sasuliero musikis saganZuri udidesi mzrunvelobiT unda iyos daculi da ganviTarebuli. mgalobelTa gundebisTvis gulmodgine xelSewyoba aris saWiro, gansakuTrebiT sakaTedro taZrebTan. episkoposebma da sulTa sxva mwyemsebma bejiTad unda izrunon, raTa nebismier saRmrTismsaxuro
qmedebaSi, romelic galobiT sruldeba, erTgulTa mTelma sakrebulom misTvis Sesaferisi aqtiuri monawileoba miiRos, 28-e da 30-e muxlis normebis
Tanaxmad.
115. didi mniSvneloba unda mieniWos musikis swavlebasa da praqtikas seminariebSi, orive sqesis moweseTa noviciatSi da saswavlo saxlebSi, agreTve
sxva kaTolikur institutebsa da skolebSi. amgvari aRzrdisaTvis saWiroa
im moZRvarTa safuZvliani momzadeba, romlebsac sasuliero musikis swavleba ekisrebaT.
garda amisa, sasurvelia daarsdes sasuliero musikis umaRlesi saswavleblebi iq, sadac es mizanSewonilia.
musikosebs, mgaloblebs, upirveles yovlisa, _ bavSvebs, namdvili liturgiuli ganaTleba unda mieces.
116. eklesia cnobs grigorianul galobas rogorc sakuTriv romauli
liturgiisTvis damaxasiaTebels. amitom, sxva garemoebaTa Tanasworobis
pirobebSi, man ZiriTadi adgili unda daikavos.
amasTan erTad, saRmrTo msaxurebis aRsrulebisas sruliad ar aris gamoricxuli sasuliero musikis sxva Janrebi, upirveles yovlisa, polifonia, Tu
42

56

Sdr. efes. 5, 19; kol. 3, 16.

SACROSANCTUM CONCILIUM

is liturgiuli qmedebis suls pasuxobs, 30-e muxlis normis Sesabamisad.


117. unda dasruldes grigorianuli galobis wignebis tipuri gamocema.
garda amisa, unda momzaddes im wignebis ufro kritikuli gamocema, romlebic ukve gamoqveynda wm. pius X-is gardaqmnis Semdeg.
sasurvelia, rom ufro momcro eklesiebSi saxmarad momzaddes iseTi gamocema, romelic ufro martiv melodiebs Seicavs.
118. safuZvlianad unda xeli Seewyos religiur saxalxo galobas, ise,
rom erTgulTa xmebs SeeZloT gaJRereba, wesdebaTa normebisa da miTiTebebis Sesabamisad, RmrTismosavi da sulieri wvrTnebisas da TviT liturgiul
qmedebebSic.
119. zogierT qveyanaSi, gansakuTrebiT misionerul qveynebSi, musikaluri tradiciis xalxi cxovrobs. am tradicias didi mniSvneloba aqvs maTi
religiuri da socialuri cxovrebisTvis. aseT musikas saTanado dafaseba
unda da Sesaferisi adgilis mikuTvneba sWirdeba, rogorc religiuri grZnobis formirebisas, aseve am xalxis Taviseburebis Sesabamisad kultmsaxurebis adaptaciisas.
amitom misionerTa musikaluri formirebis procesSi didad aris saWiro
zrunva imisaTvis, rom maT, SeZlebisdagvarad, xeli Seuwyon am xalxTa musikas rogorc skolebSi aseve wmida RmrTismsaxurebaSi.
120. laTinur eklesiaSi didad pativsacemia organi (Organum tubulatum),
rogorc tradiciuli musikaluri instrumenti. mis xmas SeuZlia saeklesio
ceremoniebs gansacvifrebeli brwyinvaleba mianiWos, sulebi ki RmrTisken
da zeciurisken Zlierad aRamaRlos.
sxva instrumentebi SeiZleba daSvebul iqnas saRmrTo kultmsaxurebaSi
adgilobrivi uflebamosili xelisuflebis gansjiTa da TanxmobiT, 22-e muxlis 2, 37 da 40-is Tanaxmad, ramdenadac isini sasuliero miznebisaTvis Sesaferisi aris, an SeiZleba aseTi gaxdes, agreTve Tu isini upasuxebs taZris
Rirsebas da xels uwyobs erTgulTa WeSmarit aRzrdas.
121. qristianuli suliT gamsWvalulma musikosebma unda igrZnon, rom
maTi mowodebaa, ganaviTaron sasuliero musika da amravlon misi saunje.
dae, maT Seqmnan melodiebi, romlebic WeSmariti musikis niSnebs atarebs.
maTi Sesruleba ara marto mgalobelTa did gundebs unda SeeZlos, aramed
ufro mcire gundebsac. es melodiebi xels unda uwyobdes erTgulTa mTeli
sakrebulos aqtiur monawileobas.
sasuliero daniSnulebis sagaloblebis teqstebi kaTolikur moZRvrebas unda Seesabamos. maTi wyaro umTavresad wmida werili da liturgiuli
wyaroebi unda iyos.
Tavi VII
sasuliero xelovneba da sasuliero nivTebi
122. adamianis sulis ukeTilSobiles saqmianobebs samarTlianad miakuTvneben xelovnebis dargebs, upirveles yovlisa, religiur xelovnebas da
mis mwvervals, sasuliero xelovnebas. Tavisi bunebiT isini mimarTulia
usasrulo saRmrTo mSvenierebisken, romelic ama Tu im formiT adamianuri
xerxebiT unda gamoixatos. isini srulad mieZRvneba RmerTs, mis qebasa da

57

vatikanis II kreba

didebas, ramdenadac maT ara aqvs sxva mizani, garda erTisa: Tavisi qmnilebebiT adamianTaA sulebi maqsimalurad RmrTisken mimarTos.
amitom masazrdoebeli deda eklesia mudam iyo xelovnebaTa megobari.
is mudam mimarTavda maT keTilSobil msaxurebas da Tavad aRzrdida xelovanT, upirveles yovlisa, imisaTvis, raTa WeSmaritad Rirseuli, kazmuli da mSvenieri yofiliyo wmida kultmsaxurebasTan dakavSirebuli
nivTebis _ uzenaesi realobis niSnebi da simboloebi. metic: eklesias
mudam miaCnda, rom maTi erTgvarad gansjis ufleba hqonda. xelovnebis
qmnilebaTa Soris is iseTebs gamoarCevda, romlebic rwmenas, RmrTismosaobasa da tradiciul religiur kanonebs Seesabameboda, da sasuliero
daniSnulebisTvis Sesaferisi iyo.
eklesia sagangebo gulmodginebiT zrunavda sasuliero nivTebisTvis:
maT unda Rirseulad da lamazad emsaxuraT kultmsaxurebis kazmulobisTvis, mieRoT da gamoexataT masalaSi, formasa Tu morTulobaSi is cvlilebebi, romlebic droTa svlaSi teqnikis progresTan erTad gaCnda.
amitom isurves mamebma am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT Semdegi daedginaT:
123. eklesias arasdros miaCnda xelovnebis romelime stili Tavis sakuTar stilad. xalxTa Taviseburebebisa da pirobebis, agreTve sxvadasxva
wesTa moTxovnilebebis Sesabamisad, man dauSva ama Tu im epoqis stili da
saukuneTa manZilze Seqmna xelovnebis saganZuri, romelic didi mzrunvelobiT unda iqnas daculi. Cveni droisa da yvela xalxisa Tu regionis xelovneba Tavisuflad unda viTardebodes, ramdenadac is sasuliero saxlebsa
da sasuliero wesebs Sesaferisi mowiwebiTa da saTanado pativiT emsaxureba, raTa amgvarad SeuerTos Tavisi xma didebis im gansacvifrebel galobas,
romelic udidesma adamianebma ganvlil saukuneTa manZilze kaTolikur
sarwmunoebas miuZRvnes.
124. dae, WeSmaritad sasuliero xelovnebisTvis xelSesawyobad da dasaxmareblad ordinariusebma miznad daisaxon ufro keTilSobili mSveniereba,
vidre carieli mdidruli kazmuloba. igive iTqmis sasuliero Sesamoslisa
da samkaulTa Sesaxeb.
episkoposebma unda izrunon imisTvis, rom RmrTis saxlebs da sxva wmida adgilebs dabejiTebiT moaridon xelovnebis iseTi qmnilebebi, romlebic sarwmunoebasa da zneT, agreTve qristianul RmrTismosaobas ewinaaRmdegeba da WeSmaritad religiur grZnobas Seuracxyofs, iqneba es formis
simaxinjisa Tu xelovnebis naklulobis gamo, an imitom, rom isini saSualo
donis an wabaZviTi arian.
wmida saxlTa Senebisas guldasmiT gasaTvalisiwnebelia Semdegi: isini
gankuTvnili unda iyos liturgiuli qmedebebis Sesasruleblad da erTgulTa mxriv aqtiuri monawileobis misaRebad.
125. mtkiced unda iqnas SenarCunebuli eklesiebSi wmida gamosaxulebebis moTavsebis praqtika, erTgulTa mxridan Tayvaniscemis mizniT. amasTanave, maTi gamofena unda moxdes SezRuduli raodenobiT da saTanado wesiT,
raTa maT qristian erSi metismeti gancvifreba ar gamoiwvion da ar ubiZgon
erTgvarad arajansaRi mowiwebisken.
126. xelovnebis nimuSTa Sefasebisas adgilobrivma ordinariusebma unda
usminon diocezur komisias sasuliero xelovnebis sferoSi da, saWiroebis
SemTxvevaSi, sxva gamocdil adamianebs, agreTve komisiebs, romelTa Sesaxeb
laparakia 44-e, 45-e, 46-e muxlebSi.

58

SACROSANCTUM CONCILIUM

ordinariusebma gulmodgined unda adevnon Tvalyuri imas, rom sasuliero nivTebi an Zvirfasi nivTebi, rogorc RmrTis saxlis samkaulebi, ar
gasxvisdes da ar daikargos.
127. episkoposebma unda izrunon xelovanTaTvis (an TviTon, an im mRvdelmsaxurTa meSveobiT, romlebic gamocdilni da xelovnebis erTgulni
arian), raTa isini sasuliero xelovnebis suliTa da saRmrTo liturgiiT
ganimsWvalon.
garda amisa, rekomendirebulia daarsdes sasuliero xelovnebis skolebi an akademiebi xelovanTa aRsazrdelad im regionebSi, sadac es mizanSewonilia.
xolo yvela xelovani, romelic Tavisi niWis erTgulia, miznad unda
isaxavdes, emsaxuros RmrTis didebas wmida eklesiaSi. maT yovelTvis
unda axsovdeT, rom saqme exeba Semoqmedi RmrTis wmida mibaZvas da kaTolikuri kultmsaxurebisTvis gankuTvnil nawarmoebebs, romelTa daniSnulebaa erTgulTa aRzrda da RmrTismosaoba, agreTve maTi religiur
damoZRvra.
128. kanonebi da saeklesio dadgenilebebi, romlebic gareSe nivTebis wmida kultmsaxurebaSi moxmarebas exeba (aq igulisxmeba, upirveles yovlisa,
sasuliero nagebobebis Rirseuli da Sesaferisi konstruqcia, sakurTxevelTa forma da agebuleba, evqaristiuli tabernakulumis keTilSobileba,
ganlageba da daculoba, baptisteriumis moxerxebuloba da Rirseba, sasuliero gamosaxulebebis, dekoraciisa da morTulobis Sesaferisi ganlageba) saswrafod unda iqnas gadasinjuli, liturgiul wignebTan erTad, 25-e
muxlis normis Tanaxmad. unda gaswordes an amoRebul iqnas is, rac liturgiis ganaxlebisTvis naklebad Sesaferisi Cans, xolo rac Sesaferisia, is
unda SenarCundes da SemoRebul iqnas.
am saqmeSi, upirveles yovlisa, sasuliero nivTebisa da Sesamoslis masalasa da formasTan dakavSirebiT, episkoposTa adgilobriv Sekrebebs eZleva SesaZlebloba, ganaxorcielos adgilobrivi moTxovnilebebisa da zneCveulebebis Sesaferisi adaptaciebi, mocemuli konstituciis 22-e muxlis
normis Tanaxmad.
129. samRvdelo pirebma, filosofiur da Teologiur ganaTlebasTan
erTad, unda Seiswavlon sasuliero xelovnebis istoria da misi evolucia,
agreTve Caswvden im jansaR sawyisebs, romlebic safuZvlad unda daedos
sasuliero xelovnebis nimuSebs. maT unda daafason eklesiis pativdebuli
Zeglebi da maT emsaxuron. maT unda SeeZloT, xelovanebs SemoqmedebiT procesSi Sesaferisi rCevebi miscen.
130. mizanSewonilia, rom pontifikaliebiT sargeblobis ufleba darCeT
im saeklesio pirebs, romlebic episkoposebi arian an raRac sxva gansakuTrebuli iurisdiqcia gaaCniaT.

59

vatikanis II kreba

damateba
vatikanis wmida msoflio krebis deklaracia
kalendris reformis Sesaxeb
vatikanis wmida msoflio meore krebas Zalze mniSvnelovnad miaCnia mravalTa mier gamoTqmuli survili, romelic iTvaliswinebs aRdgomis dResaswaulis garkveul kvira dRes dawesebas da myari kalendris SemoRebas. axali
kalendris SemoRebidan gamomdinare yvela SesaZlo Sedegis gaTvalisiwnebis safuZvelze, kreba ganacxadebs Semdegs:
1. wmida kreba ar aris winaaRmdegi, rom aRdgomis dResaswauli kviris
garkveul dRes dawesdes grigorianul kalendarSi, Tu Tanaxmani arian isini, visac es sakiTxi exeba, upirveles yovlisa, Zmebi, romlebic samociqulo
saydarTan erTobisgan gamocalkavebulni arian.
2. amasTanave, wmida kreba ganacxadebs, rom is ar ewinaaRmdegeba wamowyebebs, romlebic samoqalaqo sazogadoebaSi mudmivi kalendris SemoRebas
iTvaliswinebs.
sxvadasxva sistemaTa Soris, romlebic mudmivi myari kalendris Seqmnisa da samoqalaqo sazogadoebaSi misi dawesebisTvis moiazreba, eklesia ar
upirispirdeba mxolod iseTebs, romlebic inaxaven da icaven SviddRian
kvireuls kvira dRiT, da ar SemoaqvT araviTari dReebi garda am Svidisa, ase
rom kvireulebis mimdevroba xeluxlebeli rCeba. yovelive amis Secvlaze
saubari SesaZlebelia mxolod Zalian seriozuli mizezebis SemTxvevaSi,
romlebic samociqulo saydarma unda gansajos.
yovelive erTad da cal-calke, rac am konstituciaSi
gamocxadda, wmida krebis mamebma moiwones. da Cvenc, im samociqulo uflebamosilebiT, romelic qristesgan gadmogveca,
amas pativdebul mamebTan erTad suli wmidaSi veTanxmebiT,
vadgenT da vawesebT, da vbrZanebT, rom is, rac krebaze dadginda, gamoqveyndes sadideblad RmrTisa.

romi, wm. petresTan, 1963 wlis 4 dekemberi


me, pavle, kaTolike eklesiis episkoposi
(mohyveba mamaTa xelmowerebi)

60

dekreti
sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis
saSualebaTa Sesaxeb
INTER MIRIFICA

pavle episkoposi,
RmrTis msaxurTa ms axuri,
wmida krebis mamebTan erTad,
samudamo saxsovrad

dekreti
sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis
saSualebaTa Sesaxeb
Sesavali
1. gansacvifrebel teqnikur gamogonebaTa Soris, romlebic adamianurma geniam gansakuTrebiT Cvens droSi, RmrTis SemweobiT, qmnili realobidan ganaxorciela, deda eklesia sagangebo mzrunvelobiT ekideba da imas
iTvisebs, rac adamianis sulisTvis aris mniSvnelovani da rac axal gzebs
xsnis nebismieri saxis informaciis, azrebisa da miTiTebebis advilad gadacemisTvis. am aRmoCenaTa Soris gansakuTrebiT Rirebulia is saSualebebi,
romlebic Tavisi bunebiT SeiZleba ara marto calkeul adamianebs, aramed
masebsa da mTels adamianur sazogadoebasac Seexos. aseTia presa, kinematografi, radio, televizia da sxva. amitom maT samarTlianad SeiZleba ewodos
sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis saSualebebi.
2. cxadia, deda eklesiam icis, rom swori moxmarebis SemTxvevaSi es saSualebebi kacobriobas did daxmarebas gauwevs. isini didad uwyobs xels sulier dasvenebasa da aRzrdas, RmrTis sasufevlis mofenasa da ganmtkicebas.
magram eklesiam isic icis, rom adamianebs am saSualebebis saRmrTo Semoqmedis (Conditoris) ganzraxvis sawinaaRmdegod moxmareba da sakuTari Tavis sazianod mimarTvac SeuZliaT. deda eklesias guls stkens is ziani, romelic
adamianTa sazogadoebisTvis am saSualebaTa borot gamoyenebas ara erTxel
miuyenebia.
wmida kreba ganagrZobs am mniSvnelovani saqmisTvis uzenaesi pontifeqsisa da episkoposTa fxizel mzrunvelobas. krebas Tavis movaleobad miaCnia,
ganixilos mniSvnelovani sakiTxebi, romlebic sazogadoebrivi urTierTobis saSualebebs exeba. amasTanave, is darwmunebulia, rom mis mier amgvarad
gadmocemuli moZRvreba da disciplina sasargeblo iqneba ara marto qristes erTgulTa gamoxsnisaTvis, aramed mTeli kacobriobis progresisaTvis.
Tavi I
3. ufalma qristem kaTolike eklesia yvela adamianisaTvis gamoxsnis mosatanad daafuZna. amitomac eklesias gacnobierebuli aqvs saxarebis qadagebis aucilebloba. mas Tavis movaleobad miaCnia, gamoxsnis uwyebis gavrcelebisTvis, sxvaTa da sxvaTa Soris, sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis saSualebebs mimarTos da adamianebs maTi swori gamoyeneba aswavlos.
amdenad, eklesias aqvs Tandayolili ufleba, iyenebdes da flobdes yvela
amgvar saSualebas imdenad, ramdenadac isini aucilebelia da sasargebloa

63

vatikanis II kreba

qristianuli aRzrdisa da yovelgvari saxis sulieri xsnisaTvis. sulieri


mwyemsebis movaleobas warmoadgens erTgulebis ise darigeba da warmarTva,
rom maT am saSualebebis daxmarebiT gamoxsnasa da sisrules miaRwion, rogorc TavisTvis, aseve adamianTa mTeli ojaxisaTvis.
meores mxriv, gansakuTrebiT saeroni unda cxovelyofdnen amgvar saSualebebs adamianuri da qristianuli suliT, raTa maT srulad upasuxos kacobriobis did molodinsa (expectationi) da saRmrTo ganzraxvas.
4. am saSualebaTa sworad moxmarebisTvis sruliad aucilebelia, rom yvelam, vinc maT iyenebs, icodes zneobrivi normebi da gumlodgined cdilobdes am sferoSi maT ganxorcielebas. amitom maT unda yuradReba miaqcion
sagnis Sinaarss, romlis gadacema ama Tu im saSualebis TaviseburebiT ganisazRvreba. amasTanave, gasaTvaliswinebelia viTarebis anu garemoebis yvela aspeqti, rogoric aris mizani, pirovnebani, adgili, dro da sxva, _ e. i.
yovelive is, ra mdgomareobaSic xdeba komunikacia da ramac SeiZleba misi
Sinaarsi Secvalos an mas sulac axali saxe misces. maT ricxvs miekuTvneba
TiToeuli saSualebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli moqmedebis forma, romlis gamo
maTi zemoqmedebis Zala SeiZleba iseTi iyos, rom adamianebs (gansakuTrebiT
moumzadeblebs) uWirT xolme misi gacnobiereba, gakontroleba da saTanadod mogerieba.
5. upirveles yovlisa, aucilebelia, rom yvelam, visac es exeba, am saSualebaTa xmarebis Sesaxeb naTeli warmodgena Seiqmnas, gansakuTrebiT im sakiTxebTan mimarTebaSi, romlebic Cvens droSi cxare kamaTs iwvevs.
pirveli sakiTxi gulisxmobs e. i. informacias, anu cnobebis Sekrebasa
da gavrcelebas. cxadia, rom Tanamedrove sazogadoebis progresisa da mis
wevrebs Soris sul ufro mWidro kavSiris gamo informacia Zalze saWiro
da sruliad aucilebeli ram aris. marTlac, movlenaTa da saqmeTa Sesaxeb
sajaro da drouli Setyobineba saSualebas aZlevs calkeul adamianebs, maT
ufro Rrmad da vrclad Caswvdnen, raTa TiToeul maTgans SeeZlos, ufro
nayofierad Seitanos Tavisi wvlili saerTo saqmeSi da yvelam erTad ufro
advilad Seuwyos xeli mTeli samoqalaqo sazogadoebis mSeneblobas. amgvarad, adamianTa sazogadoebaSi arsebobs ufleba informaciaze imis Sesaxeb,
rac adamianebs exeba, rogorc calkeul maTgans, aseve sazogadoebis wevrebs,
konkretuli viTarebis Sesabamisad. Sinaarss rac Seexeba, am uflebis swori
gamoyeneba imas niSnavs, rom informacia yovelTvis marTali unda iyos. amasTanave, samarTlianobisa da siyvarulis principi xeluxleblad unda iyos
daculi, xolo informacia sruli unda iyos. rac Seexeba formas, is unda
iyos patiosani da wesieri, rac imas niSnavs, rom cnobebis moZiebisas da gavrcelebisas wmidad unda iqnas daculi zneobrivi kanonebi, agreTve adamianis
kanonieri uflebebi da misi Rirseba. rameTu yovelgvar codnas sargebeli
ar moaqvs, xolo siyuaruli aRaSenebs (1kor. 8, 1).
6. meore sakiTxi gulisxmobs mimarTebebs e. w. xelovnebis uflebasa da
zneobrivi kanonis normebs Soris. am sakiTxis Sesaxeb kamaTis gamZafrebis
mizezi xSirad eTikisa da esTetikis mcdari gagebis Sedegia. amasTan dakavSirebiT kreba ganacxadebs, rom obieqturi zneobrivi wesis upiratesobis
aRiareba yvelasTvis sruliad savaldebuloa, radgan is aRemateba yvela
sxva adamianur wess (xelovnebis CaTvliT), rogori didic ar unda iyos maTi
Rirseba, da mxolod igi uzrunvelyofs maT harmoniul urTierTkavSirs.
marTlac, mxolod zneobriv wesi moicavs adamians RmrTis qmnilebas, gonebiT dajidlovebulsa da uzenaesisken mowodebuls mTeli misi bunebiT. am

64

INTER MIRIFICA

wesis mTlianad da erTgulad dacvas adamiani srulyofilebisa da netarebis srul miRwevamde mihyavs.
7. mesame sakiTxi: ra Tqma udna, zneobrivi borotebis moTxrobas, aRweras an gamosaxvas SeuZlia, sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis saSualebaTa daxmarebiT, xeli Seuwyos adamianis ukeT Secnobasa da Seswavlas, WeSmaritebisa
da sikeTis brwinvalebis gamovlenasa da gandidebas; mas SeuZlia, sasurvel
dramatul efeqtebsac miaRwios. amitom is mTlianad unda daeqvemdebaros
zneobriv kanonebs, raTa sulebs ki ar avnos, aramed argos, gansakuTrebiT,
roca saqme iseT sakiTxebs exeba, romelTa ganxilva garkveul taqts moiTxovs, an romlebic pirveli codviT daWril adamianSi advilad aRZravs mdabal
miswrafebebs.
8. sajaro Sexedulebebs dRes udidesi Zala da avtoriteti aqvs yvela
rangis moqalaqis pirad da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi. amitom sazogadoebis yvela wevri am sferoSic unda asrulebdes im movaleobas, romelic mas
samarTali da siyvaruli akisrebs, da amave saSualebaTa daxmarebiT unda
ecados, xeli Seuwyos swori sajaro Sexedulebebis Camoyalibebasa da gavrcelebas.
9. gansakuTrebuli valdebuleba ekisreba yvela mimRebs, anu mkiTxvelebs,
mayureblebsa da msmenelebs, romlebic pirovnuli da Tavisufali arCevanis
safuZvelze iReben am saSualebebiT gavrcelebul informacias. swori arCevanis Sedegad maT yovelmxriv upiratesoba unda mianiWon imas, rac gamoirCeva zneobrivi, samecniero da mxatvruli RirebulebiT. isini unda moeridon
yvelafers, rac maTive sulieri dakninebis mizezi an sababi SeiZleba gaxdes,
ramac SeiZleba cudi magaliTi misces sxvebs da amiT isini safrTxis winaSe daayenos, ramac SeiZleba kargi informacia Seaferxos, xolo cuds xeli
Seuwyos. es xSirad maSin xdeba, rodesac fuls iseT informatorebs uxdian,
romlebic am saSualebebs mxolod ekonomiuri mogebis mizniT iyeneben.
imisaTvis, rom mimRebebma zneobriv kanons misdion, maT dauyovnebliv
unda Seasrulon Tavisi movaleoba: droulad gaecnon im Sexedulebas, romelic am sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT kompetenturma pirebma gamoTqves da
gahyvnen maT ise, rogorc amas sindisi moiTxovs. saTanado saSualebaTa daxmarebiT, isini unda ecadon, sworad warmarTon da aRzardon Tavisi sindisi,
raTa ufro advilad winaaRmdegoba gauwion uaryofiT gavlenebs, xolo keTils xeli Seuwyon.
10. mimRebni, upirveles yovlisa, axalgazrdebi, unda ecadon, am saSualebaTa moxmarebisas zomierni da disciplinirebulni iyvnen. nanaxi, mosmenili da wakiTxuli maT Rrmad unda gaacnobieron. amis Sesaxeb maT aRmzrdelebTan an am sakiTxebSi gamocdil adamianebTan unda imsjelon, raTa swori
Sexedulebis SemuSaveba iswavlon. mSoblebs unda axsovdeT Tavisi movaleoba da iyvnen fxizlad, raTa sanaxaobebma, presam da sxva amdagvarma, rac sarwmunoebasa da zneobas ewinaRmdegeba, maT saxlSi ver SeaRwios da raTa maTi
Svilebi amas sxvaganac ar waawydnen.
11. gansakuTrebuli zneobrivi movaleoba sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis
saSualebebis swori gamoyenebis saqmeSi ekisreba Jurnalistebs, mwerlebs,
msaxiobebs, reJisorebs, prodiuserebs, distributorebs, gamqiraveblebs,
gamsaReblebs, kritikosebsa da sxvebs, vinc ama Tu im saxiT monawileobs informaciis Seqmnasa da gadacemaSi. sruliad naTelia, ra didi da mZime pasu-

65

vatikanis II kreba

xismgebloba ekisreba yvela maTgans kacobriobis ganviTarebis dRevandel


etapze, roca informaciiTa da zewoliT kacobriobis sikeTiskenac warmarTvac aris SesaZlebeli da borotebiskenac.
ekonomikuri, politikuri Tu kulturuli interesebis iseTi Sexameba
aris saWiro, rom isini arasdros daupirispirdes sazogado sikeTes (bono
communi). am Sedegis advilad miRwevisaTvis sasurvelia profesiul gaerTianebebSi Sesvla, romlebic avaldebulebs wevrebs, pativi scen zneobriv
kanons maTi xelobis saqmeebsa da funqciebSi; saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi xelSekrulebac ideba zneobrivi kodeqsis erTguli dacvis Sesaxeb.
dae, yvelas, visac es Tema exeba, mudam axsovdes, rom mkiTxvelTa da mayurebelTa didi nawili axalgazrdebisagan Sedgeba. maT sWirdebaT presa da
sanaxaobebi, romlebic maT patiosan garTobas sTavazobs da sulierad aRamaRlebs. amasTanave, saWiroa zrunva imisTvis, rom religiur saqmeTa Sesaxeb
informaciis damuSaveba Rirseul da gamocdil pirebs daekisros, romlebic
am saqmes saTanado pativiscemiT Seasruleben.
12. samoqalaqo xelisuflebas am saqmeSi gansakuTrebuli movaleobebi
ekisreba, romlebic sazogado sikeTes (boni communis) iTvaliswinebs. swored
amisken aris es saSualebebi mimarTuli. amave xelisuflebis funqcias warmoadgens informaciis WeSmariti da samarTliani Tavisuflebis dacva da
mfarveloba. aseTi informacia Zalze sWirdeba dRevandel sazogadoebas
ganviTarebisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT presis sferoSi. samoqalaqo xelisfuflebis funqcia aris agreTve religiisTvis, kulturisTvis, xelovnebisTvis xelSewyoba, xolo mimRebTaTvis maTi kanonieri uflebebiT Tavisuflad sargeblobis pirobebis Seqmna. garda amisa, samoqalaqo xelisufleba
unda daexmaros sasargebo iniciativebs, romlebic am daxmarebis gareSe ver
ganxorcieldeba, gansakuTrebiT, roca es iniciativebi axalgazrdobisaTvis aris sasrgeblo.
dabolos, samoqalaqo xelisuflebas, romelic kanonierad zrunavs moqalaqeTa keTildReobisaTvis, aseTi movaleobac aqvs dakisrebuli: kanonis Sedgenisa da misi gulmodgined Sesrulebis zedamxedvelobiT, man samarTlianad da fxizlad Tvalyuri unda adevnos imas, rom am saSualebaTa
boritad gamoyenebiT seriozuli ziani ar mieyenos sajaro zneobasa da sazogadoebis progress. aseTi fxizeli mzrunveloba araviTar SemTxvevaSi
ar zRudavs calkeul pirTa Tu jgufTa Tavisuflebas, gansakuTrebiT im
SemTxevaSi, Tu qmediT sirTxiles ar iCenen isini, vis samsaxurSic am saSualebebis gamoyeneba Sedis.
sagangebo yuradReba gvmarTebs, raTa davicvaT axalgazrdebi iseTi presisa da sanaxaobebisgan, romlebic maT asakSi sazianoa.
Tavi II
13. eklesiis yvela Svili erTsulovnad da SeTanxmebulad unda Seecados, rom sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis saSualebebi yovelgvari Seferxebis
gareSe, udidesi gulmodginebiTa da nayofierebiT iqnas gamoyenebuli mravalricxovan samociqulo saqmeebSi, ise, rogorc amas viTareba da dro moiTxovs. eklesiis Svilebi win unda aRudgnen mavne wamowyebebs, gansakuTrebiT im regionebSi, sadac zneobrivi da religiuri winsvla did Zalisxmevas
moiTxovs.
amitom sulieri mwyemsebi unda Seecadon, Seasrulon am sferoSi Tavisi movaleoba, romelic mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli maT Cveulebriv samsaxurTan: saxarebis qadagebasTan. saeronic, romlebic am saSualebaTa ga-

66

INTER MIRIFICA

moyenebaSi monawileoben, qristesTvis unda mowmobdnen, upirveles yovlisa, sakuTari funqciebis safuZvlianad da mociquluri suliT Sesrulebis
safuZvelze. garda amisa, maT uSualod unda gauwion daxmareba eklesiis
samRvdlo saqmianobas teqnikuri, ekonomikuri, kulturuli da samxatvro
saSualebaTa gamoyenebiT.
14. upirveles yovlisa, saWiroa patiosani presis mxardaWeraa. imisaTvis,
rom mkiTxvelebi mTlianad qristianuli suliT ganimsWvalon, unda Seiqmnas da ganviTardes WeSmaritad kaTolikuri presa, e. i. iseTi, romelic an
uSualod saeklesio xelisuflebis an kaTolike pirebis mxardaWeriTa da
xelmZRvanelobiT aSkarad imisTvis gamoicema, rom Camoayalibos, ganamtkicos da ganaviTaros sajaro Sexedulebebi, romlebic Seesabameba bunebriv
samarTalsa da kaTolikur moZRvrebas, agreTve imisaTvis, raTa sworad gaavrcelos da ganmartos eklesiis cxovrebasTan dakavSirebuli faqtebi. erTgulebi unda darwmundnen, rom aucilebelia kaTolikuri presis kiTxva da
gavrceleba, raTa yvela movlenis Sesaxeb qristianulad gansajon.
yovelmxriv unda waxalisdes da ganxorcieldes iseTi filmebis warmoeba
da Cveneba, romlebic jansaR dasvenebas uwyobs xels da romlebic kulturuli da mxatvruli TvalsazrisiT aris sasargeblo. gansakuTrebiT es exeba axalgazrdobisaTvis gankuTvnil filmebs. upirveles yovlisa, saWiroa
Rirseul prodiuserTa da distributorTa saqmianobisa da iniciativebis
mxardaWera da maTi urTierTTanamSromloba, Rirseuli filmebis waxaliseba
dadebiTi kritikiTa da premiebis miniWebiT, agreTve im darbazebis urTierTTanamSromlobiT, romlebic kaTolikeebsa da patiosan xalxs ekuTvnis.
aseve qmediT daxmarebas saWiroebs is wesieri gadacemebi, romlebic radioTi da televiziiT gadmoicema, gansakuTrebiT saojaxo gadacemebi. didi
xelSewyoba sWirdena kaTolikur gadacemebs, romlebic msmenelebsa da mayureblebs eklesiis cxovrebas aziarebs da religiuri WeSmaritebebs acnobs.
iq, sadac es mizanSewonilia, unda Seiqmnas kaTolikuri sadgurebi. amasTanave, yuradReba unda mieqces maTi gadacemebis dones, romlebic Sesabamisi
xarisxiTa da qmediTobiT unda gamoirCeodes.
dabolos, unda vizrunoT imisTvis, raTa keTilSobiluri da Zveli sasceno xelovneba, romelic sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis saSualebebis meSveobiT ukve farTod aris gavrcelebuli, mayureblebis humanuri da zneobrivi
aRzrdisken miiswrafvodes.
15. zemoTxsenebuli moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad saWiroa mRvdelmsaxurTa, moweseTa da saeroTa momzadeba. maT Sesabamisi gamocdileba
unda miiRon am saSualebaTa samociqulo miznebisTvis gamoyenebis sferoSi.
upirveles yovlisa, saero pirebma ganaTleba unda miiRon teqnikis, moZRvrebisa da zneobis sferoSi. amisaTvis unda gaizardos skolebis, fakultetebisa da institutebis ricxvi, sadac Jurnalistebi, kinomoRvaweni, radiosa da satelevizio gadacemaTa avtorebi, agreTve sxva dainteresebuli pirebi SeZleben srulyofili ganaTlebis miRebas, romelic gamsWvaluli iqneba
qristianuli suliT da eklesiis socialur moZRvrebas gaiTvaliswinebs.
agreTve saWiroa msaxiobebis aRzrda da maTTvis daxmarebis gaweva, raTa Tavisi xelovnebiT maT saTanado samsaxuri gauwion adamianTa sazogadoebas. da
bolos, saWiroa literaturis, kinos, radios, televiziis da sxva saxis kritikosTa safuZvliani momzadeba. isini srulyofilad unda flobdnen Tavis
sagans. maT unda SeeZloT da yovelTvis ecadon, iseTi daskvnebi gamoitanon,
romlebSic zneobrivi aspeqti yovelTvis saTanado adgils daikavebs.

67

vatikanis II kreba

16. sxvadasxva asakisa da sxvadasxva kulturis adamianebisTvis gankuTvnili sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis saSualebaTa swori gamoyeneba moiTxovs momzadebasa da praqtikas, romelic iTvaliswinebs rogorc informaciis
mimRebTa, aseve Tavad saSualebaTa Taviseburebebs. amitom xeli unda SevuwyoT am miznisken mimarTul iniciativebs gansakuTrebiT Tu isini axalgazrdobisTvis aris gankuTvnili nebismieri donis kaTolikur skolebSi,
seminariebsa da agreTve saero samociqulo gaerTianebebSi. aseTi iniciativebis ricxvma unda imatos. maTi saxelmZRvanelo principi qristianuli
zneoba unda iyos. mizani rom swrafad ganxorcieldes, katexizmoSi mocemuli unda iyos am sakiTxis Sesaxeb kaTolikuri moZRvrebisa da disciplinis
Sejameba da ganmarteba.
17. eklesiis Svilebs ar SehferiT umoqmedoba, rodesac gamoxsnis sityvas teqnikuri sirTuleebi an didi xarjebi boWavs da aferxebs. xolo
xarjebi, romlebsac xsenebuli saSualebebi moiTxovs, marTlac uzarmazaria. amitom wmida kreba eklesiis Svilebs maT movaleobas Seaxsenebs: maT
unda mxari dauWiron da daxmareba gauwion kaTolikur Jurnalebs, periodikas, kinematografiul iniciativebs, radiosa da televiziis sadgurebsa
da gadacemebs, romelTa umTavresi mizani aris WeSmaritebis gavrceleba da
dacva, da qristianuli aRzrdisadmi adamianTa sazogadoebis ziareba. amave dros, kreba dabejiTebiT mouwodebs gaerTianebebsa da calkeul pirebs,
romlebsac didi gavlena aqvT ekonomikisa da teqnikis sferoSi, rom Tavisi
SesaZleblobebisa da gamocdilebis safuZvelze gulRiad da uxvad daexmaron am saSualebebs, ramdenac isini WeSmarit kulturasa da mociqulobas
emsaxureba.
18. imisaTvis, raTa sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis saSualebebTan dakavSirebiT eklesiis mravalferovani mociquloba ufro qmediTad ganmtkicdes,
mTeli msoflios diocezebSi, episkoposTa gadawyvetilebiT, yovelwliurad unda aRiniSnos dRe, rodesac erTgulebs daarigeben am sferoSi maTi
movaleobebis Sesaxeb, mouwodeben ilocon am saqmisaTvis da masSi Tavisi
wvlili Seitanon. es gulisxmobs, mTeli kaTolikuri samyaros moTxovnilebebis gaTvaliswinebis safuZvelze, im institutebisa da iniciativebis mxardaWerasa da daxmarebas, romlebic am sferoSi eklesiam daamkvidra.
19. uzenaes pontifeqss, romelic sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis saSualebebTan dakavSirebiT umaRles samwyso mzrunvelobas aRasrulebs, am saqmisTvis wmida saydris sagangebo samsaxuri aqvs.1
20. episkoposebis movaleoba aris, fxizlad adevnos Tvalyuri sakuTar
diocezebSi amgvar saqmeebsa da iniciativebs, xeli Seuwyon da uxelmZRvanelon maT, ramdenadac isini sajaro mociqulobas exeba. gamonakliss ar
unda warmoadgendes is saqmeebi, romlebic ordinariusis Zalauflebidan
gamoyvanili mowesebis xelmZRvanelobiT sruldeba.
21. mociquloba mTels qveyanaSi rom qmediTi iyos, azrTa da ZalTa erTianoba aris saWiro. amitom wmida kreba adgens da brZanebs, rom yvelgan
unda daarsdes erovnuli samsaxurebi presis, kinematografis, radiosa da
1
krebis mamebi siamovnebiT iReben presisa da sanaxaobaTa organizaciis samdivnos mimarTvas da mowiwebiT sTxoven uzenaes pontifeqss, am samsaxuris funqciebi da kompetecia gaavrcelos sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis yvela saSualebebze, presis CaTvliT,
da am saqmeSi CarTos sxvadasxva erovnebis eqspertebi, maT Soris saeronic.

68

INTER MIRIFICA

televiziisTvis, da maT yovelmxriv daxmareba unda gaewios. am samsaxurebis


umTavresi amocana iqneba zrunva erTgulTa cnobierebis sworad formirebisTvis im sferoSi, romelic xsenebul saSualebaTa sworad gamoyenebas exeba. yvelaferi, rac am saqmisTvis kaTolikeebma gaakeTes, xsenebulma samsaxurebma unda ganaviTaron da moawesrigon.
aseTi samsaxurebis xelmZRvaneloba TiToeul qveyanaSi episkoposTa sagangebo erTobas (coetui) an romelime delegirebul episkoposs unda miendos.
am samsaxurebSi kaTolikur moZRvrebebsa da aseT saqmeebSi gamocdili saeronic unda monawileobdnen.
22. sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis saSualebaTa moqmedebis sfero scildeba erovnul sazRvrebs. amgvarad, calkeuli adamiani adamianTa mTeli
Tanamegobrobis moqalaqed iqceva. amitom am sferoSi erovnuli programebi saerTaSoriso urTierTTanamSromlobis doneze unda ganxorcieldes,
xolo 21-e muxlSi xsenebuli samsaxurebma aqtiurad unda iTanamSromlon
Sesabamis saerTaSoriso kaTolikur organizaciasTan (Consociatione). aseTi saerTaSoriso organizaciebi legitimurad mxolod wmida saydris mier
mtkicdeba da masze aris damokidebuli.
daskvna
23. imisaTvis, raTa ganxorcieldes wmida krebis yvela principi da norma, romlebic sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis saSualebebes exeba, krebis pirdapiri davalebiT, unda gamoqveyndes samwyso darigeba. es unda Seasrulos
wmida saydris samsxurma, romlis Sesaxeb laparaki iyo 19-e muxlSi. mis SemadgenlobaSi sxvadasxva qveynis eqspertebi unda Sevidnen.
24. dabolos, wmida kreba gamoTqvams imeds, rom eklesiis yvela Svili simovnebiT miiRebs da wmidad daicavs aq Camoyalibebul dadgenilebebsa da
normebs. amitom am saSualebaTa gamoyeneba maTTvis ara Tu saziano ar iqneba,
aramed piriqiT: rogorc marili da naTeli, isini miwas gaanoyierebs (condiant)
da samyaros naTels mohfens. amasTan erTad, kreba mouwodebs keTili nebis
yvela adamians da gansakuTrebiT am saSualebaTa ganmgeblebs, Seecadon,
isini mxolod adamianTa sazogadoebis sakeTildReod gamoiyenon; sazogadoebis bedi xom dRiTidRe sul ufro metad aris am saSualebaTa swor moxmarebaze damokidebuli. dae, ganadidos saxeli uflisa Zveli xelovnebis
nimuSebma da am axalma gamogonebebmac! rogorc mociquli ityvis, ieso qriste guSin da dRes da igi Tavadi ars ukunisamde (ebr. 13, 8).
yovelive erTad da cal-calke, rac am dekretSi gamocxadda,
wmida krebis mamebma moiwones. da Cvenc, im samociqulo uflebamosilebiT, romelic qristesgan gadmogveca, amas pativdebul mamebTan erTad suli wmidaSi veTanxmebiT, vadgenT,
vawesebT da vbrZanebT, rom is, rac krebaze dadginda, gamoqveyndes sadideblad RmrTisa.
romi, wm. petresTan, 1963 wlis 4 dekemberi

me, pavle, kaTolike eklesiis episkoposi


(mohyveba mamaTa xelmowerebi)

69

dogmaturi konstitucia
eklesiis Sesaxeb
LUMEN GENTIUM

pavle episkoposi,
RmrTis msaxurTa msaxuri,
wmida krebis mamebTan erTad,
samudamo saxsovrad

dogmaturi konstitucia
eklesiis Sesaxeb
Tavi I
eklesiis saidumloeba
1. qriste aris xalxTa naTeli. suli wmidaSi Sekrebili wmida kreba yvela
qmnilebas auwyebs saxarebas (mark. 16, 15). mas Zlier surs, rom yvela adamiani
gabrwyindes qristes naTliT, romelic eklesiaSi sxivosndeba. eklesia erTgvari saidumloa (sacramentum) qristeSi. igi aris RmerTTan Sinagani erTianobisa da mTeli kacobriobis erTobis niSani da saSualeba. amitom ganizraxavs eklesia, rom uwindeli krebebis Tema ganagrZos da Tavis erTgulebsa
(fidelibus) da mTel samyaros meti sizustiT amcnos Tavisi buneba da sayovelTao misia. dRevandel pirobebSi eklesiis es amocana gansakuTrebiT gadaudebelia: yvela adamianma, romelic dRes ufro mWidrod aris erTmaneTTan
dakavSirebuli sxvadasxva jaWviT (socialuri, teqnikuri, kulturuli),
qristeSi srul erTianobas unda miaRwios.
2. saukuno mamam, Tavisi sibrZniTa da saTnoebiT, sruliad Tavisufali
da dafaruli gadawyvetilebiT, Seqmna mTeli samyaro. man ganizraxa, adamianebi aRemaRlebina saRmrTo cxovrebis ziarebisken. RmerTma ar miatova
adamianebi, roca isini adamSi daecnen. RmerTi mudam iyo adamianTa Semwe,
raTa isini gamoexsna qristes, gamomsyidvelis, gamo, romeli-igi ars xati
RmrTisa uxilavisa, pirmSo yovelTa dabadebulTa (kol. 1, 15). Tavisi yvela rCeuli mamam saukuneTa uwin winawar icnna winawarca ganaCinna
Tana-msgavsad xatisa mis Zisa Tsisa, raTa iyos pirmSo mravalTa Soris
ZmaTa (rom. 8, 29). manve gadawyvita, wmida eklesiaSi moexmo yvelasTvis,
visac qriste swamda. eklesiaze miniSneba moxda winaswar, samyaros dasabamiTve. israelis xalxis istoriam da Zvelma aRTqmam (foedere)1 eklesia saocrad moamzada. suli wmidis gamovlinebiT gancxadebuli eklesia uaxles
droSi dafuZnda, xolo saukuneTa bolos igi didebiT dasruldeba. amgvarad, rogorc wmida mamebTan vkiTxulobT, adamis droidan yvela marTali,
marTali abelidan ukanasknel rCeulamde,2 Seikribeba mamasTan, sayovelTao eklesiaSi.
3. maSasadame, movida qriste, movlinebuli mamisagan, romelmac samyaros
Seqmnamde masSi amogvirCia da misi Sviloba winaswar gangvisazRvra, radgan isurva, rom yvelaferi qristeSi aRedgina (Sdr. ef. 1, 4-5 da 10). amitom
qristem, mamis nebis aRsasruleblad, dedamiwaze zeciuri sasufeveli daa1
Sdr. CYPRIANUS, Epist. 64, 4: PL 3, 1017; CSEL (Hartel) III B, p. 720. S. HILARIUS PICT.,
In Mt. 23, 6: PL 9, 1047. S. AUGUSTINUS, bevrgan. S. CYRILLUS ALEX., Glaph. in Gen. 2, 10: PG 69,
110A.
2
Sdr. S. GREGORIUS M., Hom. in Evang. 19, 1: PL 76, 1154 B. S. AUGUSTINUS, Serm. 341, 9,
11: PL 39, 1499. S. Io. DAMASCENUS, Adv. Iconocl. 11: PG 96, 1357.

73

vatikanis II kreba

fuZna, Tavisi saidumloeba (mysterium) gamogvicxada da Tavisi morCilebiT


gamogvisyida. eklesia, qristes sasufeveli, romelic ukve mocemulia saidumloebaSi, RmrTis ZaliT samyaroSi xilulad izrdeba. mis dasabamsa da
ganviTarebas gamoxatavs sisxli da wyali, romelic jvarcmuli qristes
gverdidan, misi Wrilobidan moedineba (Sdr. ioan. 19, 34), xolo winaswarmetyveleba mocemulia uflis sityvebSi, romlebic jvarze mis sikvdils
exeba: da me odes avmaRlde queyaniT, yovelni movizidne Cemda (ioan. 12, 32).
Cveni gamosyidva sruldeba yovelTvis, roca sakurTxevelze ganadideben
jvarcmis msxverpls, romelzec iTqmis: zatikad CuenTs daikla qriste
(1kor. 5, 7). amave dros, ziarebis puris saidumlo (sacramentum) ganasaxierebs
da qmnis morwmuneTa erTobas, romlebic qristeSi erT sxeuls qmnian (Sdr.
1kor. 10, 17). yvela adamiani mowodebulia am erTobisken qristesTan, romelic aris qveynis naTeli: Cven am naTlidan warmovdgebiT, misi saSualebiT
vcxovrobT, misken miviswrafiT.
4. ormocdameaTe dRes, mas Semdeg, rac aRsrulda saqme, romelic
mamam Zes daakisra dedamiwaze saqmnelad (Sdr. ioan. 17, 4), movlinebul
iqna suli wmida, raTa man eklesia mudam wmidayos da erTgulebi qristes
gziT, erTi sulis mier, mamas mieaxlon (Sdr. efes. 2, 18). es aris cxovrebis suli, anu wyaro, romelic saukuno cxovrebad miedineba (Sdr. ioan. 4,
14; 7, 38). misi meSveobiT mama sicocxles aniWebs adamianebs, codvis gamo
mkvdarT, sanam qristeSi maT mokvdav sxeulebs ar aRadgens (Sdr. rom. 8,
10-11). suli, rogorc taZarSi, mkvidrobs eklesiasa da morwmuneTa gulebSi (Sdr. 1kor. 3, 16; 6, 19). igi maTSi loculobs da Svilebad maT aRiarebas mowmobs (Sdr. gal. 4, 6; rom. 8, 15-16 da 26). eklesias igi srul WeSmaritebaSi miuZRveba (Sdr. ioan. 16, 13), urTierTobasa da msaxurebaSi
mis erTianobas uzrunvelyofs, awesrigebs da warmarTavs mas sxvadasxva
ierarqiul da qarizmatul niWTa saSualebiT da Tavisi nayofebiT amkobs
(Sdr. efes. 4, 11-12; 1kor. 12, 4; gal. 5, 22). saxarebis ZaliT igi eklesias
aaxalgazrdavebs da mudam ganaaxlebs, da mas sasiZosTan srulyofili kavSirisken uZRveba.3 amitom eubnebian suli da sZali ufals iesos: modi!
(Sdr. gamocx. 22, 17).
amgvarad, sayovelTao eklesia warmogvidgeba rogorc xalxi, gaerTianebuli mamis, Zisa da suli wmidis erTobisgan.4
5. wmida eklesiis saidumloeba mis dafuZnebaSi vlindeba. ufalma iesom
Tavis eklesias safuZveli maSin Cauyara, roca iqadaga sasixarulo ambavi:
RmrTis sasufevlis mosvla. mas wmida werili aRgviTqvamda: aRsrulebul
ars Jami da moaxlebul ars sasufeveli RmrTisa (mark. 1, 15; Sdr. maT. 4, 17).
am sasufevlis naTeba adamianebs eZleva qristes sityvaSi, saqmeebsa da mis
aqmyofobaSi (praesentia). marTlac, RmrTis sityva Teslsa hgavs, mindorSi daTesils (mark. 4, 14): vinc rwmeniT ismens da qristes mcire samwysos (luk. 12,
32) Seemateba, man miiRo sasufeveli. Semdeg Tesli ukve sakuTari ZaliT Rvivdeba da izrdeba, vidre mkis Jami moiwevs (Sdr. mark. 4, 26-29). iesos saswaulebic adastureben, rom sasufevelma ukve moiwia dedamiwaze: ukueTu me
TiTiTa RmrTisaTa ganvasxam eSmakTa, mo-same-wevnul ars Tquen zeda sasufeveli RmrTisa (luk. 11, 20; Sdr. maT. 12, 28). da mainc, yvelaferze uwin
sasufeveli vlindeba Tavad qristes pirovnebaSi, romelic aris Ze RmrTi3
Sdr. S. IRENAUS, Adv. Haer. III, 24, 1: PG 7, 966 B; HARVEY 2, 131; SAGNARD, Sources Chr.,
p. 398.
4
S. CYPRIANUS, De Orat. Dom. 23: PL 4, 553; CSEL (Hartel) III A, p. 285. S. AUGUSTINUS,
Serm. 71, 20, 33: PL 38, 463 S. Io. DAMASCENUS, Adv. Iconocl. 12: PG 96, 1358 D.

74

LUMEN GENTIUM

sa da Ze adamianTa, mosuli imisaTvis, raTa emsaxuros da misces suli Tsi


sasrad mravalTa (mark. 10, 45).
roca aRdga ieso, romelmac adamianebisTvis jvarze sikvdili daiTmina,
igi warmodga rogorc ufali, qriste da mRvdeli, ukunisamde aseTad qmnili
(constitutus) (Sdr. saqme 2, 36; ebr. 5, 6; 7, 17; 7, 21). mowafeebs iesom mamisagan aRTqmuli suli mohfina (Sdr. saqme 2, 33). amieridan eklesia, romelic aRWurvilia Tavisi damfuZneblis niWebiT da romelic mis mcnebebs _ siyvaruls,
simdablesa da gandgomas erTgulad inaxavs, aseT misias kisrulobs: man unda
auwyos qristesa da RmrTis sasufeveli da igi yvela erSi daamkvidros. eklesia dedamiwaze am sasufevlis ylortsa da sawyiss qmnis. amasobaSi, TandaTanobiT zrdisas, eklesia dasrulebuli sasufevlisTvis iRvwis (ad Regnum
consummatum anhelat) da mTeli ZaliT imedovnebs da moelis, rom Tavis mefes
didebaSi SeeuRleba.
6. sasufevlis gamocxadeba Zvel aRTqmaSi xSirad saxeTa saSualebiT (sub
figuris) xdeba. axlac eklesiis Rrma (intima) buneba CvenTvis sxvadasxva igaviT
cnaurdeba. es igavebi, romlebic aRebulia mwyemsuri, samiwaTmoqmedo, samSeneblo, ojaxuri Tu col-qmruli cxovrebidan, ukve winaswarmetyvelTa
wignebSia gamoxatuli.
marTlac, eklesia aris baga, romlis erTaderTi da aucilebeli kari qristea (ioan. 10, 1-10). eklesia samwysoc aris; RmerTma winaswar gvauwya, rom
misi mwyemsi Tavad iqneba (Sdr. es. 40, 11; ezek. 34, 11). am samwysos cxvrebs,
Tundac maT adamiani-mwyemsebi marTavdnen, mainc mudam uZRveba da kvebavs
qriste, mwyemsi keTili da mwyemsmTavari (Sdr. ioan. 10, 11; 1petr. 5, 4), romelmac Tavisi cxovreba dasdo cxvrebisTvis (Sdr. 10, 11-15).
eklesia aris miwaTmoqmedeba, anu RmrTis mindori (1kor. 3, 9). am mindorSi
izrdeba Zveli zeTisxilis xe, romlis wmida fesvs patriarqebi warmoadgenen.
masSi moxda da moxdeba iudevelTa da warmarTTa Serigeba (rom. 11, 13-26). eklesia nargavia, romelsac zeciurma miwaTmoqmedma rCeuli venaxis saxe misca
(maT. 21, 33-43; Sdr. es. 5, 1). WeSmariti venaxi aris qriste, romelic cxovrebasa
da nayofierebas aniWebs rtoebs, anu Cven, vinc eklesiis saSualebiT masSi vimyofebiT da mis gareSe arafris gakeTeba ar ZalgviZs (ioan. 15, 1-5).
eklesia sakmaod xSirad RmrTis aRmSeneblobad iwodeba (1kor. 3, 9). ufali
Tavad Seedara qvas, romelic mSeneblebma daiwunes, Tumca is Tavkidur qvad
iqca (maT. 21, 42; Sdr. saqme 4, 11; 1petre 2, 7; fs. 117, 22). am saZirkvelze mociqulebma eklesia aages (Sdr. 1kor. 3, 11), da amave saZirkvlidan eklesia simtkicesa
da Tanxmobas iZens. es nageboba sxvadasxva saxelwodebiT Seamkes: RmrTis saxli
(1tim. 3, 15), romelSic misi ojaxi cxovrobs, sulSi RmrTis sacxovrisi (efes.
2, 19-22), adamianebTan erTad RmrTis samkvidrebeli (gamocx. 21, 3), da gansakuTrebiT wmida taZari, romelsac, qvebiT agebuli samlocvelos saxiT warmodgenils, wmida mamebi ganadideben, xolo RmrTismsaxurebaSi mas samarTlianad
adareben wmida qalaqs, axal ierusalems.5 Cven, rogorc cocxali qvebi, masSi
amqveynadve varT aRSenebulni (1petr. 2, 5). ioane am wmida qalaqs Wvrets, samyaros ganaxlebisas zeciT RmrTisagan gardamomavals, ganmzadebuls, viTarca sZali Semkuli qmrisa mimarT Tsisa (gamocx. 21, 1).
eklesia iwodeba agreTve zemo ierusalemad da dedad Cvenad (gal. 4,
26). mas aRweren rogorc umwikvlo kravis umwikvlo sZals (gamocx. 19, 7; 21,
5
Sdr. ORIGENES, In Mt. 16, 21: PG 13, 1443C. TERTULLIANUS, Adv. Marc. 3, 7: PL 2, 357 C;
CSEL 47, 3 p. 386. RmrTismsaxurebasTan dakavSirebiT Sdr. Sacramentarium Gregorianum: PL 78,
160 B. an C. MOHLBERG, Liber Sacramentorum romanae ecclesiae, Romae, 1960, p. 111, XC: RmerTo,
yvela wmidaTa kavSiridan Sen saukuno samkvidrebels iSeneb... himni Urbs Ierusalem beata
monastruli Jamnidan da Coelestis urbs Ierusalem romauli Jamnidan.

75

vatikanis II kreba

2 da 9; 22, 17), romelic qristem Seiyvara da Tavi Tsi misca misTs, raTa
igi wmida-yos (efes. 5, 25-26). qristem eklesia urRvevi kavSiriT daikavSira, igi mas gamudmebiT asazrdoebs da uvlis (efes. 5, 29). man isurva, rom
ganwmedili eklesia mas SeuRloda da siyvaruliTa da erTgulebiT damorCileboda (Sdr. efes. 5, 24). da bolos, man eklesia ciuri niWebiT aRavso, raTa
vswvdeT RmrTisa da qristes Cvendami siyvaruls, romelic yovelgvar codnas aRemateba (Sdr. efes. 3, 19). magram sanam eklesia, uflisgan gandgomili,
amqveyniur gzas adgas (Sdr. 2kor. 5, 6), igi Tavs gandevnilad grZnobs. amitom
eklesiis Zieba da fiqri zecisken aris mimarTuli, sadac qriste zis RmrTis
marjveniT. iq, RmerTSi, qristesTan erTad, dafarulia eklesiis cxovreba,
vidre igi Tavis sasiZosTan erTad didebiT ar gamoCndeba (Sdr. kol. 3, 1-4).
7. Ze RmrTisam adamianuri buneba miiRo da Tavisi sikvdiliTa da aRdgomiT sikvdils sZlia. man adamiani gamoisyida da igi axal qmnilebad gardaqmna
(Sdr. gal. 6, 15; 2 kor. 5, 17). Tavisi suli man Tavis Zmebs gadasca (Zmebs man
yvela xalxidan uxmo), da amoucnobi gziT isini erTgvarad Tavis sxeulad
aqcia.
am sxeuliT qristes cxovreba Caedineba morwmuneebSi, romlebic saidumloTa (sacramenta) saSualebiT, dafaruli da realuri gziT, vnebulsa da gandidebul qristes uerTdebian.6 marTlac, naTlobiT qristes vemsgavsebiT:
rameTu erTiTa suliTa Cuen yovelTa erTisa mimarT guamisa naTel-viReT
(1kor. 12, 13). am wmida wesiT gamoixateba da sruldeba qristes sikvdilTan da
aRdgomasTan kavSiri: Tana-davefleniT mas naTlis-RebiTa miT sikudilsa
missa; da ukueTu Tana-nerg veqmneniT msgavsebasa mas sikudilisa misisasa,
egreTca aRdgomasa mas missa viyvneT (rom. 6, 4-5). ziarebis puris gatexvisas Cven namdvilad vmonawileobT uflis sxeulSi da vmaRldebiT masTan da
erTmaneTTan urTierTobamde. rameTu erT pur da erT orc Cuen mravalni ese varT, rameTu yovelTa erTisa misgan purisa moguaqus (1kor. 10, 17).
amgvarad, Cven yvelani am sxeulis asoni vxdebiT (Sdr. 1kor. 12, 27), xolo
TiToeuli urTierTas asoeb varT (rom. 12, 5).
magram rogorc adamianis sxeulis yvela aso, simravlis miuxedavad, mainc
erT sxeuls qmnis, aseve arian erTgulni qristeSi (Sdr. 1kor. 12, 12). qristes
sxeulis agebulebaSic asoTa da funqciaTa mravalgvaroba sufevs. suli
erTia, da Tavis sxvadasxva niWs igi eklesiis sasargeblod avrcelebs, Tavis
simdidreTa Sesatyvisad da msaxurebaTa saWiroebis mixedviT (Sdr. 1kor. 12,
1-11). am niWTa Soris gamoirCeva mociqulTa madli, xolo mociqulTa uflebamosilebas Tavad sulma qarismatikosebic dauqvemdebara (Sdr. 1kor. 14).
suli TviTon aerTebs sxeuls, Tavisi ZaliTa da asoTa Sinagani kavSiriT,
xolo morwmuneTa Soris igi siyvaruls warmoSobs da zrdis. da Tu evnebin
ra erTsa asosa, mis Tana elmin yovelTa asoTa; da Tu ididebin erTi aso, mis
Tana ididebied yovelni asoni (1kor. 12, 26).
am sxeulis Tavi aris qriste. igi uxilavi RmrTis xatia da masSia yvelaferi Seqmnili. igi yvelaferze uwin aris da yvelaferi masSia. igi Tavia sxeulisa, romelic aris eklesia. igi ars dasabami, pirmSo mkvdreTiT, raTa
iyos igi Tavadi yovelsa Sina mTavar (kol. 1, 15-18). Tavisi Zalis sidiadiT
igi yovelive zeciursa da miwierze meufebs, da gardamatebuli srulyofilebiTa da moqmedebiT mTel sxeuls aRavsebs Tavisi didebis simdidriT
(Sdr. efes. 1, 18-23).7
yvela aso misi Tanaxati unda gaxdes, sanam qriste maTSi ar gamoixateba
(Sdr. gal. 4, 19). Cven misi cxovrebis saidumloebebs (mysteria) veziareT: misi
6
7

76

Sdr. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. III, q. 62, a.5, ad 1.


Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Mystici Corporis, 29 jun. 1943: AAS 35 (1943), p. 208.

LUMEN GENTIUM

Tanasaxovanni varT, masTan erTad vkvdebiT da aRvdgebiT, sanam masTan erTad ar vimefebT (conregnemus) (Sdr. fil. 3, 21; 2 tim. 2, 11; ef. 2, 6; kol. 2, 12 da
a. S.). Cven jer kidev miwaze vmsxemobT, mis kvals wvalebasa da devnaSi vtkepniT, mis vnebebs verwymiT, rogorc sxeuli Tavs; masTan erTad vevnebiT, raTa
masTan erTad vididoT (Sdr. rom. 8, 17).
misgan izrdeba saRmrTo zrdiT mTeli sxeuli, saxsarTa da nawevarTagan
Sekruli da SeerTebuli (kol. 2, 19). Tavis sxeulSi, e. i. eklesiaSi, igi ganuwyvetlad anawilebs samsaxureobriv niWebs, romelTa saSualebiT, Tavad
misi ZaliT, Cven erTmaneTs gamoxsnisaTvis vemsaxurebiT, raTa siyvarulSi
WeSmariteba vqmnaT da yovelmxriv gavizardoT misken, romelic aris Tavi
Cveni (Sdr. ef. 4, 11-16).
masSi rom ganuwyvetliv ganvaxldeT (Sdr. ef. 4, 23), man wili mogvca Tavisi sulisgan, romelic erTia da igive Tavsa da asoebSi; es suli mTel sxeuls
cxovelyofs, aerTebs da amoZravebs. amitom wmida mamebma SesaZleblad cnes
misi moqmedebis Sedareba im funqciasTan, romelsac adamianur sxeulSi sicocxlis sawyisi anu mSvinva (anima) asrulebs.8
qristes uyvars eklesia, rogorc Tavisi sZali. igi nimuSia kacisa, romelsac Tavisi coli rogorc Tavisi sxeuli uyvars (Sdr. ef. 5, 25-28). eklesia mas
emorCileba, vinc misi Tavia (iqve, 23-24). mas Sina damkdrebul ars yovelive
savseba RmrTeebisa orcielad (kol. 2, 9), amitom aRavsebs igi Tavisi saRmrTo niWebiT eklesias, romelic misi sxeuli da sisavse aris (Sdr. ef. 1, 2223), raTa eklesia ganivrcos da miiwios RmrTis sisavsemde (Sdr. 3, 19).
8. qristem, erTaderTma Suamavalma, xiluli kavSiris saxiT Seqmna da samudamod Seinaxa Tavisi wmida eklesia, romelic rwmenis, imedisa da siyvarulis
amqveyniur erTobas warmoadgens.9 eklesiis meSveobiT igi WeSmaritebasa da
madls yvelasaTvis avrcelebs. ierarqiuli organoebiT aRWurvili sakrebulo da qristes saidumlo sxeuli, anu erTis mxriv, xiluli Sekreba, meores
mxriv ki sulieri sakrebulo, miwieri eklesia da zeciuri niWebiT aRWurvili eklesia ori sxvadasxva ram ki ar aris, aramed erTi rTuli sinamdvilea,
romelic adamianuri da saRmrTo sawyisisgan Sedgeba.10 amitom, garkveuli
analogiis safuZvelze, mas ganxorcielebul saidumlo sityvas adareben.
saRmrTo sityvis mier miRebuli buneba sityvas emsaxureba, rogorc gamoxsnis cocxali organo, masTan urRvevad erTiani. aseve emsaxureba eklesiis
socialuri kavSiri qristes suls, romelic am kavSirs sxeulis zrdisTvis
sicocxles aniWebs (Sdr. ef. 4, 16).11
es aris qristes erTaderTi eklesia, romelsac mrwamsSi vaRiarebT rogorc erTs, wmidas, kaTolikesa da samociqulos.12 Cvenma macxovarma igi Tavisi aRdgomis Semdeg samwysod petres gadasca (ioan. 21, 17). man petresa da
sxva mociqulebs misi ganvrcoba da warmarTva daakisra (Sdr. maT. 28, 18-20).
man samudamod aRmarTa eklesia, rogorc sueti da simtkice WeSmaritebisa
8
Sdr. LEO XIII, encycl. Divinum illud, 9 maii 1897: ASS 29 (1896-97), p. 650. PIUS XII, encycl.
Mystici Corporis, l. c., pp. 219-220; DENZ. 2288 (3808). S. AUGUSTINUS, Serm. 268, 2: PL 38, 1232 da
sxvagan. S. Io. CHRYSOSTOMUS, In Eph. Hom. 9, 3: PG 62, 72. DIDYMUS ALEX., Trin. 2, 1: PG 39,
449. S. THOMAS, In Col. 1, 18, lect. 5: ed. MARIETTI, II, n. 46: rogorc sulis erTianobidan erTiani sxeuli Sedgeba, aseve eklesia Sedgeba suli wmidis erTianobisgan...
9
LEO XIII, encycl. Sapientiae christianae, 10 ian. 1890: ASS 2 (1889-90), p. 392. misive, encycl.
Satis cognitum, 29 iun. 1896: ASS 28 (1895-96), pp. 710, 724. PIUS XII, encycl. Mystici Corporis, l. c. pp.
199-200.
10
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Mystici Corporis, l.c., p. 221. misive, encycl. Humani generis, 12 aug.
1950: AAS 42 (1950), p. 571.
11
LEO XIII, encycl. Satis cognitum, l.c., p. 713.
12
Sdr. Symbolum Apostolicum: DENZ. 6-9 (10-13). Symb. Nic.-Const.: DENZ. 86 (150). Coll.
Prof. fidei Trid.: DENZ. 994 da 999 (1862 da 1868).

77

vatikanis II kreba

(1tim. 3, 15). es eklesia, amqveynad sakrebulos saxiT Seqmnili da mowyobili,


kaTolike eklesiaSi imyofeba, romelsac petres memkvidre da, masTan erTad,
episkoposebi warmarTaven.13 Tumca am kavSiris gareTac gvxdeba wmidadyofisa da WeSmaritebis mravali elementi, romlebic, rogorc sakuTriv qristes
eklesiis niWni, kaTolikur erTianobas ganamtkiceben.
qristem Cveni gamosyidva siRaribesa da devnaSi ganaxorciela, da eklesiac mowodebulia imisTvis, rom amave gzas daadges, raTa adamianebs gamoxsnis nayofi moutanos (communicet). ieso qristem, romeli-igi xati RmrTisaiyo, ... Tavi Tsi daimdabla da xati monisa miiRo (fil. 2, 6), da CvenTvis daglaxakna mdidari igi (2kor. 8, 9). amgvarad, eklesia, Tumca mas Tavisi misiis
Sesasruleblad adamianuri saSualebebi sWirdeba, miwieri didebis saZieblad ki ar Seqmnila, aramed imisTvis, rom simdablisa da gandgomisken yvelas
sakuTari magaliTiTac mouwodos. mamam qriste warmogzavna@maxarebelad
glaxkTa,... gankurnebad SemusrvilTa guliTa (luk. 4, 18), moZiebad da
cxorebad warwymedulisa (luk. 19, 10). msgavsad amisa, eklesia siyvaruliT
garemoicavs yvelas, vinc adamianuri sisustiT aris dauZlurebuli. metic, igi Raribebsa da tanjulebSi cnobs Tavisi damfuZneblis, Raribisa da
tanjulis, xats, cdilobs, maT gaWirveba Seumsubuqos da surs, maTSi qristes emsaxuros. Tavad qriste aris wmida, umanko, Seuginebeli (ebr. 7, 26),
romelman-igi ara icoda codva (2kor. 5, 21), da romelic mxolod imisTvis
movida, raTa ulxinebdes codvaTa erisaTa (ebr. 2, 17). rac Seexeba eklesias, romelic Tavis wiaRSi codvilebs iRebs, igi wmidaa, magram amasTanave
mas yovelTvis ganwmeda sWirdeba da igi mudam monaniebisa da ganaxlebis
gzas adgas.
eklesia Tavis svlas axorcielebs amqveyniur devnasa da saRmrTo nugeSs Soris.14 igi uflis jvarsa da sikvdils gvauwyebs, vidremdis movides
(1kor. 11, 26). aRmdgari qristes Zala eklesias ganamtkicebs: moTminebiTa
da siyvaruliT igi Tavis mRelvarebebsa da gaWirvebebs unda sZlevdes, Sinagansa da garegans, da erTgulad avlendes samyaroSi uflis saidumlos, jer
kidev CrdiliT dafaruls, srul naTelSi mis saboloo gancxadebamde.
Tavi II
RmrTis eri
9. RmrTisaTvis yvela drosa da yvela xalxs Soris saTno is aris, romelsa eSinis misa da iqms simarTlesa (saqme 10, 35).@amitom isurva RmerTma, rom
adamianebi wmida-eyo da gamoexsna ara calcalke, maT Soris raime kavSiris
gareSe, aramed im erad Seekriba, romelic RmerTs WeSmaritebaSi Seicnobda
da mas wmidad emsaxureboda. aseT erad RmerTma israelis xalxi amoirCia,
masTan kavSiri (foedus) dado da igi TandaTanobiT ganaswavla. am eris istoriis manZilze RmerTi mas Tavisi nebis ganzraxvasa da Tavis Tavs gamoucxadebda da mas TavisTvis wmida-yofda. es iyo erTgvari mzadeba da saxe im
axali da srulyofili kavSirisa, romelic qristes mier unda dadebuliyo,
da im ufro sayovelTao gamocxadebisa, romelic RmrTis ganxorcielebul
sityvas unda moetana. aha, dReni movlen, - itys ufali, - da aRuTqua saxlsa isralisasa da saxlsa iudasasa aRTqma axali... mimcemelman SjulTa
CemTaman gonebaTa mimarT maTTa da mkerdsa zeda gulTa maTTasa davwerne
igini, da viyo maTda RmerTad, da igini iyunen Cemda erad... rameTu yovelTa
micodian me, mcirediTgan maTiT vidre didadmde maTda, _ Tqua ufalman
13
misi saxelwodebaa wmida (kaTolike samociqulo) romauli eklesia: Prof. fidei
Trid., l.c. da CONC. VAT. I, Sess. 3, Const. dogm. De fide cath. Dei filius: DENZ. 1782 (3001).
14
S. AUGUSTINUS, Civ. Dei, XVIII, 51, 2: PL 41, 614.

78

LUMEN GENTIUM

(ier. 31, 31-34, mcxeT.). es axali kavSiri (foedum) qristem daadgina; esaa axali aRTqma (testamentum) misi sisxlis mier (Sdr. 1kor. 11, 25). man xalxs mouwoda iudevelTagan da warmarTTagan, romelic erTobas ara xorcis Tanaxmad, aramed sulismier Seqmnida da RmrTis axali eri gaxdeboda. marTlac,
visac qriste swams, is xelaxla iSveba ara Teslisagan ganxrwnadisa, aramed
uxrwnelisa, sityTa RmrTisa cxovelisaTa (1petr. 1, 23), ara xorcisagan,
aramed wylisa da sulisa wmidisagan (Sdr. ioan. 3, 5-6). aseTi xalxiT iqmneba
naTesavi rCeuli, sameufo samRdelo, Tesli wmida, eri mogebuli... romelni-ege odesme ara er, xolo aw eri RmrTisa (1petr. 2, 9-10).
am mesianuri xalxis Tavi aris qriste, romeli mieca codvaTa CuenTaTs
da aRdga ganmarTlebisa CuenisaTs (rom. 4, 25). amieridan man miiRo saxeli,
yvela saxelze uzenaesi, da igi didebiT mefobs zecaSi. am eris mdgomareobas gamoxatavs RmrTis SvilTa Rirseba da Tavisufleba, romelTa gulebSi,
rogorc taZarSi, suli wmida mkvidrobs. ers aqvs kanonad axali mcneba (mandatum): uyvardes, viTarca qristem Segviyvara Cven (Sdr. ioan. 13, 34). da bolos, misi daniSnuleba aris RmrTis sasufeveli, romelsac Tavad RmerTma
misca dasabami miwaze da romelic SemdgomSi unda ganivrcos, sanam saukuneTa bolos RmrTisganve ar aRsruldeba, raJams qriste gamocxadnes, cxoreba igi Cueni (kol. 3, 4) da TT igica dabadebuli gan-ve-Tavisufldes
monebisagan xrwnilebisa aznaurebasa mas didebisa SvilTa RmrTisaTa (rom.
8, 21). amitom es mesianuri eri (miuxedavad imisa, rom is, faqtiurad, yvela
adamians ar moicavs da zogjer sulac patara samwyos warmoadgens), mTeli
adamianuri modgmisTvis aris erTobis, imedisa da xsnis umtkicesi ylorti.
qristem es eri daafuZna ziar cxovrebaSi, siyvarulsa (caritatis) da WeSmaritebaSi, mas igi rogorc saSualebas mimarTavs, romliTac yvelas gamoisyidis,
da romelic, rogorc naTeli qveynisa da marili miwisa (Sdr. maT. 5, 13-16),
mTels msoflioSi warigzavneba.
xolo rogorc israeli, romelic udabnoSi msxemobda (peregrinabatur), xorcielad ukve iwodeba RmrTis eklesiad (neem. 13. 1; Sdr. ricx. 20, 4; rjul.
23, 1), aseve aris saxeldebuli axali israeli, am saukuneSi mosuli, romelic
momavlis waruval qalaqs eZiebs (Sdr. ebr. 13, 14): igi qristes eklesiad
iwodeba. es eklesia qristem moigo sisxliTa TsiTa (saqme 20, 28), aRavso
Tavisi suliT da aRWurva iseTi saSualebebiT, romlebic eklesiis xilulsa da sazogadoebriv erTobas emsaxureba. RmerTma mouxmo maT krebuls,
vinc rwmeniT Sehyurebs qristes - gamoxsnis winamZRvarsa da erTianobisa da
mSvidobis dasabams. am krebulisgan RmerTma eklesia Seqmna _ yvelasTvis
da TiToeulisTvis im erTobis xiluli saidumlo (sacramentum), romelsac
gamoxsna moaqvs.15 eklesia yvela kuTxeSi unda gavrceldes, igi kacobriobis istoriaSi Semodis, da imave dros erTa droebisa da sazRvrebis miRma
aris. cTunebisa da gaWirvebis gzaze, eklesia mtkicdeba RmrTis wyalobiT,
romelic mas uflisgan aqvs aRTqmuli, raTa xorcis siZabuneSi erTgulebis
simtkice ar moakldes. eklesia Tavisi uflis Rirseul sasZlod unda darCes da suliwmidis moqmedebiT sakuTari Tavi ganuwyvetliv srulyos, vidre
jvris meSveobiT ar miaRwevs sinaTles, romelmac dabneleba ar icis.
10. qriste ufalma, kacTagan arCeulma pontifeqsma (Sdr. ebr. 5, 1-5), axali
eri qmna sameufod da mRvdelmsaxurad RmrTisa da mamisa Tsisa (gamocx.
1, 6; Sdr. 5, 9-10). marTlac, naTelRebulni, xelaxali SobiTa (per regenarationem) da suli wmidis cxebiT (unctionem) eziarebian (consecrantur) sulier saxls
da wmida mRvdelmsaxurebas, raTa yovelgvari saqmiT, romelic qristians
15
Sdr. S. CYPRIANUS, Epist. 69, 6: PL 3, 1142 B; CSEL (Hartel) 3 B, p. 754: erTobis ganuyofeli siwmide.

79

vatikanis II kreba

Seefereba, Seswiron sulieri msxverpli da auwyon imis saTnoebani, vinc


maT bnelidan mouwoda sakrvelsa mas naTelssa missa (Sdr. 1petr. 2, 4-10).
amitom qristes yvela mowafe gankrZaluli unda iyos locvaSi da RmerTi
aqos. (Sdr. saqme 2, 42-47). isini unda wardgnen msxuerplad cxovelad, wmidad, saTnod RmrTisa (rom. 12, 1), dedamiwis yvela kuTxeSi qristes Sesaxeb
unda mowmobdnen da yvela dainteresebuls ganumarton saukuno cxovrebis
is imedi, romelic Tavad aqvT (Sdr. 1petr. 3, 15).
erTgulTa sazogado mRvdelmsaxureba da msaxurebiTi (ministeriale) anu
ierarqiuli mRvdelmsaxureba erTmaneTisgan ara mxolod xarisxiT gansxvavdeba, aramed arsebiTac. amave dros, isini urTierTdaqvemdebarebulni
arian: erTica da meorec Taviseburad monawileobs qristes erTian mRvdelmsaxurebaSi.16 msaxurebiTi mRvdeli, im wmida ZalauflebiT, romelic mas
aqvs, moZRvravs (efformat) da warmarTavs mRvdelmsaxur ers. qristes saxiT
(in persona Christi) igi ziarebis msxverpls aRasrulebs da mas RmerTs uZRvnis
mTeli xalxis saxeliT. xolo erTgulni, maTi sameufo mRvdelmsaxurebis
ZaliT, ikribebian ziarebisas (in oblationem Eucharistii)17 da mRvdelmsaxurebas
asruleben saidumloTa (sacramentis) miRebiT, locviTa da samadlobeli qmedebiT, wmida cxovrebiT, gandgomiTa da qmediTi siyvaruliT.
11. samRvdelmsaxuro sakrebulos wmida da organulad agebuli arseba
qmediTi xdeba rogorc saidumloTa, aseve saTnoebaTa saSualebiT. erTgulebs, romlebic naTlobiT eklesiis wevrebi gaxdnen, qristianuli religiis
RmrTismsaxurebisTvis (ad cultum religionis christianae) Sesaferisi Tvisebebi
aqvT. isini xelmeored RmrTis Svilebad iSvebian da kisruloben, rom sarwmunoeba, romelic RmrTisagan eklesiis saSualebiT miiRes, adamianTa winaSe
aRiaron (profiteri).18 mironcxebis saidumloTi isini eklesias ufro mWidrod
ukavSirdebian, suli wmidis gansakuTrebuli ZaliT mdidrdebian da, amgvarad, rogorc qristes WeSmariti mowmeni, ufro mtkiced iReben valdebulebas, rom sityviTa da saqmiTa sarwmunoeba gaavrcelon da daicvan.19 isini
monawileoben evqaristiul msxverplSi _ mTeli qristianuli cxovrebis
wyarosa da mwvervalSi. amgvarad, maT RmerTTan miaqvT saRmrTo msxverpli
da, masTan erTad, Tavisi Tavic.20 maSasadame, rogorc cxebiT, aseve wmida
ziarebiT, yvelas sakuTari wvlili Seaqvs liturgiul qmedebaSi, Tanac ara
ganurCevlad, aramed TiToeuls Taviseburad. Semdeg, wmida trapezze qristes sxeuliT ganmtkicebulni, isini konkretuli saxiT gamoxataven RmrTis
eris erTobas, romelsac es udidesi saidumlo saTanadod aRniSnavs da saocrad ganaxorcielebs.
vinc monaniebis saidumlos uaxlovdeba, RmrTisTvis miyenebuli
SeuracxyofisaTvis misive gulmowyaleobiT (misericordia) Sendobas (veniam)
iRebs da, imave dros, eklesias Seurigdeba, romelsac codviT Wriloba
miayena. maTi moqcevisaTvis eklesia iRwvis siyvaruliT, magaliTiT, locvebiT. sneulTa wmida cxebiTa da mRvdelTa locviT mTeli eklesia avadmyofebs vnebul da gandidebul ufals miandobs, raTa man isini gaamxnevos da
gamoixsnas (Sdr. iak. 5, 14-16). metic: eklesia maT mouwodebs, nebayoflo16
Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. Magnificate Dominum, 2 nov. 1954: AAS 46 (1954), p. 669. Encycl. Mediator Dei, 20 nov. 1947: AAS 39 (1947), p. 555.
17
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Miserentissimus Redemptor, 8 maii 1928: AAS 20 (1928), p. 171 PIUS XII,
alloc. Vous nous avez, 22 sept. 1956: AAS 48 (1956), p. 714.
18
Sdr. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. III, q. 63, a. 2.
19
Sdr. S. CYRILLUS HIEROS., Catech. 17, de Spiritu Sancto, II, 35-37: PG 33, 1009-1012. NIC.
CABASILAS, De Vita in Christo, lib. III, de utilitate chrismatis: PG 150, 569-580. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol.
III, q. 65, a. 3 et q. 72, a 1 da 5.
20
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Mediator Dei, 20 nov. 1947: AAS 39 (1947), gansakuTrebiT p. 552

80

LUMEN GENTIUM

biT eziaron qristes vnebasa da sikvdils (Sdr. rom. 8, 17; kol. 1, 24; 2 tim.
2, 11-12; 1petr. 4, 13) da RmrTis eris sakeTildReod iRvawon. meores mxriv,
erTgulTagan visac wmida xarisxi aqvs miRebuli, maT qristes saxeliT evalebaT, RmrTis sityviTa da madliT eklesia mwyemson. da bolos, qristiani
meuRleebi, qorwinebis saidumlos (sacramenti) ZaliT, romliTac aRniSnaven
da eziarebian erTianobisa da nayofieri siyvarulis saidumloebas (mysterium) (Sdr. efes. 5, 32), erTmaneTs exmarebian, raTa siwmide daicvan colqmrul cxovrebaSi, STamomavlobis gaCenasa da aRzrdaSi. amgvarad, Tavisi
cxovrebis mdgomareobisa da wesis saxiT, maT RmrTis erSi sakuTari niWi (donum) gaaCniaT (Sdr. 1kor. 7, 7).21 am kavSiridan warmodgeba ojaxi, romelSic
adamianTa sazogadoebis axali moqalaqeni ibadebian. suli wmidis madliT,
isini naTlobiT RmrTis Svilebad iqcevian, raTa RmrTis erma saukuneTa manZilze iarsebos. aseT eklesiaSi, romelsac erTgvarad saojaxo xasiaTi aqvs,
mSoblebi Svilebs magaliTs unda aZlevdnen sityviTa da saqmiT: maTTvis isini unda iyvnen rwmenis pirveli macneebi da yoveli maTganis mowodebas xeli
unda Seuwyon, xolo vinc sulieri (sacram) saqmisTvis aris mowodebuli, misadmi gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis gamoCena marTebT.
gamoxsnis aseTi saSualebebiT aRWurvili yvela qristiani, rogoric ar
unda iyos misi mdgomareoba da statusi, TiToeuli Taviseburad, uflis
mier aris mowodebuli siwmidis im srulyofilebisaken, romelic Tavad mamis srulyofileba aris.
12. RmrTis wmida eri monawileobs qristes garkveul winaswarmetyvelur
funqciaSic. igi RmrTis cocxal mowmeobas avrcelebs, upirveles yovlisa, sarwmunoebrivi cxovrebiTa da siyvaruliT, da qebis msxverpls uZRvnis
RmerTs, ese igi nayofs bageTa, romelic mis saxels aRiareben (Sdr. ebr. 13,
15). erTgulTa erToba, romlebsac cxeba aqvT wmidisgan (Sdr. 1ioan. 2, 20 da
27), rwmenaSi ver Secdeba: Tavis am gansakuTrebul unars igi amJRavnebs rwmenis im zebunebrivi gagebis (sensu) saSualebiT, romelic mTel ers axasiaTebs,
roca yvela, episkoposebidan ukanasknel saero morwmuneebamde,22 rwmenisa
da zneobis sakiTxebSi sayovelTao Tanxmobas gamoxatavs. rwmenis aseTi gagebiT, romelsac WeSmaritebis suli aRZravs da inaxavs, RmrTis eri, wmida
moZRvrobis winamZRolobiT, romelsac igi erTgulad emsaxureba, ukve ara
marto adamianis sityvas iRebs, aramed, WeSmaritad, RmrTis sityvas (Sdr.
1Tes. 2, 13). igi uryevad misdevs erTxel da samudamod wmidanebisTvis gadmocemul wmida sarwmunoebas (Sdr. iud. 3), swori gansjiT masSi ufro Rrmad
iWreba da cxovrebaSi mas ufro srulad iyenebs.
garda amisa, igive suli wmida ara marto siwmideebiTa da msaxurebiT wmida-yofs da warmarTavs RmrTis ers da mas saTnoebebiT amkobs, aramed Tavis
niWebs ganuyofs TToeulad kacad-kacadsa, viTarca hnebavs (1kor. 12, 11).
yvela saxis morwmunes igi uwildebs raRac gansakuTrebul madls, romlis
meSveobiT mas Sesaferissa da mzas xdis sxvadasxva saqmisa da samsaxuris miRebisTvis. es sasargebloa eklesiis ganaxlebisa da farTo aRmSeneblobisTvis. naTqvamia: xolo TToeulsa Cuensa micemul ars gamocxadeba igi
sulisa umjobesisaTs (1kor. 12, 7). am qarizmebis miReba, ubrwyinvalesisa
Tu Zalian martivisa da farTod gavrecelebulis, madlierebiT unda moxdes da simSvidis momgvreli iyos, radgan isini, upirveles yovlisa, eklesiis moTxovnebs Seesabameba da maTTvis aris saWiro. xolo gansakuTrebul
21
1kor. 7, 7: kacad-kacadsa Tsi madli aqus RmrTisagan, romelsame esreT da romelsame egreT. Sdr. S. AUGUSTINUS, De Dono Persev. 14, 37: PL 45, 1015: ara marto TavSekaveba
(continentia) aris RmrTis madli, aramed meuRleTa ubiwoebac.
22
Sdr. S. AUGUSTINUS, De Praed. Sanct. 14, 27: PL 44, 980.

81

vatikanis II kreba

niWebs SemTxveviT ar unda movelodeT da, TviTdajerebiT, arc imis imedi


gvqondes, rom maTgan mociqulTa saqmeebis nayofs miviRebT. am niWTa WeSmaritebisa da saTanado gamoyenebis gankiTxva maTi saqmea, vinc eklesias
winamZRvrobs da visac sagangebod Seefereba, suli ar daSritos, aramed yvelaferi gamoscados da sikeTes misdios (Sdr. 1Tes. 5, 12 da 19-21).
13. yvela adamiani mowodebulia imisTvis, rom RmrTis axali eri Seadginos. amitom es eri, romelic erTaderTia, mTel samyarosa da yvela saukuneSi unda gavrceldes, raTa aRsruldes RmrTis nebis ganzraxva, romelmac
dasabamSive adamianuri buneba Seqmna rogorc erTiani da gadawyvita Seekriba Tavisi gabneuli Svilebi (Sdr. ioane 11, 52). amisTvis moavlina RmerTma
Tavisi Ze, romelic daayena yovlis memkvidred (Sdr. ebr. 1, 2), raTa iyos yvelas moZRvari, mefe da mRvdeli, RmrTis SvilTa axali da sayovelTao eris
Tavi. da bolos, amisTvis moavlina RmerTma Tavisi Zis suli, ufali da cxovelmyofeli (Vivificantem). igi aris mTeli eklesiisTvis, TiToeuli da yvela
morwmunisaTvis, Sekrebisa (congregationis) da erTianobis saTave, romelic mociqulTa moZRvrebaSi da ziarebaSi, puris gatexvasa da locvebSi xorcieldeba (Sdr. saqme 2, 42).
amgvarad, dedamiwis yvela xalxSi aris RmrTis erTi eri. yvela xalxidan
RmerTi Tavis moqalaqeebs krebs, romlebic zeciuri da ara miwieri meufebisa arian. samyaroSi gafantuli yvela morwmune suli wmidis mier sxvebs eziareba; amgvarad, vinc romSi cxovrobs, icis, rom indoelebi misi aso arian.23
qristes meufeba ara amis soflisagani ars (ioan. 18, 36), amitom eklesia anu
RmrTis eri, romelic am meufebas amzadebs, ama Tu im ers warmavali simdidridan arafers aklebs; piriqiT, igi inaxavs da iTvisebs erTa SesaZleblobebs, simdidresa da Taviseburebebs, ramdenadac isini kargia, xolo SeTvisebis Sedegad maT ganwmeds, ganamtkicebs da aRamaRlebs. mas axsovs, rom im
mefesTan erTad unda Sekribos, romelsac xalxi mieca samemkvidrod (Sdr.
fs. 2, 8) da romlis qalaqSi ZRveni da siuxve moaqvT (Sdr. fs. 71 (72), 10; gamocx. 21, 24). sayovelTaobis es Tviseba, romelic RmrTis ers amSvenebs, Tavad uflis niWia, romlis saSualebiT kaTolike eklesia qmediTad da ganuwyvetliv iRwvis, raTa Tavi mouyaros mTel kacobriobas, misi yvela simdidriT, qristes TavqveS, misi sulis erTobaSi.24
am kaTolikobis ZaliT, calkeul nawils Tavisi niWebiT wvlili Seaqvs
sxva nawilTa da mTeli eklesiis saqmeSi, raTa rogorc mTeli aseve calkeuli nawili sazrdoobdes yvelas urTierkavSiriTa da TanxmobiT da^erTobaSi
ganxorcielebuli sisavsisken iswrafodes. amitom RmrTis eri ara marto
sxvadasxva xalxisgan ikribeba, aramed Tavis TavSic sxvadasxva xarisxisgan
Sedgeba, radgan mis asoTa Sorisac aris mravalferovneba. igi gamoixateba
movaleobebSi (secundum officia) (roca zogierTi wevri wmida moZRvrobis meSveobiT Tavis ZmaTa sakeTildReod iRwvis), an garemoebasa da cxovrebis
wyobaSi (roca mravalni, moweseTa statusSi myofni (in statu religioso), ufro
viwro gziT iswrafvian siwmidisaken, da Zmebs Tavisi magaliTiT amxneveben).
amitom eklesiur urTierTobaSi kanonierad Tanaarsebobs calkeuli eklesia: TiToeuli Tavis tradiciebs misdevs. amasTanave, pirveloba ekuTvnis
petres kaTedras, romelic uZRveba siyvarulis sayovelTao kavSirs (coetui),25
icavs kanonier mravalferovnebas da imave dros fxizlobs, rom calkeulma
wevrma erTianobas ziani ar moutanos, aramed piriqiT, mas emsaxuros. swo23
Sdr. S. Io. CHRISOSTOMUS, In Io. 65, 1: PG 59, 361.
24
Sdr. S. IRENAEUS, Adv. Haer. III, 16, 6; III, 22, 1-3: PG 7, 925 C 926A da 995 C 958 A; HARVEY 2, 87 s. da 120-123; SAGNARD, Sources Chr., pp. 290-292 da 372 ss.
25
Sdr. S. IGNATIUS M., Ad Rom., Praef.: FUNK I, p. 252.

82

LUMEN GENTIUM

red amis safuZvelze iqmneba eklesiis sxvadasxva nawilTa Soris Sinagani


urTierTobis jaWvebi, romlebic sulier simdidres, samociqulo muSakebsa
da droebiT damxmare saSualebebs moicavs. RmrTis eris asoni mowodebulni
arian imisTvis, rom simdidre saziaro gaxadon; swored calkeul eklesias
exeba mociqulis sityvebi: kacad-kacadman, viTarca miiRo madli, egreTve
urTierTas amsaxurebdeT mas, viTarca keTilni mneni mraval-ferisa mis
niWisa RmrTisani (1petr. 4, 10).
amgvarad, yvela adamiani mowodebulia RmrTis eris am kaTolikuri erTianobisaken, romelic moaswavebs da ganapirobebs sayovelTao mSvidobas.
mas sxvadasxva saxiT ganekuTvnebian Tu eqvemdebarebian rogorc morwmune
kaTolikeebi, aseve sxvebi, visac qriste swams, da bolos, sruliad yvela adamiani, romelTac RmrTis madli gamoxsnisken mouwodebs.
14. wmida kreba Tavis fiqrs upirveles yovlisa morwmune kaTolikeebisaken mimarTavs. wmida werilze da gadmocemaze dayrdnobiT, igi aswavlis,
rom msxemi eklesia aucilebelia gamoxsnisTvis. marTlac, mxolod qriste
aris Suamavali da gza, romelsac gamoxsnisken mivyavarT; Tavis sxeulSi,
romelic aris eklesia, igi Cvens Tanamedroved iqceva (praesens nobis fit). saTanado gamoTqmebiT man xazi gausva rwmenisa da naTlisRebis aucileblobas (Sdr. mark. 16, 16; ioan. 3, 5). amiT man daadastura eklesiis aucilebloba,
romelSic adamianebi naTlisRebiT, rogorc kariT, Sedian. amitom ver iqnebian gamoxsnilni is adamianebi, romlebmac ician, rom RmerTma, ieso qristes
meSveobiT, daarsa kaTolike eklesia rogorc aucilebeli ram, magram masSi
Sesvla an masSi darCena ara surT.
eklesiis sakrebuloSi (societate) mTlianad is CaerTveba, vinc flobs qristes suls da vinc srulad scnobs eklesiis wyobasa da gamoxsnis yvela im
saSualebas, romelic masSia dadgenili. aseTi adamianebi, eklesiis xiluli
kavSiris saxiT, erTiandebian qristesTan, romelic eklesias uzenaesi pontifeqsisa da episkoposebis meSveobiT marTavs. es gaerTianeba xorcieldeba
im kavSirebiT, romlebic rwmenis aRmsareblobas, saidumloebs, saeklesio
mmarTvelobasa da ziarebas gulisxmobs. magram ar iqnebian gamoxsnilni isini (Tundac eklesiis wevrebi iyvnen), vinc siyvarulSi mtkice ar aris da eklesiis wiaRSi sxeuliT, da ara guliT imyofeba.26 eklesiis yvela Svils
unda axsovdes, rom Tavisi mdgomareobis gansakuTrebuloba unda miaweros
ara sakuTar damsaxurebebs, aramed qristes sagangebo madls. xolo vinc mas
fiqriT, sityviTa da saqmiT ar pasuxobs, araTu ar iqneba gamoxsnili, aramed
umkacresad ganisjeba.27
suli wmidis zemoqmedebiT, katexumenebi aSkarad gamoxataven Tavis nebas,
gaxdnen eklesiis wevrebi. eklesiasTan isini Tavad am survilis safuZvelze
erTiandebian. maT, rogorc sakuTar Svilebs, deda eklesia siyvaruliTa da
mzrunvelobiT Semoevleba.
15. rigi mizezebis gamo, eklesias miaCnia, rom igi dakavSirebulia imaTTan, vinc naTelRebulia da qristianad iwodeba, Tumca ar aris srulyofilad sarwmunoebis aRmsarebeli, an ar icavs, petres memkvidris winamZRolobiT, ziarebis erTobas.28 mravalni arian, vinc pativs scems wmida werils, rogorc rwmenisa da cxovrebis normas, da amJRavnebs gulrwfel sarwmunobriv
26
Sdr. S. AUGUSTINUS, Bapt. c. Donat. V, 28, 39: PL 43, 197: sruliad cxadia, rom gamoTqmaSi: eklesiaSi mis SigniT da gareT, guli, da ara sxeuli unda vigulisxmoT. Sdr. iqve,
III, 19, 26: col. 152; V, 18, 24: col. 189; In Io. Tr. 61, 2: PL 35, 1800 da sxva.
27
Sdr. luk. 12, 48: rameTu yovelsa romelsa mieca didad, didadca iZios misgan.
Sdr. agreTve maT. 5, 19-20; 7, 21-22; 25, 41-46; iak. 2, 14.
28
Sdr. LEO XIII, epist. apost. Praeclara gratulationis, 20 iun. 1894: ASS 26 (1893-94), p. 707.

83

vatikanis II kreba

gulmodginebas. maT guliT swamT mama RmerTi, yovlis SemZle, da qriste, Ze


RmrTisa, macxovari.29 maT naTlobis niSani aqvT, romliTac qristes uerTdebian da scnoben da iReben kidec sxva saidumloebs Tavis eklesiebSi an saeklesio sakrebuloebSi. maT Soris mravals saepiskoposo gaaCnia, isini wmida
ziarebas asruleben da qalwul RmrTismSobels Tayvans scemen.30 amas emateba ziareba locvebisa da sxva sulier sikeTeebSi (beneficiorum), da kidev WeSmariti erToba suli wmidis mier. niWisa da madlis saSualebiT, suli wmida
maTSi moqmedebs Tavisi wmidadmyofeli ZaliT; man zogierTs Tavganwirvis
Zalac misca. amgvarad, qriste yvela mowafeSi aRZravs survilsa da qmedebas, raTa yvelani mSvidobianad gaerTiandnen erT samwysoSi, erTi mwyemsis
winamZRolobiT, rogorc es qristem daadgina.31 amis misaRwevad deda eklesias ar Seuwyvetia vedreba, imedi da moqmedeba. igi Svilebs amxnevebs, rom
ganiwmidon da ganaxldnen, raTa eklesiis saxeze ufro naTlad gabrwyindes
qristes niSani.
16. dabolos, RmrTis ers Taviseburad isic ganekuTvneba, visac saxareba jer ar miuRia.32 es, upirveles yovlisa, is eria, visac mieca aRTqmebi
da dapirebebi da visganac qriste xorcielad gamovida (Sdr. rom. 9, 4-5).
es eri uZvirfasesia arCevanis Sedegad, mamaTa gamo, radgan RmrTis niWma
da mowodebam sinanuli ar icis (Sdr. rom. 11, 28-29). magram gamoxsnis neba
imaTac moicavs, vinc Semoqmeds aRiarebs. maT Soris upirveles yovlisa
musulmanebi arian, vinc abraamis sarwmunoebas misdevs da, amdenad, CvenTan erTad Tayvans scems erT RmerTs, mowyales, romelic gansjis adaminebs ukanasknel dRes. arc sxvebisTvis, vinc Crdilebsa da saxeebSi ucnob
RmerTs eZebs, RmerTi Sors ar aris. RmerTi yvelas aniWebs cxovrebas,
sunTqvasa da sxva yvelafers (Sdr. saqme 17, 25-28), radgan mxsnels surs,
rom yvela adamiani gamoxsnili iyos (Sdr. 1tim. 2, 4). saukuno gamoxsnas
SeiZleba iseTma adamianmac miaRwios, vinc uneblied ar icnobs qristes
saxarebas da mis eklesias, da mainc gulrwfelad eZiebs RmerTs da, madlis
zemoqmedebiT, cdilobs, RmrTis neba saqmiT aRasrulos, ise, rogorc amas
sindisi ukarnaxebs da amcnobs.33 saRmrTo gangeba gamoxsnisTvis aucilebel Semweobas arc imaT moaklebs, visac uneburad jer cxadad ar ucvnia
RmerTi, magram, RmrTis madliT, cdilobs, sworad icxovros. rac ki maTTan keTili da WeSmaritia, eklesias miaCnia saxarebisTvis mzadebad (praeparatio evangelica)34 da imisgan saCuqrad, vinc yvela adamians aciskrovnebs,
raTa maT, sabolood, sicocxle SeiZinon. xSirad xdeba, rom adamianebi,
romlebic borotma Seacdina, amao iqmnes gulis zraxviTa maTiTa. maT
gardacvales WeSmariteba RmrTisa sicruved da hmsaxurebdes dabadebulTa nacvlad dambadeblisa (Sdr. rom. 1, 21 da 25), anu isini cxovroben
da kvdebian am samyroSi uRmrTod, ukiduresi uimedobisTvis ganwirulni.
amitom axsovs eklesias, romelic zrunavs RmrTis didebisTvis da yvela
maTganis gamoxsnisaTvis, gankarguleba uflisa, romelmac Tqva: uqadageT saxareba yovelsa dabadebulsa (mark. 16, 15), da igi gulmodgined
zrunavs misiaTa xelSewyobisTvis.
29
Sdr. LEO XIII, encycl. Satis cognitum, 29 iun. 1896: ASS 28 (1895-96), p. 738. Encycl. Caritatis
studium, 25 iul. 1898: ASS 31 81898-99), p. 11. PIUS XII, nuntius radioph. Nellalba, 24 dec. 1941: AAS 34
(1942), p. 21.
30
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Rerum Orientalium, 8 sept. 1928: AAS 20 (1928), p. 287. PIUS XII, encycl.
Orientalis Ecclesiae, 9 apr. 1944: AAS 36 (1944), p. 137.
31
Sdr. instr. S. S. C. S. Officii, 20 dec. 1949: AAS 42 (1950), p. 142.
32
Sdr. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. III, q. 8, a. 3, ad 1.
33
Sdr. epist. S. C. S. OFFICII ad Archiep. Boston.: DENZ. 3869-72.
34
Sdr. EUSEBIUS CAES., Praeparatio Evangelica, 1, 1: PG 21, 28 AB.

84

LUMEN GENTIUM

17. rogorc Ze iqna mamisgan movlenili, aseve moavlina man mociqulebi


(Sdr. ioan. 20, 21) da uTxra: moimowafeniT yovelni warmarTni da neTelscemdiT maT saxeliTa mamisaTa da ZisaTa da sulisa wmidisaTa, da aswavebdiT maT damarxvad yoveli, raodeni gamcen Tquen. da aha esera me Tquen Tana
var yovelTa dReTa da vidre aRsasruladmde soflisa (maT. 28, 19-20). qristes es didebuli davaleba, romelic gamoxsnis WeSmaritebas auwyebs, eklesiam miiRo mociqulebisgan, raTa igi aResrulebina vidre dasasruladmde
queyanisa (saqme 1, 8). man gaiTavisa mociqulTa sityvebi: va... Cemda, ara Tu
vaxarebde! (1kor. 9, 16). amitom igi ganuwyvetliv wargzavnis macneebs, sanam ar moxdeba axali eklesiebis sruli dafuZneba da isini saxarebis saqmes
TviTon ar ganagrZoben. suli wmida ubiZgebs maT TanamSromlobisken, raTa
nayofierad aRsruldes RmrTis ganzraxva, romelmac qriste daadgin mTeli samyarosaTvis gamoxsnis sawyisad (principium). saxarebis qadagebiT eklesia izidavs msmenelebs rwmenisken da rwmenis aRmsareblobisken, ganawyobs
naTlobisken, gadaarCens Secdomis monobisgan da maT qristes ukavSirebs,
raTa isini siyvarulis gziT qristes mier gaizardon da sisrules miaRwion.
man Tavisi saqmeebi aRasrula, raTa is sikeTe, romelic daTesilia adamianTa
gulsa da gonebaSi an maT wesebSi da eris kulturaSi ara Tu ar daiRupos,
aramed gajansaRdes, gaizardos da srulyofili gaxdes RmrTis sadideblad,
eSmakis Sesarcxvenad da adamianis sakeTildReod. qristes yvela mowafis
valia, itvirTos, Tavis mxriv, rwmenis gavrceleba.35 magram Tu nebismier
adamians SeuZlia monaTlos morwmuneni, mRvdlis saqmea, rom sxeulis aRmSenebloba ziarebis msxverpliT ganaxorcielos, raTa aRsruldes RmrTis sityvebi: didi iqneba Cemi saxeli xalxebSi mzis aRmosavleTidan dasavlamde;
yovel adgilas daukmeven sakmevels Cems saxels da wmida ZRvens Semomwiraven (mal. 1, 11).36 amgvarad, eklesia erTdroulad loculobs da Sromobs,
raTa mTeli samyaros sisavse gadavides RmrTis erSi, uflis sxeulSi da
suli wmidis taZarSi, da qristeSi, romelic yvelas Tavia, dabrundes yovelives Semoqmedisa da mamis Rirseba da dideba.
Tavi III
eklesiis ierarqiuli agebuleba,
kerZod, saepiskoposo
18. RmrTis eris samwysod da mudam gasamravleblad, ufalma qristem Tavis eklesiaSi Seqmna sxvadasxva msaxureba (ministeria), mTeli sxeulis keTildReobisTvis gankuTvnili. wmida Zalauflebis mqone msaxurni Tavis Zmebs
emsaxurebian, raTa RmrTis eris yvela wevrma, namdvili qristianuli Rirsebis mqonem, erTi da imave miznisken erTad, Tavisuflad da Tanmimdevrulad
iswrafos da gamoxsnas miaRwios.
es wmida kreba mihyveba vatikanis pirveli krebis kvals da masTan erTad
aswavlis da ganacxadebs, rom ieso qristem, saukuno mwyemsma, aaSena wmida
eklesia. man moavlina mociqulebi, rogorc Tavad iqna movlinebuli mamisagan (Sdr. ioan. 20, 21). qristem ineba, rom mociqulTa memkvidreebi, ese igi
episkoposebi, mis eklesiaSi saukuneTa aRsasrulamde mwyemsobdnen. Tavad
saepiskoposo erTiani da ganuyofeli rom yofiliyo, man sxva mociqulTa saTaveSi netari petre daayena da misi saxiT Seqmna rwmenisa da ziarebis erTia35
Sdr. BENEDICTUS XV, epist. apost. Maximum illud: AAS 11 (1919), p. 440, gansak. pp. 451 ss.
PIUS XI, encycl. Rerum Ecclesiae: AAS 18 (1926), pp. 68-69. PIUS XII, encycl. Fidei Donum, 21 apr. 1957:
AAS 49 (1957), pp. 236-237.
36
Sdr. Didache, 14: FUNK I, p. 32. S. IUSTINUS, Dial. 41: PG 6, 564. S. IRENAEUS, Adv. Haer.
IV, 17, 5: PG 7, 1023; HARVEY, 2, pp. 199 s. CONC. TRID., Sess 22, cap. 1: DENZ. 939 (1742).

85

vatikanis II kreba

nobis uwyveti da xiluli sawyisi da saZirkveli.37 wmida kreba xelaxla warudgens yvela morwmunes am moZRvrebas, raTa misi mtkiced swamdeT. moZRvreba
exeba romis pontifeqsis wmida pirvelobas (Primatus), mis agebulebas (institutione), uwyvetobas, Zlierebasa da Sinaarss, agreTve mis ucTomel moZRvrobas,
raTa misi mtkiced swamdeT. kreba am wamowyebas ganagrZobs da adgens, rom
yvelas winaSe gancxaddes da ganimartos episkoposTa mociqulTa memkvidreTa Sesaxeb moZRvreba, romelnic petres memkvidres _ qristes nacvalsa (Vicario)38 da mTeli eklesiis xilul TavTan erTad, cxoveli RmrTis saxls
marTaven.
19. ufalma iesom mamisadmi locva aRavlina da mouwoda maT, vinc Tavad
isurva. maTgan man Tormetni daayena, raTa masTan yofiliyvnen da raTa isini
warevlina RmrTis sasufevlis saqadagod (Sdr. mark. 3, 13-19; maT. 10, 1-42).
am mociqulebs (Sdr. luk. 6, 13) ufalma kolegiis (collegii) anu myari kavSiris
saxe misca, romelsac saTaveSi maTgan rCeuli petre dauyena (Sdr. ioan. 21,
15-17). man wargzavna isini jer israelis SvilebTan da yvela erTan (Sdr. rom.
1, 16), raTa mociqulebs, romelnic mis Zalauflebas iyvnen ziarebulni, yvela xalxi mis mowafed gaexadaT, maTTvis naTeli ecaT da isini waremarTaT
(Sdr. maT. 28, 16-20; mark. 16, 15; luk. 24, 45-48; ioan. 20, 21-23). amgvarad, maT
eklesia unda ganevrcoT da, uflis winamZRolobiT, misTvis mwyemsobiT emsaxuraT, yovel dRe saukunis aRsasrulamde (Sdr. maT. 28, 20). am misiisTvis
isini srulad damtkicdnen ormocdameaTe dRes (Sdr. saqme 2, 1-26), uflis
aRTqmis Tanaxmad: moiRoT Zali moslvada sulisa wmidisasa Tquen zeda, da
iyvneT Cemda mowame ierusalms da yovelsa huriastansa da samariasa da vidre dasasruladmde queyanisa (saqme 1, 8). saxarebis yvelgan qadagebiT (Sdr.
mark. 16, 20), romelsac msmenelni suli wmidis zemoqmedebiT iTviseben, mociqulebi kreben sayovelTao eklesias, romelic ufalma mociqulebSi aago
da maT meTaur netar petreze aRmarTa, romlis Tavsakiduri qva Tavad ieso
qristea (Sdr. gamocx. 21, 14; maT. 16, 18; efes. 2, 20)39.
20. es saRmrTo misia, qristes mier mociqulTaTvis mindobili, saukunis
aRsasrulamde gagrZeldeba (Sdr. maT. 28, 20), radgan saxareba, romelic maT
unda gadmoscen, eklesiisTvis yovelTvis aris cxovrebis dasabami. amitom
mociqulebma izrunes imisaTvis, rom am ierarqiulad mowesrigebul sazogadoebaSi memkvidreebi daedginaT.
mociqulebs msaxurebaSi (ministerio) sxvadasxva damxmare hyavdaT.40 maTTvis mindobili misia maTi sikvdilis Semdegac rom gagrZelebuliyo, maT
TiTqosda uanderZes Tavis uSualo TanamSromlebs, rom saqme, romelic
Tavad daiwyes, maT aResrulaT da ganemtkicaT41, da mTeli samwysosTvis
emeTvalyuraT, romlis wiaRSi isini suli wmidam RmrTis eklesiis samwysod
daadgina (Sdr. saqme 20, 28). aseT adamianebs daakisres mociqulebma es saqme da mas mere wesad SemoiRes, rom maTi gardacvalebis Semdeg maTi samsa37
Sdr. CONC. VAT. I, Sess. 4 Const. dogm. Pastor aeternus: DENZ. 1821 (3050 s.)
38
Sdr. CONC. FLOR., Decretum pro Graecis: DENZ. 694 (1307) da CONC. VAT. I, ib.: DENZ.
1826.
39
Sdr. Liber sacramentorum S. GREGORII, Ptaef. in natali S. Mathiae etS. Thomae: PL 78, 51 da
152; Sdr. Cod. Vat. lat. 3548, f. 18. S. HIALRIUS, In Ps. 67, 10: PL 9, 450; CSEL 22, p. 286. S. HIERONYMUS, Adv. Iovin. 1, 26: PL 23, 247 A. S. AUGUSTINUS, In Ps. 86, 4: PL 37, 1103. S. GREGORIUS M., Mor.
in iob, XXVIII, V: PL 76, 455-456. PRIMASIUS, Comm. in Apoc. V: PL 68, 924 BC. PASCHASIUS RADB.,
In MT. L. VIII, cap. 16: PL 120, 561 C. Cf. LEO XII, epist. Et sane, 17 dec. 1888: ASS 21 (1888), p. 321.
40
Sdr. saqme 6, 2-6; 11, 30; 3, 1; 14, 23; 20, 17; 1Tes. 5, 12-13; fil. 1, 1; kol. 4, 11 da sxva.
41
Sdr. saqme 20, 25-27; 2 tim. 4, 6, 1tim. 5, 22; 2tim. 2, 2; tit. 1, 5. S. CLEM. ROM., Ad Cor.
44, 3: FUNK I, p. 156.

86

LUMEN GENTIUM

xuri sxva gamocdil adamianebs unda gaewiaT.42 sxvadasxva msaxurebas Soris,


romlebic eklesiaSi Zveli droidan sruldeba, mTavari adgili, gadmocemis
Tanaxmad, imaT funqcias (munus) ukavia, vinc saepiskoposoSia damkvidrebuli (romelic imTaviTve memkvidreobiT gadaecema)43 da vinc samociqulo
Teslebidan miRebul ylortebs flobs.44 amgvarad, rogorc wmida irineosi
mowmobs, samociqulo gadmocema mTels samyaroSi cxaddeba45 da inaxeba imaT
saSualebiT, vinc mociqulebma episkoposebad daayenes da vinc dRemde maTi
memkvidreebi arian.
maSasadame, sakrebulos msaxureba episkoposebs daekisra maT damxmareebTan mRvdlebsa (presbyteris) da diakonebTan erTad.46 isini iq dganan, sadac RmrTis adgilia, da samwysos winamZRoloben,47 romlis mwyemsnic arian,
rogorc moZRvrebis maswavleblebi, saRmrTo msaxurebis mRvdelni (sacri cultus sacerdotes) da mmarTvelobis msaxurni (gubernationis ministri).48 rogorc mudmivad arsebobs funqcia, uflisgan piradad petresTvis, mociqulTagan pirvelisTvis, gadacemuli, romelic mis memkvidreebsac unda gadaeces, aseve
mudmivad arsebobs mociqulTa funqcia: isini eklesias unda mwyemsobdnen,
risi uwyvetad aRsruleba episkoposTa wmida xarisxma (ordine) unda uzrunvelyos.49 amitom aswavlis wmida kreba, rom saRmrTo ganwesebiT episkoposebi, rogorc eklesiis mwyemsebi, mociqulTa memkvidreni arian.50 vinc maT
usmens, qristes ismens, xolo vinc maT uaryofs, uaryofs qristes da masac,
vinc qriste moavlina (Sdr. luk. 10, 16).51
21. maSasadame, episkoposTa saxiT, romelTac mRvdlebi (presbyteri) exmarebian, morwmuneTa garemoSi, maT gverdiT, dgas ufali ieso qriste, uzenaesi
pontifeqsi (Pontifex Summus). mama RmerTis marjveniT mjdomare, igi Tavisi
mRvdelmTavrebis sakrebulos (congregatione)52 mowyvetili ar aris, aramed
swored maTi gansakuTrebuli msaxurebis saSualebiT yvela ers uqadagebs
RmrTis sityvas da morwmuneebs amcnobs (administrat) rwmenis saidumloebs
(sacramenta). maTi mamobrivi funqciis safuZvelze (Sdr. 1kor. 4, 15) uzenaesi
aRorZinebis Sedegad igi Tavis sxeuls axal asoebs umatebs, da bolos, maTi
sibrZniTa da codniT uZRveba da warmarTavs axali aRTqmis xalxs mis msxemobaSi (peregrinatione) saukuno netarebisken. es mwyemsebi, rCeulni imisaTvis,
rom uflis samwysos gauZRvnen, arian qristes msaxurni da RmrTis saidumloebaTa (mysteriorum) mneni (Sdr. 1kor. 4, 1), romelTac daekisra RmrTis madlis saxarebis damowmeba (Sdr. rom. 15, 16; saqme 20, 24), suli wmidis msaxureba da gamarTleba didebiT (Sdr. 2kor. 3, 8-9).
aseTi didi movaleobis Sesasruleblad qristem mociqulebi daasaCuqra
gardamomavali suli wmidis gansakuTrebuli gamosvliT (effusione) (Sdr. saq42
S. CLEM. ROM., Ad Cor. 44, 2: FUNK I, pp. 154s.
43
Sdr. TERTULLIANUS, Praescr. Haer. 32: PL 2, 52 s. S. IGNATIUS M., bevrgan.
44
Sdr. TERTULLIANUS, Praescr. Haer. 32: PL 2, 53.
45
Sdr. S. IRENAEUS, Adv. Haer. III, 3, 1: PG 7, 848 A; HARVEY 2, 8; SAGNARD, Sources chret.,
pp. 100 s: manifestatam.
46
S. IGNATIUS M., Philad., Praef.: FUNK I, p. 264.
47
S. IGNATIUS M., Philad., 1, 1; Magn. 6, 1: FUNK I, 264 da 234.
48
S. CLEM. ROM., l.c., 42, 3-4; 44, 3-4; 57, 1-2: FUNK I, 152, 156, 171 s. S. IGNATIUS M., Philad.
2; Smyrn. 8, Magn. 3; Trall. 7: FUNK I, pp. 265s.; 282; 232; 246 s. etc. S. IUSTINUS, Apoli, 1, 65; PG 6, 428.
S. CYPRIANUS, Epist. passim.
49
Sdr. LEO XIII, encycl. Satis cognitum, 29 jun. 1896: ASS 28 (1895-96), p. 732.
50
Sdr. CONC. TRID., Sess. 23, Decr. de sacr. Ordinis, cap. 4: DENZ. 960 (1768). CONC. VAT. I,
Sess. 4, Const. Dogm. 1 De Ecclesia Christi, cap. 3: DENZ. 1828 (3061). PIUS XII, encycl. Mystic. Corporis,
29 iun. 1943: AAS 35 (1943), pp. 209 et 212. Cod. Iur. Can., c. 329 1.
51
Sdr. LEO XIII, epist. Et sane, 17 dec. 1888: ASS 21 (1888), pp. 321 s.
52
S. LEO M., Serm., 5, 3: PL 54, 154.

87

vatikanis II kreba

me 1, 8; 2, 4; ioan. 20, 22-23). maT Tavadac gadasces xeldasxmiT Tavis damxmareebs sulieri madli (Sdr. 1tim. 4, 14; 2tim. 1, 6-7), romelic Cvens droSic
gadaicema saepiskoposo xeldasxmisas (consecratione)53. wmida kreba aswavlis,
rom saepiskoposo xeldasxmiT (consecratione episcopali) gadmoicema xarisxis
(Ordinis) saidumlos sisavse, rac, eklesiis liturgiuli Cvevisa da wmida mamebis sityvaTa Tanaxmad, iwodeba uzenaes mRvdlobad, wmida msaxurebis erTobliobad (summum sacerdotium, sacri ministeri summa)54. saepiskoposo ziareba,
wmidayofis (sanctificandi) funqciasTan erTad, gadascems agreTve swavlebisa
da marTvis funqciasac, romelTa moqmedebaSi moyvana SeiZleba mxolod kolegiis TavTan da wevrebTan ierarqiul kavSirSi. gadmocemis safuZvelze,
romelic, upirveles yovlisa, liturgiuli wesebiT dasturdeba aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis eklesiaSi, cxadi xdeba, rom xeldasxmiTa da ziarebis
sityvebiT gadaicema suli wmidis madli da daismeva wmida beWedi (sacrum characterem ita imprimi)55, raTa episkoposebma gansakuTrebulad da TvalnaTliv
Tavad qristes moZRvris, mwyemsisa da pontifeqsis adgili daikavon da misi
piriT imoqmedon (in Eius persona agant).56 episkoposTa saqmea, saepiskopo sxeuls
axali rCeulebi Sematon xarisxis saidumlos gziT (per Sacramentum Ordinis).
22. uflis gadawyvetilebiT, wmida petre da sxva mociqulebi erT samociqulo kolegias Seadgenen. msgavsi saxiT (pari ratione) erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli arian romis pontifeqsi, petres memkvidre, da episkoposebi, mociqulTa memkvidreni. Zalian Zveli disciplina, romlis Tanaxmad mTels
msoflioSi ganTavsebuli episkoposebi erTmaneTTan da romis episkoposTan urTierToben da erTianobis, siyvarulisa da mSvidobis kavSiriT arian
Sekrulni,57 agreTve krebebi,58 romlebzec mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs erTad
wyvetden59 da mravalTa azri erToblivad aiwoneboda,60 _ yovelive es mianiSnebs saepiskoposo xarisxis kolegialur Tvisebasa da Sinaarsze. amas adasturebs msoflio krebebi, saukuneTa manZilze rom tardeba. amas aRniSnavs
adreve SemoRebuli wesi, romlis Tanaxmad mraval episkoposs iwveven, raTa
maT monawileoba miiRon im dawinaurebaSi, romliTac axalarCeuli uzenaes
samRvdelo samsaxurSi Sedis. saepiskoposo korpusis wevrebad xdebian saidumlo xeldasxmis ZaliTa da kolegiis meTavesTan da wevrebTan ierarqiuli urTierTobiT.
kolegia anu episkoposTa korpusi Zalauflebas flobs mxolod romis
pontifeqsTan erTad, romelic petres memkvidrea da am kolegiis Tavia. xel53
CONC. TRID., Sess. 23 cap. 3 damowmebulia 2tim. 1, 6-7, raTa cxadi iyos, rom xarisxi
(Ordinem) namdvili saidumloa. DENZ. 959 (1766).
54
Trad. Apost. 3: BOTTE, Sources Chr., pp. 27-30-Si episkoposs ganekuTvneba mRvdlobis
pirveloba. Sdr. Sacramentum Leonianum: C. MOHLBERG, Sacramentarium Veronese, Romae, 1955,
p. 119: uzenaesi mRvdlobis msaxurs... aRasrule Sens mRvdlebSi Seni saidumlos mTlianoba. misive, Liber Sacramentorum Romanae Ecclesiae, Romae, 1960, pp. 121-122: mieci maT, ufalo,
saepiskoposo kaTedra Seni eklesiisa da mTeli xalxis samarTavad. Sdr. PL 78, 224.
55
CONC. TRID., Sess. 23, cap. 4 aswavlis, rom xarisxis saidumlo svams waruSlel beWeds: DENZ, 960 (1767). Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, alloc. Iubilate Deo, 8 maii 1960: AAS 52 (1960), p. 466.
PAULUS VI, hom. in Bas. Vatic., 20 oct. 1963: AAS 55 (1963), p. 1014.
56
S. CYPRIANUS, Epist. 63, 14: PL 4, 386; CSEL (Hartel) III B, p. 713: mRvdeli marTlac
qristes enacvleba. S. IO. CHRYSOSTOMUS, In 2 Tim. Hom. 2, 4: PG 62, 612: mRvdeli qristes
simboloa. S. AMBROSIUS, In Ps. 38, 25-26: PL 14, 1051-52; CSEL 64, 203-204. AMBROSIASTER,
In 1 Tim. 5, 19: PL 17, 479 C da 503. HESYCHIUS HIEROS., In Lev. L. 2, 9, 23: PG 93, 894 B.
57
Sdr. EUSEBIUS, Hist. Eccl., V, 24, 10: GCS II, 2, pp. 638 s.; BARDY, Sources Chr. II, p. 69. DIONYSIUS, apud EUSEBIUM, ib. VII, 5, 2: GCS II, 2, pp. 638 s.; BARDY, II, pp. 168 s.
58
Zveli krebebis Sesaxeb Sdr. EUSEBIUS, Hist. Eccl. V, 23-24: GCS II, 1, pp. 488 ss.; BARDY,
II, pp. 66 ss. et passim. CONC. NICAENUM, Can. 5: Conc. Oec. Decr., p. 7.
59
TERTULLIANUS, De Ieiunio, 13: PL 2, 972 B; CSEL 20, p. 292, lin.
60
S. CYPRIANUS, Epist. 56, 3: CSEL (Hartel) III B, p. 650; BAYARD, p. 154.

88

LUMEN GENTIUM

Seuxebia misi pirvelobis Zala rogorc mwyemsTa, ise morwmuneTa mimarT. Tavisi Tanamdebobis gamo, e. i. rogorc qristes nacvali da erTiani eklesiis
mwyemsi, romis pontifeqsi flobs srul, uzenaes da sayovelTao Zalauflebas, romelic yovelTvis Tavisuflad SeuZlia ganaxorcielos. episkoposTa
xarisxi mociqulTa kolegiis memkvidrea samRvdlo moZRvrobasa da marTvaSi. masSi mudam imyofeba samociqulo sxeuli, erTiani mis TavTan: romis pontifeqsTan, romlis gareSe is arasodes arsebobs; amdenad, es saepiskoposo
sxeulic warmoadgens mTel eklesiaSi uzenaesi da sruli uflebamosilebis
subieqts61, Tumca am uflebamosilebis gamoyeneba SeiZleba mxolod (nonnisi) romaeli pontifeqsis TanxmobiT. ufalma marto simoni daayena eklesiis
klded (petram) da mis kliteTa mflobelad (Sdr. maT. 16, 18-19), da daayena
igi mTeli Tavisi faris mwyemsad (Sdr. ioan. 21, 15...). rac Seexeba Sekvrisa da
ganxsnis funqcias, romelic petres daekisra (maT. 16, 19), igi udaod mieniWa
mociqulTa kolegiasac, romelic mis meTavesTan erTiania (maT. 18, 18; 28,
16-20)62. es kolegia, erTis mxriv, mravali wevrisgan Sedgeba da RmrTis eris
mravalferovnebasa da sayovelTaobas gamoxatavs, xolo meores mxriv, mas
erTi meTave warmarTavs, rac qristes samwysos erTianobas gamoxatavs. masSi episkoposebi erTgulad icaven im pirvelobasa da mesveurobas, romelic
maT meTaves ekuTvnis, da imave dros Tavis sakuTar uflebamosilebas ganaxorcieleben Tavis erTgulTa da mTeli eklesiis sakeTildReod, romlis
organul struqturasa da Tanxmobas ganuwyvetliv ganamtkicebs suli wmida. sayovelTao eklesiaSi uzenaesi Zala, romliTac moqmedebs es kolegia,
sazeimoT sruldeba msoflio krebaze. msoflio kreba tardeba im SemTxvevaSi, Tu is petres memkvidris mier iqna damtkicebuli an miRebuli mainc.
romis pontifeqsis prerogativaa am krebis mowveva, misi Tavmjdomareoba da
misi damtkiceba63. kolegialuri uflebamosileba SeiZleba ganxorcieldes
dedamiwis sxvadasxva kuTxeSi gansaxlebul episkoposTa mier papTan erTad,
im SemTxvevaSi, Tu kolegiis Tavi maT kolegialuri qmedebisken mouwodebs,
an Tundac daeTanxmeba an Tavisuflad miiRebs dedamiwis sxvadasxva kuTxeSi
mcxovreb episkoposTa erTian moqmedebas, rom amgvarad ganxorcieldes WeSmaritad kolegialuri qmedeba.
23. kolegialuri erTianoba vlindeba TiToeuli episkoposis mimarTebaSi calkeul eklesiebsa da msoflio eklesiasTan. romis pontifeqsi, rogorc
petres memkvidre, aris rogorc episkoposTa, aseve erTgulTa simravlis
erTianobis mudmivi da xiluli saTave da safuZveli.64 rac Seexeba TiToeul episkoposs, is misi eklesiis erTianobis xiluli saTave da safuZvelia.65
calkeuli eklesiebi sayovelTao eklesiis xatad aris Seqmnili: maTSi da maT
mier arsebobs erTi da erTaderTi kaTolike eklesia66. amitom TiToeuli
episkoposi ganasaxierebs Tavis eklesias, xolo yvelani, papTan erTad, warmoadgenen mTlian eklesias mSvidobis, siyvarulisa da erTianobis kavSirSi.
TiToeuli episkoposi, romelic calkeul eklesias uZRveba, axorcielebs Tavis samRvdlo mmarTvelobas RmrTis eris im nawilis mimarT, ro61
oficialuri ganxilvisaTvis Sdr. ZINELLI, in CONC. VAT. I: MANSI 52, 1109 C.
62
Sdr. CONC. VAT. I, proeqti Const. dogm. II, de Ecclesia Christi, c. 4: MANSI 53, 310. Sdr.
Kleutgen-is mier gadamuSavebuli proeqtis ganxilva: MANSI 53, 321 B 322 B da ZINELLI-s gancxadeba: MANSI 52, 1110 A. ix. agreTve S. LEO M., Serm. 4, 3: PL 54, 151 A.
63
Sdr. Cod. Iur. Can., c. 227.
64
Sdr. CONC. VAT. I, Const. Dogm. Pastor aeternus: DENZ. 1821 (3050 s.).
65
Sdr. S. CYPRIANUS, Epist. 66, 8: CSEL (Hartel) III, 2, p, p. 733: episkoposi eklesiaSi da
eklesia episkoposSi.
66
Sdr. S. CYPRIANUS, Epist. 55, 24: CSEL (Hartel), p. 642, lin. 13: erTi eklesia, mTel msoflioSi mraval asod ganawilebuli.

89

vatikanis II kreba

melic mas aris mindobili, da ara sxva eklesiaTa an sayovelTao eklesiis


mimarT. magram rogorc saepiskoposo kolegiis wevrebi da mociqulTa kanonieri memkvidreebi, isini unda zrunavdnen sayovelTao eklesiisTvis
qristesgan miRebuli dadgenilebisa da ganwesebis safuZvelze67. es mzrunveloba, Tundac is ar sruldebodes samarTlebrivi aqtis meSveobiT, mainc
xels uwyobs sayovelTao eklesiis keTildReobas. yvela episkoposma unda
ganaviTaros da daicvas rwmenis erTianoba da mTeli eklesiis saerTo disciplina, ganaswavlos morwmuneni, raTa uyvardeT qristes mTeli saidumlo sxeuli, upirveles yovlisa, misi Raribi asoebi, tanjulni da devnilni
simarTlisaTvis (Sdr. maT. 5, 10), da bolos, episkoposebma unda warmarTon
yovelgvari saqmianoba, romelic saerToa mTeli eklesiisTvis, raTa upirveles yovlisa rwmena gaizardos da yvela adaminisaTvis sruli WeSmaritebis
naTeli brwyinavdes. garda amisa, cnobilia, rom sakuTari eklesiis rogorc
sayovelTao eklesiis nawilis kargad marTviT, episkoposebi ufro nayofierad Seuwyoben xels mTliani saidumlo sxeulis keTildReobas, romelic eklesiaTa sxeulic aris68.
MmTel dedamiwaze saxarebis qadagebisTvis zrunva mwyemsTa mTel korpuss
exeba. qristem maT yvelas erTad daakisra saerTo valdebuleba, rogorc
ukve papi celestine miuTiTebda efesos krebis mamebs69. amitom calkeuli
episkoposebi, ramdenadac amis saSualebas maTi sakuTari funqcia iZleva,
unda Sevidnen samuSao kavSirSi erTmaneTTan da petres memkvidresTan, romelsac gansakuTrebiT didi movaleoba daekisra: qristianuli saxelis gavrceleba.70 mosavlis aRebisaTvis episkoposebma misiebi unda uzrunvelyon
muSakebiT, sulierad da materialurad daexmaron maT. amas isini, erTis
mxriv, TviTon unda akeTebdnen, meores mxriv ki morwmuneebi unda moamzadon mWidro TanamSromlobisaTvis. da bolos, episkoposebma siyvarulis
sayovelTao ziarebaSi nebayoflobiT unda gauwion Zmuri daxmareba sxva
eklesiebs, upirveles yovlisa yvelaze axlobelsa da gaWirvebuls, Zveli
Rirebuli magaliTis Tanaxmad.
saRmrTo gangebiT ise moxda, rom sxvadasxva eklesia, mociqulTa da
maT memkvidreTa mier sxvadsxva adgilas daarsebuli, droTa svlaSi mraval erTmaneTTan organulad dakavSirebul sakrebulod (coetus) gaerTianda. rwmenis erTianobis SenarCunebisa da msoflio eklesiis ganumeorebeli saRmrTo agebulebis pirobebSi maT gaaCniaT sakuTari disciplinebi,
sakuTari liturgiuli wesebi, Teologiuri da sulieri memkvidreoba. maT
Soris zogierTma, kerZod Zvelma patriarqalurma eklesiebma, rogorc rwmenis dedebma (matrices), Sves sxva eklesiebi _ qaliSvilebi, romlebTanac
isini dRemde dakavSirebulni arian siyvarulis gansakuTrebiT mWidro
kavSiriT sakramentul cxovrebaSi, samarTleblivi da samsaxureobrivi
urTierTpativiscemis safuZvelze71. adgilobriv eklesiaTa es erTsulovani mravalferovneba brwyinvaled cxadyofs ganuyofeli eklesiis kaTolikobas. amis msgavsad, saepiskoposo gaerTianebebs (coetus) Zala SeswevT,
67
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Fidei Donum, 21 apr. 1957: AAS 49 (1957), p. 237.
68
Sdr. S. HILARIUS PICT., In Ps. 14, 3: PL 9, 206; CSEL 22, p. 86. S. GREGORIUS M., Moral.
IV, 7, 12: PL 75, 643 C. Ps. BASILIUS, In Is. 15, 296: PG 30, 637 C.
69
S. COELESTINUS, Epist. 18, 1-2, ad Conc. Eph.: PL 50, 505 AB; SCHWARTZ, Acta Conc. Oec. I,
1, 1, p. 22. Sdr. BENEDICTUS XV, epist. apost. Maximum illud: AAS 11 (1919), p. 440. PIUS XI, encycl.
Rerum Ecclesiae, 28 febr. 1926: AAS 18 (1926), p. 69. PIUS XII, encycl. Fidei Donum, l.c.
70
LEO XIII, encycl. Grande munus, 30 sept. 1880: ASS 13 (1880), p. 145. Sdr. Cod. Iur. Can., c.
1327; c. 1350 2.
71
sapatriarqo kaTedraTa uflebaTa Sesaxeb Sdr. CONC. NIVAENUM, can. 6 aleqsandriisa da antioqiis Sesaxeb, can. 7 ierusalemis Sesaxeb: Conc. Oec. Decr., p. 8. CONC. LATER.
IV, anno 1215, Constitut. V: De dinitate Patriarcharum: ibid., p. 212. CONC. FERR.-FLOR.: ibid., p. 504.

90

LUMEN GENTIUM

rom mravalmxriv da nayofierad xeli Seuwyon kolegialuri grZnobis


konkretul ganxorcielebas.
24. episkoposebi, mociqulTa memkvidreebi, iReben misias uflisagan, romelsac mieca mTeli Zalaufleba caSi da miwaze. es misia mdgomareobs SemdegSi: maT unda aswavlon yvela xalxs da saxareba yvela qmnilebas uqadagon,
raTa yvela adamianma miaRwios xsnas rwmeniT, naTlobiTa da mcnebaTa SesrulebiT (Sdr. maT. 28, 18; mark. 16, 15-16; saqme 26, 17). am misiis Sesasruleblad
qriste ufalma aRuTqva mociqulebs suli wmida da moavlina is zecidan ormocdameaTe dRes, raTa mociqulebi suli wmidis ZaliT qristes mowmeebad
wardgnen yvelgan dedamiwis kidemde, xalxTa, erTa da mefeTa winaSe (Sdr.
saqme 1, 8; 2, 1 Smd., 9, 15). es funqcia, romelic ufalma Tavisi eris mwyemsebs
daakisra, namdvili samsaxuria, romelsac wmida werilSi Sesabamisad diakonia anu msaxureba (ministerium) ewodeba (Sdr. saqme 1, 17 da 25; 21, 19; rom. 11,
13; 1tim. 1, 12).
episkoposTa kanonikuri misia SeiZleba Sesruldes im legitimuri CveulebebiT, romlebsac ar uaryofs eklesiis uzenaesi da sayovelTao Zalaufleba, an kanonebiT, romlebic imave xelisuflebis mier aris SemoRebuli
Tu aRiarebuli, an kidev am misias uSualod asrulebs Tavad petres memkvidre. Tu is winaaRmdegia an samociqulo ziarebaze (communione) uars ambobs,
maSin episkoposebs saqmis aRsruleba ar SeuZliaT72.
25. episkoposTa ZiriTad funqciebs Soris gamoirCeva saxarebis qadageba73. episkoposebi rwmenis macneebi arian. maT qristesTan axali mowafeebi
mohyavT. isini namdvili maswavleblebi (doctores authentici) arian, e.i. qristes
uflebamosilebiT arian aRWurvili. maTdami mindobil xalxs isini uqadageben rwmenas, raTa mas gahyvnen da igi zneobas miusadagon. rwmenas isini suli
wmidis Suqze ganmartaven da gamocxadebis saunjidan axalsa da Zvels iReben (maT. 13, 52), rwmenas nayofiers xdian da fxizlad igerieben Secdomebs,
romlebic samwysos emuqreba (Sdr. 2tim. 4, 1-4). episkoposebs, romlebic swavlebas romis pontifeqsTan urTierTobaSi awarmoeben, yvela Tayvans unda
scemdes rogorc saRmrTo da kaTolike WeSmaritebis mowmeebs, morwmuneni
ki unda iziarebdnen maTi episkoposis mier qristes saxeliT warmoTqmul sityvas rwmenisa da zneTa Sesaxeb, da mas sulis religiuri morCilebiT unda
daeTanxmon. nebisa da gonebis aseTi religiuri morCileba gansakuTrebiT
gvmarTebs romis pontifeqsis namdvili moZRvrobis winaSe, Tundac is amis
Sesaxeb ex cathedra ar metyvelebdes. amgvarad, mis uzenaes moZRvrobas mowiwebiT unda gaziareba da mis gamonaTqvamebs _ gulrwfeli mimxroba, Sesabamisad imisa, rasac misi azri da neba gamoxatavs, da rac upiratesad vlindeba
sabuTebis xasiaTSi an erTi da imave moZRvrebis xSir gameorebasa Tu Tqmulis TaviseburebaSi.
calkeul mesveurs ucdomelobis prerogativa ar gaaCnia, magram roca
isini Tundac dedamiwis sxvadasxva kuTxeSi iyvnen gafantulni kavSirSi
arian erTmaneTTan da petres memkvidresTan, namdvilad aswavlian rwmenisa
da zneTa Sesaxeb da Tanxmdebian imaSi, rom erTi garkveuli moZRvreba sabolood unda iqnes miCneuli, maSin isinic ucdomelad gvamcnoben qristes
72
Sdr. Cod. Iuris pro Eccl. Orient., c. 216-314: patriarqTa Sesaxeb; c. 324-339: ufrosi
mTavarepiskoposebis Sesaxeb; c. 362-391: sxva uflebamosil (dignitariis) pirTa Sesaxeb; gansakuTrebiT c. 238 3; 216; 240; 251; 255: episkoposTa Sesaxeb, romlebic patriarqma unda
daniSnos.
73
Sdr. CONC. TRID., Decr. de reform., Sess. 5, c. 2, n. 9, da Sess. 24, can. 4; Conc. Oec. Decr., pp.
645 da 739.

91

vatikanis II kreba

moZRvrebas74. es kidev ufro cxadia maSin, roca isini ikribebian msoflio


krebaze da mTeli eklesiisTvis warmoadgenen rwmenisa da zneobaTa maswavleblebsa da mosamarTleebs, romelTa definiciebs rwmenis morCilebiT
unda mivsdioT75.
saRmrTo gamomsyidvelma (Redemptor) ineba, rom misi eklesia ucdomeli
yofiliyo, raTa gansazRvruliyo moZRvreba rwmenisa da zneobaTa Sesaxeb.
es ucdomeloba imdenad farToa, ramdenadac farToa saRmrTo gamocxadebis
saunje, romelic unda iyos wmidad daculi da erTgulad (fideliter) gadmocemuli. romis pontifeqsi, episkoposTa meTauri, am ucdomelobas misi funqciis
(muneris) safuZvelze flobs. yvela qristianis uzenaesi mwyemsi da moZRvari, igi Tavis Zmebs sarwmunoebaSi ganamtkicebs (Sdr. luk. 22, 32) da saboloo
aqtiT ganacxadebs sarwmunoebisa da zneobaTa Sesaxeb moZRvrebas76. amitom
sworia, rom misi gansazRvrebebi ucvlelad miiCneva maTive safuZvelze da
ara eklesis Tanxmobis Sedegad, radgan maTi dadgena xdeba suli wmidis TanadgomiT, romelic misTvis netari petres saxiT iyi aRTqmuli. amitom maT
ar sWirdeba sxvaTa mier damtkiceba, isini arc sxva sasamarTlosadmi apelacias eqvemdebareba. aseT SemTxvevaSi romis pontifeqss gadawyvetilebebi
gamoaqvs ara rogorc kerZo pirs, aramed is gadmoscems an icavs kaTolikuri
sarwmunoebis moZRvrebas77 rogorc sayovelTao eklesiis uzenaesi maswavlebeli, romelSic ganumeoreblad mkvidrobs Tavad eklesiis ucdomelobis
niWi (charisma). eklesiisTvis aRTqmuli ucTomeloba mkvidrobs episkoposTa
sxeulSic, rodesac is uzenaes moZRvrobas petres memkvidresTan erTad
asrulebs. am gansazRvrebebs arasdros moakldeba eklesiis Tanxmoba imave
suli wmidis moqmedebis gamo, romelic qristes mTel samwysos inaxavs da
sarwmunoebis erTianobis saqmeSi mis winsvlas uzrunvelyofs.78
roca romis pontifeqsi an, masTan erTad, episkoposTa korpusi gadawyvetilebas iRebs, misi gamotana Tavad gamocxadebis Tanaxmad xdeba, romelsac yvela unda icavdes da esadagebodes da romelic xeluxleblad aris
gadmocemuli werilobiTi gziT an kanonieri saepiskoposo memkvidreobis
safuZvelze, upirveles yovlisa ki Tavad romis pontifeqsis zrunvis Sedegad. igi wmidad inaxeba da erTgulad gadmoicema eklesiaSi, WeSmaritebis manaTobeli (praelucente) sulis meSveobiT79. misi sworad wvdomisa da Sesaferisi
gadmocemisTvis romis pontifeqsi da episkoposebi, Tavisi samsaxurisa da
sakiTxis mniSvnelovnebis Sesabamisad, saTanado saSualebaTaA gamoyenebiT,
saqmes gulmodgined asruleben,80 magram axal sajaro gamocxadebas, romelic sarwmunoebis saRmrTo saunjes Seexeboda, ar iReben81.
26. episkoposi, xarisxis (Ordinis) saidumlos sisavsiT aRWurvili, aris
uzenaesi mRvdelmsaxurebis (sacerdotii) madlis ganmgebeli (oeconomus).82 es,
upirveles yovlisa, cxaddeba ziarebaSi, romelsac episkoposi Tavad aRas74
Sdr. CONC. VAT. I, Const. dogm. Dei Filius, 3: DENZ. 1712 (3011). Sdr. SeniSnva I proeqtisa de Eccl. (amoRebulia S. Rob. BELLARMINO-dan): MANSI 51, 579 C; agreTve gadamuSavebuli proeqti Const. II de Ecclesia Christi, KLEUTGEN-is komentariT: MANSI 53, 313 AB. PIUS IX,
epist. Tuas libenter: DENZ. 1683 (2879).
75
Sdr. Cod. Iur. Can., c. 1322-1323.
76
Sdr. CONC. VAT. I, Const. dogm. Pastor Aeternus: DENZ. 1839 (3074).
77
Sdr. GASSER-is ganmarteba CONC. VAT. I: MANSI 52, 1213 AC.
78
GASSER, ib.: MANSI 1214 A..
79
GASSER, ib.: MANSI 1215 CD, 1216-1217 A.
80
GASSER, ib.: MANSI 1213.
81
CONC. VAT. I, Const. dogm. Pastor Aeternus, 4: DENZ. 1836 (3070).
82
bizantiur wesSi saepiskoposo xeldasxmis (consecrationis) locva: Euchologion to mega,
Romae, 1873, p. 139.

92

LUMEN GENTIUM

rulebs an zrunavs imisTvis, raTa is aRasrulon,83 da romliTac eklesia mudam cocxlobs da sazrdoobs. qristes es eklesia namdvilad arsebobs morwmuneTa yvela kanonier adgilobriv dajgufebaSi, romlebic Tavis mwyemsebs
misdeven da axal aRTqmaSi eklesiebad iwodebian84. Tav-Tavis adgilas isini
warmoadgenen axal ers, qristes mier mowodebuls suli wmidiTa da sruli
darwmunebiT (Sdr. 1Tes. 1, 5). maTSi erTgulebi ikribebian qristes saxarebis
qadagebiT. isini aRasruleben (celebratur) uflis serobis saidumlos, raTa
saWmliTa da uflis sisxliT erT sxeulad Seikras mTeli Zmoba85. nebismier sakurTxevlis sakrebuloSi, romelic episkoposis wmida moZRvrobas
eqvemdebareba86, vlindeba simbolo am siyvarulisa da saidumlo sxeulis
erTobisa, romlis gareSe SeuZlebelia gamoxsna87. am sakrebuloebSi (Tundac isini mcire, Raribi an gafantuli iyos) imyofeba qriste; misi ZaliT aris
SekavSirebuli erTiani, wmida, kaTolike da samociqulo eklesia88, radgan
qristes sxeulsa da sisxlTan ziarebas Sedegad sxva araferi aqvs, Tu ara
Cveni gardaqmna imad, rasac vigemebT89.
ziarebis yovelgvar kanonier aRsrulebas (celebratio) episkoposi warmarTavs. mas akisria valdebuleba, saRmrTo udidebulesobas (Divinae Maiestati)
qristianuli religiis RmrTismsaxureba miuZRvnas da, uflisa da eklesiis
mcnebaTa Sesabamisad, kanonebi ganagos, romelTa saboloo saxiT gansazRvra
diocezisTvis piradad misi ganCinebis Sedegad xdeba.
amgvarad, erisaTvis SromiTa da locviT, episkoposebi mas mravalmxriv da uxvad aniWeben qristes siwmidis sisavses. sityvis msaxurebiT isini
RmrTis Zalas aziareben maT, visac gamoxsna swams (Sdr. rom. 1, 16), xolo
saidumloTa saSualebiT (maT mowesrigebul da nayofier gadacemas (distributionem) episkoposebi Tavisi uflebamosilebiT axorcieleben)90 - isini erTgulebs wmida-yofen. episkoposebi warmarTaven naTlobis aRsrulebas (collationem), romliTac qristes samefo mRvdelmsaxurebasTan (sacerdotii) ziareba
xdeba. episkoposebi arian mironcxebis (confirmationis) upirvelesi msaxurni
(ministri originarii); isini gascemen wmida xarisxebs (dispensatores sacrorum ordinum),
agvareben monaniebis wess da Tavis ers mzrunvelobiT amxneveben da arigeben, raTa man rwmeniTa da krZalulebiT monawileoba miiRosA RmrTismsaxurebasa da, upirveles yovlisa, wmida mesis aRsrulebaSi (sacrifitio). dabolos,
samagaliTo saqcieliT episkoposebi Tavis qveSevrdomebs unda daexmaron,
yovelgvar borotebas moeridon da, SeZlebisdagvarad da uflis SemweobiT,
sikeTisken miiqcnen, raTa miaRwion saukuno cxovrebas samwysosTan erTad,
romelic maT aris mindobili91.
27. episkoposebi marTaven maTTvis mindobil calkeul eklesias, rogorc
qristes nacvalni da wargzavnilebi (vicarii et legati)92. isini marTaven rCeviT,
darwmunebiT, magaliTiT, agreTve uflebamosilebiTa da wmida Zalaufle83
Cf. S. IGNATIUS M., Smyrn. 8, 1: FUNK I, 282.
84
Sdr. saqme 8, 1; 14, 22-23; 20, 17 da sxva.
85
mozarabuli locva: PL 96, 759B.
86
Sdr. S. IGNATIUS M., Smyrn. 8, 1: FUNK I, p. 282.
87
S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. III, q. 73, a.3.
88
Sdr. S. AUGUSTINUS, C. Faustum, 12, 20: PL 42, 265; Serm. 57, 7: PL 38, 389, da a.S.
89
S. LEO M., Serm. 63, 7: PL 54, 357 C.
90
Traditio Apostolica Hippolyti, 2-3: Botte, pp. 26-30.
91
Sdr. gamokiTxvis (examinis) teqsti episkoposis xeldasxmis (consecrationis) dasawyisSi da amave xeldasxmis locva mesis bolos, Te Deum-is Semdeg.
92
BENEDICTUS XIV, Br. Romana Ecclesia, 5 oct. 1752, 1: Bullarium Benedicti XIV, t. IV, Romae,
1758, 21: episkoposi ganasaxierebs qristes da mis funqcias asrulebs. PIUS XII, encycl.
Mystici Corporis, 1. c., p. 211: TiToeuli maTgani im samwysos mwyemsavs da marTavs, romelic mas
abaria.

93

vatikanis II kreba

biT, romelsac imisTvis mimarTaven, raTa Tavisi samwyso WeSmaritebasa da


siwmideSi (sanctitate) amravlon. maT axsovT, rom udidesi unda iyos rogorc
umciresi da winamZRvari rogorc msaxuri (Sdr. luk. 22, 26-27). es Zalaufleba, romelsac episkoposebi qristes saxeliT piradad axorcieleben, maTi
kuTvnilia, maTTvis Cveulia da uSualoa, Tumca misi gamoyeneba saboloo
jamSi eklesiis uzenaesi uflebamosilebiT warimarTeba da SeiZleba garkveul farglebSi SeizRudos kidec, eklesiisa da morwmuneTa interesebis
gaTvaliswinebiT. am Zalauflebis safuZvelze episkoposebs gaaCniaT wmida
ufleba da uflis winaSe movaleoba, Tavis qveSevrdomT miscen kanonebi, ganaxorcielon samarTali da warmarTon yvlaferi, rac RmrTismsaxurebasa da
samociqulo xarisxs (apostolatusque ordinem) exeba.
episkoposebs mTlianad ekisreba samRvdlo (pastorale) funqcia da Cveuli
da yoveldRiuri zrunva sakuTari cxvrebisTvis. episkoposebi ar unda miviCnioT romis pontifeqsebis nacvlebad (vicarii), radgan isini sakuTar Zalauflebas axorcieleben da WeSmaritad im xalxis winamZRolni arian, romelsac
marTaven93. amgvarad, maTi Zalaufleba ar irRveva uzenaesi da sayovelTao
ZalauflebiT, aramed piriqiT, misi saSualebiT mkvidrdeba, ganmtkicdeba
da daculi xdeba94, radgan suli wmida urRvevad inaxavs mmarTvelobis formas, romelic ufalma qristem Tavis eklesiaSi daadgina.
episkoposs, romelsac ojaxis mama (Patrefamilias) misi ojaxis mmarTvelad
moavlens, Tvalwin aqvs mwyemsi keTilis magaliTi, romelic movida ara imisTvis, raTa sxvebi imsaxuros, aramed raTa maT Tavad emsaxuros (Sdr. maT. 20, 28;
mark. 10, 45) da Tavisi suli dados cxvrebisTvis (Sdr. ioan. 10, 11). kacTagan
moyvanilsa da uZlurebiT moculs, mas ZaluZs umecarTa da SecTomilTa
TanagrZnoba (Sdr. ebr. 5, 1-2). episkoposma unda usminos Tavis qveSevrdomT,
romlebsac rogorc sakuTar Svilebs mfarvelobs da waaqezebs, raTa masTan
gulmodgined iTanamSromlon. maTi sulebis Sesaxeb episkoposma angariSi
unda agos RmrTis winaSe (Sdr. ebr. 13, 17), maTTvis izrunos locviT, qadagebiTa da nebismieri saqvelmoqmedo saqmiT, da sxvebisTvisac izrunos, vinc
jer ar aris erTiani samwysos wevri; episkoposma unda icodes, rom isinic
mas uflis mier (in Domino) abaria. dae, iyos igi, mociquli pavles msgavsad,
yvelas mimarT movale, romelic mzadaa, yvelas axaros (Sdr. rom. 1, 14, 15) da
waaqezos Tavisi erTgulni samociqulo da misioneruli moRvaweobisTvis.
erTgulni gverdSi unda edgnen episkoposs, rogorc eklesia ieso qristes,
da rogorc ieso qriste mamas, raTa yvelaferi erTobiT SeTanxmdes95 da uxvobdes RmrTis sadidebelad (Sdr. 2kor. 4, 15).
28. qristem, romelic mamam wmidayo da qveynad moavlina (ioane 10, 36), Tavis mociqulTa saSualebiT aziara maTive mimdevrebi, anu episkoposebi, Tavis xeldasxmasa (consecrationis) da misias96. xolo episkoposebma, Tavis mxriv,
Tavisi msaxurebis tvirTi kanonierad gadasces eklesiaSi sxvadasxva pirs,
sxvadasxva odenobiT. amgvarad, saRmrTo gziT daarsebul saeklesio msaxurebas sxvadasxva xarisxSi asruleben isini, visac ZvelTaganve ewodeba episkoposi, mRvdeli da diakoni97. mRvdlebs ar gaaCnia pontifikatis umaRlesi
funqcia (apicem) da Tavisi Zalauflebis ganxorcielebaSi isini episkoposeb93
LEO XIII, encycl. Satis cognitum, 29 iun. 1896: ASS 28 (1895-96), p. 732. IDEM, epist. Officio
sanctissimo, 22 dec. 1887: ASS 20 81887), p. 264. PIUS IX, litt apost. ad Episcopos Germaniae, 12 mart. 1875,
et alloc. const., 15 mart. 1875: DENZ. 3112-3117, mxolod axal gamocemaSi.
94
CONC. VAT. I, Const. dogm. Pastor aeternus, 3: DENZ. 1828 (3061). Sdr. ZINELLI-s damokidebuleba: MANSI 52, 1114 D.
95
Sdr. S. IGNATIUS M., Ad Ephes. 5, 1: FUNK I, p. 216.
96
Sdr. S. IGNATIUS M., Ad Ephes. 6, 1: FUNK I, p. 218.
97
Sdr. CONC. TRID., Sess. 23, De sacr. Ord., c. 2: DENZ. 958 (1765); et can. 6: DENZ. 966 (1776).

94

LUMEN GENTIUM

ze arian damokidebulni. amasTanave, isini dakavSirebulni arian episkoposebTan samRvdlo pativiTa98 da xarisxis (Ordinis) saidumlos ZaliT. uzenaesi
da saukuno mRvdlis qristes xatad (ebr. 5, 1-10; 7, 24; 9, 11-28), mRvdlebi mowodebulni arian saxarebis qadagebisTvis, erTgulTa samwysod da saRmrTo
msaxurebis aRsasruleblad, rogorc axali aRTqmis WeSmariti mRvdelmsaxurni99. msaxurebis maTTvis Sesaferisi odenobiT, isini eziarebian qristes
_ erTaderTi Suamdgomlis (1tim. 2, 5) funqcias da yvelas auwyeben saRmrTo sityvas. Tavis wmida funqcias isini gansakuTrebiT ziarebisas trapezze
asruleben: am dros isini qristes piriT moqmedeben100 da mis saidumloebas
ganacxadeben, erTgulTa vedrebas maTi meTavis msxverpls uerTeben, ganasaxiereben da mimarTaven (applicant) axali aRTqmis erTaderT msxverpls, ese
igi qristes, romelmac erTxel da samudamod Tavi mamas Seswira ubiwo msxverplad (Sdr. ebr. 9, 11-28). erTgulTaTvis, romlebic inanieben an avadmyofoben, episkoposebi asruleben Serigebisa da Semsubuqebis did msaxurebas.
isini mama RmerTs warudgenen erTgulTa gasaWirsa da Txovnas (Sdr. ebr. 5,
1-4). episkoposebi, maTi wili uflebamosilebis farglebSi, asruleben qristes, mwyemsisa da meTavis, funqcias.101 isini kreben RmrTis ojaxs, rogorc
erTsulovan saZmos102 da igi qristes saSualebiT suli wmidiT mama RmerTTan
mihyavT. samwysos wiaRSi isini mama RmerTs suliTa da WeSmaritebiT Tayvans
scemen (Sdr. ioan. 4, 24). da bolos, isini sityviTa da moZRvrebiT muSaoben
(Sdr. 1tim. 5, 17). maT swamT is, rasac uflis kanonSi dafiqrebiT kiTxuloben,
aswavlian, rac swamT da hbaZaven imas, rac aswavles103.
mRvdlebi, saepiskoposo xarisxis mzrunveli TanamSromlebi, misi damxmareni da saSualebani arian. isini RmrTis eris msaxurebisTvis arian mowodebulni. sxvadasxva movaleobis aRsasruleblad mRvdlebi, Tavis episkoposTan erTad, qmnian erTian presviteriums (presbyterium).104 erTgulTa
calkeul adgilobr kongregaciebSi mRvdlebi erTgvarad Tandamswred
warmoadgenen episkoposs, romelTanac maT ndoba da didsulovneba akavSirebs. mRvdlebi episkoposis funqciasa da mzrunvelobas iziareben da
amas yoveldRiur saqmianobaSi gamoxataven. isini episkoposis uflebamosilebis qveS wmida yofen da marTaven uflis samwysos im nawils, romelic
maT abaria. mRvdlebi xiluls xdian sayovelTao eklesias im adgilas, sadac Tavad arian da qristes mTliani sxeulis aSenebaSi (Sdr. efes. 4, 12)
maT mniSvnelovani wvlili SeaqvT. RmrTis SvilebisTvis sikeTis motana
mRvdelTa mudmivi sazrunavia. amasTanave, isini unda ecadon, mTeli diocezis samRvdlo saqmes argon, metic: mTeli eklesiis saqmes. mRvdelmsaxurebasa da misiaSi am monawileobis gamo mRvdlebi episkoposs namdvilad
Tavis mamad cnoben da mas pativiscemiT emorCilebian, xolo episkoposs
mRvdlebi, misi TanamSromlebi, unda miaCndes Svilebad da megobrebad,
msgavsad qristesi, romelic Tavis mowafeebs monebs ki aRar uwodebs,
aramed megobrebs (Sdr. ioan. 15, 15). maSasadame, xarisxisa da msaxurebis
wesiT, yvela mRvdelmsaxuri, rogorc diocezuri ise mowese (religiosi), epi98
Sdr. INNOCENTIUS I, Epist. ad Decentium: PL 20, 554A; MANSI 3, 1029; DENZ. 98 (215):
presviterebi warmoadgenen meore rigis mRvdelmsaxurebs (sacerdotes), magram maT ar gaaCniaT pontifikatis uzenaesi funqcia. S. CYPRIANUS, Epist. 61, 3: CSEL (Hartel), p. 696.
99
Sdr. INNOCENTIUS I, l.c. S. GREGORIUS NAZ., Apol. II, 22: PG 35, 432 B. Ps. DIONYSIUS, Eccl. Hier., 1, 2: PG 3, 372 D.
100 Sdr. CONC. TRID., Sess. 22: DENZ. 940 (1743). PIUS XII, encycl. mediator Dei, 20 nov. 1947:
AAS 39 (1947), p. 553; DENZ. 2300 (3850).
101 Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Mediator Dei, l.c., sub. n. 67.
102 Sdr. S. CYPRIANUS, Epist. 11, 3: PL 4, 242 B; CSEL (Hartel) II, 2, p. 497.
103 mRvdelTa xeldasxmis wesi, samosTa mosxmasTan dakavSirebiT.
104 Sdr. S. IGNATIUS M., Philad. 4: FUNK I, p. 266. S. CORNELIUS I - S.CYPRIANUM, Epist.
48, 2: CSEL (Hartel) III, 2, p. 610.

95

vatikanis II kreba

skoposTa korpusTan aris dakavSirebuli da, Tavisi mowodebiTa da madliT, mTeli eklesiis keTildReobas emsaxureba.
saerTo wmida xeldasxmisa (ordinationis) da misiis ZaliT yvela mRvdeli erTmaneTTan dakavSirebulia Sinagani ZmobiT, romelic nebayoflobiTa da Tavisuflad vlindeba urTierTSemweobaSi, suliersa da nivTierSi, samRvdlosa da
pirovnulSi, Sekrebebsa da ziar cxovrebaSi, Sromasa da siyvarulSi.
mRvdlebma, rogorc mamebma qristes mier unda izrunon sulieri naTlobisa da moZRvrebis meSveobiT Sobili erTgulebisTvis (Sdr. 1kor. 4, 15;
1petr. 1, 23). maT samwysos magaliTi unda miscen (1petr. 5, 3) da ise uxelmZRvanelon da emsaxuron Tavis adgilobriv sakrebulos, rom igi Rirsi iyos
im saxeliT iwodebodes, romliTac RmrTis mTeli erTiani eri iwodeba, anu
eklesiad (Sdr. 1kor. 1, 2; 2kor. 1, 1 da sxv.). dae, axsovdeT mRvdlebs, rom yoveldRiuri qmedebiTa da zrunviT maT unda warudginon namdvilad samRvdlo da samwyso msaxurebis nimuSi morwmuneebsa da uwrmunoebs, kaTolikeebsa da arakaTolikeebs, da yvelas winaSe iyvnen WeSmaritebisa da cxovrebis
mowmeni. rogorc keTilma mwyemsebma, maT isinic unda eZion (Sdr. luk. 15, 47), vinc moinaTla kaTolike eklesiaSi, magram Semdgom ganudga saidumloTa
aRsrulebas (praxi) da rwmenasac ki.
sadReisod adamianTa modgma sul ufro metad ikvreba samoqalaqo,
ekonomikur da socialur erTobad. amitom gansakuTrebiT saWiroa, rom
mRvdlelmsaxurebma, episkoposTa da uzenaesi pontifeqsis winamZRolobiT
ganxorcielebuli zrunviTa da saqmiT, Tavidan aicilon yovelgvari danawileba, raTa mTeli adamianTa modgma miiyvanon RmrTis ojaxis erTianobamde.
29. ierarqiis ufro dabal safexurze arian diakonebi, romelnic xeldasxmuli arian ara mRvdlobisTvis, aramed msaxurebisTvis105. saidumlos
madliT ganmtkicebulni, diakonebi emsaxurebian RmrTis xalxs liturgiis,
sityvisa da siyvarulis diakoniaSi, episkopossa da mis samRvdeloebasTan
urTierTobaSi. diakonis saqmea, imisda mixedviT, rasac mas kompetenturi Zalaufleba ganusazRvravs, sazeimod naTlobis aRsruleba, evqaristiis Senaxva da danawileba, eklesiis saxeliT qorwinebis Tandaswreba da misi kurTxeva,
momakvdavebTan zeTis mitana, erTgulTaTvis wmida werilis wakiTxva, xalxTa
damoZRvra-darigeba, erTgulTa RmrTismsaxurebisas (cultui) da locvisas Tandaswreba, saidumloTa aRsruleba (sacramentalia ministrare), dakrZalvis ritualze daswreba. diakvnebs, romelTa saqme aris siyvarulisa da marTvis msaxureba,
unda axsovdeT netari polikarpes darigeba: iyvnen mowyaleni, bejiTni, iaron
uflis WeSmaritebis gverdiT, romelic yvelas msaxuri gaxda106.
am funqciaTa Sesrulebas (rac eklesiis cxovrebisaTvis sruliad aucilebelia), bevr regionSi sadReisod sirTuleebi axlavs, laTinur eklesiaSi
arsebuli wesis gamo. amitom momavalSi SeiZleba aRdges diakvnoba rogorc
ierarqiis garkveuli da mudmivi safexuri. episkoposTa sxvadasxva uflebamosili teritorialuri kavSirebis saqmea, Tavad uzenaesi pontifeqsis
Tanxmobis Sedegad gadawyviton, Tu sad jobs sulebisTvis zrunvis mizniT
aseTi diakvnebis daniSnva. romis pontifeqsis TanxmobiT, aseTi diakvnoba SeiZleba mieniWos mowifuli asakis mamakacebs, imaTac, vinc qorwinebaSi
cxovrobs, agreTve Sesaferis axalgazrdebs, Tumca maT mimarT celibatobis kanoni mtkiced unda iyos daculi.
105 Constitutiones Ecclesiae aegypticae, III, 2: FUNK, Didascalia, II, p. 103. Statuta Eccl. Ant. 37-41:
MANSI 3, 954.
106 S. POLYCARPUS, Ad Phil. 5, 2: FUNK, I, p. 300: qristes Sesaxeb iTqmis, rom igi yvelas
diakoni msaxuri gaxda. Sdr. Didach, 15, 1: ib., p. 32. S. IGNATIUS M., Trall. 2, 3: ib., p. 242.
Constitutiones Apostolorum, 8, 28, 4: FUNK, Didascalia, I, p. 530.

96

LUMEN GENTIUM

Tavi IV
saeroni
30. wmida krebam cxadyo ierarqiis funqciebi. axla mas surs, qristes im erTgulTa (Christefidelium) statusi ganixilos, visac saeroni ewodeba. yvelaferi,
rac RmrTis eris Sesaxeb iTqva, Tanabrad exeba eriskacebs (laicos), moweseebsa
(religiosos) da mRvdelmsaxurebs (clericos). da mainc, eriskacebs, mamakacebsac da
qalebsac, maTi mdgomareobisa da funqciis Sesabamisad, zogi iseTi ram exeba, risi mizezebic, dRevandel viTarebaSi garkveuli movlenebis Tavmoyris
gamo, gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs. sulierma mwyemsebma ician, ramdenad uwyoben xels saeroni mTeli eklesiis keTildReobas. maT isic ician,
rom qristem isini imisTvis ar daayena, raTa maT martoebs etvirTaT gamoxsnis
mTeli misia, romelic eklesias msoflios winaSe akisria. mRvdlebis SesaniSnavi funqciaa, erTgulebi ise mwyemson da maTi samsaxuri da niWni (charismata)
ise Seicnon, rom yvelam Taviseburad yvelam Seitanos Tavisi wvlili saerTo
saqmeSi, radgan saWiroa, rom WeSmarit viyvneT siyuarulsa zeda da aRvaorZinebdeT misa mimarT yovelsa, romel ars Tav misa qriste, romlisagan yoveli guami Senawevrebul da Semtkicebul ars yovliTa SeaxlebiTa uxuebisaTa
Sewevnisaebr sazomisa TToeulisa asosa; siorZilsa mas guamisasa hyofdiT
aRsaSenebelad Tavisa Tquenisa siyuaruliT. (efes. 4, 15-16).
31. cnebaSi saeroni aq igulisxmeba yvela qristiani (christifideles), garda
imaTi, visac sasuliero xarisxi an eklesiaSi damtkicebuli moweses (religiosi)
statusi gaaCnia; maSasadame, igulisxmebian is qristianebi, romlebic naTlobiT qristes sxeuls SeuerTdnen (Christo incorporati), RmrTis eri Seadgines
da Taviseburad gaxdnen qristes samRvdlo, winaswarmetyveluri da samefo
funqciis moziareni. maT im misiis SesrulebaSi SeaqvT wvlili, romelsac samyarosa da eklesiaSi mTel qristian ers akisria.
eriskacebs gansakuTrebiT sekularoba axasiaTebT. sasuliero xarisxis
wevrebi zogjer saero saqmeebSi arian Cabmulni da saero profesiasac misdevden. da mainc, Tavisi gansakuTrebuli mowodebis gamo, isini ZiriTadad
da aSkarad sasuliero msaxurebisTvis arian gankuTvnilni. meores mxriv,
moweseebi (religiosi) Tavisi statusiT SesaniSnavad da cxadad mowmoben, rom
sulis netarebis gareSe samyaro ver iqneba gardasaxuli (transfigurari) da
RmrTisaTvis miZRvnili. eriskacebis amocanaa, maTi mowodebis safuZvelze,
warmavali saqmeebis warmarTvisa da RmrTis Sesaferisad maTi mogvarebis
Sedegad, RmrTis sasufevlis Zieba. isini samyaroSi cxovroben, ese igi monawileoben qveynis yovelgvar samsaxursa da saqmeSi, saojaxo da socialuri
cxovrebis Cveulebriv viTarebebSi, romelTagan erTgvarad maTi arseboba iqsoveba. aq isini RmrTis mier arian mowodebulni, raTa Tavisi funqcia Seasrulon da, saxarebis sulis winamZRolobiT, samyaros wmida-yofas
erTgvarad Signidan, safuarsaviT, xeli Seuwyon. amgvarad, upirveles yovlisa Tavisi cxovrebis mowmobiT, rwmeniT, imediTa da siyvaruliT gasxivosnebulebma, eriskacebma qriste sxvebsac unda gamoucxadon (manifestent).
amitom maT gansakuTrebuli saxiT unda gaaSuqon da moawesrigon yovelgvari droebiTi saqmeebi, romlebTanac uSualo SexebaSi arian, raTa es saqmeni
yovelTvis qristes Tanaxmad aRsruldes da ganviTardes, Semoqmedisa da
gamomsyidvelis sadideblad.
32. saRmrTo ganwesebis Tanaxmad (institutione), wmida eklesia saocari mravalferovnebiT aris agebuli da warmarTuli. viTarca erTsa mas guamsa
mraval asoeb aqus, xolo asoebsa mas yovelsa ara igive saqme aqus, egreTca

97

vatikanis II kreba

Cuen yovelni erT guam varT qristes mier, xolo TiToeuli urTierTas asoeb varT (rom. 12, 4-5).
maSasadame, erTi aris RmrTis mier rCeuli eri: erT ars ufal, erT sarwmunoeba, erT naTlis-Reba (efr. 4, 5); saerToa wevrTa Rirseba qristeSi
maTi aRorZinebis gamo, saerToa mowodeba srulyofilebisken, erTia xsna,
erTia imedi da ganuyofelia siyvaruli. amitom ar aris qristesa da eklesiaSi araviTari uTanasworoba warmoSobisa Tu erovnebis mixedviT, socialuri
garemoebisa Tu sqesis mixedviT, radgan ara ars huriaeba, arca warmarTeba;
ara ars moneba, arca aznaureba; ara ars rCeva mamakacisa, arca dedakacisa,
rameTu Tquen yovelni erT xarT qriste iesos mier (gal. 3, 28; Sdr. kol. 3,
11).
Tuki eklesiaSi yvela erTi da imave gziT ar midis, mainc yvela aris mowodebulia siwmidisaken (sanctitatem): maT Tanabrad ergoT sarwmunoeba RmrTis
simarTliT (Sdr. 2petr. 1, 1). da Tumca qristes nebiT zogierTi sxvisTvis
warmoadgens maswavlebels, saidumloTa ganmgebels (mysteriorum dispensensatores) da mwyemss, mainc yvelas Soris sufevs WeSmariti Tanasworoba, romelic
gulisxmobs Rirsebasa da yvela morwmunisTvis saerTo Sromas, mimarTuls
qristes sxeulis asagebad. sxvaoba, romelic ufalma daawesa wmida msaxurTa
da RmrTis danarCen ers Soris, moicavs erTianobasac, radgan mwyemsebi da
sxva erTgulebi mWidro urTierTkavSirSi arian: eklesiis mwyemsebma unda
misdion uflis magaliTs, raTa erTmaneTs da sxva erTgulebs emsaxuron,
xolo es ukanasknelni, Tavis myriv, gulmodgined unda uwevdnen daxmarebas
mwyemsebsa da maswavleblebs. amgvarad, mravalferovnebis gziT yvela mowmobs qristes sxeulSi saocari erTianobis arsebobas: Tavad madlTa, msaxurebaTa da samuSaoTa sxvadasxvagvaroba erTad krebs RmrTis Svilebs, radgan amas yovelsa Seewevis erTi da igive suli (1kor. 12, 11).
maSasadame, eriskacebs saRmrTo pativis safuZvelze Zmad qriste hyavT,
romelic, rogorc yvelas ufali, movida ara imisTvis, raTa mas emsaxuron,
aramed raTa igi sxvebs emsaxuros (Sdr. maT. 20, 28). amitom eriskacebs Zmebad hyvaT isinic, vinc wmida samsaxurSi dgas, qristes uflebamosilebiT
aswavlis, wmida-yofs, marTavs da ise mwyemsavs RmrTis ojaxs, rom yvelas
mier aRsruldes siyvarulis axali mcneba (mandatum). amasTan dakavSirebiT
wmida avgustine lamazad ambobs: maSinebs is, rac TqvenTvis var, magram is
manugeSebs, rom TqvenTan var. TqvenTvis episkoposi var, TqvenTan erTad ki
_ qristiani. pirveli samsaxuris saxelia, meore madls aRniSnavs. pirveli
safrTxeze mianiSnebs, meore - gamoxsnaze107.
33. saeroni (vinc ar unda iyvnen isini), romelnic RmrTis erad Seikribnen da erTi Tavis qveS qristes erTian sxeulad Sedgnen, mowodebulni arian
imisTvis, rom cocxal asoTa msgavsad xeli Seuwyon eklesiis zrdas da mis
ganuwyvetel wmida-yofas yvela ZaliT, romelic Semoqmedis saTnoebiTa (beneficio) da gamomxsnelis wyalobiT miiRes.
saeroTa mociquloba (apostolatus) aris eklesiis mxsnel misiaSi monawileoba. am mociqulobisTvis yvela mowodebulia Tavad uflis mier naTlobiTa da mironcxebiT (confirmationem). xolo saidumloTa saSualebiT,
upirveles yovlisa wmida ziarebiT, xdeba RmrTisa da adamianTa mimarT am
siyvarulis Setyobineba da zrda, romelic aris mTeli mociqulobis suli.
saero pirebi gansakuTrebiT arian imisTvis mowodebuli, rom uzrunvelyon eklesiis Tandaswreba da qmediToba im adgilebsa da pirobebSi, sadac igi
mxolod maT mier SeiZleba iqces miwis marilad108. amgvarad, yvela eriskaci,
107
108

98

S. AUGUSTINUS, Serm. 340, 1: PL 38, 1483.


Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Quadragesimo anno, 15 maii 1931: AAS 23 (1931), pp. 221 s PIUS XII,

LUMEN GENTIUM

im niWTa gamo, romlebic mas ergo, aris eklesiis mowme da cocxali instrumenti, sazomisaebr niWisa qristesisa (efes. 4, 7).
am mociqulobis garda, romelic uklebliv yvela qristians exeba, saeroni SeiZleba sxvagvaradac iyvnen mowodebulni ierarqiis mociqulobasTan
ufro mWidro TanamSromlobisTvis,109 im kacTa da qalTa msgavsad, romlebic mociqul pavles saxarebaSi exmarebodnen da romlebmac uflis mier bevri iRvawes (Sdr. fil. 4, 3; rom. 16, 3). garda amisa, maT ierarqiisgan eZlevaT
SesaZlebloba, garkveuli saeklesio funqciebis SesrulebaSi miiRon monawileoba, romelic sulier miznebs emsaxureba.
maSasadame, yvela eriskacs TanamSromlobis SesaniSnavi tvirTi akisria,
rom gamoxsnis saRmrTo gegma sul ufro da ufro Seexos yvela drois yvela
adamians, dedamiwis yvela kuTxeSi.
34. uzenaesi da saukuno mRvdelmsaxurma ieso qristem ineba, Tavisi mowmoba da msaxureba eriskacTa meSveobiTac ganegrZo. igi maT Tavisi suliT
cxovelyofs da ganuwyvetliv waaqezebs yovelgvari keTili da srulyofili saqmisken.
xolo maT, vinc ufalma Rrmad daukavSira Tavis cxovrebasa da misias, igi
aniWebs Tavisi samRvdlo movaleobis nawils, raTa sruldebodes sulieri
RmrTismsaxureba RmrTis sadideblad da adamianTa gamosaxsnelad. amitom
arian saeroni qristesTvis miZRvnilni (dicati) da suli wmidiT cxebulni. isini saocrad arian mowodebulni da ganswavlulni imisaTvis, rom maTSi suli
wmidis sul ufro uxvi nayofi iqmnebodes. marTlac, maTi yvela saqme, locva
da samociqulo wamowyeba, saqorwino da saojaxo cxovreba, yoveldRiuri
Sroma, sulisa da sxeulis dasveneba, Tu is sulis mier (in Spirito) sruldeba,
cxovrebis tkivilebic ki, Tu maTi atana moTminebiT xdeba, yovelive es iqceva Sesawiravad msxuerplTa sulierTa, saTnoTa RmrTisaTa ieso qristes
mier (1petr. 2, 5). am msxverplis mamisTvis mirTmeva xdeba udidesi mowiwebiT ziarebis aRsrulebisas, uflis sxeulis mitanasTan erTad (quae in Eucharistiae celebratione, cum dominici Corporis onlatione). amgvarad xdeba Tavad samyaros
miZRvna RmrTisaTvis im eriskacTa meSveobiT, romlebic RmrTis Tayvanismcemelni arian da yovelTvis wmidad moqmedeban.
35. qriste, didi winaswarmetyveli, romelmac cxovrebis mowmeobiT da
sityvis ZaliT mamis meufeba (regnum) gamoacxada, Tavis winaswarmetyvelur
funqcias asrulebs didebis srul gamovlenamde, ara marto ierarqiis meSveobiT, romelic uflis saxeliTa da ZaliT moZRvravs, aramed eriskacTa
meSveobiTac, romlebic amisTvis mowmeebad daayena da sarwmunoebis grZnobiTa da sityvis madliT aRWurva (Sdr. saqme 2, 17-18; gamocx. 19, 10), raTa
saxarebis Zala gabrwyindes yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi, ojaxursa da sazogadoebrivSi. isini aRTqmis (repromissionis) Svilebad warmodgebian, Tu mtkiceni
rwmeniTa da imediT, awmyoTi isargebleben (Sdr. efes. 5, 16; kol. 4, 5) da momaval didebas moTminebiT moelian (Sdr. rom. 8, 25). dae, am imeds sulis siRrmeSi nu daimarxaven, aramed mudmivi moqceviTa da brZoliT soflis mpyrobelTa mimarT bnelisa mis amis sawuTrosa, sulTa mimarT ukeTurebisaTa
(efes. 6, 12) gamoxaton igi sekularuli cxovrebis struqurebSic.
axali kanonis saidumloni, romlebiTac sazrdoobs erTgulTa cxovreba
da mociquloba, saxavs axal casa da axal qveyanas (Sdr. gamocx. 21, 1). aseve
eriskacebi iqcevian Zlier mauwyeblebad im saqmeebisa, romlebsac moelian
(Sdr. ebr. 11, 1), Tu uyoymanod ukavSireben sarwmunoebiT cxovrebas sarwmualloc. De quelle consolation, 14 oct. 1951: AAS 43 (1951), pp. 790 s.
109 Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. Six ans se sont couls, 5 oct. 1957: AAS 49 (1957), p. 927.

99

vatikanis II kreba

noebis aRmsareblobas. aseTi saxareba, ese igi qristes Sesaxeb uwyeba (nuntium Christi), romelic cxovrebis mowmeobiTa da sityviT xorcieldeba, gansakuTrebul niSansa da Tavisebur qmediTobas imitom iZens, rom is saukunis
Cveulebriv pirobebSi sruldeba.
am msaxurebaSi gansakuTrebiT Zvirfasi Cans cxovrebis is statusi, romlis wmida-yofa gansakuTrebuli saidumloTi xdeba, anu saqorwino da ojaxuri cxovrebiT. eriskacTa mociqulobisTvis asparezi da brwyinvale skola iq aris, sadac qristianuli religia cxovrebis mTel wyobas msWvalavs da
mas yoveldRiurad gardasaxavs. iq meuRleebs sakuTari mowodeba aqvT: erTmaneTisa da SvilebisTvis isini unda iyvnen sarwmunoebisa da qristes siyvarulis mowmeni. qristianuli ojaxi xmamaRla ganacxadebs rogorc RmrTis
meufebis awmyo sikeTeebs, aseve netari cxovrebis imeds. amgvarad, Tavisi
magaliTiTa da mowmeobiT igi samyaros amxels codvaSi da WeSmaritebis maZieblebs anaTlebs.
amitom eriskacebs, maSinac, roca isini droebiTi zrunviT arian dakavebulni, SeuZliaT da unda gaakeTon kidec Rirebuli saqme samyaros evangelizaciisTvis. maTgan zogierTi SeZlebisdagvarad garkveul wmida samsaxursac asrulebs, Mroca mRvdelmsaxurTa naklebobaa an roca mRvdelmsaxurni
devnis pirobebSi Tavisuflad ver moqmedeben. mravali eriskaci mTel Tavis
Zalas samociqulo saqmes axmars, da mainc yvelam unda iTanamSromlos samyaroSi qristes meufebis gavrcelebisa da zrdisaTvis. amitom eriskacebi
ufro Rrmad unda Caswvdnen gancxadebul WeSmaritebas da RmerTs sibrZnis
niWi daJinebiT sTxovon.
36. qriste, romelic morCili gaxda sikvdilamde da amis gamo mamisgan iqna
amaRlebuli (Sdr. fil. 2, 8-9), Tavisi meufebis didebaSi Sevida. mas yvela
emorCileba, sanam igi mamas Tavis Tavsa da yvela qmnilebas daumorCilebs,
raTa iyos RmerTi yovlad yovelsa Sina (Sdr. 1kor. 15, 27-28). es Zalaufleba man mowafeebs gauziara, raTa isinic samefo TavisuflebaSi damkvidrdnen
da sakuTari Tavis uaryofiTa (sui abnegatione) da wmida cxovrebiT sZlion Tavis TavSi codvis meufebas (Sdr. rom. 6, 12); gauziara imisTvisac, raTa mowafeebi mas, qristes, sxva adamianTa meSveobiTac emsaxuron da Tavis Zmebs morCilebiTa da moTminebiT gauZRvnen mefesTan, romlisadmi msaxureba meufeba
aris. marTlac, ufals surs Tavisi meufeba erTgul eriskacTa meSveobiTac
gaavrcelos. es aris meufeba WeSmaritebisa da cxovrebis, siwmidisa da madlis, meufeba samarTlis, siyvarulisa da mSvidobis,110 meufeba, romelSic
TT igica dabadebuli gan-ve-Tavisufldes monebisagan xrwnilebisa aznaurebasa mas didebisa SvilTa RmrTisaTa (rom. 8, 21). marTlac didia dapireba
da didia davaleba, romelic mowafeebs mieca: yovelive Tqueni ars, xolo
Tquen qristesni, xolo qriste RmrTisa (1kor. 3, 23).
maSasadame, erTgulebma RmrTis sadideblad unda cnon mTeli qmnilebis
Sinagani buneba, Rirebuleba da daniSnuleba (ordinationem), da, ufro wmida
cxovrebisaTvis, erTmaneTs sekularuli saqmeebiTac Seewion, raTa samyaro
ganimsWvalos qristes suliT da meti warmatebiT miaRwios Tavis mizans samarTalSi, siyvarulsa da mSvidobaSi. am movaleobis sayovelTao aRsrulebaSi eriskacebs gansakuTrebuli adgili ukaviaT. dae, saero saqmeebSi Tavisi
kompetenturobiTa da saqmianobiT, qristes Sinaganad amaRlebuli madliT,
maT safuZvlianad xeli Seuwyon imas, rom sikeTeni, Seqmnilni Semoqmedis
ganzraxviTa (ordinationem) da misi sityvis naTebiT (illuminationem), damuSavdnen adamianuri SromiT, teqnikiTa da kulturiT uklebliv yvela adamianis
sakeTildReod, maT Soris ufro mizanSewonilad ganawildnen, raTa Tavise110

100

Sesavlidan qriste-mefis dResaswaulisaTvis.

LUMEN GENTIUM

burad migviyvanon sayovelTao progresamde adamianuri da qristianuli Tavisuflebis saqmeSi. amgvarad, eklesiis asoTa saSualebiT qriste sul ufro
gaanaTebs mTels adamianur sazogadoebas Tavisi mxsneli naTeliT.
garda amisa, eriskacebma gaerTianebuli ZalebiT unda gaajansaRon saqveyno dawesebulebani da arsebuli viTareba, Tu is codvisken ubiZgebs,
raTa es yvelaferi Seesabamos samarTlis normebs. amgvarad, maT sikeTes dabrkolebebi ki ar unda Seuqmnan, aramed mis ganviTarebas Seuwyon xeli. aseTi
qmedebiT isini kulturasa da adamianur saqmeebs moraluri RirebulebiT
gamsWvalaven. qveynis mindori ase ufro kargad ganmzaddeba saRmrTi sityvis Teslebis misaRebad, da eklesiis karni ufro farTod ganiRebian, raTa
maTi gziT Semovides mSvidobis uwyeba (praeconium).
Tavad gamoxsnis gangebulebis gamo erTgulebma unda iswavlon safuZvliani garCeva, erTis mxriv, im uflebebisa da movaleobebis, romlebic maT
imis gamo akisriaT, rom isini eklesias ekuTvnian, meores mxriv ki im uflebebisa da movaleobebisa, romlebic maT rogorc adamianuri sazogadoebis
wevrebs gaaCniaT. maT unda iRvawon imisTvis, rom erTica da meorec erTmaneTTan harmoniul kavSirSi moiyvanon, da unda axsovdeT, rom nebismier droebiT saqmeSi qristianuli sindisiT (conscientia) unda ixelmZRvanelon,radgan
arcerTi adamianuri qmedeba, maT Soris warmavali saqmec, RmrTis meufebas
(imperio) ver ascdeba. Cvens droSi gansakuTrebiT aucilebelia, rom gansxvavebac da harmoniac rac SeiZleba ufro naTlad gamosWviodes erTgulTa
qmedebaSi, raTa eklesiis misia ufro meti sisavsiT pasuxobdes dRevandeli
samyaros ama Tu im garemoebas. maSasadame, erTis mxriv, unda vaRiaroT, rom
miwieri qalaqi, (terrenam civitatem), sekularul zrunvas kanonierad mindobili, imarTeba sakuTari principebiT, xolo meores mxriv, damsaxurebulad
unda uarvyoT is uazro moZRvreba, romelic cdilobs sazogadoebis aSenebas religiis sruliad gauTvaliswineblad, agreTve ebrZvis da spobs moqalaqeTa religiur Tavisuflebas.111
37. eriskacebs, rogorc yvela qristes erTguls, aqvT ufleba, wmida mwyemsebisgan uxvad miiRon daxmareba sulieri sikeTeebidan, upirveles yovlisa RmrTis sityvisa da saidumloTagan.112 dae, am mwyemsebis winaSe maT naTeli gaxadon Tavisi moTxovnebi da survilebi im TavisuflebiTa da ndobiT,
romelic Seefereba RmrTis Svilebsa da qristes mier Zmebs. codnis, kompetenturobisa da gamorCeulobis Sesabamisad, maT aqvT unari da zogjer valdebulebac, rom ganacxadon Tavisi azri imis Sesaxeb, rac eklesiis sikeTes
exeba.113 es SeZlebisdagvarad unda keTdebodes eklesiis mier am mizniT daarsebuli dawesebulebebis meSveobiT, keTdebodes mudam simarTliT, Tamamad
da gonivrulad, pativiscemiTa da siyvaruliT maT mimarT, vinc Tavisi wmida
movaleobis gamo qristes ganasaxierebs.
eriskacebma, rogorc yvela qristes erTgulma, qristianuli morCilebiT da uyoymanod unda miiRon is, rasac adgenen eklesiaSi wmida mwyemsebi,
rogorc qristes warmomadgenlebi, maswavleblebi da xelmZRvanelebi. isini mihyvebian qristes magaliTs, romelmac sikvdilamde Tavisi morCilebiT
yvela adamians ganuRo RmrTis SvilTa Tavisuflebis netari gza. maT ar
111 Sdr. LEO XII, encycl. Immortale Dei, 1 nov. 1885: ASS (1885), pp. 166ss. misive, encycl. Sapientiae christianae, 10 ian. 1890: ASS 22 (1889-90), pp. 397ss. PIUS XII, alloc. Alla vostra filiale, 23 mart.
1958: AAS 50 (1958), p. 220: la legitima sana laicit dello Stato [saxelmwifos kanonieri jansaRi
saero xasiaTi].
112 Cod. Iur. Can., can. 682.
113 Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. De quelle consolation, l.c., p. 789: gadamwyvet brZolebSi yvelaze
ufro warmatebuli iniciativa zogjer frontis wina xazidan modis misive, alloc. Limportance de la presse catholique, 17 febr. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), p. 256.

101

vatikanis II kreba

unda daaviwydeT, Tavisi locvebSi RmerTs warudginon (commendare) Tavisi


winamZRvarni, romlebic fxizloben Cveni sulebisTvis, TiTqos maTTvis angariSi unda agon; raTa sixaruliT amas hyofden da ara sulT-iTqumiden
(ebr. 13, 17).
Tavis mxriv, wmida mwyemsebma unda scnon eriskacTa Rirseba da pasuxismgebloba eklesiaSi da mas xeli Seuwyon. dae, nebayoflobiT isargeblon
eriskacTa rCeviT, darwmunebiT miandon maT movaleoba eklesiis samsaxurSi, samoqmedod Tavisufleba da asparezi dauTmon da gaamxnevon, raTa eriskacebma sakuTari surviliT saqme wamoiwyon. is gegmebi, survilebi da miswrafebebi, romlebic eriskacebisgan modis, mwyemsebma mamobrivi siyvaruliTa da dakvirvebiT qristeSi unda ganWvriton.114 mwyemsebma pativiscemiT
unda aRiaron samarTliani Tavisufleba, romelic miwier qalaqSi yvelas
ekuTvnis.
eriskacebsa da mwyemsebs Soris arsebuli es mWidro urTierToba eklesias bevr sikeTes uqadis: eriskacebSi mtkicdeba sakuTari pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba, viTardeba maTi mondomeba da ufro advilad erwymis maTi Zalebi mwyemsTa saqmianobas. am ukanasknelT, eriskacTa gamocdilebis daxmarebiT, SeuZliaT ufro zustad da ukeTesad gansajon rogorc sulieri
aseve warmavali saqmeebi, raTa mTelma eklesiam, yvela Tavisi asoTi ganmtkicebulma, ufro nayofierad aRasrulos Tavisi misia samyaros cxovrebis
sasargeblod.
38. yoveli eriskaci unda iyos qveynis winaSe ufali iesos aRdgomisa da
cxovrebis mowme da cocxali RmrTis niSani. yvelam erTad da TiToeulma
calcalke sulieri nayofiT unda kvebos samyaro (Sdr. gal. 5, 22), masSi suli
(spiritum) ganavrcos, romelic cxovel-yofs (animantur) im glaxakebs, mSvidebsa
da mSvidobismyofelebs, romlebic ufalma saxarebaSi netarebad gamoacxada (Sdr. maT. 5, 3-9). erTi sityviT, rac mSvinva aris sxeulSi, is unda iyvnen
qristianebi samyaroSi.115
Tavi V
sayovelTao mowodeba siwmidisaken eklesiaSi
39. gvwams, rom Seuryevlad wmidaa eklesia, romlis saidumlos wmida kreba warmogvidgens. xolo qristem, Zem RmrTisam, romelic mamasa da sulTan
erTad mxolod wmidad iwodeba (celebratur),116 Seiyvara eklesia rogorc sZali Tvisi da Tavi Tsi misca misTs, raTa igi wmida-yos (efes. 5, 25-26). man
eklesia rogorc Tavisi sxeuli SemoierTa da aavso igi suli wmidis niWiT
RmrTis sadideblad. amitom eklesiaSi yvela isinic, vinc ierarqias ekuTvnis da isinic, vinc misgan imwyemseba mowodebulia siwmidisken, Tanaxmad
mociqulisa: rameTu ese ars neba RmrTisa, siwmide ege Tqueni (1Tes. 4, 3;
Sdr. efes. 1, 4). eklesiis es siwmide uwyvetliv vlindeba da unda gamovlindes madlis im nayofebSi, romlebsac suli erTgulTa wiaRSi warmoqmnis. igi
mravalferovnad gamoixateba yvelaSi, vinc Tavis cxovrebis wessSi siyvarulis srulyofisken miiswrafis da sxvebs ganaswavlis. raRac gansakuTrebuli saxiT igi vlindeba rCevaTa praqtikaSi, romlebsac Cveulebriv evangelurs uwodeben. rCevaTa es praqtika, romelic suli wmidis zemoqmedebiT
114 Sdr. 1Tes. 5, 19 da 1ioan. 4, 1.
115 Epist. ad Diognetum, 6: FUNK I, p. 400 . Sdr. S. IO. CHRYSOSTOMUS, In Mt. Hom. 46 (47), 2:
PG 58, 478 (safuaris Sesaxeb comSi).
116 Missale Romanum, Gloria in excelsis. Sdr. luk. 1, 35; mark. 1, 24; luk. 4, 34; ioan. 6, 69 (ho
hagios tou Theou); saqme 3, 14; 4, 27 da 30; ebr. 7, 26; 1ioan. 2, 20; gamocx. 3, 7.

102

LUMEN GENTIUM

mravalma qristianma miiRo, iqneba es kerZod Tu eklesiis mier damtkicebul


mdgomareobasa da statusSi, gvaZlevs da unda gvaZlevdes am siwmidis ucxades mowmobasa da magaliTs.
40. yovelgvari srulyofis saRmrTo maswavlebelma da nimuSma, ufalma iesom uqadaga yvelasa da TiToeul Tavis mowafes, rogor pirobebSic ar unda
yofiliyvnen isini, cxovrebis siwmide, romlis Semoqmedi da Semsrulebeli
Tavad aris: iyveniT Tquen srul, viTarca mama Tqueni zecaTa srul ars
(maT. 5, 48).117 marTlac, man yvelaSi moavlina suli wmida, romelic maT Signidan SeZravs, raTa mTeli Tavisi guliT, suliT, gonebiTa da ZaliT uyvardeT
RmerTi (Sdr. mark. 12, 30) da erTmaneTic uyvardeT rogorc qristem Seiyvara
isini (Sdr. ioan. 13, 34; 15, 12). qristes mimdevarni, RmrTisagan mowodebulni
da ufali iesos mier gamarTlebulni ara Tavis saqmeTa gamo, aramed RmrTis
ganzraxviTa da madliT, namdvilad iqcnen rwmenis naTlobiT RmrTis Svilebad da saRmrTo bunebis moziareebad, da amdenad, marTlac wmidanebad.
amitom es wmidayofa maT, RmrTis madliT, unda Tavisi cxovrebis gziT Seinaxon da srulyon. mociquli mouwodebs, icxovron viTarca Suenis wmidaTa
(efes. 5, 3), da Semoison viTarca rCeulTa RmrTisaTa, wmidaTa da sayuarelTa, mowyaleba, Sewynareba, sitkboeba, simdable, simSde, sulgrZeleba
(kol. 3, 12), da hqondeT nayofni sulisa siwmidisTvis (Sdr. gal. 5, 22; rom. 6,
22). rameTu friad vscTebiT yovelnive (iak. 3, 2), mudam gvWirdeba RmrTis
wyaloba da yoveldRe unda vilocoT: da momiteven Cuen Tana-nadebni Cuenni (maT. 6, 12).118
amitom yvelasTvis cxadia, rom nebismieri statusisa Tu xarisxis qristes
erTgulni mowodebulni arian qristianuli cxovrebis sisavsisa da siyvarulis srulyofilebisaken;119 es siwmide xels uwyobs miwier sazogadoebaSic
cxovrebis ufro humanuri wesis damkvidrebas. srulyofilebis misaRwevad
erTgulebma qristesgan moniWebul Zalebs unda mouxmon, raTa mis kvals
gahyvnen, misi Tanasaxovanni gaxdnen, yvelaferSi mamis nebas daemorCilon
da mTeli suliT Tavi miuZRvnan mamis didebasa da axloblis msaxurebas. ase
gadaizrdeba RmrTis eris siwmide nayofTa siuxveSi, rac naTlad vlindeba
eklesiis istoriaSi mravali wmidanis cxovrebis magaliTze.
41. sxvadasxva cxovrebis wessa da samsaxurSi yvela, visac RmrTis suli
warmarTavs, srulqmnis erTsa da imave siwmides. isini emorCilebian mamis
xmas, suliTa da WeSmaritebiT mama RmerTs scemen Tayvans da mihyvebian qristes Raribs, mdabalsa da jvris mtvirTvels, raTa daimsaxuron misi didebis moziareoba. TiToeulma, Tavis sakuTar niWTa da funqciaTa Sesabamisad,
mtkiced unda iaros cocxali sarwmunoebis gzaze, romelic imeds aRZravs
da siyvaruliT moqmedebs.
qristes samwysos mwyemsebma, upirveles yovlisa, unda aRasrulon Tavisi
msaxureba wmidad da mondomebiT, mokrZalebiT da mtkiced, uzenaesi da saukuno mRvdelmsaxuris, Cveni sulebis mwyemsisa da episkoposis xatad. amgvarad aRsrulebuli msaxureba maTTvisve iqceva wmidayofis yvelaze ufro
amaRlebul saSualebad. mRvdelsaxurebis sisrulisaTvis rCeulni iReben
117 Sdr. ORIGENES, Comm. Rom. 7, 7: PG 14, 1122 B. Ps.-MACARIUS, De Oratione, 11: PG 34,
861 AB. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. II-II, q. 184, a. 3.
118 Sdr. S. AUGUSTINUS, Retract. II, 18: PL 32, 637s. PIUS XII, encycl. Mistici Corporis, 29 iun.
1943: AAS 35 (1943), p. 225.
119 Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Rerum omnium, 26 ian. 1923: AAS 15 (1923), p. 50 da pp. 59-60. misive,
encycl. casti Connubii, 31 dec. 1930: AAS 22 (1930), p. 548. PIUS XII, Const. apost. Provida Mater, 2 febr.
1947: AAS 39 (1947), p. 117. Alloc. Annus sacer, 8 dec. 1950: AAS 43 (1951), pp. 27-28. Alloc. Nel darvi, 1
iul. 1956: AAS 48 (1956), pp. 574.

103

vatikanis II kreba

saidumlo madls, raTa locviT, msxverplSewirviTa da qadagebiT, saepiskoposo zrunvisa da msaxurebis yvela saSualebiT, srulyofilad aRasrulon
samRvdlo siyvarulis funqcia,120 ar SeuSindnen, Tavisi suli dasdon cxvrebisTvis, samwysos nimuSad iqcnen (Sdr. 1petre 5, 3), da amgvarad, sakuTari
magaliTiT eklesias sul ufro meti siwmidisken gauZRvnen.
mRvdlebi, episkoposTa xarisxis msgavsad, romelTa sulier gvirgvinsac
Tavad warmoadgenen,121 maTi movaleobis madls eziarebian qristes mier, romelic aris saukuno da erTaderTi Suamavali. Tavisi msaxurebis yoveldRiuri aRsrulebiT mRvdlebi unda gaizardon RmrTisa da moyvasis siyvaruliT, SeinarCunon samRvdelmsaxuro urTierTobis kavSiri, aRivson yovelgvari sulieri sikeTiTa da yvelas warmoudginon RmrTis cocxali mowmoba,122
im mRvdelTa mibaZviT, vinc saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi, xSirad Tavmdabali da
dafaruli msaxurebiT, datova siwmidis brwyinvale nimuSi. maTi qeba aris
RmrTis eklesiaSi. Tavisi mrevlisa da RmrTis mTeli erisTvis msaxurebisas
mlocvelni da msxverplis Semwirvelebi, isini acnobiereben, rasac akeTeben
da baZaven, rasac aRasruleben.123 samociqulo zrunvam, xifaTma da gansacdelma isini ar unda daabrkolos, piriqiT, maTi meSveobiT siwmidis kidev
ufro did simaRleze unda avidnen, Wvretis siuxviT Tavisi qmedeba unda
kvebon da asazrdoon, RmrTis mTeli eklesiis sasixarulod. dae, yvela mRvdelsa da gansakuTrebiT maT, vinc Tavisi sagangebo xeldasxmis gamo diocezuri mRvdelmsaxuris saxels atarebs, axsovdeT, ramdenad uwyobs xels maT
wmida-yofas maTive episkoposTan erTguli kavSiri da keTilSobili TanamSromloba.
uzenaesi mRvdelmsaxuris misiasa da madls gansakuTrebuli saxiT eziarebian ufro dabali xarisxis msaxurni, upirveles yovlisa diakonebi,
romlebic unda emsaxuron qristesa da eklesiis saidumloebebs (mysteriis),124
mankierebisgan Tavi daicvan, RmerTs asiamovnon da adamianTaTvis yovelgvari sikeTe uzrunvelyon (Sdr. 1tim. 3, 8-10 da 12-13). mRvdelmsaxurebma,
romlebsac ufalma mouwoda da Tavis wilSi Caayena (in partem Eius depositi) da
romlebic mwyemsTa zedamxedvelobiT msaxurebisTvis emzadebian, Tavisi
goneba da guli unda miusadagon aseT brwyinvale rCeulobas, iyvnen locvaSi muyaiTni, siyvarulSi mgznebareni, fiqrobdnen imaze, rac WeSmaritia, samarTliania da sasaxelo, da yvelaferi aRasrulon RmrTis didebisa da pativisaTvis. maT emateba RmrTisgan rCeuli eriskacebi: samociqulo saqmeebs
rom srulad miecnen, episkoposisgan mowodebulni, isini didi nayofierebiT
iRwvian uflis mindorSi.125
xolo qristianma meuRleebma da mSoblebma unda misdion sakuTar gzas
da erTguli siyvaruliT mTeli cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi erTmaneTs madliT
daexmaron. maT unda gadascen qristianuli moZRvreba da saxarebiseuli sikeTeebi STamomavlobas, romelic RmrTisagan ergoT. ase aZleven isini yvelas dauRalavi da keTilSobili siyvarulis magaliTs, aSeneben siyvarulis
Zmobas da xdebian deda eklesiis nayofierebis mowmeni da TanamSromlebi,
niSnad da ziarebad im siyvarulisa, romliTac qristem Seiyvara Tavisi sZali, roca Tavi misca misTvis.126 msgavs magaliTs sxvagvari saxiT warmogvid120 Sdr. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. II-II, q. 184, a. 5 da 6; De perf. vitae spir., c. 18. ORIGENES,
In Is. Hom. 6, 1: PG 13, 239.
121 Sdr. S. IGNATIUS M., Magn. 13, 1: FUNK I, p. 241.
122 Sdr. S. PIUS X, exhort. haerent animo, 4 aug. 1908: ASS 41 (1908), pp. 560 s. Cod. Iur. Can., can.
124. PIUS XI, encycl. Ad catholici sacerdotii, 20 dec. 1935: AAS 28 (1936), pp. 22 s.
123 Ordo consecrationis sacerdotalis, in exhortatione initiali.
124 Sdr. S. IGNATIUS M., Trall. 2, 3: FUNK I, p. 244.
125 Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. Sous la maternelle protection, 9 dec. 1957: AAS 50 (1958), p. 36.
126 PIUS XI, encycl. Casti Connubii, 31 dec. 1930: AAS 22 (1930), pp. 548s. Sdr. S. IO. CHRYSOS

104

LUMEN GENTIUM

genen qvrivni da dauqorwinebelni: maTac SeuZliaT didad xeli Seuwyon eklesiaSi siwmidesa da qmediTobas. xolo isini, vinc SromiT, xSirad mZimeTi,
aris datvirTuli, ufro srulyofilni unda gaxdnen am adamianuri saqmeebis meSveobiT; isini unda daexmaron Tanamoqalaqeebs da mTeli sazogadoeba
da qmnileba win waswion. maT unda mibaZon qristes, romelic Tavad misdevda
xeliT saqmianobas da yovelTvis iRwvoda mamasTan erTad yvelas gamoxsnisaTvis; qmediTi siyvaruliT, imediT savse sixaruliT, maT erTmaneTis tvirTi unda zidon da Tavisi yoveldRiuri SromiT avidnen ufro maRali donis
siwmidemde, TviT samociqulo siwmidemdec.
dae, icodnen maT, vinc siRaribiT, uZlurebiT, avadmyofobiTa da sxvadasxva gaWirvebiT aris Sewuxebuli, an devnas ganicdis simarTlisaTvis, rom
isini gansakuTrebulad erTianni arian qristesTan, romelmac ivno samyaros
gamoxsnisaTvis. ufalma isini saxarebaSi netarebad gamoacxada: RmerTman
yovlisa madlisaman, romelman giCinna Tquen saukunesa mas didebasa missa
qriste iesos mier, mcired-Ra Tu gevno, manve gangamtkicenin Tquen, gangaZlierenin da dagamyarenin (1petr. 5, 10).
amgvarad, yvela qristes erTguli sul ufro metad wmida gaxdeba Tavisi
cxovrebis pirobebSi, saqmianobasa da garemoebaSi, _ da swored amis meSveobiT, _ Tu igi yvelafers rwmeniT miiRebs zeciuri mamis xelidan da saRmrTo nebasTan iTanamSromlebs, da Tavis droebiT msaxurebaSi yvelas gamoumJRavnebs siyvaruls, romliTac mamam samyaro Seiyvara.
42. @RmerTi siyuaruli ars da romeli egos siyuarulsa zeda, RmerTi
mis Tana hgies da igi RmrTisa Tana (1ioane 4, 16). RmerTma Tavisi siyvaruli
Cvens gulebSi ganfina suliTa wmidiTa, romeli-igi mocemul ars Cuenda
(Sdr. rom. 5, 5). amitom upirvelesi da Yyvelaze aucilebeli niWi siyvarulia,
romliTac gviyvars RmerTi yvelaferze metad da gviyvars moyvasi RmrTis
gamo. imisaTvis rom siyvaruli, rogorc keTili Tesli, izrdebodes da
nayofs isxamdes sulSi, yvela erTgulma xalisiT unda isminos RmrTis sityva da, misi madlis xelSewyobiT, misi neba saqmiT aRasrulos. man unda xSirad
miiRos monawileoba saidumloebSi, upirveles yovlisa ziarebaSi, agreTve
RmrTismsaxurebaSi (sacris actionibus), gulmodgined mieces locvas, sakuTari
Tavisgan gandgomas da misdios qmediT Zmur msaxurebasa da yovelgvari sikeTis ganxorcielebas. marTlac, siyvaruli, rogorc sisrulis kavSiri da kanonis sisavse (Sdr. kol. 3, 14; rom. 13, 10), warmarTavs wmida-yofis yvela saSualebas, saxes aZlevs maT da miznisken uZRveba.127 amitom qristes WeSmariti
mowafe aRiniSneba rogorc RmrTisadmi, aseve moyvasisadmi siyvaruliT.
iesom, Zem RmrTisam, gamoavlina Tavisi siyvaruli, roca dado Tavisi
suli CvenTvis, da aravis aqvs ufro didi siyvaruli, vidre mas, vinc dado
Tavisi suli misTvis da Tavisi ZmebisTvis (Sdr. 1ioan. 3, 16; ioan. 15, 13). zogierTi qristiani uZvelesi droidan iyo mowodebuli (da yovelTvis iqneba
mowodebuli) imisaTvis, rom warmoadginos siyvarulis udidesi mowmoba yvelas winaSe, gansakuTrebiT mdevnelTa winaSe. amitom eklesia afasebs martvilobas, rogorc gansakuTrebul niWs da siyvarulis uzenaes gamocdas.
martvilobiT mowafe emsgavseba maswavlebels, romelmac samyaros gamosxnisaTvis nebayoflobiT daiTmina sikvdili, da misi saxovani xdeba sisxlis
daRvris Sedegad. Tumca es cota vinmes eZleva, mainc yvela unda mzad iyos
qristes aRmsareblobisaTvis adamianTa winaSe da mas gahyves jvarcmis gzaze
devnaTa dros, romelTa naklebobas eklesia arasdros ganicdis.
TOMUS, In Ephes. hom. 20, 2: PG 62, 136ss.
127 Sdr. S. AUGUSTINUS, Enchir. 121, 32: PL 40, 288. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. II-II, q. 184, a.
1. PIUS XII, adhort. apost. Menti nostrae, 3 sept. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), p. 660.

105

vatikanis II kreba

eklesiis siwmides sagangebod asazrdoebs mravalgvari rCeva (consiliis),


romlebic gansaxilvelad ufalma saxarebaSi Tavis mowafeebs SesTavaza.128
maT Soris gamoirCeva saRmrTo madlis Zvirfasi niWi, romelic mamisgan
zogierTs eZleva (Sdr. maT. 19, 11; 1kor. 7, 7), raTa qalwulobaSi an dauqorwineblobaSi, ganuyofeli guliT (Sdr. 1kor. 7, 32-34) advilad miuZRvnan
Tavi mxolod RmerTs.129 am srulyofil SezRudvas (continentia), ganxorcielebuls cis sasufevlisTvis, eklesia yovelTvis didi pativiT epyroboda,
rogorc siyvarulis niSansa da stimuls da samyaroSi sulieri nayofierebis
gansakuTrebul wyaros.
eklesia ixsenebs mociqulis gafrTxilebasac, romelic erTgulebs siyvarulisken mouwodebs, da aqezebs, igive igrZnon, rasac ieso qriste grZnobda, romelmac Tavi Tsi daimdabla da xati monisa miiRo,... iqmna igi morCil
vidre sikudildmde (fil. 2, 7-8) da CvenTvis daglaxakna mdidari igi (2kor.
8, 9). aucilebelia, rom mowafeebma mudam mibaZon qristes am siyvarulsa da
simdables da mas mowmobdnen. amitom deda eklesias uxaria, rom mis wiaRSi
meti kacebi da qalebi Semodian, romlebic macxovris dacalierebas (exininationem) ufro erTgulad mihyvebian da mas ufro aSkarad avlenen, siglaxakes
RmrTis SvilTa TavisuflebaSi iReben da sakuTar nebaze uars amboben. isini
RmrTis gulisTvis adamians emorCilebian, iseTi srulyofilebiT, romelic
mcnebis zRvarsac ki scildeba, raTa morCilebiT kidev ufro metad miemsgavson qristes.130
amgvarad, yvela qristes erTguli mowodebulia imisTvis, rom iswrafodes siwmidisa da sakuTari mdgomareobis srulyofisaken. dae, ecadon,
Tavisi grZnobebi sworad warmarTon, raTa miwier saqmeTa sargeblobam da
simdidrisadmi midrekilebam, romelic saxarebiseuli siglaxakis suls upirispirdeba, ar daabrkolos miswrafeba srulyofili siyvarulisken. mociquli gvafrTxilebs: romelni imsaxurebden sofelsa amas, viTarmca ara imsaxureben, rameTu warmaval ars xati amis soflisa (1kor. 7, 31).131
Tavi VI
moweseni
43. RmrTisadmi miZRvnili ubiwoebis, siglaxakisa da morCilebis Sesaxeb
saxarebiseuli rCevebi emyareba uflis sityvebsa da magaliTebs da maT mociqulebi, eklesiis mamebi da mwyemsebi gvTavazoben. es rCevebi warmoadgens
saRmrTo niWs, romelic eklesiam Tavisi uflisgan miiRo da, misi madliT,
mas mudam inaxavs. eklesiis Zalauflebam suli wmidis winamZRolobiT izruna maTi ganmartebis, Sesrulebisa da maT safuZvelze cxovrebis myari
formebis CamoyalibebisTvis. rogorc RmrTivboZebuli nergidan aRmocenebuli xe gansacvifreblad da mravalferovnad ganitota uflis mindorSi,
ise amoizarda gandegili Tu sazogado cxovrebis sxvadasxva forma da sxvadasxva ojaxi, romelic sasargebloa rogorc misi wevrebisTvis, aseve qri128 rCevaTa Sesaxeb zogadad Sdr. ORIGENES, Comm. Rom. X, 14: PG 14, 1275 B. S. AUGUSINUS, De S. Virginitate, 15, 15: PL 40, 403. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. I-II, q. 100, a. 2 c (bolos); II-II,
q. 44, a. 4, ad 3.
129 wmida qalwulobis gansakuTrebulobisTvis Sdr. TERTULLIANUS, Exhort. Cast. 10:
PL 2, 925 C. S. CYPRIANUS, Hab. Virg. 3 da 22: PL 4, 443 B da 461 A s. S. ATHANASIUS, De Virg.: PG
28, 252 ss. S. IO. CHRYSOSTOMUS, De Virg. : PG 48, 533 ss.
130 sulieri siglaxakis Sesaxeb Sdr. maT. 5, 3 da 19, 21; mark. 10, 21; luk. 18, 22; morCilebasTan dakavSirebiT qristes magaliTi mocemulia: ioan. 4, 34 da 6, 38; fil. 2, 8-20; ebr.
10, 5-7. xSiria mamebTan da ordenebis damfuZneblebTan.
131 rCevaTa warmatebiT gamoyenebis Sesaxeb, romlebic yvelasTvis savaldebulo ar
aris, Sdr. S. IO. CHRYSOSTOMUS, In Mt. hom. 7, 7: PG 57, 81s. S. AMBROSIUS, De Viduis, 4, 23: PL
16, 241 s.

106

LUMEN GENTIUM

stes mTeli sxeulis keTildReobisTvis.132 es ojaxebi uzrunvelyofen Tavisi wevrebisTvis cxovrebis stabilurobasa da simtkices, moZRvrebas, srulyofilebisken swrafvisTvis gankuTvnils, saZmo kavSirs qristes mxedrobaSi (in militia Christi), agreTve morCilebiT ganmtkicebul Tavisuflebas, raTa
SeeZloT moweseTa saqmianobis (professionem) mtkiced Sesruleba, misi erTgulad Senaxva da sulismieri sixaruliT siyvarulis gzaze winsvla.133
es statusi, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT eklesiis saRmrTo da ierarqiul agebulebs, ar warmoadgens Sualeds mRvdelmsaxurebsa da eriskacTa mdgomareobas Soris, aramed orive mxridan zogierTi qristes erTguli mowodebulia
imisaTvis, raTa gaixaros eklesiis cxovrebaSi gansakuTrebuli niWiT da,
TiToeuli Taviseburad, emsaxuros eklesiis gamomxsnel misias.134
44. aRTqmebi da sxva wmida kavSirebi Tavisi arsiT im aRTqmebs hgavs, romelTa gamo qristes erTguli movalea, Seasrulos sami zemoxsenebuli saxarebiseuli rCeva. igi mTlianad eZleva RmerTs, romelic yvelaze ufro
sayvarelia, raTa axali da gansakuTrebuli statusiT (titulo) Tavi miuZRvnas
RmrTis msaxurebas da mis pativiscemas. naTlobis Sedegad igi mokvda codvisTvis da RmrTisaTvis iqna miZRvnili. magram naTlobis madlis meti nayofi
rom mokribos, igi cdilobs, eklesiaSi saxarebiseuli rCevebis SesrulebiT
gaTavisufldes im dabrkolebebisgan, romlebsac SeuZlia xeli SeuSalos
siyvarulis mgznebarebasa da saRmrTo msaxurebis srulyofilebaSi. amitom
uZRvnis igi Tavs meti siRrmiT saRmrTo msaxurebas.135 Tavis es miZRvna miT
ufro srulyofilia, rac ufro Zlieri da mtkice kavSiriT aris gamoxatuli
qriste, Tavis sZalTan eklesiasTan urRvevi kavSiriT SeerTebuli.
saxarebiseuli rCevebis meSveobiT siyvarulisken midian isini, vinc maT
misdevs136 da isini gansakuTrebuli saxiT ukavSirdebian eklesiasa da mis saidumlos, amitom maTi sulieri cxovrebac mTeli eklesiis sikeTes unda mieZRvnas. maTi movaleobaa, SeZlebisdagvarad da sakuTari mowodebis Seasabamisad,
locviT an raime qmediTi saqmiT iRvawon sulebSi qristes meufebis dafuZnebisa da ganmtkicebisTvis da yvela qveanaSi misi gavrcelebisTvis. amitom eklesia icavs da inaxavs moweseTa sxvadasxva insitutis Taviseburebas.
Sesabamisad, saxarebiseuli rCevebis aRiareba warmoadgens erTgvar
niSans, romelsac SeuZlia (da kidec unda gaakeTos es) warmatebiT moaxdinos
gavlena eklesiis yvela wevrze, raTa maT qristianuli mowodebis movaleobani gulmodgined Seasrulon. RmrTis ers mudmivi qalaqi ar gaaCnia, aramed is momavlis qalaqs eZebs. moweseebis statusi, romelic aTavisuflebs
maT mimdevrebs miwieri sazrunavisgan, yvela morwmunes ukve amqveynad gamouvlens ciur sikeTeebs da mowmobs axal da saukuno cxovrebas, mopovebuls qristesmieri gamosyidviT, da amcnobs momaval aRdgomasa da zeciuri
sasufevlis didebas. garda amisa, es statusi ukeTesad asaxavs da eklesiaSi yovelTvis gamoxatavs cxovrebis im formas, romelic Zem RmrTisam miiRo, roca movida qveynad mamis nebis aRsasruleblad da romelic man Tavis
mimdevar mowafeebs SesTavaza. da bolos, igi gansakuTrebulad cxadyofs
132 Sdr. ROSWEYDUS, Vitae Patrum, Antwerpiae, 1628. Apophtegmata Patrum: PG 65. PALLADIUS, Historia Lauciaca: PG 34 995 ss.: ed. C. BUTLER, Cambridge 1898 (1904). PIUS XI, Const. apost.
Umbratilem, 8 iul. 1924: AAS 16 (1924), pp. 386-387. PIUS XII, alloc. Nous sommes hereux, 11 apr. 1958: AAS
50 (1958), p. 283.
133 PAULUS VI, alloc. Magno gaudio, 23 maii 1964: AAS 56 (1964), p. 566.
134 Sdr. Cod. Iur. Can., c. 487 da 488, 4. PIUS XII, alloc. Annus sacer, 8 dec. 1950: AAS 43 (1951),
pp. 27s. PIUS XII, Const. apost. Provida Mater, 2 febr.1947: AAS 39 (947), pp. 120ss.
135 PAULUS VI, l.c., p. 567.
136 Sdr. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. II-II, q. 184, a. 3 da q. 188, a. 2. S. BONAVENTURA, Opusc.
XI, Apologia Pauperum, c. 3, 3: QUARACCHI, t. 8, 1898, p. 245 a.

107

vatikanis II kreba

RmrTis sasufevlis uzenaesobas yovelive miwierTan SedarebiT da mis umaRles moTxovnebs. igi aCvenebs yvela adamians meufe qristes Zlierebis sidiades da suli wmidis usazRvro Zalas, romelic gansacvifreblad moqmedebs
eklesiaSi.
amgvarad, es statusi arsebobs saxarebiseul rCevaTa Sesrulebis safuZvelze; eklesiis ierarqiul struqturas igi ar exeba, magram misi cxovrebisa
da siwmidis ganuyofel nawils warmoadgens.
45. saeklesio ierarqiis movaleoba aris RmrTis eris mwyemsva da misi gayvana noyier saZovarze (Sdr. ezek. 34, 14), amitom manve Tavisi kanonebiT unda
brZnulad warmarTos saxarebiseuli rCevebis Sesruleba, romelTa xelSewyobiT RmrTisa da moyvasis mimarT siyvaruli gansakuTrebiT srulyofili
xdeba.137 Tavad ierarqia morCilad misdevs suli wmidis miswrafebas, iRebs
wesebs, brwyinvale kacTa da qalTa mier mocemuls, Semdgom daamuSavebs
maT da WeSmaritad aRiarebs. garda amisa, igi Tavisi uflebamosilebiT zedamxedvelobs da mfarvelobs qristes sxeulis agebisaTvis aqa Tu iq daarsebul institutebs, raTa isini gaizaron da ayvavdnen maTi damarseblebis
sulis msgavsad.
uzenaes pontifeqss, sayovelTao eklesiaSi misi pirvelobis ZaliTa da
sazogado sargeblobis gaTvaliswinebiT, SeuZlia gamoricxos srulyofis
nebismieri instituti da misi calkeuli wevri adgilobriv ordinariusTa
iurisdiqciidan, raTa isini mxolod mas, pontifeqss daeqvemdebaron.138 aseve SesaZloa, isini miandon an miabaron sakuTar sapatriarqo xelisuflebas.
wevrebi, romlebic eklesias Tavisi cxovrebis TaviseburebaTa Sesabamisad
emsaxurebian, kanonikuri wesebiT Tanaxmad unda avlendnen pativiscemasa da
morCilebas eposkoposTa mimarT, calkeul eklesiaSi maTi samwyso (pastoralem) uflebamosilebis gamo da samociqulo muSaobaSi aucilebeli erTianobisa da TanxmobisaTvis.139
eklesias Tavisi sanqciiT moweseTa saqmianoba (professionem religiosam) ara
marto kanonikuri Rirsebis statusamde ahyvas, aramed liturgiuli qmedebiT mis RmrTisadmi miZRvnil statussac warmoaCens. Tavad eklesia, RmrTisagan boZebuli uflebamosilebiT, iRebs aRmsarebelTa aRTqmebs, Tavis
sajaro locvaSi RmerTs sTxovs maTTvis daxmarebasa da madls, maT RmerTs
miandobs, sulierad dalocavs (spiritualem benedictionem impertitur) da maT ZRvens
(oblationem) evqaristiul msxverplSewirvas uerTebs.
46. moweseni gulmodgined unda iswrafodnen imisken, rom maTi meSveobiT
eklesia sul ufro ukeTesad warmouCendes qristes rogorc erTgulebs,
aseve ara erTgulebs, roca igi, mTaze Cafiqrebuli (contamplantem), xalxs
(turbis) RmrTis sasufevels gamoucxadebs, an sneulebsa da sustebs kurnavs
da codvilebs keTili nayofisken moaqcevs, an kidev bavSvebs dalocavs. igi
yvelas keTilismyofelia da yovelTvis emorCileba nebas mamisas, romelmac
moavlina.140
da bolos, yvelas unda esmodes, rom saxarebiseul rCevaTa Sesrulebas
Tumca ki mosdevs gandgoma im sikeTeebisgan, romelTa Rirebuleba udaoa,
137 Sdr. CONC. VAT. I, sqema De Ecclesia Christi, cap. XV da SeniSnva 48: MANSI 51, 549 s. da
619s. LEO XII, epist. Au milieu des consolations, 23 dec. 1900: ASS 33 (1900-01), p. 361. PIUS XII, Const.
apost. Provida Mater, l.c., pp. 114 s.
138 Sdr. LEO XII, Const. Romanos Pontifices, 8 maii 1881: ASS 13 (1880-81), p. 483. PIUS XII alloc.
Annus sacer, 8 dec. 1950: AAS 43 (1951), pp. 28 s.
139 Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. annus sacer, l.c., p. 28. PIUS XII, Const. apost. Sedes Sapientiae, 31 maii
1956: AAS 48 (1956), p. 355. - PAULUS VI, l.c., pp. 570-571.
140 Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Mystici Corporis, 29 iun. 1943: AAS 35 (1943), pp. 214 s.

108

LUMEN GENTIUM

is mainc ar warmoadgens dabrkolebas adamianis pirovnebis WeSmariti ganviTarebisTvis, aramed piriqiT: mas Tavisi bunebiT yovelmxriv xels uwyobs. rCevebi, romlebsac TiToeuli adamiani Tavisi pirovnuli mowodebis
Sesabamisad nebayoflobiT iRebs, gulis ganwmedasa da sulier Tavisuflebas didad exmareba. isini ganuwyvetliv aRZraven siyvarulis mgzebarebasa da, upirveles yovlisa, maT SeuZliaT qristiani adamiani Seusabamon
im qalwulebrivi da glaxaki cxovrebis saxeobas, romelic qriste ufalma
irCia da romelic misma qalwulma dedam SeiTvisa, rasac mravlricxovan
wmida damaarsebelTa magaliTi adasturebs. aravin ifiqros, rom moweseebi Tavisi Sewiruli cxovrebiT (consecratione) adamianTagan gaucxovdebian
da miwier qalaqSi usargebloni xdebian. miuxedavad imisa, rom isini Tavis
Tanamedroveebs uSualod gverdSi yovelTvis ar udganan, ufro Rrma gagebiT isini maT gverdSi udganan qristes wiaRSi (visceribus) da maTTan sulierad TanamSromloben, raTa miwieri qalaqis mSenebloba mudam ufals
efuZnebodes da misken miemarTebodes, rom amaod ar daSvrnen misi maSenebelni.141
amitom wmida kreba amxnevebs da aqebs kacebsa da qalebs, Zmebsa da debs,
romlebic monastrebSi, skolebSi, saavdamyofoebsa Tu misiebSi mudmivi da
Tavmdabali erTgulebiT amkoben qristes sZals zemoxsenebuli Sewiruli
cxovrebiT (in consecratione) da yvela adamians keTilSobil da mravalgvar samsaxurs aRmouCenen.
47. xolo vinc mowodebulia rCevaTa SesrulebisTvis (ad professionem consiliorum vocatus), gulmodgined unda ecados, mudam misdios im mowodebas, romelic RmrTisgan miiRo da am saqmeSi met warmatebas miaRwios, raTa iyos eklesia ufro wmida da ufro didebuli erTiani da ganuyofeli sameba, romelic
qristeSi da qristes mier aris yovelgvari siwmidis wyaro da dasabami.
Tavi VII
msxemi eklesiis esqatologiuri xasiaTi
da misi kavSiri zeciur eklesiasTan
48. eklesia, romliskenac ieso qriste yvelas mogviwodebs da romelSic
RmrTis madliT siwmides viZenT, dasrulebas mxolod zeciur didebaSi hpovebs, roca mova Jami yvelafris aRdginebisa (restitutionis) (Sdr. saqme 3, 21) da
roca adamianur modgmasTan erTad mTeli samyaro (igi adamianTan Sinaganad
aris dakavSirebuli da adamianis meSveobiT Tavis mizans aRwves), srulyofilad ganaxldeba qristeSi (Sdr. efes. 1, 10; kol. 1, 20; 2petr. 3, 10-13).
qriste amaRlda miwidan da yvela Tavisken miizida (Sdr. ioan. 12, 32).
mkvdreTiT aRmdgarma, (Sdr. rom. 6, 9) man mouvlina mowafeebs Tavisi cxovelmyofeli suli da misi meSveobiT Tavisi sxeuli, romelic aris eklesia,
gaxada sayovelTao gamoxsnis saidumlod. mamis marjveniT mjdomare, igi
mudam moqmedebs samyaroSi, raTa adamianebi eklesiasTan miiyvanos, eklesiis
meSveobiT isini ufro mWidrod daikavSiros, asazrdoos Tavisi sxeuliTa
da sisxliT, da amgvarad, Tavisi didebuli cxovrebis moziareebad aqcios.
aRTqmuli aRdgena, romelsac moveliT, ukve daiwyo qristeSi, igi viTardeba
suli wmidis movlinebiT da suli wmidis mier grZeldeba eklesiaSi, sadac
rwmenis saSualebiT vigebT Cveni warmavali cxovrebis azrsac, roca momaval sikeTeTa imediT aRvasrulebT saqmes, romelic mamam amqveynad mogvando, da Cvens gamoxsnas viqmT (Sdr. fil. 2, 12).
141 Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. Annus sacer, l. c., p. 30. Alloc. Sous la maternelle protection, 9 dec. 1957:
AAS 50 (1958), pp. 39 s.

109

vatikanis II kreba

rameTu Cvenamde ukve moiwia JamTa aRsasrulma (Sdr. 1kor. 10, 11). samyaros aRdgena Seuqcevlad aris dadgenili da ukve Cvens droSi mosaldoneli (anticipatur): eklesia xom ukve dedamiwaze gamoirCeva WeSmariti siwmidiT,
Tundac arasruliT. sanam iqneba axali ca da axali miwa, romlebSic samarTle mkvidrobs (Sdr. 2petre 3, 13), msxem eklesias Tavis saidumloebsa da institutebSi, romlebic amJamindelobas ganekuTvneba, aqvs Cveni warmavali
saukunis saxe. eklesia mkvidrobs dabadebulTa Soris da yoveli maTgani
Tana-kunesis da Tana-elmis moaqamde da moelis RmrTis SvilTa gamocxadebas (rom. 8, 19-22).
Cven, eklesiaSi qristesTan gaerTianebulni da suli wmidiT aRbeWdilni,
romel-igi ars windi mkdrobisa Cuenisa (efes. 1, 14), WeSmaritad viwodebiT da varT RmrTis Svilni (Sdr. 1ioane 3, 1), magram jer ar gamovcxadebulvarT qristesTan erTad didebiT (Sdr. kol. 3, 4), romliTac RmrTis msgavsni
viqnebiT, rameTu vixilavT mas, viTarca igi ars (Sdr. 1ioane 3, 2). amitom
vidre sxeulSi vsaxlobT, vmsxemobT uflisgan Sors (2kor. 5, 6); sulis
sawyisTa mflobelni, TavTa Sina CuenTa vkunesiT (Sdr. rom. 8, 23) da gvsurs
qristesTan yofna (Sdr. fil. 1, 23). igive siyvaruli gvibiZgebs, metad vicxovroT misTvis, CvenTvis momkudrisa da aRdgomilisa (2kor. 5, 15). maSasadame, vcdilobT, yvelaferSi saTnoni viyoT RmrTisaTvis (Sdr. 2kor. 5, 9)
da vimosavT RmrTis saWurvels, raTa SevZloT eSmakis xrikebs win aRvudgeT
da borotebas davupirispirdeT (Sdr. efes. 6, 11-13). Cven ar viciT arc dRe
da arc saaTi, amitom, rogorc ufali gvafrTxilebs, mudam unda vfxizlobdeT, rom Cveni miwieri cxovrebis erTaderTi gzis dasrulebisas (Sdr. ebr.
9, 27) davimsaxuroT masTan erTad saqorwinod Sesvla da mivekuTvnoT kurTxeulT (benedictis) (Sdr. maT. 25, 31-46), da ar gvebrZanos, rogorc ukeTur da
zarmac monebs (Sdr. maT. 25, 26), Sesvla cecxlsa mas saukunesa (Sdr. maT.
25, 41), bnelsa mas garesknelsa, sadac iyos tirili da RrWena kbilTa
(maT. 22, 13 da 25, 30). marTlac, sanam gavmefdebiT qristesTan didebiT, Cuen
yovelni gancxadebad varT winaSe saydarTa qristesTa, raTa miiRos kacadkacadman orcTa amaTgan, raca-igi qmna, gina Tu keTili gina Tu boroti
(2kor. 5, 10) da qveynis aRasrulisas gamovidodian keTilis-moqmedni aRdgomasa cxorebisasa, xolo borotis-moqmedni aRdgomasa sasjelisasa (ioan.
5, 29; Sdr. maT. 25, 46). amitom vfiqrobT, rom ver Rirs arian vnebani igi amis
Jamisani mermisa mis Tana didebisa, romel gamoCinebad ars Cuenda momarT
(rom. 8, 18; Sdr. 2tim. 2, 11-12), da, rwmeniT mtkiceni, moveliT netarsa mas
sasoebasa da gamoCinebasa didebasa didisa RmrTisa da macxovrisa Cuenisa
ieso qristesi (tit. 2, 13), romelman gardacvalnes orcni ese simdablisa
Cuenisani, raTa iyvnen igini Tanaxat orcTa maT didebisa misisaTa (fil. 3,
21) da romelic mova didebad Soris wmidaTa misTa da sakrvelebad yovelTa Soris morwmuneTa (2Tes. 1, 10).
49. maSasadame, sanam mosula ufali didebiTa TsiTa, da yovelni angelozni misni mis Tana (maT. 25, 31), ganqarda sikvdili, yvelaferi ufals
daemorCila (Sdr. 1kor. 15, 26-27), zogierTi misi mowafe msxemobs dedamiwaze, zogmac daasrula es cxovreba da ganiwmideba, sxvebi ki, gandidebulni, Wvreten naTelSi Tavad RmerTs: sampirovansa (trinum) da erTs iseTs,
rogoric is aris.142 amave dros Cven yvelani (Tumca sxvadasxva xarisxiTa da
formiT), vurTierTobT erTi da imave siyvaruliT RmrTisa da moyvasis mimarT da didebis erTsa da imave himns vumReriT Cvens RmerTs. yvelas, vinc
qristesi aris, misi suli aqvs, isini erT eklesiad Senawevrdebian da erTmaneTs qristeSi Seekvrebian (Sdr. efes. 4, 16). amitom araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar
142

110

CONC. FLOR. Decretum pro Graecis: DENZ. 693 (1305).

LUMEN GENTIUM

wydeba maTi erToba, vinc gzaSia (viatorum), imaTTan, vinc ganisvena qristes mSvidobiT; piriqiT, eklesiis mudmivi rwmenis Tanaxmad, igi Zlierdeba sulier
sikeTeTa gadacemiT.143 imis gamo, rom cis moqalaqeni (coelites) ufro mWidrod
arian qristesTan dakavSirebulni, isini mTel eklesias siwmideSi ufro metad ganamtkiceben da aRamaRleben RmrTismsaxurebas, romelsac eklesia
miwaze RmerTs uZRvnis, da mravalgvarad xels uwyoben mis ufro farTo mSeneblobas (Sdr. 1kor. 12, 12-27).144 samSobloSi miRebulni da ufalTan wardgenilebi (Sdr. 2kor. 5, 8), isini uflis meSveobiT, ufalTan erTad da ufalSi
mudam Suamdgomloben CvenTvis mamasTan,145 cxadyofen damsaxurebebs, romlebic Tavad moipoves miwaze RmerTsa da adamianebs Soris erTaderTi Suamavlis _ ieso qristes meSveobiT, radgan yovelmxriv RmerTs emsaxurebodnen da Tavisi xorciT avsebdnen qristes vnebaTa nakls misi sxeulis sasargeblod, romelic aris eklesia (Sdr. kol. 1, 24).146 amitom maTi Zmuri zrunva
didad exmareba Cvens sisustes.
50. qristianuli religiis dasabamidan msxemTa (viatorum) eklesia, romelmac safuZvlianad icis ieso qristes saidumlo sxeulis es kavSiri, didi
mowiwebiT miagebda pativs gardacvlilTa xsovnas147 da maTTvis locvasac
(suffragia) aRavlenda, radgan wmida da RmrTismosavia fiqri, romlis Tanaxmad
unda vilocoT gardacvliTaTvis, raTa isini codvebisgan gaTavisufldnen
(Sdr. 2mak. 12, 45). eklesias mudam swamda, rom mociqulebi da qristes martvilebi, romlebmac Tavisi sisxli daRvares da rwmenisa da siyvarulis uzenaesi mowmeni iyvnen, CvenTan ufro metad arian qristes mier dakavSirebulni. eklesia maT gansakuTrebuli grZnobiT Tayvans scemda,148 netar qalwul
mariamsa da wmida angelozebTan erTad, da maT Semweobas sTxovda. male maT
isinic miakuTvnes, vinc qristes umankoebas (virginitatem) da sigalxakes gansakuTrebiT mtkiced misdevda,149 da bolos isinic, vinc qristianul siqveleTa
SesaniSnavi SesrulebiTa150 da saRmrTo qarismiT erTgulTa RmrTismosavi
mimdevari da mimbaZveli gaxda.151
maTi cxovrebis Wvreta, vinc qristes erTgulad misdevda, gvibiZgebs
imisken, rom axleburad veZioT momavali qalaqi (Sdr. ebr. 13, 14 da 11, 10).
amave dros, vswavlobT viaroT usafrTxo gziT, romliTac SevZlebT, miwier cvalebadobaTa gavliT, TiToeulisTvis Sesaferisi mdgomareobisa
da garemoebis Sesabamisad, mivaRwioT qristesTan srulyofil erTianobas
anu siwmides.152 maT cxovrebaSi, vinc Cvens adamianur beds iziarebs da sru143 garda ufro Zveli dokumentebisa, romlebic sulTa gamoZaxebis nebismieri formis winaaRmdeg aris mimarTuli, aleqsandre IV-is droidan (27 seqtemberi 1258), Sdr. encycl.
S. S. C. S. OFFICII, De magnetismi abusu: 4 aug. 1856: ASS (1865), pp. 177-178, DENZ. 1653-1654 (28232825); pasuxi: S.S.C.S. OFFICII, 24 apr. 1917: AAS 9 (1917), p. 268, DENZ. 2182 (3642).
144 pavles am moZRvrebis sinTezuri gadmocemisTvis ix. PIUS XII, encycl. Mystici Corporis: AAS 35 (1943), pp. 200 et passim.
145 Sdr. magaliTad, S. AUGUSTINUS, Enarr. in Ps. 85, 24: PL 37, 1099. S. HIEONYMUS, Liber
contra Vigilantium, 6: PL 23, 344. S. THOMAS, In 4m Sent., d. 45, q. 3, a. 2. S. BONAVENTURA, In 4m
Sent., d. 45, a. 3, q. 2; etc.
146 Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Mystici Corporis: AAS 35 (1943), p. 245.
147 Sdr. mravalricxovani warwerebi romaul katakombebSi.
148 Sdr. GELASIUS I, Decretalis De libris recipiendis, 3: PL 59, 160, DENZ. 165 (353).
149 Sdr. S. METHODIUS, Symposion, VII, 3: GCS (Bonwetsch), p. 74.
150 Sdr. BENEDICTUS XV, Decretum approbationis virtutum in Causa beatificationis et canonizationis Servi Dei Ioannis Nepomuceni Neumann: AAS 14 (1922), p. 23.- pius XI-is mravali sityva wmidanTa
Sesaxeb: Inviti alleroismo: Dicorsi, t. I-III, Romae 1941-1942, passim. PIUS XII, Discorsi e Radiomessagi,
t. 10, 1949, pp. 37-43.
151 Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Meiator Dei: AAS 39 (1947), p. 581.
152 Sdr. ebr. 13, 7; Eccli 44-50; ebr. 11, 3-40. Sdr. agreTve PIUS XII, encycl. Mediator Dei:
AAS 39 (1947), pp. 582-583.

111

vatikanis II kreba

lyofilad qristes xatad gardaiqmneba (Sdr. 2kor. 3, 18), RmerTi adamianebs


Tavis Tandaswrebasa da saxes cocxlad warmouCens. maTi meSveobiT igi Cven
gvesaubreba da Tavisi meufebis niSans gvaZlevs,153 riskenac Zlier miviltviT, radgan gars gvaxlavs amdeni mowme (Sdr. ebr, 12, 1) da gvaqvs saxarebis
WeSmaritebis aseTi dadastureba.
magram cis moqalaqeTa xsovnas pativs vcemT ara marto rogorc magaliTs, aramed ufro imisTvis, raTa Zmuri siyvarulis ganxorcielebis safuZvelze gaZlierdes mTeli eklesiis erTianoba sulSi (Sdr. efes. 4, 1-6).
rogorc msxemTa (viatores) Soris arsebul qristianul kavSirs ufro axlo
mivyavarT qristesTan, aseve wmidanebTan erToba qristesTan gvakavSirebs,
romlisganc, rogorc wyarosa da Tavisgan, momdinareobs yovelgvari madli
da Tavad RmrTis eris cxovreba.154 amitom sruliad aucilebelia, gviyvardes
ieso qristes es megobrebi da Tanamemkvidreni, Cveni Zmebi da gamorCeuli
keTilismyofelebi, maT gamo RmerTs Sesaferisi madloba vuTxraT,155 maT
vedrebiT movuwodoT da mivmarToT maT locvebs, daxmarebasa da Semweobas, raTa RmerTs sikeTe (beneficia) SevsTxovoT misi Zis, ieso qristes, Cveni
uflis mier, romelic aris Cveni erTaderTi gamomsyidveli da macxovari.156
yoveli WeSmariti mowmoba, romelsac Cven warmovudgenT cis moqalaqeebs,
Tavisi bunebiT iswrafvis qristesken da sruldeba masTan, romelic aris
gvirgvini yvela wmidaTa,157 xolo misi meSveobiT midis RmerTTan, romelic
gansacvifrebelia Tavis wmidanebSi da maTSi ganidideba.158
zeciur eklesiasTan Cveni erToba yvelaze ufro amaRlebulad wmida
liturgiaSi xorcieldeba. masSi suli wmidis Zala Cvenze saidumloTa niSnebis meSveobiT (per signa sacramentalia) zemoqmedebs, saerTo aRfrTovanebaSi
saRmrTo udidebulesobis (divinae maiestati) qebiT erTad vxarobT,159 da yvelani, yvela tomis, enisa da eris warmomadgenelni, qristes sisxliT gamosyidulni (Sdr. gamocx. 5, 9) da erT eklesiad Sekrebilni, vadidebT RmerTs,
erTsa da samgvamovans (trinum), qebis erTiani simReriT. amgvarad, ziarebis
msxverplSewirvis zeimiT Cven maqsimalurad vuerTdebiT zeciuri eklesiis
kults, vurTierTobT da Tayvans vcemT, upirveles yovlisa, mudam didebuli qalwuli mariamis xsovnas, agreTve netari iosebis, netar mociqulTa,
martvilTa da yvela wmidanisa.160
51. Cvens winaparTa am saTayvano rwmenas, romelic ZmebTan cocxal urTierobas exeba (Zmebi, romlebic zeciur didebaSi arian da sikvdilis Semdgom jer kidev ganiwmidebian), wmida kreba didi mowiwebiT iRebs da xelaxla
gvTavazobs nikeis II,161 florenciisa162 da tridentis163 wmida krebebis dadgenilebebs (decreta). amave dros, Tavisi mwyemsuri mzrunvelobiT is mouwodebs
yvelas, visac es exeba, rom Tu ki sadme Tavi iCina darRvevebma, gadametebulobam an naklulobam, isini unda ecadon maT Sekavebas an gamosworebas. maT
yvelaferi ise unda ganaaxlon, rom qristesa da RmrTis qeba ufro srulyo153 Sdr. CONC. VAT. I, Const. De fide catholica, cap. 3: DENZ. 1794 (3013).
154 Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Mystici Corporis: AAS 35 (1943). p. 216.
155 Tavad wmidanTa mimarT madlierebis Sesaxeb Sdr. E. Diehl, inscriptiones latinae christianae veteres, I, Berolini, 1925, nn. 2008 2383 et passim.
156 CONC. TRID., Sess. 25, De invocatione Sanctorum: DENZ. 984 (1821).
157 romauli Jamni, yvela wmidaTa dResaswaulis invitatoriumi.
158 Sdr. mag. 2 Tes. 1, 10.
159 CONC. VAT. II, Const. de Sacra Liturgia, cap. 5, n. 104.
160 romauli mesis kanoni.
161 CONC. NICAENUM II, Act. VII: DENZ. 302 (600).
162 CONC. FLOR., Decretum pro Graecis: DENZ. 693 (1304).
163 CONC. TRID., Sess. 25, de invocatione, veneratione et reliquiis Sanctorum et sacris imaginibus:
Decretum de iustificatione, can. 30: DENZ. 840 (1580).

112

LUMEN GENTIUM

fili iyos. dae, maT aswavlon erTgulebs, rom wmidanTa namdvili Tayvaniscema ara imdenad garegan qmdebaTa simravleSi mdgomareobs, aramed, gacilebiT metad, Cveni qmediTi siyvarulis ZalaSi, romlis safuZvelzec, Cveni da
eklesiis meti keTildReobisaTvis, wmidanebTan veZiebT urTierTobis nimuSs, kavSiris gaziarebas, Suamdgomlobis gziT Semweobas.164 meores mxriv,
dae, aswavlon erTgulebs, rom Cveni urTierToba zecis moqalaqeebTan, Tu
is aRiqmeba rwmenis ufro sruli naTeliT, arafriT ar amcirebs im Tayvaniscemas, romelsac mama RmerTs qristes mier sulSi mivagebT, aramed piriqiT,
mas kidev ufro amdidrebs.165
marTlac, sanam urTierTsiyvaruliTa da uwmidesi samebis erTiani qebiT
vurTierTobT, Cven yvelani, vinc RmrTis Svilebi varT da qristes mier erT
ojaxs vqmniT (Sdr. ebr. 3, 6), SeveferebiT eklesiis Sinagan mowodebas da winaswar moveliT, monawileoba miviRoT dasrulebuli didebis liturgiaSi.166
roca gamoCndeba qriste da moxdeba mkvdarTa didebuli aRdgoma, RmrTis
naTeli ganabrwyinebs zeciur qalaqs da misi manaTobeli kravi iqneba (Sdr.
gamocx. 21, 24). maSin wmidanTa mTeli eklesia siyvarulis uzenaes netarebaSi Tayvans scems RmerTsa da daklul kravs (Sdr. gamocx. 5, 12) da erTxmad
ganacxadebs: romeli zis saydarTa zeda da kravisa, kurTxeva da pativi da
dideba da simtkice ukuniTi ukunisamde (gamocx. 5, 13).
Tavi VIII
netari RmrTismSobeli
qalwuli mariami
qristesa da eklesiis saidumloSi

I. Sesavali
52. yovlad keTilma da brZenma RmerTma, romelmac isurva samyaros gamosyidvis aRsruleba, odes moiwia aRsasruli JamTa, moavlina RmerTman Ze
Tsi, Sobili dedakacisagan,... raTa Svileba igi moviRoT (gal. 4, 4-5), romeli CvenTvis, kacTaTvis, da Cvenisa cxovrebisaTvis gardamoxda zeciT da
xorcni Seisxna sulisagan wmidisa da mariamisagan qalwulisa, da gankacna.167
gamoxsnis es saRmrTo saidumlo CvenTvis cxaddeba da grZeldeba eklesiaSi,
romelic ufalma daarsa rogorc Tavisi sxeuli. erTgulebma, meTave qristes mimdevrebma, romlebic yvela mis wmidanebTan urTierToben, eklesiaSi
unda scen pativi uwinares yovlisa, mudam didebul qalwul mariams, RmrTisa da Cveni uflis ieso qristes dedas.168
53. qalwul mariams (angelozis mier xarebisas man RmrTis sityva guliTa da sxeuliT miiRo da samyaros cxovreba moutana), aRiareben da Tayvans
scemen rogorc RmrTisa da gamomsyidvelis dedas. Tavisi Zis damsaxurebaTa
gamo uzenaesad gamosyiduli da masTan mWidro da urRvevi kavSiriT erTiani, igi udidesi funqciiTa da RirsebiT aris aRWurvili, radgan igi dedaa
RmrTis Zisa da, Sesabamisad, mamis usayvarlesi asuli da suli wmidis siwmide
164 Missale romanum, winasityvaoba wmidanTa dResaswaulisaTvis, safrangeTis diocezebSi gamosayeneblad.
165 Sdr. S. PETRUS CANISIUS, Catechismus Maior seu Summa Doctrinae christianae, cap. III (ed.
crit. F. Streicher), Pars I, pp. 15-16, n. 44 et pp. 100-101, n. 49.
166 Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. de sacra Liturgia, cap. 1, n. 8.
167 mrwamsi romaul mesaSi: konstantinopolis simbolo: MANSI 3, 566. Sdr. CONC.
EPHESIENUM, iqve, 4, 1130 (iqve, 2, 665 da 4, 1071). CONC. CHALCEDON., iqve 7, 111-116. CONC.
CONST. II, iqve 9, 375-396.
168 romauli mesis kanoni.

113

vatikanis II kreba

(sacrarium). madlis am gansakuTrebuli niWiT igi didad aRemateba yvela sxva


qmnilebas, zeciursa da miwiers. amave dros, rogorc adamis Camomavali, igi
dakavSirebulia yvela adamianTan, romlebsac gamoxsna sWirdebaT. metic,
igi namdvilad aris (qristes) asoTa deda,... radgan man siyvaruliT xeli
Seuwyo eklesiaSi erTgulTa gaCenas, romlebic am meTavis asoni arian.169
amitom mas miesalmebian rogorc eklesiis uzenaes da sruliad gansakuTrebul wevrsac, romelic aris rwmenasa da siyvarulSi misi saxe da nimuSi. mas,
rogorc usayvarles dedas, kaTolike eklesia, suli wmidis mier ganswavluli, SvilisTvis Sesaferisi mowiwebiT epyroba.
54. wmida kreba gadmoscems moZRvrebas eklesiis Sesaxeb, romlis Tanaxmad
saRmrTo gamomsyidveli gamoxsnas axorcielebs. krebas ganzraxuli aqvs,
safuZvlianad naTelyos rogorc netari qalwulis roli ganxorcielebuli sityvisa da saidumlo sxeulis saidumloSi, aseve gamosyidul adamianTa
movaleobani RmrTismSoblis mimarT, romelic aris qristes deda da adamianebis, upirveles yovlisa, erTgulTa, deda. krebas ara aqvs ganzraxuli mariamis Sesaxeb sruli moZRvrebis gadmocema an im kiTxvebze pasuxi, romlebic RmrTismetyvelTa Sromis Sedegad jer srulad ar garkveula. amgvarad,
ZalaSi rCeba is Sexedulebebi, romlebsac kaTolikur skolebSi Tavisufali
formiT gamoTqvamen mis Sesaxeb, visac wmida eklesiaSi qristes Semdeg umaRlesi, xolo CvenTvis uaxloesi adgili ukavia.170

II. netari qalwulis roli gamoxsnis gangebulebaSi


55. wmida werili, rogorc Zveli, aseve axali aRTqma da pativsacemi gadmocema sul ufro didi sicxadiT warmogvidgens gamoxsnis gangebulebas
da mas, ase vTqvaT, gansaxilvelad gvTavazobs. Zveli aRTqmis wignebi aRweren gamoxsnis istorias, romelic nelnela mzaddeba qristes samyaroSi mosvliT. es Zveli sabuTebi, ise, rogorc isini eklesiaSi ikiTxeba da Semdgomi da sruli gamocxadebis Suqze gaiazreba, TandaTanobiT meti sicxadiT
warmoaCens qalis figuras, romelic aris gamomsyidvelis deda. am Suqze igi
winaswarmetyvelurad isaxeba ukve im dapirebaSi, romelic codvaSi Cavardnil winaprebs mieca da romelic gvelze gamarjvebas moaswavebs (Sdr. dab.
3, 15). msgavsad amisa, igi aris qalwuli, romelic muclad iRebs da Sobs Zes,
romelsac uwodeben saxelad emanuels (Sdr. es. 7, 14; Sdr. miq. 5, 2-3. maT. 1,
22-23). igi aris upirvelesi uflis mdabalTa da glaxakTa Soris, romlebic
misgan darwmunebiT moelian da iReben gamoxsnas. da bolos, masTan, sionis
gamorCeul asulTan erTad, dapirebis xangrZlivi molodinis Semdeg, sruldebian Jamni da dgeba axali gangebuleba, mas mere rac Ze RmrTisam misgan miiRo adamianis buneba, raTa Tavisi xorcis saidumloebiT adamiani codvisgan
gaaTavisuflos.
56. mamam mowyalebisam ineba, rom ganxorcielebamde yofiliyo imis Tanxmoba (acceptatio), visac dedoba gangebiT hqonda gansazRvruli; qalma Seuwyo
xeli sikvdils, qalmave unda xeli Seuwyos sicocxles. es gansakuTrebiT
exeba iesos dedas: man samyaros mouvlina cxovreba, romelic yvelafers ganaaxlebs, da igi RmrTisagan dajildovebulia niWebiT, romlebic aseT did
movaleobis Seefereba. amitom ar aris gasakviri, rom wmida mamebTan damkvidrda Cveuleba, romlis Tanaxmad RmrTismSobels yovlad wmidas uwodeben,
169
170
p. 37.

114

S. AUGUSTINUS, De S. Virginitate, 6: PL 40, 399.


Sdr. PAULUS VI, krebaze warmoTqmuli sityva, 1963 wlis dekembris 4: AAS 56 (1964),

LUMEN GENTIUM

codvis yovelgvari naklisagan daculs; miaCniaT, rom igi erTgvarad suli


wmidis qmnilebaa, axal arsebad saxeqmnili.171 nazareTel qalwuls, romelic
Tavisi Casaxvis pirveli wamidan sruliad gansakuTrebuli siwmidis brwyinvalebiT iyo dajildovebuli, angelozi xarebisas, RmrTis davalebiT, misalmebisas eubneba: madliT aRsavseo (Sdr. luk. 1, 28), xolo igi pasuxobs
zeciur maxarebels (nuntio): aha mevali uflisa; meyavn me sitysaebr Senisa
(luk. 1, 38). ase daeTanxma saRmrTo sityvas mariami, asuli adamisa, da gaxda
iesos deda. mas araviTari codva ar abrkolebda, man mTeli guliT SeiTvisa
saRmrTo sityva da, rogorc uflis mxevalma, Tavi mTlianad miuZRvna Tavis
Zes da mis saqmes (personae et operi Filii sui), raTa misi winamZRolobiT (sub Ipso) da
masTan erTad, yovladZlieri RmrTis madliT, emsaxura gamosyidvis saidumlosTvis. amitom wmida mamebs samarTlianad miaCniaT, rom mariami pasiuri
iaraRi ki ar iyo RmrTis xelSi, aramed igi Tavisufali rwmeniTa da adamianuri morCilebiT xels uwyobda adamianTa gamoxsnas. wm. ireneosi ambobs, rom
igi, morCili, gaxda gamoxsnis mizezi TavisTvis da mTeli adamianuri modgmisTvis.172 masTan erTad mravali Zveli mama Tavis qadagebaSi siamovnebiT
ganacxadebs, rom evas urCobiT Sekruli kvanZi mariamis morCilebam gaxsna;
is, rac qalwulma evam urwmunoebiT Sekra, qalwulma mariamma rwmeniT ganxsna.173 evasTan mariamis Sedarebisas, mariams cocxalTa dedas174 uwodeben
da xSirad amboben: sikvdili evasgan, sicocxle mariamisgan.175
57. gamoxsnis saqmeSi SvilTan dedis erToba qristes qalwulebrivi Casaxvis droidan mis sikvdilamde vlindeba. pirvelad es moxda, roca mariami
saswrafod adga, rom elisabedTan misuliyo da elisabedma mas netari uwoda, radgan mariams aRTqmuli gamoxsnisa swamda, da winamorbedi (praecursor) krTeboda mis saSoSi (Sdr. luk. 1, 41-45). Semdgom es gamovlinda Sobisas, roca
gaxarebulma RmrTismSobelma mwyemsebsa da mogvebs aCvena Tavisi mxolodSobili Ze, romelmac misi qalwuloba ara Tu daarRvia, aramed wmida yo.176
Semdeg, roca RaribTa ZRveni miitana da taZarSi Tavisi Ze ufals warudgina,
man usmina simeons, romelmac im dros winaswarmetyvelebda, rom misi Ze iqneboda ganxeTqilebis niSani da dedis suls maxvili gaseravda, raTa mravali
gulis zraxvani gamJRavnebuliyo (Sdr. luk. 2, 34-35). roca yrma ieso daikarga da mas didi mwuxarebiT eZebdnen, mSoblebma igi taZarSi ipoves, misi mamis
saqmiT dakavebuli. Svilis sityvas mSoblebma ver gauges, magram deda yovelive amas dafiqrebiT gulSi imarxavda (Sdr. luk. 2, 41-51).
58. iesos sajaro cxovrebaSi dedamisi Tavidanve mkafiod Cans: qorwilisas galileis kanaSi, TanagrZnobiT gamsWvalulma, man Tavisi SuamdgomlobiT iesos _ mesiis niSnebs daudo dasabami (Sdr. ioan. 2, 1-11). iesos qadagebisas RmrTismSobelma miiRo sityvebi, romelTa Tanaxmad Ze meufebas ayenebda
gonierebaze, xorcisa da sisxlis kavSirebze maRla da netarebad acxadebda
maT, vinc RmrTis sityvas ismenda da icavda (Sdr. mark. 3, 35, luk. 11, 27-28),
171 Sdr. S. GERMANUS CONST., Hom. in Annunt. Deiparae: PG 98, 328 A; In Dorm. 2: col. 357.
ANASTASIUS ANTIOCH., Serm. 2 de Annunt.,: PG 89, 1377 AB; Serm. 3, 2: col. 1388 C. S. ANDREAS
CRET., Can. in B.V. Nat. 4: PG 97, 1321 B; In B. V. Nat., 1: col. 812 A; Hom. in dorm. 1: col. 1068 C. S. SOPHRONIUS, Or. 2 in Annunt, 18: PG 87 (3), 3237 BD.
172 S. IRENEUS, Adv. Haer. III, 22, 4: PG 7, 959A; HARVEY 2, 123.
173 S. IRENAEUS, ibidem; HARVEY, 2, 124.
174 S. EPIPHANIUS, Haer. 78, 18: PG 42, 728 CD 729 AB.
175 S. IERONYMUS, Epist. 22, 21: PL 22, 408. Cf. S. AUGUSTINUS, Serm. 51, 2, 3: PL 38, 335;
Serm. 232, 2: col. 1108. S. CYRILLUS HIEROS., Catech. 12, 15: PG 33, 741 AB. S. IO. CHRYSOSTOMUS,
In Ps. 44, 7: PG 55, 193. S. IO. DAMASCENUS, Hom. 2 in dorm. B. M. V., 3: PG 96, 728.
176 Sdr. CONC. LATERANENSE anni 649, can. 3: MANSI 10, 1151. S. LEO M., Epist. ad Flav.: PL
54, 759. CONC. CHALCEDON.: MANSI 7, 462. S. AMBROSIUS, De instit. virg. : PL 16, 320.

115

vatikanis II kreba

ise erTgulad, rogorc amas RmrTismSobeli akeTebda (Sdr. luk. 2, 19 da 51).


ase, rwmeniT msxemobda netari RmrTismSobeli, erTgulad inarCunebda Tavis erTobas ZesTan vidre jvramde, sadac igi saRmrTo ganzraxvam daayena
(Sdr. ioan. 19, 25). igi mZimed itanjeboda Tavis mxolodSobil ZesTan erTad
da mis msxverpls dedobrivi suliT eziara. man siyvaruliT misca Tanxmoba
msxverplis Sewirvas, romelic TviTon Soba. da bolos, jvarze momakvdavma
ieso qristem igi mowafes warudgina, rogorc misi deda da Tqva: dedakaco,
aha Ze Seni! (ioan. 19, 26).177
59. RmerTs surda, rom adamianTa gamoxsnis saidumlo cxadi manam ar
gaexada, sanam qristes mier aRTqmul suls ar mohfenda. amitom vxedavT,
rom ormocdameaTe dRemde mociqulebi iyvnes gankrZalul locvasa da
vedrebasa erTbamad dedebiTurT da mariam dediT iesosiT da ZmebiTurT
misiT (saqme 1, 14). vxedavT agreTve mariams, Tavisi locvebiT suli wmidis niWis mavedrebels; sulma ukve moicva igi xarebisas. dabolos, roca
umwikvlo qalwulma, romelsac araviTari pirvelqmnili codvis dacema
ar Sexebia,178 miwieri cxovrebis gza daasrula, igi sxeuliTa da suliT
iqna miRebuli zeciur didebaSi,179 da, rogorc samyaros (universorum) dedofali, uflis mier iqna amaRlebuli, raTa ufro srulad Tanasaxovani
gamxdariyo Tavisi Zisa, romelic aris ufali uflebaTa (Sdr. gamocx. 19,
16), mZle codvisa da sikvdilisa.180

III. netari qalwuli da eklesia


60. mociqulis sityvaTa Tanaxmad, erTaderTia Cveni Suamdgomeli, rameTu erT ars RmerTi da erT ars Sua-mdgomel RmrTisa da kacTa, kaci ieso
qriste, romelman misca Tavi Tsi sasrad yovelTa (1tim. 2, 5-6). mariamis
dedobrivi movaleoba adamianTa mimarT arafriT ar Crdilavs da ar amcirebs qristes am erTaderT Suamdgomlobas, aramed piriqiT, mis Rirsebas
avlens. netari qalwulis mxsneli gavlena adamianebze gamomdinareobs ara
raime nivTieri aucileblobidan, aramed saRmrTo keTilganzraxvidan (beneplacito). igi qristes damsaxurebaTa siuxvidan gamodis, mis Suamdgomlobas
emyareba, savsebiT aris masze damokidebuli da misganve ikrebs mTel Tavis
Zalas. igi ara Tu abrkolebs morwmuneTa uSualo erTobas qristesTan, aramed xels uwyobs mas.
61. netar qalwuls saukuniTgan, saRmrTo sityvis ganxorcielebasTan
erTad, winaswar gansazRvruli hqonda, rom igi RmrTis deda iqneboda. saRmrTo gangebis gadawyvetilebiT, igi amqveynad moevlina rogorc saRmrTo
gamomsyidvelis masazrdoebeli (alma) deda, romelic sruliad gansakuTrebuli saxiT da sxvebze metad iyo misi keTilSobili Tanamgzavri (socia) da
uflis mdabali (humilis) mxevli. man qriste Casaxa, Soba, gamokveba, taZarSi
mamas warudgina. igi itanjeboda Tavis ZesTan erTad, roca is jvarze kvdeboda. man sruliad ganumeorebeli wvlili Seitana macxovris saqmeSi, raTa
misi morCilebiT, rwmeniT, imediTa da mgznebare siyvaruliT sulTa zebunebrivi cxovreba aRmdgariyo. amitom madliT igi dedaa Cveni.

177 Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Mystici Corporis, 29 iun. 1943: AAS 35 (1943), pp. 247-248.
178 Sdr. PIUS IX, bulla Ineffabilis, 8 dec. 1854: Acta Pii IX, 1, I, p. 616; DENZ. 1641 (2803).
179 Sdr. PIUS XII, Const. apost. munificentissimus, 1 nov. 1950: AAS 42 (1950); DENZ. 2333 (3903).
180 Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Ad coell Reginam, 11 oct. 1954: AAS 46: AAS 46 81954), pp. 633-636;
DENZ. 3913 ss.

116

LUMEN GENTIUM

62. mariamis es dedoba madlis gangebulebaSi ganuwyvetliv grZeldeba:


dawyebuli TanxmobiT, romelic xarebisas rwmeniT misca da romelsac jvris
qveS mtkiced inaxavda, yvela rCeulis saukuno srulyofamde. zecaSi amaRlebis Semdegac mas ar Seuwyvetia xsnis momtani msaxureba, piriqiT: mravalgvari SuamdgomlobiT igi ganagrZobs CvenTvis gamoxsnis niWTa mopovebas.181
Tavisi dedobrivi siyvaruliT RmrTismSobeli zrunavs Tavisi Zis ZmebisTvis, romlebic jerac msxemoben, xifaTsa da gaWirvebaSi imyofebian, sanam
ar mivlen bednier samSobloSi. amitom netar qalwuls eklesiaSi moixsenieben agreTve rogorc damcvels, damxmares, Semwes, Suamdgomels.182 xolo es
ise gaigeba, rom qristes, erTaderT Suamdgomels Rirsebasa da qmediTobas
araferi akldeba da araferi emateba.183
arcerTi qmnileba arasdros ar iqneba ganxorcielebuli sityvisa da
gamomsyidvelis toli. magram rogorc qristes mRvdelmsaxurebaSi monawileoben sxvdasxva doneze msaxurnica (ministris) da erTguli xalxic, da
rogorc RmrTis erTi sikeTe namdvilad vrceldeba sxvadasxva saxis qmnilebaSi, aseve gamomsyidvelis erTiani Suamdgomloba ki ar gamoricxavs qmnilebaTa mravalgvar ziar TanamSromlobas, erTi wyarodan momdinares, aramed
piriqiT, warmoSobs mas.
eklesia uyoymanod aRiarebs mariamis am daqvemdebarebul movaleobas,
igi mas ganuwyvetliv gamoscdis da erTgulTa guls sTavazobs, raTa isini
am dedobrivi sayrdenis mfarvelobiT ufro Rrmad daukavSirdnen Suamdgomelsa da macxovars.
63. saRmrTo dedobis niWiTa da movaleobiT netari qalwuli erTiania ZesTan gamomsyidvelTan, xolo Tavisi ganumeorebel madlTa da funqciaTa
gamo mas eklesiasTanac mWidro kavSiri aqvs: rogorc wm. ambrosi aswavlida, RmrTismSobeli eklesiis nimuSia rwmenaSi, siyvarulsa da qristesTan
srulyofili erTobis saqmeSi.184 marTlac, eklesiis saidumloebaSi, romelic Tavadac samarTlianad iwodeba dedad da qalwulad, netar qalwul mariams uwinaresi adgili ukavia; igi warmoadgens rogorc qalwulobis aseve
dedobis amaRlebul da gansakuTrebul magaliTs.185 morwmunem da morCilma,
man miwaze Ze mamisa Soba, mamakacis gareSe, suli wmidiT moculma, rogorc
axalma evam, romelmac ara Zvel gvels, aramed RmrTis macnes gamoucxada rwmena, eWvisTvis miuwvdomeli. man Ze Soba, romelic RmerTma daayena pirmSod
mraval Zmas Soris (rom. 8, 29), anu erTgulTa Soris, romelTa Sobasa da aRzrdaSi RmrTismSobeli dedobrivi siyvaruliT TanamSromlobs.
64. eklesia RmrTismSoblis farul siwmides Wvrets da mis siyvaruls
baZavs. igi mamis nebas erTgulad asrulebs da RmrTis sityvis meSveobiT,
romelsac erTgulad iRebs, Tavadac xdeba deda: qadagebiTa da naTlobiT,
suli wmidisgan Casaxulsa da RmrTisagan dabadebul Zeebs eklesia axali da
181 Sdr. KLEUTGEN, gadamuSavebuli teqsti De mysterio Verbi incarnati, cap. IV: MANSI 53,
290. Sdr. S. ANDREAS CRET., In nat. Mariae, sermo 4: PG 97, 865 A. S. GERMANUS CONST., In annunt. Deiparae: PG 98, 321 BC; In dorm. Deiparae, III: col. 361 D. S. IO. DAMASCENUS, In dorm. B. V.
Mariae, hom. 1, 8: PG 96, 712 BC 713 A.
182 Sdr. LEO XII, encycl. adiutricem populi, 5 sept. 1895: ASS 15 (1895-96), p. 303. S. PIUS X,
encycl. Ad diem illum, 2 febr. 1904: Acta, I, p. 154; DENZ. 1978 a (3370). PIUS XI, encycl. Miserentissimus, 8
maii 1928: AAS 20 (1928), p. 178. PIUS XII, radioTi gamosvla, 1946 wlis 13 maisi: AAS 38 (1946),
p. 266.
183 S. AMBROSIUS, Epist. 63: PL 16, 1218.
184 S. AMBROSIUS, Expos. Lc. II, 7: PL 15, 1555.
185 Sdr. PS.-PETRUS DAM., Serm. 63: PL 144, 861 AB. GODEFRIDUS A S. VICTORE, In nat. B.
M., Ms. Paris, Mazarine, 1002, fol. 109 r. GERHOHUS REICH., De gloria et honore Filii hominis, 10: PL 194,
1105 AB.

117

vatikanis II kreba

ukvdavi cxovrebisaTvis warmoSobs. igi Tavad aris qalwuli, romelic xeluxleblad da wmidad icavs im rwmenas, romelic sasiZos misca. eklesia baZavs
Tavisi uflis dedas da suli wmidis ZaliT qalwulebrivad inaxavs xeluxlebel rwmenas, mtkice imeds, wrfel siyvaruls.
65. eklesiam, unetaresi qalwulis saxiT, ukve miaRwia umwikvlo da uzado srulyofilebas (Sdr. efes. 5, 27), xolo qristes erTgulni jer kidev
cdiloben, codva daamarcxon da siwmideSi gaizardon. isini Tavis mzeras
mariamisken aRmarTaven, romelic rCeulTa mTeli sakrebulosTvis brwyinavs, rogorc siqveleTa nimuSi. eklesia RmrTismSoblis Sesaxeb mowiwebiT fiqrobs da mas Wvrets naTelSi sityvisa, romelic adamiani gaxda. igi
pativiscemiT iWreba ganxorcielebis uzenaesi saidumlos sul ufro did
siRrmeebSi da sul ufro metad Tavisi sasiZos Tanasaxovani xdeba. marTlac, mariami Rrmad Sevida gamoxsnis istoriaSi; igi garkveulwilad Tavis TavSi aerTianebs da asaxavs rwmenis umTavres debulebebs, da roca mis
Sesaxeb qadageben da mas Tayvans scemen, igi morwmuneebs mouwodebs Tavisi Zisken, misi msxerplisken da mamis siyvarulisken. eklesia, romelic
mihyveba qristes didebas, ufro metad emsgavseba Tavis umaRles nimuSs,
roca mudmivad win midis rwmenaSi, imedsa da siyvarulSi, yvelaferSi
eZiebs saRmrTo nebas da mas emorCileba. amitom Tavis samociqulo saqmeSic eklesia damsaxurebulad uyurebs mas, vinc qriste Soba, suli wmidisgan Casaxuli da qalwulisgan dabadebuli, raTa eklesiis meSveobiT igi
erTgulTa gulebSic dabadebuliyo da gazrdiliyo. qalwulma Tavisi
cxovrebiT dedobrivi siyvarulis is magaliTi warmoadgina, romliTac
unda suldgmulobdes (animentur) eklesiis samociqulo misiis yvela wevri,
adamianTa aRorZinebisTvis moRvawe.

IV. netari qalwulis Tayvaniscema eklesiaSi


66. mariami, RmrTis madliT, Zis Semdeg yvela angelozsa da adamianze
metad iqna amaRlebuli, rogorc RmrTis uwmidesi deda, romelic qristes saidumloebSi monawileobs. eklesia mas gansakuTrebuli TayvaniscemiT damsaxurebulad pativs scems. marTlac, netar qalwuls uZvelesi
droidan eTayvanebian da RmrTismSobels uwodeben. yovelgvar xifaTsa
da gaWirvebaSi erTgulebi locviT misi mfarevlobis qveS iyrian Tavs.186
RmrTis eris Tayvaniscema mariamis mimarT saocrad gaizarda efesos
krebis Semdeg da es gamovlinda mowiwebasa da siyvarulSi, mimarTvasa
da mibaZvaSi, Tanaxmad RmrTismSoblis winaswarmetyveluri sityvebisa:
rameTu aha esera amieriTgan mnatriden me yovelni naTesavni, rameTu
yo Cem Tana didebulman Zlierman (luk. 1, 48). es Tayvaniscema eklesiaSi yovelTvis arsebobda, da mainc is sruliad gansakuTrebuli aris. igi
arsebiTad gansxvavdeba im Tayvaniscemisgan (a cultu adorationis), romelsac
ganxorcielebul sityvas, agreTve mamas an suli wmidas miageben, da am
ukanasknels didad uwyobs xels. RmrTismSoblis mimarT mowiwebis sxvadasxva forma arsebobs, romlebic eklesiam gamoscada jansaRi da marTlmorwmune (orthodoxae) moZRvrebis farglebSi, droisa da adgilis garemoebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT, agreTve morwmuneTa xasiaTisa da niWis mixedviT.
dedis Tayvaniscemisas, wesisamebr, Seicnoben, uyvarT da adideben Zes, da
asruleben mis mcnebebs, romlis gamo aris yoveli (Sdr. kol. 1, 15-16) da
romelSic saukuno mamam isurva, mTeli sisavse damkvidrebuliyo (Sdr.
kol. 1, 19).
186

118

Seni mfarvelobis qveS.

LUMEN GENTIUM

67. am kaTolikuri moZRvrebas wmida kreba garkveuli ganzraxviT aswavlis da imave dros aqezebs eklesiis yvela Svils, raTa keTilSobilurad
xeli Seuwyon netari RmrTismSoblis mimarT Tayvaniscemas, pirvel rigSi liturgiuls. maT didi mniSvneloba unda mianiWon RmrTismSoblis mimarT mowiwebis gamoxatvis wes-Cveulebebs (praxes et exercitia), romlebsac
saukuneTa manZilze moZRvroba gvTavazobda da rwmeniT (religiose) Seinaxon
is, rac warsulSi dadgenil iqna qristes, netari qalwulisa da wmidaTa
gamosaxulebaTa TayvaniscemasTan dakavSirebiT.187 kreba dabejiTebiT
mouwodebs RmrTismetyvelebsa da saRmrTo sityvis mqadageblebs, rom
RmrTismSoblis Rirsebis Sesaxeb msjelobisas gulmodgined Tavi Seikavon rogorc yovelgvari mcdari gadaWarbebisgan, aseve azrobrivi SezRudulobisgan.188 vinc moZRvrobis xelmZRvanelobiT Seiswavlis wmida werils, wmida mamebsa da eklesiisa da liturgiis maswavleblebs, unda sworad
gaaSuqon netari qalwulis funqciebi da priviligiebi, romlebic mudam
mimarTulia qristeze mTeli WeSmaritebis, siwmidisa da mowiwebis saTaveze. isini gulmodgined unda moeridon sityvebsa Tu saqmeebSi yvelafers, ramac SeiZleba SecdomaSi Seiyvanos Cvengan dacilebuli Zmebi da
sxva danarCenebic eklesiis WeSmarit moZRvrebasTan dakavSirebiT. erTgulebs unda axsovdeT, rom WeSmariti krZaluleba (devotione) arc unayofo da warmaval grZnobas niSnavs da arc advilad dajerebas, aramed igi
WeSmariti rwmenidan momdinareobs. es rwmena gviZRveba RmrTismSoblis
gansakuTreblobis Secnobisken, igi aRagznebs CvenSi Svilobriv siyvaruls Cveni dedis mimarT da misi siqvelis mibaZvisken gvibiZgebs.

V. mariami mtkice rwmenisa da nugeSis niSani


RmrTis msxemi erisaTvis
68. rogorc iesos deda, sxeuliTa da suliT zecaSi ukve gandidebuli,
aris xati da dasabami eklesiisa, romelic momaval saukuneSi dasruldeba, aseve brwyinavs igi amqveynad, uflis dRis mowevnamde (Sdr. 2petr. 3,
10), rogorc mtkice rwmenisa da nugeSis niSani RmrTis msxemi erisTvis.
69. am wmida krebas did sixarulsa da nugeSs hgvris is faqti, rom Cvengan daSorebul ZmaTa Sorisac mravalni saTanado pativs miageben uflisa da
macxovris dedas. es gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCinoa aRmosavleTis eklesiebSi
(apud Orientales), sadac RmrTismSoblis marad qalwulis Tayvaniscemas mgzenabarebiTa da krZalulebiT (fervido impuslo ac devoto animo) misdeven.189 dae,
qristes yvela erTgulma mxurvale vedrebiT mimarTos RmrTis dedas da
adamianTa dedas, romelic Tavisi locvebiT eklesias dasabamSive gverdiT
edga, xolo exla yvela netarsa da angelozze maRlaa aRzevebuli; dae, evedron RmrTismSobels, raTa igi, yvela wmidanTan kavSirSi, Suamdgomlobdes
Tavisi Zis winaSe, sanam ar Seikribeba erTa yvela ojaxi (is, visac qristianobis saxeli amkobs da isic, visac Tavisi macxovari jer ar Seucvnia) RmrTis
erTian erad, bednierad, mSvidobasa da TanxmobaSi, uwmidesi da ganuyofeli
samebis sadideblad.

187 CONC: NICAENUM II, anno 787: MANSI 13, 378-379; DENZ. 302 (600-601). CONC. TRID.,
Sess. 25: MANSI 33, 171-172.
188 Sdr. PIUS XII, radioTi gamosvla, 1954 wlis 14 oqtomberi: AAS 46 (1954), p. 679. Encycl. Ad coeli Reginam, 11 oct. 1954: AAS 46 (1954), p. 637.
189 Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Ecclesiam Dei, 12 nov. 1923: AAS 15 (1923), p. 581. PIUS XII, encycl.
Fulgens Corona, 8 sept. 1953: AAS 45 (1953), pp. 590-591.

119

vatikanis II kreba
yovelive erTad da cal-calke, rac am dogmatur konstituciaSi gamocxadda, wmida krebis mamebma moiwones. da Cvenc, im
samociqulo uflebamosilebiT, romelic qristesgan gadmogveca, amas pativdebul mamebTan erTad suli wmidaSi veTanxmebiT, vadgenT da vawesebT, da vbrZanebT, rom is, rac krebaze
dadginda, gamoqveyndes sadideblad RmrTisa.

romi, wm. petresTan, 1964 wlis 21 noemberi


me, pavle, kaTolike eklesiis episkoposi
(mohyveba mamaTa xelmowerebi)
vatikanis II wmida msoflio krebis aqtebidan
notifikaciebi

gakeTebuli maRalyovladusamRvdeloesi generaluri mdivnis mier


wmida krebis 125-e generalur kongregaciaze
1964 wlis 16 noembers
daisva sakiTxi, Tu rogori Teologiuri kvalifikacia unda mieces eklesiis Sesaxeb proeqtSi gadmocemul moZRvrebas, romelsac kenWi eyreba.
am SekiTxvas moZRvrebis komisiam (Commissio Doctrinalis) eklesiis Sesaxeb
proeqtis mesame TavisTvis SemoTavazebuli cvlilebebis (modusTa) ganxilvisas ase upasuxa:
TavisTavad cxadia, rom krebis teqsti yovelTvis unda ganimartos zogadi, yvelasTvis cnobili, wesebis Sesabamisad.
amasTan dakavSirebiT samoZRvro komisia miuTiTebs Tavis 1964 wlis 6
martis deklaraciaze. mogvyvavs misi teqsti: krebaTa Cveulebisa da mocemuli krebis samRvdlo miznis gaTvaliswinebiT, rwmenisa da zneTa Sesaxeb
sityvebidan am wmida krebas mxolod is miaCnia eklesiisTvis savaldebulod,
rac aSkarad aseTad gamoacxada.
rac Seexeba wmida krebis mier SemoTavazebul sxva sakiTxebs, isini, rogorc eklesiis uzenaesi moZRvrobis swavleba, yvela da TiToeulma qristes
erTgulma unda miiRos da SeiTvisos Tavad krebis sulis Tanaxmad, romelic
vlindeba gansaxilvel saganSi an gamoxatvis formaSi, saRmrTismetyvelo
ganmartebis normaTa Sesabamisad.
*
eklesiis Sesaxeb moZRvrebis mesame TavSi modusebTan dakavSirebiT maRali avtoritetisgan mamebs mieca winaswari ganmartebiTi SeniSvna. mesame
TavSi gadmocemuli moZRvreba unda ganimartos da gaazrebul iqnas am SeniSnvis azrisa da ganzraxvis Sesabamisad.

winaswari ganmartebiTi SeniSvna


komisiam gadawyvita, rom modusTa ganxilvas Semdegi dakvirvebi warumZRvaros.
I. kolegia ar gaigeba mkacrad iuridiuli azriT, ese igi rogorc TanasworTa jgufi, romelic Tavis uflebamosilebas Tavis Tavmjdomares
miandobs. kolegia aris myari jgufi, romlis struqtura da avtoriteti
gamocxadebidan unda momdinareobdes. amitom 12-e modusTan dakavSirebiT
aSkarad aris naTqvami TormetTa Sesaxeb, rom ufalma isini daadgina kolegiis anu myari jgufis saxiT Sdr. modusi 53, c. amave mizeziT episkoposTa

120

LUMEN GENTIUM

kolegiis Sesaxeb xSirad ixmareba gamoTqmebi xarisxi (Ordo) da sxeuli


(Corpus). paralelizmi, erTis mxriv, petresa da sxva mociqulebs Soris, da,
meores mxriv, uzenaes pontifeqssa da episkoposebs Soris ar gulisxmobs mociqulTa gansakuTrebuli Zalauflebis gadacemas maTi memkvidreebisTvis,
arc, ra Tqma unda, Tanasworobas (aequalitatem) meTavesa (Caput) da kolegiis
wevrebs (membra) Soris, aramed gulisxmobs mxolod proporciulobas (proportionalitatem) pirvelsa (petre mociqulebi) da meore (papi episkoposebi)
mimarTebas Soris. amitom komisiam gadawyvita, rom 22-Si daewera ara igive
(eadem) saxiT, aramed msgavsi (pari) saxiT. Sdr. modusi 57.
2. kolegiis wevrad xdebian saepiskoposo xeldasxmisa (consecrationis) da kolegiis meTavesa da wevrebTan ierarqiuli urTierTobis safuZvelze. Sdr.
22, I abzacis bolo.
xeldasxma (consecratione) gamoxatavs wmida funqciebSi (sacrorum munerum)
ontologiur monawileobas, rasac udaod mowmobs gadmocema, maT Soris
liturgiuli. aq Segnebulad gamoiyeneba sityva funqciebi (munerum) da ara
uflebamosilebani (potestatum), radgan es ukanaskneli SeiZleba gagebul iqnas iseT uflebamosilebad, romelic realurad xorcieldeba. magram imisaTvis, rom aseTi ganxorcielebuli uflebamosileba gvqondes, mas unda Tan
axldes kanonikuri anu iuridiuli gansazRvreba (determinatio), SemuSavebuli
ierarqiuli avtoritetis mier. uflebamosilebis es gansazRvreba SeiZleba mdgomareobdes calkeuli Tanamdebobis wardgenaSi an qvemdgomTa daniSnvaSi, da am uflebamosilebis miniWeba xdeba uzenaesi avtoritetis mier
damtkicebuli normebis Tanaxmad. Semdgom amgvar normas sagnis buneba moiTxovs, radgan saqme exeba funqciebs, romlebic unda sruldebodes ramdenime, qristes nebiT ierarqiulad urTierTTanamSromeli, subieqtis mier. cxadia, rom eklesiis cxovrebaSi es urTierToba esadageboda drois cvlas,
sanam igi samarTalSi (in iure) iqneboda kodificirebuli.
amitom aris cxadad naTqvami, rom eklesiis meTavesa da wevrebTan ierarqiuli urTierToba aris saWiro. urTierToba aris cneba, romelic Zvel
eklesiaSi didi pativiT sargeblobda. igi dResac did pativSia, gansakuTrebiT aRmosavleTSi. oRond is gaigeba ara raRac bundovani grZnobad (affectu),
aramed organul sinamdviled (realitate organica), romelic iuridiul formas
moiTxovs da imave dros siyvaruliT suldgmulobs. amitom komisiam TiTqmis
erTsulovani TanxmobiT daadgina, rom unda eweros: ierarqiuli urTierTobiT (in hierarchica communione). Sdr. modusi 40 da agreTve is, rac iTqmis
kanonikuri misiis Sesaxeb 24-Si.
uzenaesi pontifeqsis ukanaskneli dokumentebi, romlebic episkoposTa
iurisdiqcias exeba, unda ganimartos (interpretanda sunt) uflebamosilebaTa am
aucilebeli gansazRvrebis Sesabamisad.
3. kolegiis Sesaxeb, romelic meTauris gareSe ar arsebobs, naTqvamia:
isic aris sruli uflebamosilebis subieqti sayovelTao eklesiaSi. amis
aRiareba aucilebelia, raTa eWvqveS ar daisvas romis pontifeqsis uflebamosilebis sisrule. kolegia aucileblad gaiazreba Tavis meTavesTan
erTad, romelic kolegiaSi xeluxleblad inaxavs Tavis funqcias: qristes
nacvali (Vicarii) da sayovelTao eklesiis mwyemsi. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT,
gansxvaveba mdgomareobs ara romis pontifeqssa da episkoposTa erTobliobas Soris, aramed calke romis pontifeqssa da episkoposebTan erTobliobaSi myof romis pontifeqss Soris. xolo radganac uzenaesi pontifeqsi kolegiis meTavea, mas martos SeuZlia iseTi qmedebebis ganxorcieleba, romlebic araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar Sedis episkoposTa kompetenciaSi, magaliTad:

121

vatikanis II kreba

kolegiis mowveva da warmarTva, qmedebis normaTa damtkiceba da a.S. Sdr.


modusi 81. uzenaesma pontifeqsma, romelsac qristes mTeli samwysos zrunva akisria, drois mixedviT cvladi eklesiis aucileblobaTa mixedviT uda
gansazRvros is forma, romliTac es zrunva unda ganxorcieldes: pirovnulad Tu kolegialurad. eklesiis sakeTildReod kolegialuri saqmianobis
samarTavad, mis xelSesawyobad da dasamtkiceblad romis pontifeqsi sakuTari gansjis Tanaxmad moqmedebs.
4. uzenaesma pontifeqsma, rogorc eklesiis uzenaesma mwyemsma, Tavisi
uflebamosileba yvela droSi Tavisi Sexedulebis Tanaxmad SeiZleba ganaxorcielos, rogorc amas misi funqcia (munere) moiTxovs. xolo kolegia, Tumca is yovelTvis arsebobs, mudmivad ar moqmedebs mkacrad kolegialurad.
sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, igi yovelTvis ar aris srul qmedebaSi, aramed
ufro drodadro moqmedebs mkacrad kolegialuri qmedebiT da mxolod
(nonnisi) meTavis TanxmobiT. vambobT: meTavis TanxmobiT, raTa ar vigulisxmoT raRac gareSeze damokidebuleba; cneba Tanxmoba ki, piriqiT, mogvagonebs urTierTobas (communionem) meTavesa da wevrebs Soris da gulisxmobs
qmedebis aucileblobas, romelic sakuTriv meTaves Seefereba. es pirdapir
dasturdeba 22-is 2-e abzacSi da iqve, boloSi, ganimarteba. uaryofiTi
formula mxolod (nonnisi) yvela SemTxvevas gulisxmobs, saidanac cxadia, rom uzenaesi avtoritetis mier damtkicebuli normebi mudam daculi
unda iyos. Sdr. modusi 84.
yovelive aqedan cxadia, rom saqme exeba episkoposTa mWidro kavSirs (coniunctione) maT meTavesTan, da ara episkoposTa qmedebas, damoukidebels papisgan. aseT SemTxvevaSi, Tuki saxeze ar aris meTavis qmedeba, episkoposebi
rogorc kolegia ver imoqmedeben, rasac Tavad cneba kolegia adasturebs.
uzenaes pontifeqsTan yvela episkoposis es ierarqiuli urTierToba udaod
damaxasiaTebelia gadmocemisTvis.
N.B. ierarqiuli urTierTobis gareSe ar SeiZleba ganxorcieldes sakramentalur-ontologiuri funqcia, romelic unda ganvasxvavoT kanonikuriuridiuli aspeqtisgan. magram komisiam gadawyvita, ar CaRrmavdes daSvebulobisa (liceitate) da qmediTobis (validitate) sakiTxebSi da isini gansaxilvelad
Teologebs dautovos. es exeba zogierT aRmosavleTis eklesiaSi realurad
ganxorcielebul uflebamosilebasac, romlis gansamartavad sxvadasxva
Sexeduleba arsebobs.
perikle feliCi
samosateli tit. mTavarepiskoposi
vatikanis II wm. msoflio krebis
generaluri mdivani

122

dekreti
aRmosavleTis kaTolike eklesiaTa
Sesaxeb
ORIENTALIUM ECCLESIARUM

pavle episkoposi,
RmrTis msaxurTa msaxuri,
wmida krebis mamebTan erTad,
samudamo saxsovrad

dekreti
aRmosavleTis kaTolike eklesiaTa
Sesaxeb
Sesavali
1. kaTolike eklesia didad afasebs aRmosavleTis eklesiaTa dawesebulebebs, liturgiul wesebs, saeklesio tradiciebsa da qristianuli cxovrebis wyobas (disciplinam). pativsadebi siZvelis gamo, maTSi is tradicia
brwinavs, romelic mociqulebisgan mamebs gadaeca.1 is warmoadgens msoflio eklesiis saRmrTod gamocxadebuli da ganuyofeli memkvidreobis
nawils. aRmosavluri eklesiebi am tradiciis cocxali mowmeni arian.
mocemuli wmida msoflio kreba (Sancta et Oecumenica Synodus) am eklesiebisTvis zrunavs, mas surs maTi ganviTareba, raTa maT axali samociqulo
simtkiciT Tavisi funqcia Seasrulon. amitom krebam gadawyvita, garda im
sakiTxebisa, romlebic mTels eklesias exeba, daedgina zogierTi sagangebo principi, xolo danarCeni gansaxilvelad aRmosavluri sinodebisa da
arasamociqulo saydrebisTvis (non Sedis Apostolicae) miendo.
calkeuli eklesiebi anu wesebi (ritus)
2. wmida kaTolike eklesia aris qristes saidumlo sxeuli. is erTgulebisgan Sedgeba, romlebic suli wmidaSi organulad erTiandebian erTi
sarwmunoebis, erTi da imave saidumloTa, erTi da igive mmarTvelobis
ZaliT. isini ierarqiulad erTmaneTTan dakavSirebul sxvadasxva jgufebad ikribebian da qmnian calkeul eklesiebs anu wesebs. maT Soris gansacvifrebeli urTierToba sufevs. mravalferovneba eklesiaSi ara Tu ar
uSlis xels mis erTianobas, aramed mas ufro cxads xdis. kaTolike eklesiis ganzraxvac xom es aris: xeluxleblad dacul iqnas yoveli calkeuli eklesiis tradiciebi anu wesebi. amasTanave, kaTolike eklesias surs,
sakuTari cxovreba sxvadasxva droisa Tu adgilis moTxovnilebebs Seusabamos.2
1
LEO III, litt. apost. Orientalium dignitatis, 30 nov. 1894: Acta Leonis XIII, vol. XIV pp. 201-202.
2
Sdr. LEO IX, litt. In terra pax, an. 1053: Ui enim. INNOCENTIUS III, Synodus Lateranensis
IV, an. 1215, cap. IV: Licet Graecos; Litt. Inter quator, 2 aug. 1206: Postulati postmodum. INNOCENTIUS
IV, epist. Cum de cetero, 27 aug. 1247; Epist. Sub catholicae, 6 mart. 1254, prooem. NICOLAUS III, instructio
Istud est memoriale, 9 oct. 1278. LEO X, litt. apost. Accepimus nuper, 18 maii 1521. PAULUS III, litt. apost.
Dudum, 23 dec. 1534. PIUS IV, const. Romanus Pontifex, 16 febr. 1564, 5. CLEMENS VIII, const. Magnus
Dominus, 23 dec. 1595, 10. PAULUS V, const. Solet circumspecta, 10 dec. 1615, 3. BENEDICTUS XIV,
encycl. Demandatam, 24 dec. 1743, 3: Encycl. Allatae sunt, 26 iun. 1755, 3,6-19, 32. PIUS VI, encycl. Catholicae communionis, 24 maii 1787. PIUS IX, litt. In suprema, 6 ian. 1848, 3; Litt. apost. Ecclesiam Christi,
26 nov. 1853; Const. Romani Pontificis, 6 ian. 1862. LEO XIII, litt. apost. Praeclara, 20 iun. 1894, n. 7; Litt
apost. Orientalium dignitas, 30 nov. 1984, prooem., etc.

125

vatikanis II kreba

3. calkeuli eklesiebi, rogorc aRmosavleTisa aseve dasavleTis, erTmaneTisgan nawilobriv gansxvavdeba wesebiT, anu liturgiiT, saeklesio
discipliniTa da sulieri memkvidreobiT. amasTanave, isini Tanabrad mindobilni arian romis pontifeqsis samRvdlo mmarTvelobas (pastorali gubernio
Romani Pontificis), romelic, saRmrTo nebiT, rogorc netari petres memkvidre,
mTels eklesias udgas saTaveSi. amitom es eklesiebi Tanasworni arian RirsebiT, arcerTi maTgan ar aRemateba sxvas wesis TvalsazrisiT, isini erTnairi uflebebiT sargebloben da maT erTnairi movaleobebi aqvT, romlebsac
ganekuTvneba saxarebis qadagebac mTels msoflioSi (Sdr. mark. 16, 15), romis
pontifeqsis xelmZRvanelobiT.
4. amitom mTels dedamiwaze saWiroa yvela calkeuli eklesiisTvis xelSewyoba da maTi dacva. amisTvis unda daarsdes sakrebuloebi da sakuTari
ierarqia, iq, sadac amas erTgulTa sulieri keTildReoba moiTxovs. xolo
sxvadasxva calkeuli eklesiebis ierarqiebma, romlebsac erTsa da imave teritoriaze aqvs iurisdiqcia, periodul krebebze Tavmoyrisas unda izrunos
qmedebis erTianobisaTvis da, erToblivi ZalebiT, saerTo saqmis keTebisaTvis, raTa ufro metad Seewyos xeli religiis keTildReobas da ufro warmatebiT iqnas daculi samRvdeloTa disciplina.3 yvela samRvdelo da wmida
xarisxSi aRsayvani piri kargad unda iqnas ganswavluli wesebSi, upirveles
yovlisa ki, im praqtikuli normebis sferoSi, romlebic wesTa urTierTmimarTebas gulisxmobs. saero pirebmac, katexeturi swavlebisas, darigebebi
unda miiRon wesebisa da maTi normebis Sesaxeb. dae, yvela kaTolikem erTad
da TiToeulma cal-calke, agreTve nebismier arakaTolike eklesiaSi Tu
sakrebuloSi monaTlulebma, romlebic kaTolikuri urTierTobis sisrulisken miemarTebian, yvelgan Seinaxon sakuTari wesi, Tayvani scen mas da SeZlebisdagvarad daicvan.4 amasTanave, ZalaSi rCeba ufleba, romlis Tanaxmad
gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi, romlebic exeba pirovnebebs, sakrebuloebs
an regionebs, SeiZleba mihmarTon samociqulo saydars, romelic, rogorc
umaRlesi msajuli eklesiaTa Soris urTierTobebSi, msoflio suliskveTebiT izrunebs maTi moTxovnilebebis dasakmayofileblad. amas is an TviTon
gaakeTebs, an sxva xelisufalTa meSveobiT, saTanado wesebis, dekretebisa
Tu pasuxebis (rescriptis) gacemis safuZvelze.
aRmosavleTis eklesiaTa
sulieri memkvidreobi dacva
5. istoria, tradiciebi da mravali saeklesio dawesebuleba ucxadesad
mowmobs imas, Tu ra didi damsaxureba miuZRvis aRmosavleTis eklesiebs
msoflio eklesiis winaSe.5 amitom wmida kreba am saeklesio da sulier
memkvidreobas ara marto saTanado pativiscemiTa da samarTliani qebiT
moixseniebs, aramed mtkiced miiCnevs, rom is aris qristes msoflio eklesiis memkvidreoba. amis gamo kreba sazeimod ganacxadebs, rom eklesiebs,
rogorc aRmosavlurs, aseve dasavlurs, _ aqvs ufleba da movaleoba,
ixelmZRvanelos Tavisi sagangebo ganwesebebiT (disciplinas). es ukanasknelebi gamoirCeva sapatio siZveliT, gansakuTrebiT kargad ewyoba Tavis erT3
PIUS XII, Motu proprio Cleri sanctitati, 2 iun. 1957, can. 4.
4
PIUS XII, Motu proprio Cleri sanctitati, 2 iun. 1957, can. 8: samociqulo saydris nebarTvis
gareSe, gasul saukuneTa praqtikis Tanaxmad. igive iTqmis monaTlul arakaTolikeTa Sesaxeb:: maT SeuZliaT is wesi airCion, romelic surT. miTiTebul teqstSi dadebiTad aris
ganxiluli sakiTxi wesis dacvis Sesaxeb yvelasTvis da yvelgan.
5
Sdr. LEO XIII, litt. apost. Orientalium dignitatis, 30 nov. 1894; Epist. apost. Praeclara gratulationis, 20 iun. 1894, agreTve 2-e SeniSnvaSi motanili dokumentebi.

126

ORIENTALIUM ECCLESIARUM

gulTa zne-Cveulebebs da, cxadia, kargad Seefereba moRvaweobas sulieri


keTildReobisaTvis.
6. dae, yvela aRmosavlurma [eklesiam] icodes da darwmunebuli iyos,
rom mudam SeuZlia da kidec unda SeinarCunos Tavisi kanonieri liturgiuli wesebi da Tavisi disciplina: maTi cvlileba ar unda moxdes, Tu
ara sakuTriv maTive organuli ganviTarebisTvis. amgvarad, aRmosavlurma [eklesiebma] Tavad unda daicvan isini maqsimaluri erTgulebiT. amisaTvis [am eklesiebis warmomadgenlebma] sul ufro metad unda
gaiRrmavon codna sakuTar wesTa Sesaxeb da daxvewon maTi gamoyenebis
praqtika. da Tu mainc, samwuxarod, droisa Tu pirovnebaTa zegavleniT,
isini winaparTaAtradicias moswydnen, dae, Seecadon, mas kvlav daubrundnen. xolo vinc sakuTari movaleobisa Tu samociqulo msaxurebis gamo
xSirad aris kontaqtSi aRmosavleTis eklesiebsa Tu maT erTgulebTan,
Tavisi samsaxuris mniSvnelovanebis gamo, safuZvlianad unda ganiswavlos aRmosavluri [eklesiebis] wesebis, disciplinis, moZRvrebis, istoriisa da TaviseburebaTa sferoSi.6 xolo laTinuri wesis moweseebsa da
asociaciebs, romlebic aRmosavleTis regionebSi an aRmosavleTi erTgulTa Soris moRvaweoben, dabejiTebiT vurCevT, mociqulobis meti qmediTobisTvis, SeZlebisdagvarad daarson aRmosavluri wesis saxlebi da
proviniciebic ki.7^
aRmosavleTis patriarqebi
7. eklesiaSi uZvelesi droidan arsebobs sapatriarqo dawesebuleba, romelic ukve pirvelma msoflio krebebma scno.8
aRmosavleTis patriarqad igulisxmeba episkoposi, romelsac aqvs iurisdiqcia yvela episkoposze, mitropolitebis CaTvliT, agreTve samRvdeloebasa da mocemuli teritoriisa Tu wesis xalxze, samarTlis normis Tanaxmad da romis pontifeqsis pirvelobis dacvis pirobebSi.9
yvelgan, sadac ama Tu im wesis ierarqi dainiSneba sapatriarqo teritoriis sazRvrebs gareT, is kvlav ganekuTvneba, samarTlis normis Tanaxmad,
mocemuli wesis sapatriarqos.
8. aRmosavleTis eklesiebis patriarqTa Soris zogierTi, sxvebTan SedarebiT, droiT ufro axalia, Tumca sapatriarqo Rirsebis TvalsazrisiT
yvela Tanasworia. amasTan erTad, ZalaSi rCeba kanonierad dadgenili sapatio ufrosoba (praecedentia honoris).10
9. uZvelesi saeklesio tradiciis Tanaxmad, sagangebo pativi miegeba aRmosavleTis eklesiebis patriarqebs, radgan TiToeuli maTgani, rogorc
mama da meTauri, Tavis sapatriarqos xelmZRvanelobs.
6
Sdr. BENEDICTUS XV, Motu proprio Orientis catholici, 15 oct. 1917. PIUS XI, encycl. Rerum
orientalium, 8 sept. 1928, etc.
7
pius XI-is, pius XII-is, ioane XXIII-is drois kaTolike eklesiis praqtika uxvad
adasturebs am moZraobas.
8
Sdr. CONC. NICAENUM I, can.6. CONC. CONST. I, can. 2 et 3. CONC. CHALCEDONENSE,
can.. 28, can.9. CONC. CONST.IV, can. 17; can. 21. CONC. LATERANENSE IV, can. 5; can. 30. CONC:
FLOR., Decr. pro Graecis, etc.
9
Sdr. CONC. NICAENUM I, can. 6. CONC. CONST. I, can. 3. CONC. CONST. IV, can. 17.
PIUS XII, Motu proprio Cleri sanctitati, can. 216, 2, 1.
10
msoflio krebebze: NICAENA; I, can. 6. CONST. I, can. 3. CONST. IV, can. 21. LATERANENSI IV, can. FLOR., Decr. pro Graecis, 6 iul. 1439, 9. Sdr. PIUS XII, Motu proprio Cleri sanctitati, 2
iun. 1957, can. 219, etc.

127

vatikanis II kreba

amitom wmida krebam daadgina, rom unda aRdges maTi uflebebi da privilegiebi calkeuli eklesiis Zveli tradiciebisa da msoflio krebaTa dekretebis Sesabamisad.11
es is uflebebi da privilegiebia, romlebic arsebobda aRmosavleTisa
da dasavleTis erTianobis periodSi, Tumca, SesaZlebelia, saWiro gaxdes
dRevandeli viTarebisadmi maTi misadageba.
patriarqebi TavianTi sinodebiT warmoadgenen umaRles instancias sapatriarqos nebismieri saqmisTvis. es gulisxmobs, sxvaTa da sxvaTa Soris,
axali eparqiebis daarsebasa da mocemuli wesis episkoposebis daniSnvas sapatriarqos teritoriis sazRvrebSi. amasTanave, ZalaSi rCeba romis pontifeqsis ganuxreli ufleba, Caerios calkeul SemTxvevebSi.
10. is, rac patriarqebis Sesaxeb iTqva, exeba, samarTlis normis Tanaxmad,
umaRles mTavarepiskoposebsac, romlebic saTaveSi udganan mTels calkeul eklesias anu wess.12
11. sapatriarqo dawesebuleba aRmosavleTis eklesiebSi tradiciuli
mmarTvelobis formas warmoadgens. amitom wmida msoflio krebas surs, rom
iq, sadac saWiroa, Seiqmnas axali sapatriarqoebi, romelTa Seqmnis ufleba
msoflio krebis an romis pontifeqsis prerogativaa.13
saidumloTa disciplina
12. wmida msoflio kreba adasturebs da mxars uWers aRmosavleTis eklesiebSi arsebul saidumloTa Zvel disciplinas da survils gamoTqvams, rom
saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi is aRdgenil iqnas.
13. srulad unda aRdges uZvelesi droidan aRmosavlur [eklesiebSi] arsebuli disciplina wm. cxebis (Chrismatis) msaxuris Sesaxeb. am saidumlos aRsruleba mRvdlebs (presbyteri) SeuZliaT, patriarqisa Tu episkoposis mier
nakurTxi sacxeblis (Chrismate) gamoyenebiT.14
14. yvela aRmosavlel mRvdels (presbyteri) SeuZlia qmediTad aRasrulos
es saidumlo, an naTlobasTan erTad an calke, nebismieri _ maT Soris LlaTinuri _ wesis erTgulebisTvis. amasTanave, uflebamosilebis uzrunvelsayofad (ad liceitatem), unda dacul iqnas sazogado da kerZo samarTlis ganwesebebi.15 laTinuri wesis mRvdlebsac (presbyteri), im SesaZleblobaTa mixedviT,
11
Sdr. zemoT, Sen. 8.
12
Sdr. CONC: EPHES., can. 8. CLEMENS VII, Decret Romanum Ponificem, 23 febr. 1596. PIUS
VII, 2 iun. 1957, can. 324-339. CONC. CARTHAGINEN., an. 419, can. 17.
13
CONC: CARTHAGINEN., an. 419, can. 17 et 57. CONC. CHALCEDONENSE, an 451, can. 12.
S. INNOCENTIUS I, litt. Et onus et honor, a.c. 415: Nam quid sciscitaris. S. NICOLAUS I, litt. Ad consulta
vetra, 13 nov. 866: A qou autem. INNOCENTIUS III, litt. Rex regum, 25 febr. 1204. LEO XII, const. apost.
Petrus Apostolorum Princeps, 15 aug. 1824. LEO XIII, litt. apost. Christi Domini, an. 1895. PIUS XII, Motu
proprio Cleri sanctitati, 2 iun. 1957, can. 1959.
14
Sdr. INNOCENTIUS IV, epist. Sub catholicae, 6 mart. 1254, 3, n. 4. CONC. LUDGUN. II,
an. 1274 (professio fidei Michaelis Paleologi Gregorio X oblata). EUGENIUS IV, in Syn. Florentina, Const.
Exsultate Deo, 22 nov. 1439, 11. CLEMENS VIII, instr. Sanctissimus, 31 aug. 1595. BENEDICTUS XIV,
const. Etsi pastoralis, 26 maii 1742, II, n. 1, III, n. 1, etc. Syn. Laodicena, an. 347/381, can. 48. Syn. Sisen.
Armenorum, an. 1342. Syn. Libanen. Maronitarum, an. 1736, P. II, Cap. III, n. 2 da sxva calkeuli krebebi.
15
Sdr. S. C. S. OFFICI, instr. (ad Ep. Scepuseien), an. 1783. S. C. De Prop. Fide (pro Coptis), 15
mart. 1790, n. xiii; Decr. 6 oct. 1863, C.a. S.C. pro ECCL. ORIENT., 1 maii 1948. S. C. S. OFFICII, resp. 22
apr. 1896 cum litt. 19 maii 1896.

128

ORIENTALIUM ECCLESIARUM

romlebic maT saidumlos aRsrulebis (ministrare) sferoSi gaaCniaT, SeuZliaT


is aRmosavluri eklesiebis erTgulebisTvisac aRasrulon, miuxedavad gansxvavebuli wesisa. amasTanave, uflebamosilebis uzrunvelsayofad (ad liceitatem), unda dacul iqnas sazogado da kerZo samarTlis ganwesebebi.16
15. erTgulebi movaleni arian, kvira dReobiT da dResaswaulebze monawileoba miiRon saRmrTo liturgiaSi, an, sakuTari wesis miTiTebebisa Tu
Cveulebis Tanaxmad, saRmrTo qebaTa aRsrulebaSi.17 imisaTvis, rom erTgulebma es movaleoba advilad Seasrulon, dadgenilia, rom xelsayreli dro
am miTiTebis Sesasruleblad grZeldeba wina dRis saRamodan (a vesperis vigiliae) kvira dRis an dResaswaulis bolomde.18 erTgulebisTvis dabejiTebiT
rekomendirebulia, rom am dReebSi an ufro xSirad, Tundac yoveldRe,
miiRon wmida evqaristia.19
16. aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac sxvadasxva calkeuli eklesiis erTgulebi
erTsa da imave aRmosavlur regionsa Tu teritoriaze sistematurad Sereulad cxovroben. aseT dros nebismieri wesis mRvdelTa uflebamosileba _
miiRon aRsareba, maTi ierarqebis mier wesisamebr da yovelgvari SezRudvis
gareSe daSvebuli _ vrceldeba am uflebamosilebis damSvebi piris mier
mTels teritoriaze, agreTve mocemuli wesis yvela adgilsa da erTgulze, romlebic amave teritoriaze imyofeba, Tuki adgilobrivma ierarqma es
aSkarad ar uaryo Tavisi wesis Sesabamisi adgilebisTvis.20
17. imisaTvis, raTa aRmosavleTis ekelesiebSi kvlav ZalaSi Sevides xarisxis (Ordinis) saidumlos Zveli disciplina, mocemul wmida krebas surs,
rom mudmivi diakonobis (diconatus) instituti aRdges iq, sadac is moiSala.21
rac Seexeba subdiakonobas da qveda xarisxebs, agreTve maT uflebebsa da movaleobebs, es ukve TiToeuli calkeuli eklesiis kanonieri xelisuflebis
gadasawyvetia.22
18. imisaTvis, raTa Tavidan aviciloT qorwinebebi, romlebic ZalaSi
ar aris (igulisxmeba aRmosavleTis kaTolikeTa qorwineba aRmosavleTis
monaTlul arakaTolikeebTan), agreTve qorwinebis simtkicis, siwmidisa
16
CIC, can. 782, 4. S. C. PRO ECCL. ORIENT., decretum de Sacramento Confirmationis administrando etiam fidelibus orientalibus a presbyteris latini ritus, qui hoc indulto gaudent pro fidelibus sui ritus, 1
maii 1948.
17
Sdr. SYN. LAODICEN., an. 347/381, can. 29. S. NICEPHORUS CP., cap. 14. SYN. DUINEN.
ARMENORUM, an. 719, can. 31. S. THEODORUS STUDITA, sermo 21.- S. NICOLAUS I, litt. Ad consulta
vestra, 13 nov. 866: In quorum Apostolorum; Nos cupitis; Quod interrogatis; Praeterea consultis; Si die
Dominico; da calkeuli (adgilobrivi) krebebi.
18
es aris siaxle, yovel SemTxvevaSi iq, sadac arsebobs wm. liturgiaSi monawileobis valdebuleba. Tumca, es Seefereba aRmosavlel [qristianebSi] liturgiul dRes.
19
Sdr. Canones apostolorum, 8 et 9. SYN. ANTIOCHENA, an. 341, can. 2. TIMOTHEUS ALEXANDRINUS, Interrogat. 3. INNOCENTIUS III, const. Quia divinae, 4 ian. 1215; agreTve aRmosavleTis
eklesiaTa bolo drois mravali adgilobrivi kreba.
20
iurisdiqciis teritorialuri xasiaTis dacvis pirobebSi, kanoni cdilobs, sulTa keTildReobisaTvis, erTsa da imave teritoriaze iurisdiqciis pluralizmi uzrunvelyos.
21
Sdr. CONC. NICAENUM I, can. 18. SYN. NEOCAESARIEN., an. 314/325, can. 12. SYN.
SARDICEN., an. 343, can. 8. S. LEO M., litt. Omnium quidem, 13 ian. 444. CONC. CHALCEDONENSE,
can. 6. CONC. CONST. IV, can. 23, 26, etc.
22
mravali aRmosavleTis eklesia subdiakonobas mcire xarisxad miiCnevs, magram
Motu proprio pius XII-isa, Cleri sanctitati, mas ufrosi xarisxebis movaleobani miewereba. kanoni
gvTavazobs, davubrundeT calkeul eklesiaTa Zvel disciplinas subdiakvanTa movaleobebis TvalsazrisiT, Cleri sanctitati-s saerTo kanonis (iuris communis) SezRudviT.

129

vatikanis II kreba

da ojaxuri simSvidisaTvis, wmida kreba adgens, rom am qorwinebaTa aRsrulebis kanonikuri forma savaldebuloa mxolod misi uflebamosilebisTvis (ad liceitatem), xolo imisaTvis, rom qorwinebebi ZalaSi iyos, sakmarisia mRvdelmsaxuris (ministri sacri) Tandaswreba, Tuki daculia samarTlis sxva wesebi.23
saRmrTo kultmsaxureba
19. amieridan mxolod msoflio krebis an samociqulo saydris saqmea, yvela aRmosavleTis eklesiebisTvis saerTo dResaswaulebis dadgena, gadatana an moxsna. rac Seexeba calkeuli eklesiisTvis dResaswaulebis dadgenas,
gadatanas an moxsnas, es exeba ara mxolod samociqulo saydars, aramed sapatriarqo da samTavarepiskoposo sinodebsac. aseT SemTxvevaSi saTanadod
unda iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli mTeli regioni da sxva calkeuli eklesiebi.24
20. sasurvelia, yvela qristianma SeTanxmebis Sedegad aRdgomis dResaswauli erTsa da imave dRes izeimos. xolo sanam es moxdeba, patriarqebi
Tu uzenaesi adgilobrivi saeklesio xelisufalni, erTsa da imave regionsa
Tu qveyanaSi mcxovreb qristianTa Soris erTobis gansamtkiceblad, azrTa
erTsulovnebisa da dainteresebul mxareebTan TaTbiris safuZvelze, unda
SeTanxmdnen imis Taobaze, rom aRdgomis dResaswauli erTsa da imave kviradRes izeimon.25
21. rac Seexeba wmida JamTa kanons, aq calkeul erTgulebs, romlebic
maTi sakuTari wesis regionisa Tu teritoriis gareT imyofebian, SeuZliaT
mTlianad Seewyon im adgilis disciplinas wes-Cveulebebs, sadac cxovroben. Sereuli wesis ojaxebSi es kanoni SeiZleba erT-erTi wesis mixedviT iqnas daculi.26
22. dae, aRmosavleTis samRvdelo pirebma da moweseebma sakuTari disciplinis ganwesebaTa da tradiciaTa mixedviT saRmrTo qebani (Laudes Divinas)
izeimon, romlebic Zveli droidan yvela aRmosavlur eklesiaSi did pativSi
iyo.27 dae, erTgulebmac, winaparTa magaliTis mixedviT, mowiwebiT, sakuTari SesaZleblobebis farglebSi, monawileoba miiRon saRmrTo qebebSi.
23
Sdr. PIUS XII, Motu proprio Crebrae allatae, 22 febr. 1949, can. 32, 2, n. 5 (facultas patriarcharum dispensandi a forma 9. PIUS XII, Motu proprio Cleri sanctitati, 2 iun. 1957, can. 267 (facultas patriarcharum sanandi in radice). wm. msaxurebis wm. kongregaciam da aRmosavluri eklesiebis saqmeTa
wm. kongregaciam gasca formisgan gandgomisa (dispensandi) da formis naklulovanebisgan
gaTavisuflebis uflebamosileba (xuTi wliT): patriarqTa garda, mitropolitebisa da
sxva adgilobrivi ordinariusebisTvis, romlebsac aravin hyavT zemdgomi, garda wmida
saydrisa.
24
Sdr. S. LEO M., litt, Wuod saepissime, 15 apr. 454: Petitionem autem. S. NICEPHORUS CP.,
cap. 13. SYN. SERGII PATRIARCHIAE; 18 sept. 1596, can. 17. PIuS VI, litt. apost. Assueto paterne, 8 apr.
1755, etc.
25
Sdr. CONC: VAT. II, Const. de Sacra Liturgia.
26
Sdr. CLEMENS VIII, instr. Santissimus, 31 aug. 1595, 6: Si ipsi graeci. S.C. S. OFFICII, 7 iun.
1673, ad 1 et 3; 13 mart. 1727, ad 1. S. C. DE PROP. FIDE, decret. 18 aug. 1913, art. 33; Decret. 14 aug. 1914,
art. 27; Decret. 27 mart. 1916, art. 14. S. C. Pro ECCL. ORIENT., decret. 1 mart. 1929, art. 36; Decret. 4 maii
1930, art. 41.
27
Sdr. SYN. LAODICEN., 347/381, can. 18. SYN. MAR ISSACI CHALDAEORUM an. 410, can.
15. SYN. NERSES GLAIEN. ARMENORUM, an. 1166. INNOCENTIUS IV, epist. Sub catholicae, 6 mart.
1254. 8.- BENEDICTUS XIV, const. Etsi pastoralis, 26 maii 1742, 7,n. 5; Instr. Eo quamvis tempore, 4 maii
1745, 42 ss. bolo drois adgilobrivi krebebi: somexTa (1911), koptebisa (1898), maronitebisa (1736), ruminelebisa (1872), sirielebisa (1888).

130

ORIENTALIUM ECCLESIARUM

23. patriarqs sinodTan erTad an yoveli eklesiis uzenaes xelisufals


ierarqTa krebasTan erTad aqvs ufleba, gansazRvros enaTa gamoyeneba wmida liturgiul qmedebebSi. maT agreTve SeuZliaT, samociqulo saydrisTvis
moxsenebis Sedegad, adgilobriv enaze teqstebis Targmanebis damtkiceba.28
urTierToba gamijnuli eklesiebis ZmebTan
24. aRmosavleTis eklesiebs, romlebic urTierTobaSi arian romis samociqulo saydarTan, gansakuTrebuli movaleoba akisria: mocemuli wmida
krebis ekumenizmis Sesaxeb dekretis Tanaxmad, maT xeli unda Seuwyon yvela
qristianis, gansakuTrebiT, aRmosavlel qristianTa erTobas. es, upiveles
yovlisa, unda ganxorcieldes locvebiT, cxovrebis magaliTiT, Zveli aRmosavluri tradiciebis mimarT RmrTismosavi (religiosa) erTgulebiT, Rrma
urTierTgagebiT, TanamSromlobiTa da Zmuri pativiscemiT saganTa da adamianTa mimarT.29
25. gamijnuli aRmosavleli [qristianebisgan], romlebic suli wmidis
madlis zemoqmedebiT kaTolikuri erTianobisaken midian, imaze meti ar
unda moviTxovoT, rasac kaTolikuri sarwmunoebis ubralo aRmsarebloba
(professio) moiTxovs. maT namdvili mRvdelmsaxureba Semoinaxes, amitom aRmosavlur samRvdelo pirebs, romlebic kaTolikuri erTianobisken midian,
SeuZliaT sakuTari xarisxi awarmoon (excercendi), uflebamosili selisuflebis mier dadgenili normebis Tanaxmad.30
26. erToba saidumloebebSi, romelic zians ayenebs eklesiis erTobas
an ganapirobebs formaluri Secdomis daSvebas, iwvevs sarwmunoebaSi gzis
abnevas, xiblsa da indiferentulobas, saRmrTo kanoniT ikrZaleba.31 rac
Seexeba aRmosavlel Zmebs, samRvdlo praqtika adasturebs, rom SesaZlebelia da saWiroc aris calkeul pirTa viTarebis gaTvaliswineba, Tuki
eklesiis erTianobas safrTxe ar emuqreba da xifaTis winaSe ara vdgevarT, da roca amas moiTxovs gamoxsnis aucilebloba da sulTa sulieri
keTildReoba. amitom, drois, adgilisa da pirovnebaTa konkretuli viTarebis gaTvaliswinebiT, kaTolike eklesia xSirad mimarTavda da mimarTavs qmedebis ufro rbil formas, yvelas sTavazobs gamoxsnis saSualebebsa
da qristianTa Soris siyvarulis mowmobas saidumloebSi, sxva qmedebebsa
da wmida saqmeebSi. imisaTvis, raTa Sexedulebis simkacris gamo ar davabrkoloT isini, vinc unda gamoxsnil iqnas,32 agreTve imisaTvis, raTa
ganmtkicdes erToba Cvengan gamijnul aRmosavleTis eklesiebTan, wmida
kreba moqmedebis Semdeg wess adgens.
27. zemoaRniSnul principTa safuZvelze, SesaZlebelia, rom keTili rwmeniT gamsWvalul aRmosavlel [qristianebs], kaTolike eklesiisagan gamijnulT, mivawodoT sinanulis, evqaristiisa da sneulTa cxebis saidumloni,
Tuki isini amas Tavad moiTxoven da saTanadod iqnebian ganwyobilni. metic:
kaTolikeebmac SeiZleba sTxovon saidumloni im arakaTolike msaxurebs,
romelTa eklesiaSi moipoveba namdvili saidumloni. es SesaZlebelia yvela
im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac amas aucilebloba an WeSmariti sulieri saWiroeba
28
aRmosavluri tradiciidan.
29
sxvadasxva aRmosavlel kaTolikeTa eklesiebis erTobis bulaTa Sinaarsidan.
30
krebis valdebuleba gamijnul aRmosavlel ZmaTa da yvela saxis xarisxis mimarT,
rogorc saRmrTo, aseve saeklesio samarTlisa.
31
es moZRvreba gamijnul eklesiebSic aris ZalaSi.
32
S. BASILIUS M., Epist. canonica ad amphilochium: PG 32, 699 B.

131

vatikanis II kreba

moiTxovs, xolo kaTolike mRvdelmsaxuri fizikurad an moralurad miuwvdomeli aris.33


28. amave principebis safuZvelze, garkveul viTarebaSi, dasaSvebia urTierToba wmida qmedebebSi, sagnebsa da adgilebSi kaTolikeebsa da gamijnul aRmosavlel Zmebs Soris.34
es saqme _ ufro Serbilebuli erToba saidumloebebSi aRmosavleTis gamijnuli eklesiebis ZmebTan mindobil iqna adgilobriv ierarqTa brZnul
sifxizlesa da xelmZRvanelobas. erTmaneTTan TaTbirisa da, saWiroebis
SemTxvevaSi, gamijnul eklesiaTa ierarqebis mosmenis Sedegad, maT, saTanado qmediTi miTiTebebiTa da normebiT, qristianTa Soris urTierTobebi
unda moawesrigon.
daskvna
30. wmida kreba didad moxarulia aRmosavleTis da dasavleTis kaTolike
eklesiaTa Soris arsebuli nayofieri da qmediTi TanamSromlobis gamo. amasTan dakavSirebiT is ganacxadebs: yvela es samarTlebrivi miTiTebebi (dispositiones) dgindeba amJamindeli viTarebisTvis, im dromde, sanam kaTolike
eklesia da gamijnuli aRmosavluri eklesiebi urTierTobis sisrulemde
mivlen.
amave dros ki, yvela qristians, rogorc aRmosavlels, aseve dasavlels,
kreba dabejiTebiT mouwodebs, RmerTs mimarTon mxurvale da gulmodgine
_ yoveldRiuri locvebiTac ki, raTa uwmidesi RmrTismSoblis SemweobiT,
yvela erT iqmnas. dae, ilocon, rom nebismieri eklesiis yvela qristianze,
romlebic ganuxrelad qristes saxelis aRmsareblebi (profitentes) arian, igvemebian da itanjebian, gardamovides wmida nugeSinismcemeli suli, savse TanadgomiTa da simSvidiT.
ZmaT moyuarebiTa urTierTas mowled mosurne iyveniT; pativis-cemasa
urTierTas uswrobdiT (rom. 12, 10).
yovelive erTad da cal-calke, rac am dekretSi gamocxadda,
wmida krebis mamebma moiwones. da Cvenc, im samociqulo uflebamosilebiT, romelic qristesgan gadmogveca, amas pativdebul mamebTan erTad suli wmidaSi veTanxmebiT, vadgenT,
vawesebT da vbrZanebT, rom is, rac krebaze dadginda, gamoqveyndes sadideblad RmrTisa.

romi, wm. petresTan, 1964 wlis 21 noemberi


me, pavle, kaTolike eklesiis episkoposi
(mohyveba mamaTa xelmowerebi)

33
am Serbilebis safuZvlad miCneulia Semdegi: 1. saidumloTa qmediToba; 2. keTili
rwmena da ganwyoba; 3. saukuno gamoxsnis aucilebloba; 4. sakuTari mRvdelmsaxuris aryofna; 5. Tavidan asacilebeli safrTxisa da Secdomisadmi formaluri midrekilebis ararseboba.
34
laparakia e.w. gare-sakramentul saidumloTa erTobaze. am Serbilebas kreba
iZleva, xolo rac saWiroa, is unda SenarCunebul iqnas.

132

dekreti
ekumenizmis Sesaxeb
UNITATIS REDINTEGRATIO

pavle episkoposi,
RmrTis msaxurTa msaxuri,
wmida krebis mamebTan erTad,
samudamo saxsovrad

dekreti
ekumenizmis Sesaxeb
Sesavali
1. xeli SevuwyoT yvela qristians Soris erTobis aRdgenas: aseTia vatikanis
meore wmida msoflio krebis erT-erTi mTavari amocana. ufalma qristem erTi
eklesia daamkvidra, Tumca bevri qristianuli sakrebulo adamianTa winaSe
sakuTar Tavs ieso qristes WeSmarit memkvidred warmoadgens. yvelas Tavi qristes mowafed miaCnia, Tumca maT sxvadasxvagvari aRqma da gansxvavebuli gzebi
aqvT, TiTqos Tavad qristec ganyofiliyo.1 cxadia, rom aseTi ganyofa aSkarad
ewinaaRmdegeba qristes nebas, macTuria msofliosTvis da sazianoa wmida saqmisTvis, romelic yvela qmnilebisTvis saxarebis qadagebas gulisxmobs.
magram ufalma saukuneTa, romelic sibrZniTa da moTminebiT asrulebs
saqmes da Cven, codvilebs, Tavis madls gvaniWebs, ukanasknel dros ufro
uxvad daiwyo erTmaneTisgan gamijnul qristianebSi monaniebisa da erTobis survilis aRZrva. am madliT moculi adamiani yvelgan bevria. Cvengan
gamijnul ZmebSic, suli wmidis madlis zemoqmedebiT, Caisaxa da TandaTanobiT gafardovda moZraoba, romelic yvela qristians Soris erTobis
aRdgenisTvis aris gamiznuli. erTianobisken mimarTul am moZraobaSi,
romelsac ekumenuri ewodeba, isini monawileoben, vinc RmerTs samebad
mouxmobs ( qui Deum Trinum invocant) da iesos rogorc ufalsa da macxovars aRiarebs; amas isini ara calke, TavisTvis unda akeTebdnen, aramed im
sakrebuloebTan erTad, romlebSic maT saxareba moismines da romlebsac
TiToeuli maTgani Tavis da RmrTis eklesias uwodebs. maT Soris TiTqmis
yvela, Tumca sxvadasxva saxiT, miiswrafvis RmrTis erTiani da xiluli
eklesiisken, romelic iqneba WeSmaritad sayovelTao da mTeli samyarosTvis movlinebuli, raTa samyaro saxarebisken moiqces da ase iqnas gamoxnili sadideblad uflisa.
yovelive amas wmida kreba sixaruliT aRiqvams. man ukve ganacxada eklesiis Sesaxeb Tavisi moZRvreba. igi gamsWvalulia surviliT, damyardes erTianoba qristes yvela mowafes Soris. amitom krebas surs, yvela kaTolikes
SesTavazos saSualebebi, gzebi da xerxebi, romlebic maT SesaZleblobas miscemen, upasuxon am saRmrTo mowodebasa da madls.
Tavi I
ekumenizmis
kaTolikuri principebi
2. Cvens Soris RmrTis siyvaruli imiT gancxadda, rom RmrTis mxolodSobili Ze mamam samyaroSi moavlina, raTa mas, adamianad qmnils, gamosyidviT
1

Sdr. 1kor. 1, 13.

135

vatikanis II kreba

kacobrioba aRedgina da erTad Seekriba.2 sanam jvris samsxverploze Tavs


ubiwo msxverplad Seswiravda, man yvela morwmuneTaTvis mamas locviT mimarTa da Tqva: raTa yovelni erT iyvnen, viTarca Sen, mamao, Cemdamo, da
me Sendami, raTa iginica Cuen Soris erT iyvnen, raTa sofelsa hrwmenes,
rameTu Sen momavline me (ioan. 17, 21). Tavis eklesiaSi man daamkvidra evqaristiis gansacvifrebeli saidumlo, romelic aRniSavs da kidec ganaxorcielebs eklesiis erTobas. Tavis mowafeebs man urTierTsiyvarulis axali
mcneba misca3 da maT nugeSinismcemel suls Sehpirda,4 raTa igi, ufali da
cxovelmyofeli, maTTan saukunod darCeniliyo.
jvarze aRmarTulma da gandidebulma ufalma iesom aRTqmuli suli
mohfina. misi meSveobiT man mouwoda axali aRTqmis ers, romelic aris
eklesia, da is Sekriba sarwmunoebis, imedisa da siyvarulis erTobaSi,
rogorc amas mociquli aswavlis: erT orc da erT sul, viTarca-igi
iCineniT erTiTa miT sasoebiTa Cinebisa TquenisaTa; erT ars ufal, erT
sarwmunoeba, erT naTlis-Reba (efes. 4, 4-5). rameTu raodenTa qristes
mimarT naTel-iReT, qriste SeimoseT... rameTu Tquen yovelni erT xarT
qriste iesos mier (gal. 3, 27-28). suli wmida, romelic morwmuneebSi
mkvidrobs, aRavsebs da warmarTavs mTels eklesias, axorcielebs morwmuneTa am gansacvifrebel urTierTobas da ise mWidrod akavSirebs yvelas qristeSi, rom is eklesiis principi xdeba. is axorcielebs madlTa
da msaxurebaTa ganyofas,5 is aniWebs ieso qristes eklesias sxvadasxva
funqcias, dasamtkicebelad wmidaTa, saqmed msaxurebisa, aRsaSenebelad
guamisa qristesisa (efes. 4, 12).
xolo imisaTvis, rom saukuneTa aRsasrulamde qristes wmida eklesia
yvelgan damkvidrebuliyo, qristem TormetTa dass miando swavlebis, marTvisa da wmida-yofis funqcia.6 maT Soris man petre airCia. mas Semdeg, rac
petrem sarwmunoeba aRiara, qristem ganizraxa, Tavisi eklesia masze aRemarTa. igi mas cis sasufevlis klites Sehpirda7 da roca petrem Tavisi siyvaruli daumtkica, qristem yvela kravis rwmenaSi ganmtkiceba8 da srulyofil
erTobaSi maTi mwyemsoba mas miando.9 xolo Tavad ieso qriste saukunod rCeba Tavsakidur qvad10 da Cveni sulebis mwyemsad.11
mociqulTa da maTi memkvidreebis, anu episkoposTa meSveobiT, romelTa
saTaveSi petres memkvidre dgas, xorcieldeba saxarebis erTguli qadageba,
saidumloTa ganweseba da marTva siyvarulSi. yovelive amis safuZvelze da
suli wmidis moqmedebiT, ieso qristes misi eris gazrda surs da igi srulyofs eris kavSirs erTobaSi (eiusque communionem perficit in unitate), rac erTi sarwmunoebis aRsarebas, saRmrTo RmrTismsaxurebis (divini cultus) erTobliv aRsrulebas da RmrTis ojaxis Zmur Tanxmobas gulisxmobs.
amgvarad, eklesia aris RmrTis erTiani samwyso, viTarca niSani, erTaTvis
aRmarTuli.12 mTeli kacobriobisTvis mSvidobis saxarebis mimniWebeli,13 igi
imediT msxemobs miznisken - zeciuri samSoblosken.14
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

136

Sdr. 1ioan. 4, 9; kol. 1, 18-20; ioan. 11, 52.


Sdr. ioan. 13, 34.
Sdr. ioan. 16, 7.
Sdr. 1kor. 12, 4-11.
Sdr. maT. 28, 18-20; Sdr. ioan. 20, 21-23.
Sdr. maT. 16, 19, Sdr. maT. 18, 18.
Sdr. luk. 22, 32.
Sdr. ioan. 21, 15-17.
Sdr. efes. 2, 20.
Sdr. 1pet. 2, 25. CONC. VAT. I, Sess. 4 (1870), Constitutio Pastor Aeternus: Coll. Lac. 7, 482.
Sdr. es. 11, 10-12.
Sdr. efes. 2, 17-18, Sdr. mark. 16, 15.
Sdr. 1petre 1, 3-9.

UNITATIS REDINTEGRATIO

aseTia eklesiis erTobis wmida saidumlo qristeSi da qristes mier, suli


wmidis moqmedebiT sxvadasxva msaxurebebSi ganxorcielebuli. am saidumlos uzenaesi nimuSi da saTave aris erTi RmrTis - mamis, Zisa da suli wmidis
pirTa erToba samebaSi.
3. RmrTis am erTian da erTaderT eklesiaSi imTaviTve gaCnda garkveuli ganxeTqilebani,15 romlebsac mociquli mkacrad kicxavs.16 momdevno
saukuneebSi Tavi iCina ufro mniSvnelovanma dapirispirebebma da sakrebuloTa didi ricxvi gaemijna kaTolike eklesiasTan srulyofil kavSirs. zogjer es Tavad adamianebis brali iyo, rogorc erTi, aseve meore mxridan. magram ganxeTqilebis codvas maT ver mivawerT, vinc aseT
sakrebuloebSi axla gaCnda da vinc qristes rwmeniT aris gamsWvaluli.
kaTolike eklesia maT Zmuri pativiscemiTa da siyvaruliT iRebs. xolo
visac qriste swams da wesisamebr naTloba aqvs miRebuli, is mainc aris
garkveul Tundac arasrulyofil _ urTierTobaSi kaTolike eklesiasTan. ra Tqma unda, maTsa da kaTolike eklesias Soris arsebul sxvadasxva
dapirispirebis gamo, romlebic Tavs iCens samoZRvro (in re doctrinali) da
zogjer disciplinaTa sakiTxebSi, agreTve eklesiis struqturasTan
dakavSirebiT, Cndeba sxvadasxvagvari winaaRmdegoba, zogjer sakmaod
seriozulic, romelic xels uSlis srul saeklesio urTierTobas. swored amis gadalaxvas cdilobs ekumenuri moZraoba. da mainc, gamijnulnic, naTlobis rweniT gamarTlebulni (iustificati ex fide in baptismati), qristes
esisxlxorcebian (Christo incorporantur).17 amitom maT samarTlianad ewodeba
qristianebi, xolo kaTolike eklesiis Svilebi maT uflismier Zmebad (fratres in Domino) miiCneven.18
amasTanave, zogierTi im elementebidan Tu Rirebulebebidan (bonis), (zogjer isini sakmaod mravalricxovani da mniSvnelovanic arian) romelTa erTobliobiT igeba da cxoveliyofa eklesia, SeiZleba arsebobdes kaTolike
eklesiis xiluli sazRvrebis gareTac. aseTebia: dawerili saRmrTo sityva,
madlis cxovreba (vita gratiae), rwmena, imedi da siyvaruli, agreTve suli wmidis Sinagani niWni da xiluli elementebi. yovelive es, rac qristesgan gamodis da misken miuZRveba, samarTlianad ganekuTvneba qristes erTaderT
eklesias.
Cvengan gamijnul ZmaTa Sorisac sruldeba qristianuli religiis mravali wmida qmedeba. maTi meSveobiT udaod SeiZleba, calkeuli eklesiisa Tu
sakrebulosTvis damaxasiaTebel garemoebaTa Sesabamisad, aRmocendes madlis cxovreba. unda iTqvas, rom maTi meSveobiT ixseba gza gamoxsnis ziarebisken (in salutis communionem).
amitom, Tumca vfiqrobT, rom am eklesiebsa19 da gamijnul sakrebuloebs
garkveuli nakli aqvs, maT mainc gaaCnia mniSvneloba da Rirebuleba gamoxsnis saidumloebaSi. marTlac, qristes suli ar aris winaaRmdegi, rom isini
rogorc gamoxsnis saSualebebi gamoiyenos, romelTa Zala madlisa da WeSmaritebis im sisavsidan momdinareobs, romelic kaTolike eklesias aris mindobili.
magram Cvengan gamijnul Zmebs, rogorc calcalke, aseve maT sakrebuloebsa da eklesiebs, ar gaaCnia is erToba, romlis miniWeba ieso qristes
15
Sdr. 1kor. 11, 18-19; gal. 1, 6-9; 1ioan. 2, 18-19.
16
Sdr. 1kor. 1, 11; 11, 22.
17
Sdr. CONC. FLOR., Sess. 8 (1439), Decretum Exultate Deo: MANSI 31, 1055 A.
18
Sdr. S. Augustinus, In Ps. 32, Enarr. II, 29: PL 36, 299.
19
Sdr. CONC. LATERNANENSE IV (1215, Constitutio IVa: MANSI 22, 990. CONC.
LUDGUNENSE II (1274), Professio fidei Michaelis Paleologi: MANSI 24, 71 E. CONC. FLOR., Sess. 6 (1439), Definitio Laetentur caeli: MANSI 31, 1026 E.

137

vatikanis II kreba

yvelasTvis surda, vinc man erTiani sxeulisa da ganaxlebuli cxovrebisTvis aRadgina da cxovelyo, rasac wmida werili da pativdebuli saeklesio tradicia mowmobs. mxolod qristes kaTolike eklesiis meSveobiT _
igi gamoxsnis sayovelTao saSualebaa _ SeiZleba miRweul iqnas gamoxsnis
saSualebaTa sruli sisavse. gvwams, rom mxolod samociqulo saydars,
romelsac petre uZRveba, ufalma miando axali aRTqmis mTeli simdidre,
raTa miwaze damkvidrebuliyo (constituendum) qristes erTiani sxeuli, romelSic srulyofilad unda Sevides yvela, vinc ama Tu im saxiT RmrTis
ers ukve ekuTvnis. miwieri msxemobis ganmavlobaSi es eri, mis calkeul
wevrTa saxiT, codvisgan dazRveuli ar aris, magam is mainc izrdeba qristeSi. RmerTi, Tavisi saidumlo ganzraxvis Sesabamisad, am ers miuZRvis,
sanam is, sixaruliT aRsavse, zeciur ierusalimSi saukuno didebis srul
sisavses ar miaRwevs.
4. dRes samyaros bevr kuTxeSi, suli wmidis madliT, locviT, sityviTa
da saqmiT bevri ram keTdeba erTobis im sisrulis misaRwevad, romelic surs
ieso qristes. amitom wmida sinodi mouwodebs yvela kaTolike erTguls,
amoicnon drois niSnebi da aqtiuri monawileoba miiRon ekumenur saqmeSi.
ekumenuri moZraoba gulisxmobs qristianTa erTobisTvis gankuTvnil da organizebul saqmianobebsa da iniciativebs, romlebic xorcieldeba eklesiis sxvadasxva moTxovnilebebisa da garemoebaTa safuZvelze.
aseTia, upirveles yovlisa, yovelgvari mcdeloba, Tavidan aviciloT
iseTi gamoTqmebi, gansjani da saqmeebi, romlebic samarTlianobisa da
WeSmaritebis TvalsazrisiT ar Seesabameba gamijnuli Zmebis mdgomareobas da amitom maTTan urTierTobas kidev ufro arTulebs. garda amisa,
ekumenuri moZraoba gulisxmobs dialogs, romelic religiur xasiaTs atarebs da, saTanadod ganswavlul specialistTa monawileobiT, sxvadasxva eklesiebisa Tu sakrebuloebis warmomadgenelTa Sekrebebze imarTeba. am dros TiToeuli warmomadgeneli ufro Rrmad ganmartavs Tavisi
sakrebulos moZRvrebasa da ufro naTlad warmoadgens mis Taviseburebebs. aseTi dialogis meSveobiT yvela iZens ufro WeSmarit codnas ama
Tu im sakrebulos moZRvrebis Sesaxeb, ukeTesad ecnoba mis cxovrebas da
ufro sworad afasebs yovelive amas. aseTi gziT es sakrebuloebi ufro
farTod TanamSromloben sxvadasxva saqmeSi saerTo keTildReobisaTvis,
romelic mTeli qristianul sakrebulos sindisis moTxovnebs Seesabameba. ramdenadac SesaZlebelia, erTsulovnebas isini saerTo locvaSi
aRweven. da bolos, yvela mowmobs eklesiasTan mimarTebaSi qristes nebisadmi Tavis erTgulebas da saTanado SemarTebiT Seudgeba ganaxlebisa
da cvlilebis (reformationis) saqmes.
kaTolike eklesiis erTgulni, romlebic mRvdelTa zedamxedvelobiT
yovelive amas gonivrulad da moTminebiT akeTeben, xels uwyoben samarTlianobisa da WeSmaritebis, Tanxmobisa da TanamSromlobis damyarebas,
agreTve Zmobisa da erTobis sulis gaRvivebas. am gziT, TanadaTanobiT, im
dabrkolebaTa gadalaxviT, romlebic xels uSlis srulyofili saeklesiao
sakrebulos arsebobas, yvela qristiani, evqaristiis erTian aRsrulebaSi,
Seikribeba erTiani da erTaderTi eklesiis im erTobaSi, romelic qristem
Tavis eklesias dasabamiTve mianiWa. gvwams, rom is ganuxrelad arsebobs kaTolike eklesiaSi da, imedi gvaqvs, sul ufro ganmtkicdeba saukuneTa aRsasrulamde.
cxadia, rom im calkeul pirTa momzadebisa da Serigebis saqme, romelTac sruli kaTolikuri erToba surT, Tavisi bunebiT gansxvavdeba ekumenuri iniciativisgan. da mainc, maT Soris ar aris araviTari dapirispi-

138

UNITATIS REDINTEGRATIO

reba, radgan erTica da meorec RmrTis gansacvifrebeli gangebulebidan


(dispositione) momdinareobs.
ekumenur saqmianobaSi kaTolike erTgulebi, udaod, unda zrunavdnen Tavisi gamijnuli ZmebisTvis, ilocon maTTvis, esaubron maT saeklesio saqmeTa Sesaxeb da gadadgan maTken pirveli nabijebi. upirveles
yovlisa, maT unda gulrwfelad da dakvirvebiT gaiazron yvelaferi,
rac Tavad kaTolikur ojaxSi unda ganaxldes da ganxorcieldes, raTa
misi cxovreba ufro erTgulad da naTlad mowmobdes im moZRvrebisa da
ganwesebaTa (institutisque) Sesaxeb, romelic qristem mociqulTa meSveobiT gadmosca.
RmerTma kaTolike eklesia WeSmaritebiTa da madlis yvela saSualebebiT daajildova, da mainc misi wevrebi mTeli gulmodginebiT ar cxovroben.
amis gamo eklesiis saxe arasakmarisad brwinavs Cveni gamijnuli Zmebisa da
mTeli samyarosTvis, Senelebulia RmrTis sasufevlis zrda. amitom yvela
kaTolike unda miiswrafodes qristianuli sisrulisaken.20 sakuTari SesaZleblobis farglebSi yoveli maTgani unda ecados, rom eklesia, romelic
sakuTar TavSi iesos damdablebas da sikvdils atarebs,21 TandaTanobiT ganiwmidos da ganaxldes, sanam qriste mas ar warudgens rogorc didebuls,
umwikvlosa da ubiwos.22
aucilebel sakiTxebSi erTobis dacvasTan erTad, TiToeulma, im funqciis Sesabamisad, romelic mas akisria, unda SeinarCunos Tavisufleba sulieri cxovrebisa da disciplinis sxvadasxva formaSi, liturgiul wesTa
mravalgvarobasa da TviT gamocxadebuli WeSmaritebis Teologiur damuSavebaSic ki: maT yvelaferSi siyvaruli unda Teson. aseTi qmedebiT isini sul
ufro srulad gamoxataven eklesiis kaTolikobas da, amasTanave mis samociquloobas.
meores mxriv, aucilebelia, rom kaTolikeebma sixaruliT aRiaron da
daafason WeSmaritad qristianuli Rirebulebebi, saerTo memkvidreobis
nayofi, romelic Cvengan gamijnul ZmebTan moipoveba. samarTliania da xsnis
momtania qristes simdidreebisa da ZalTa moqmedebis aRiareba sxvaTa cxovrebaSi, vinc qristes mowmobs, zogjer sakuTari sisxlis fasadac: RmerTi
mudam gansacvifrebelia da aRtacebis Rirsia Tavis saqmeebSi.
ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom is, rac suli wmidis madliT Cvengan gamijnul
ZmebSi sruldeba, SeiZleba Cveni ganaTlebisTvisac iyos sasargeblo. WeSmaritad qristianuli arasdros upirispirdeba rwmenis namdvil Rirebulebebs, aramed yovelTvis SeiZleba xels uwyobdes qristesa da eklesiis saidumloebis ufro srulad miRwevas.
da mainc, gansxvavebebi qristianTa Soris xels uSlis eklesias, ganaxorcielos misTvis damaxasiaTebeli kaTolikobis sisrule Tavis SvilebSi,
romlebic mas naTlobiT ekuTvnian, magram masTan sruli urTierTobisgan
gamijnulni arian. metic: Tavad eklesiisTvisac sul ufro Zneli xdeba kaTolikobis sisrulis gamoxatva yvela aspeqtiT, Tavad cxovrebis sinamdvileSi.
mocemuli wmida sinodi sixaruliT adasturebs, rom dRiTi dRe izrdeba erTgul kaTolikeTa monawileoba ekumenur saqmianobaSi. igi mTeli msoflios episkoposebs akisrebs am saqmianobis gulmodgine xelSewyobasa da
mis gonivrul warmarTvas.

20
21
22

Sdr. iak. 1, 4; rom. 12, 1-2.


Sdr. 2kor. 4, 10; fil. 2, 5-8.
Sdr. efes. 5, 27.

139

vatikanis II kreba

Tavi II
ekumenizmis ganxorcieleba
5. erTobis aRdgenisTvis zrunva mTels eklesias ekisreba, rogorc erTgulebs, aseve mRvdlebs, TiToeuls sakuTari SesaZleblobis mixedviT,
rogorc yoveldRiur qristianul cxovrebaSi, aseve Teologiur da istoriul ZiebebSi. es zrunva ukve garkveuli saxiT gamoxatavs yvela qristians
Soris kavSiris arsebobas da, RmrTis nebiT, sayovelTao da sruli erTobisaken gviZRveba.
6. eklesiis yovelgvari ganaxleba23 arsebiTad misi mowodebisadmi mzard
erTgulebas niSnavs. udavoa, rom erTobisken mimarTuli moZraoba am ganaxlebaSi iRebs dasabams. eklesias, misi msxemobis gzaze, qriste mudmivi gardaqmnisaken (reformationem) mouwodebs. eklesia amas ganuwyvetliv saWiroebs,
radgan is adamianuri da miwieri institutia. xdeba xolme, rom garkveul
viTarebaSi romeliRac sakiTxi, iqneba es zneobis sfero, saeklesio disciplina Tu moZRvrebis uwyebis forma rac mkafiod unda ganvasxvavoT Tavad sarwmunoebis saunjisagan _ arasakmarisi gulisyuriT ganixeba; aseTi
Secdomebi xelsayrel dros, swored da saTanadod unda gaswordes.
maSasadame, am ganaxlebas ekumenuri mniSvneloba aqvs. ganaxleba eklesiis
cxovrebis sxvadasxva formebis meSveobiT sruldeba. es aris bibliuri da
liturgiuli moZraoba, saRmrTo sityvis qadageba da katexizacia, saeroTa
mociquloba, religiuri cxovrebis axali formebi, qorwinebis sulieri xasiaTi, eklesiis moZRvreba da moRvaweoba sazogadoebriv saqmeSi. yovelive
es unda miviCnioT im sawindarad da niSnad, romlebic momavalSi ekumenizmis
ganviTarebas moaswavebs.
7. Sinagani moqcevis gareSe namdvili ekumenizmi ar arsebobs. erTobis survili xom gonebis ganaxlebidan,24 sakuTari Tavis uaryofidan da
siyvarulis Tavisufali gamovlenidan momdinareobs da iZens simwifes.
amitom suli wmidas unda SevTxovoT madli gulrwfeli uaryofisa, simdablisa da simSvidisa msaxurebaSi, agreTve sxvaTa mimarT Zmuri sulgrZelebisa. glocav Tqven me, ambobs xalxTa mociquli, kruli ese
uflis mier, raTa Rirsad xdodiT CinebiTa miT, romliTa iCineniT,
yovliTa simdabliTa da simSdidiTa da sulgrZelebiTa, Tavs-idebdiT
urTierTas siyuaruliTa, iswrafdiT damarxvad erTobasa mas sulisasa
sakrveliTa miT mSdobisaTa (efes. 4, 1-3). es darigeba exeba, upirveles
yovlisa maT, vinc wmida xarisxSi aris aRyvanili qristes misiis gasagrZeleblad, romelic Cvens Soris ara movida, raQTamca imsaxura, aramed
msaxurebad (maT. 20, 28).
erTobasTan mimarTebaSi SecdomaTa Sesaxeb sayuradReboa wm. ioanes mowmoba: ukueTu vTquaT, viTarmed ara vcodeT, mtyuvrad gamovaCinebT mas
da sityua misi ara ars Cuen Soris (1ioan. 1, 10). morCili locviT patiebas
viTxovT RmrTisa da gamijnuli Zmebisgan, rogorc Tavad mivutevebT Cvens
movaleT.
dae, yvela qristes erTguls axsovdes, rom isini miT ufro metad Seuwyoben xels qristianTa erTobas metic: ganaxorcieleban mas, _ rac ufro
metad Seecdebian, icxovron wminda saxarebiseuli cxovrebiT. rac ufro
mWidrod iqneba maTi kavSiri mamasTan, sityvasa da suli wmidasTan, miT ufro
Rrma da advili gaxdeba urTierTZmoba.
23
24

140

Sdr. CONC. LATERNANENSE V, Sess. 12 (1517), Constitutio Constituti: MANSI 32, 988 B-C.
Sdr. efes. 4, 23.

UNITATIS REDINTEGRATIO

8. es sulieri moqceva (haec cordis conversio) da cxovrebis siwmide, qristianTa erTobisaTvis kerZo da sajaro locvebTan erTad, mTeli ekumenuri
moZraobis sulad unda miviCnioT da mas savsebiT kanonzomierad SeiZleba
sulieri ekumenizmi vuwodoT.
kaTolikeTa sazeimo Cveulebaa, xSirad Seikribon eklesiis erTobisaTvis
im locvis gamo, romliTac gardacvalebis wina dRes Tavad macxovari mxurvaled evedra mamas: raTa yovelni erT iyvnen (ioan. 17, 21).
garkveul viTarebaSi, rogoric aris locvebi erTobisaTvis, agreTve
ekumenur Sekrebebze (conventibus), dasaSvebia da sasurvelic, rom kaTolikeebi Tavis gamijnul ZmebTan locvisas urTierTobdnen. aseTi erToblivi
locvebi udaod Zalze efeqturi saSualebaa erTobis madlisTvis savedreblad da WeSmariti erTobis niSanic aris, romelic kaTolikeebs gamijnul
ZmebTan dRemde akavSirebs: rameTu sadaca iyvnen orni gina samni Sekrebul
saxelisa CemisaTs, mun var me Soris maTsa (maT. 18, 20).
amasTanave, saidumloTa gziT urTierToba (communicatio in sacris) ar unda
miviCnioT iseT saSualebad, romelic ganurCevlad SeiZleba iqnas gamoyenebuli qristianuli erTobis aRsadgenad. am urTierTobas, upirveles yovlisa, ori principi gansazRvravs: eklesiis erTobis aRniSnva da madlis saSualebebSi monawileoba. erTobis aRniSnva ZiriTadad xels uSlis urTierTobas, xolo madlis mosapoveblad is zogjer saWiroa. rac Seexeba qmedebis
konkretul formas, mis Sesaxeb gonivrulad unda gansajos adgilobrivma
saepiskoposo xelisuflebam, Tuki episkoposTa konferenciam, sakuTari
normebis Sesabamisad, sxvagvari dadgenileba ar miiRo, an wmida saydarma
sxvagvarad ar gadawyvita.
9. gamijnul ZmaTa sulieri ganwyobis codna aris saWiro. amisaTvis aucilebelia swavla, romelic WeSmaritebis Sesabamisad da keTilganwyobiT
unda warimarTos. saTanadod momzadebuli kaTolikeebi ufro Rrmad unda
Caswvdnen Zmebis moZRvrebasa da istorias, sulier cxovrebasa da RmrTismsaxurebas, religiur fsiqologiasa da kulturas. amis miRwevas didad uwyobs
xels Sereuli Sekrebebi. iq, upirveles yovlisa, Teologiuri sakiTxebi
ganixileba, sadac yvelas Tanabrad aqvs sityvis ufleba, Tuki monawileni,
winamZRvarTa meTvalyureobis pirobebSi, namdvilad kompeteturni arian.
aseTi dialogi ufro naTlad cxadyofs, Tu rogoria kaTolike eklesiis WeSmariti mdgomareoba. am gziT ukeTesad SevZlebT, erTis mxriv, gamijnuli
Zmebis suliskveTebis Secnobas, xolo meores mxriv, Cvens sarwmunoebas maT
ufro adeqvaturad warmovudgenT.
10. wmida RmrTismetyvelebis darigebani da sxva disciplinebi, gansakuTrebiT istoriuli sagnebi, ekumenuri aspeqtiTac unda iswavlebodes, raTa
maT realur viTarebas ukeTesad upasuxon.
marTlac, Zalian mniSvnelovania, rom momavali mRvdlebi da mRvdelmsaxurni zustad Camoyalibebul Teologias daeuflon, da ara iseTs, romelic
sakamaTo mdgomareobaSia, gansakuTrebiT roca sakiTxi exeba kaTolike eklesiasTan gamijnuli Zmebis urTierTobas.
swored mRvdelTa momzadebaze aris damokidebuli erTgulTa da moweseTa aucilebeli ganaTleba da sulieri aRzrda.
kaTolikeni, romlebic misionerul saqmianobas im qveynebSi ewevian, sadac sxva qristianebic arian, unda gaecnon (es dRes gansakuTrebiT mniSvneloavania) im sakiTxebsa da Sedegebs, romlebsac ekumenizmi maTi mociqulobis winaSe ayenebs.

141

vatikanis II kreba

11. kaTolikuri sarwmunoebis gamoxatvis forma da xasiaTi ar unda abrkolebdes ZmebTan dialogs. mTeli moZRvreba cxadad unda iqnas gadmocemuli.
araferi ise ucxo ar aris ekumenizmisTvis, rogorc is cru irenizmi, romelic kaTolikuri moZRvrebis siwmides zians ayenebs da mis WeSmarit da zust
Sinaarss Crdilavs.
kaTolikuri sarwmunoeba ufro Rrmad da sworad unda ganimartos, iseTi
formiTa da eniT, romelic gamijnuli ZmebisTvisac iqneba gasagebi.
amasTanave, ekumenur dialogSi, eklesiis moZRvrebis erTgulma kaTolike Teologebma, gamijnul ZmebTan erTad saRmrTo saidumloebaTa
kvlevisas unda imoqmedon WeSmaritebis siyvaruliT, keTilganwyobiTa
da simdabliT. moZRvrebaTa Sejerebisas maT unda axsovdeT, rom arsebobs kaTolikuri moZRvrebis WeSmaritebaTa rigi anu ierarqia, radgan
sxvadasxva aris maTi kavSiri qristianuli sarwmunoebis safuZvelTan.
ase iqneba gakvaluli gza, romelic am Zmuri Sejibris meSveobiT yvelas
miiyvans qristes gamoukvlevel simdidreTa ufro Rrma codnisa da naTeli gamovlenisken.25
12. dae, yvela xalxTa winaSe yvela qristianma aRiaros rwmena RmrTisa, erTisa da samis, ganxorcielebuli Zisa, Cveni gamomsyidvelisa da Cveni uflisa, da erToblivi mcdelobiT, urTierTpativiscemiT, daamowmos
Cveni imedi, romelic ar wariSleba. dRes, roca Camoyalibda Zalian farTo
TanamSromloba sazogadoebriv saqmeebSi, uklebliv yvela adamiani mowodebulia saerTo saqmisTvis, upirveles yovlisa isini, visac RmerTi swams,
da gansakuTrebiT isini, vinc qristianebad iwodebian. yvela qristianis TanamSromloba cocxlad gamoxatavs im kavSirs, romelic maT ukve aerTianebs
erTmaneTTan, da ufro naTlad warmoaCens qristes, rogorc msaxuris saxes.
es TanamSromloba ukve mraval qveyanaSia Camoyalibebuli. is sul ufro
srulyofili unda gaxdes, gansakuTrebiT im regionebSi, sadac socialuri
Tu teqnikuri evolucia mimdinareobs. TanamSromloba unda moicavdes adamianis pirovnebis sworad Sefasebis sferos, mSvidobisaTvis xelSewyobas,
socialuri sferosadmi saxarebis misadagebas, qristianuli suliskveTebiT
mecnierebisa da xelovnebis ganviTarebas, daxmarebis sxvadasxva saSualebaTa gamoyenebas Tanamedrove ubedurebaTa sferoSi, rogorica sris SimSili
da ubedureba, wera-kiTxvis ucodinaroba da siRatake, sacxovreblis nakleboba da simdidreTa araTanaswori ganawileba. am TanamSromlobis meSveobiT yvela, visac qriste swams, advilad SeZlebs iswavlos, sxvebs ukeTesad
rogor gaugos, metad rogor daafasos da rogor gaikvalos gza qristianTa
erTobisken.
Tavi III
romis samociqulo saydrisagan
gamijnuli eklesiebi da sakrebuloebi
13. axla ganvixilavT gamijnvis or ZiriTadad kategorias, romlebmac zemoqmedeba moaxdines Seukerav qitonze.
pirvelad maT aRmosavleTSi iCines Tavi, efesosa da qalkedonis krebaTa
dogmatur gansazRvrebaTa dadgenisas (contestatione), an, mogvianebiT, aRmosavleTis sapatriarqoebsa da romaul saydars Soris saeklesio urTierTobis
rRvevisas.
sxvebi dasavleTSi gaCnda oTx saukuneze meti xnis Semdeg, im movlenaTa
Semdgom, romlebic Cveulebriv reformaciis saxels atarebs. amis Sedegad
25

142

Sdr. efes. 3, 8.

UNITATIS REDINTEGRATIO

romaul saydars mravali sakrebulo gaemijna, rogorc erovnuli, aseve konfesiuri. zogierT maTganSi nawilobriv SenarCunebulia kaTolikuri tradiciebi da struqturebi. maT Soris gansakuTrebuli adgili anglikanur
sakrebulos ukavia.
es sxvadasxva ganyofani erTmaneTisgan didad gansxvavdeba, ara marto
warmomavlobis, adgilisa da drois safuZvelze, aramed, upirveles yovlisa, bunebiTa da im sakiTxTa mniSvnelobiT, romlebic saeklesio sarwmunoebasa da struqturas Seexeba.
mocemuli wmida kreba, erTis mxriv, ar ugulebelyofs viTarebaTa sxvadasxvaobas, romlebSic sxvadasxva jgufi imyofeba, da arc im kavSirebs
iviwyebs, romlebic, ganyofis miuxedavad, maT Soris kvlavac arsebobs. gonivruli ekumenuri qmedebis ganxorcielebisTvis krebas mizanSewonilad
miaCnia, warmoadginos qvemoT motanili ganazrebebi.

I. aRmosavleTis eklesiaTa sagangebo ganxilva


14. ukve ramdenime saukunea, aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis eklesiebi
Tav-TavianT gzas mihyvebodnen, gaerTianebulni sarwmunoebis Zmuri erTobiTa da sakramentaluri cxovrebiT. saerTo TanxmobiT, romis saydari aris
warmmarTveli Zala, rodesac eklesiaTa Soris warmoiqmneba uTanxmoebani
sarwmunoebasa Tu disciplinasTan dakavSirebiT. wmida sinodi moxarulia
yvelas moagonos, rom sxva mniSvnelovan faqtebTan erTad, aRmosavleTSi
arsebobs mravali calkeuli anu adgilobrivi eklesia, romelTa Soris pirveli adgili sapatriarqo eklesiebs ukavia; mravali maTgani amayobs imiT,
rom dasabams Tavad mociqulTagan iRebs. amitom aRmosavleTis eklesiebis
axasiaTebs zrunvisa da Zalisxmevis mimarTva sarwmunoebasa da siyvarulSi
im Zmuri kavSirebis SenarCunebisaken, romlebic unda arsebobdes adgilobriv eklesiebs, viTarca debs Sors.
arc is unda dagvaviwydes, rom aRmosavleTis eklesiebs imTaviTve gaaCnia saganZuri, romlidanac dasavleTis eklesiam bevri ram gadmoiRo liturgiis, sulieri tradiciisa da samarTlebriv sferoSi. arc is faqti unda
ugulebelvyoT, rom qristianuli sarwmunoebis ZiriTadi dogmatebi samebisa da qalwuli mariamisgan ganxorcielebuli RmrTis sityvis Sesaxeb aRmosavleTSi Semdgar msoflio krebebze ganisazRvra. am sarwmunoebis SenaxvisaTvis xsenebulma eklesiebma bevri ram daiTmines da axlac iTmenen.
mociqulTa memkvidreoba sxvadasxva formiTa da saxiT iqna miRebuli. eklesiis dasabamiTganve is sxvadasxvagvarad ganimarteboda sxvadasxva adgilas, niWisa da cxovrebis garemoebaTa TaviseburebaTa mixedviT. yovelive
es, garda gareSe mizezebisa, agreTve urTierTgagebisa da siyvarulis naklebobisa, gamijnvaTa sababi xdeboda.
amitom wmida kreba mouwodebs yvelas, - gansakuTrebiT ki maT, visac ganzraxulia aqvs, iRvawos aRmosavlur eklesiebsa da kaTolike eklesias Soris
sasurveli sruli kavSiris dasamyareblad, _ saTanadod gaiTvaliswinon
aRmosavleTis eklesiebis gaCenisa da zrdis gansakuTrebuli pirobebi da
im urTierTobaTa Tavisebureba, romelic maTsa da romis saydars Soris gamijnvamde arsebobda, da yovelive amis Sesaxeb Sesabamisi Sexeduleba SeimuSavon, rac Zalian sasargeblo iqneba sasurveli dialogisTvis.
15. yvelam icis, rogori siyvaruliT asruleben aRmosavleTis qristianebi wmida liturgias, upirveles yovlisa, evqaristias, eklesiis cxovrebis
wyarosa da momavali didebis sawindars, romliTac erTgulebi, episkoposTan erTianni, mamas mieaxlebian Zis ganxorcielebuli sityvis meSveobiT,

143

vatikanis II kreba

romelmac ivno da gandidebul iqna, da, suli wmidis gamodinebaSi, Sedian


urTierTobaSi uwmides samebasTan, saRmrTosa mis ziar bunebisa (I petre
1, 4) qmnilni. amitom RmrTis eklesia Sendeba da izrdeba TiToeul mis eklesiaSi uflis evqaristiis aRsrulebiT,26 xolo erToblivi aRsruleba maT
erTobas gamoavlens.
liturgiul RmrTismsaxurebaSi aRmosavleTis qristianebi umSvenieresi himnebiT ganadideben mariams, marad qalwuls, romelic efesos msoflio
krebam sazeimod gamoacxada uwmides RmrTismSoblad, raTa qriste, wmida
werilis Sesabamisad, WeSmaritad da namvilad ecnoT Zed RmrTisad da Zed
kacisad. isini mraval wmidansac ganadideben, maT Soris msoflio eklesiis
mamebs.
es eklesiebi, maTi gamijnulobis miuxedavad, floben WeSmarit saidumloebs, gansakuTrebiT samociqulo memkvidreobis safuZvelze _ mRvdlobas da evqaristias, ris gamoc maT dRemde umWidroesi kavSiri aqvT CvenTan.
amitom siwmideebSi urTierToba Sesaferis viTarebasa da saeklesio xelisuflebis TanxmobiT ara marto SesaZlebelia, aramed sasurvelic.
aRmosavleTSi sulier tradiciaTa simdidre moipoveba, romlebsac,
upirveles yovlisa, monazvnoba gamoxatavs. iq xom brwyinvale wmida mamaTa
droidan is monastruli (monastica) sulieroba ganviTarda, romelic Semdeg
dasavleTSic gavrcelda da laTinuri samoweseo dadgenilebebis (religiosum
latinorum institutum) wyarod iqca, xolo SemdgomSi mas gamudmebiT axal Sinaarss
aniWebda. amitom dabejiTebiT rekomendirebulia, rom kaTolikeebma ufro
xSirad mimarTon aRmosavleTis mamaTa am sulier simdidreebs, romlebic
mTlianad aRamaRlebs adamians saRmrTo [saidumloTa] Wvretisken.
dae, yvelam icodes, ra didi mniSvneloba aqvs aRmosavleTis umdidresi
liturgiuli da sulieri memkvidreobis codnas, Tayvaniscemas, Senaxvasa da
ganviTarebas, imisaTvis, raTa erTgulad iqnas daculi qristianuli tradiciis sisavse da moxdes Serigeba aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis qristianTa
Soris.
16. aRmosavleTis eklesiebi imTaviTve misdevdnen sakuTar wesebs (disciplinas), romlebic daSvebuli iyo wmida mamebisa da sinodebis mier, msoflio
krebis mierac ki. zemoT ukve iqTva, rom eklesiis erTobas sruliad ar uSlis
xels wes-CveulebaTa sxvadasxvaoba, piriqiT, is ufro mSveniers xdis eklesias da didad uwyobs xels misi misiis ganxorcielebas. amitom, yovelgvari
eWvis Tavidan asacileblad, wmida sinodi acxadebs, rom aRmosavleTis eklesiebs, romelTac axsovdT mTeli eklesiis erTobis aucilebloba, SeuZliaT
sakuTari wesebiT (disciplinas), ixelmZRvanelon, radgan es wesebi ufro Seefereba maT erTgulTa xasiaTs da ufro mizanSewonilia sulTa keTildReobisaTvis. am tradiciuli prinicipis srulyofilad SenarCuneba (sxvaTaSoris,
is yovelTvis ar yofila daculi), aris erTgvari winapiroba, romelic sruliad aucilebelia erTobis aRdgenisaTvis.
17. rac zemoT iTqva kanonikuri gansxvavebebis Sesaxeb, igive unda iTqvas
moZRvrebaTa sxvadasxvagvar gadmocemasTan dakavSirebiT. saqme is aris, rom
gamocxadebuli WeSmaritebis kvlevisas aRmosavleTSi da dasavleTSi mimarTavdnen sxvadasxvagvar meTodebsa da saSualebebs saRmrTo [WeSmaritebis]
Sesacnobad da gamosaxatavad. amitom ar aris gasakviri, rom gamocxadebuli saidumloebis zogierTi aspeqti vinmem ukeTesad gaigo da ufro naTlad
warmoaCina, vidre sxvam. xSirad es gansxvavebuli Teologiuri formulebi
ufro metad avsebs, vidre upirispirdeba, erTmaneTs. rac Seexeba aRmosav26

144

Sdr. S. Io. CHRYSOSTOMUS; In Io. homilia 46: PG 59, 260-262.

UNITATIS REDINTEGRATIO

leTis auTentur saRmrTismetyvelo tradiciebs, unda vaRiaroT, rom maT


brwinvaled aqvs fesvebi gamdgari wmida werilSi. isini viTardeba da gamoixateba liturgiul cxovrebaSi, ikvebeba cocxali samociqulo tradiciiTa da aRmosavleTis mamebisa da sasuliero mwerlebis TzulebebiT. isini
cxovrebis swori wyobisa da qristianuli WeSmaritebis srulad Wvretisken
aris mimarTuli.
kreba madlobas uZRvnis RmerTs imisaTvis, rom kaTolike eklesiis
bevri aRmosavluri Svili, am memkvidreobis damcvelni da ufro wminda
da srulyofili cxovrobiT misi Senaxvis msurveli, ukve srul kavSirSia (in plena communione) dasavluri tradiciiT mcxovreb ZmebTan. amasTan
dakavSirebiT kreba acxadebs, rom mTeli sulieri, liturgiuli, disciplinaruli da saRmrTismetyvelo memkvidreoba, sxvadasxva tradiciaSi
gamoxatuli, eklesiis sruli kaTolikurobisa da samociquloobis kuTvnilebaa.
18. yovelive amis kargad ganxilvis Sedegad wmida kreba xelaxla acxadebs imas, rac winamavalma wmida krebebma da romis pontifeqsebma daadgines: kavSirisa da erTobis aRsadgenad da SesanarCuneblad saWiroa,
raTa ararai umetesi trTi davdvaT Tquen zeda, garna romelni-ese
saswrafo arian (saqme 15, 28). mas mxurvaled surs, rom am miznis TandaTanobiT misaRwevad mimarTuli iyos yvela mcdeloba, ganxorcielebuli
saeklesio cxovrebis sxvadasxva institutebsa da formebSi, upirveles
yovlisa, locvasa da Zmur dialogSi, romelic exeba moZRvrebasa da Cvens
droSi mRvdelmsaxurebis yvelaze ufro gadaudebel amocanebs. amasTanave, kreba akisrebs mRvdlebsa da kaTolike eklesiis erTgulebs, kavSiri
daamyaron maTTan, vinc aRmosavleTSi ki aRar cxovrobs, aramed Sors aris
samSoblosagan, raTa gaZlierdes maTTan Zmuri TanamSromloba, siyvarulis suliT gamsWvaluli da yovelgvari Sejibrisagan Tavisufali. wmida
sinods imedi aqvs, rom Tu am saqmes mTeli suliTa da guliT SevudgebiT,
dasavleTisa da aRmosavleTis eklesiis gammijnavi sazRvris moxsnasTan
erTad iqneba erTaderTi samkvidrebeli, ganmtkicebuli Tavsakidur qvaze, ieso qristeze, romelic orivedan erTs Seqmnis.27

II. gamijnuli eklesiebi da sakrebuloebi dasavleTSi


19. eklesiebsa da saeklesio sakrebuloebs, romlebic gamoeyo romis samociqulo saydars an umZimesi krizisis xanaSi (is dasavleTSi jer kidev Sua
saukuneebSi daiwyo), an ufro mogvianebiT, kaTolike eklesiasTan gansakuTrebuli siaxlove da urTierToba akavSirebs, im xangrZlivi Tanacxovrebis safuZvelze, romelic qristianma xalxma wina saukuneebSi saeklesio urTierTobaSi (communione) ganvlo.
sxvadasxva warmomavlobis, moZRvrebisa da sulieri cxovrebis gamo es
eklesiebi da sakrebuloebi ara marto Cvengan, aramed erTmaneTisganac gansxvavdeba. amitom maTi zusti aRwera urTulesi sakiTxia, romelsac aq ar SevexebiT.
ekumenuri moZraoba da kaTolike eklesiasTan mSvidobis survili jer
yvelgan ar ganmtkicebula. miuxedavad amisa, imedi gvaqvs, rom TandaTanobiT yvelaSi gaRvivdeba ekumenuri grZnoba da urTierTpativiscema.
amasTanave unda vaRiaroT, rom, erTis mxriv, am eklesiebsa da sakrebuloebs, xolo meores mxriv kaTolike eklesias Soris mniSvnelovani gansxvavebebi arsebobs, ara marto istoriuli, sociologiuri, fsiqologiuri da
27

Sdr. CONC. FLOR., Sess. 6 (1439), Definitio Laetentur caeli: MANSI 31, 1026 E.

145

vatikanis II kreba

kulturuli Taviseburebebis gamo, aramed, upirveles yovlisa, gamocxadebuli WeSmaritebis ganmartebis sferoSi. am gansxvavebaTa miuxedavad, ekumenuri dialogis damyareba ufro advili rom gaxdes, gvsurs, SemdgomSi zogierT sakiTxs SevexoT, romlebic SeiZleba am dialogis safuZvelad da mis
amosaval wertilad iqces.
20. Cveni fiqri, upirveles yovlisa, im qristianebisken aris mimarTuli,
vinc Riad scnobs, rom ieso qriste aris RmerTi, ufali da erTaderTi Suamavali RmerTsa da adamianebs Soris, sadideblad erTi RmrTisa, mamisa, Zisa
da suli wmidisa. viciT, ra Tqma unda, rom arsebobs sakmaod mniSvnelovani
gansxvavebebi kaTolike eklesiis moZRvrebisagan, romelic exeba qristes
RmrTis ganxorcielebul sityvasa da gamosyidvis saqmes, eklesiis saidumloebasa da msaxurebas, agreTve mariamis rols gamoxsnis saqmeSi. da mainc
gvixaria, rom gamijnuli Zmebi qristes mimarTaven rogorc saeklesio urTierTobis wyarosa da centrs. qristesTan erTobis surviliT aRZrulni,
isini sul ufro eZieben erTobas da cdiloben, yvelgan erTa Soris daamowmon sakuTari sarwmunoeba.
21. wmida werilis siyvarulsa da Tayvaniscemas, lamis mis kults, Cveni
Zmebi mihyavs wmida teqstis mudmiv da gulmodgine SeswavlasTan, rameTu
Zali RmrTisa ars macxovrad yovlisa morwmunisa, huriisa pirvelad da
merme warmarTisa (rom. 1, 16).
isini suli wmidas uxmoben da Tavad wmida werilSi RmerTs eZieben. RmerTi maT qristeSi esaubreba, romelic winaswarmetyvelebma winaswar gvauwyes.
is aris sityva RmrTisa, Cvens gamo ganxorcielebuli. wmida werilSi isini
Wvreten qristes cxovrebasa da imas, rac saRmrTo moZRvarma adamianTa gamosaxsnelad aswavla da gaakeTa, upirveles yovlisa ki misi sikvdilisa da
aRdgomis saidumloebebs.
Cvengan gamijnuli qristianebi adastureben saRmrTo wignebis avtoritets, Tumca isini Cvengan gansxvavebulad (maT Sorisac aris azrTa sxvadasxvaoba) aRiqvamen mimarTebas wmida werilsa da eklesias Soris. am ukanasknelSi, kaTolikuri sarwmunoebis Tanaxmad, sagangebo adgili ukavia WeSmarit moZRvrebas, raTa moxdes dawerili saRmrTo sityvis ganmarteba da
qadageba.
miuxedavad amisa, wmida saubrebi (Eloquia) Tavad dialogSi aris SesaniSnavi
iaraRi, RmrTis Zlier xelSi im erTobis misaRwevad gankuTvnili, romlsac
macxovari yvela adamians sTavazobs.
22. yovelTvis, roca naTlobis saidumlo, uflis ganwesebis Tanaxmad, wesisamebr sruldeba da misi miReba saTanado sulieri ganwyobiT xdeba, adamiani marTlac erwymis (incorporatur) jvarcmul da gandidebul qristes da
aRorZinedeba saRmrTo cxovrebis gaziarebisaTvis, Tanaxmad mociqulisa:
mis Tana daefleniT naTlis-RebiTa miT, romlisa Tanaca aRsdegiT sarwmunoebiTa miT SewevniTa RmrTisaTa, romelman-igi aRadgina mkudreTiT
(kol. 2, 12).28
maSasadame, naTloba warmoadgens erTobis saidumlo kavSirs, romelic
arsebobs yvela mis mier aRorZinebul [wevrs] Soris. TavisTavad naTloba
aris mxolod sawyisi da amosavali, mTlianad qristeSi cxovrebis sisrulis
miRwevisaken mimarTuli. amitom naTloba gamiznulia sarwmunoebis sruli aRsarebisTvis (professionem), gamoxsnis ganwesebaSi (institutum) sruli monawileobisTvis (incorporationem), rogorc es Tavad qristem isurva, dabolos,
28

146

Sdr. rom. 6, 4.

UNITATIS REDINTEGRATIO

evqaristiul urTierTobaSi (communionem eucharisticam) sruli CarTvisTvis


(insertionem).
Cvengan gamijnuli saeklesio sakrebuloebi moklebulni arian CvenTan srul erTobas, naTlobidan gamomdinares. gvwams, rom maT ver Semoinaxes evqaristuli saidumloebis namdvili da sruli arsi, upirveles yovlisa, xarisxis saidumlos (Sacramenti Ordinis) uqonlobis gamo. da
mainc, wmida serobisas uflis sikvdilisa da aRdgomis mogonebiT isini
aRiareben, rom cxovreba qristesTan ziarebas niSnavs, da misi didebiT
mosvlas elian. amitom dialogis sagani unda gaxdes moZRvreba uflis
serobis Sesaxeb, sxva saidumloni, RmrTis Tayvaniscema (cultum) da eklesiis msaxurebani.
23. am ZmaTa qristianuli cxovreba sazrdoobs qristes rwmeniT, mtkicdeba naTlobis madliTa da RmrTis sityvis SesmeniT, xolo gamoixateba is
kerZo locvaSi, bibliis Sesaxeb fiqrSi, qristianuli ojaxis cxovrebaSi,
RmrTis sadideblad Tavmoyrili sakrebulos RmrTismsaxurebaSi (cultu). xSirad maTi msaxureba (cultus) Zveli erToblivi liturgiis aSkara elementebs
Seicavs.
qristes rwmena nayofs iZleva qebasa da madlierebaSi, romelic miRebuli saRmrTo sikeTisTvis gamoixateba. amas emateba samarTlianobis cocxali
aRqma da moyvasis gulrwfeli siyvaruli. am qmediTma rwmenam Seqmna mravali instituti sulieri da xorcieli siRatakis Sesamsubuqeblad, axalgazrdobis aRsazrdelad, cxovrebis socialuri pirobebis gasaumjobeseblad,
yvelgan mSvidobis ganmtkicebisTvis.
Tumca bevr qristians yovelTvis ise ar esmis saxareba zneobis sakiTxebSi, rogorc kaTolikeebs, da dRevandeli sazogadoebis saWirboroto problemebis gadaWris gansxvavebul gzebs saxavs, mainc maT CvensaviT
surT, erTgulni iyvnen qristes sityvisa, rogorc qristianuli Zalis
wyarosi, da daemorCilon mociqulis mcnebas: da yovelsave, rasaca iqmodiT sityT gina Tu saqmiT, yovelsave saxeliTa uflisa iesosiTa, hmadlobdiT RmerTsa da mamasa mis mier (kol. 3, 17). ase SeiZleba daiwyos
ekumenuri dialogi zneobis sferoSi saxarebis gamoyenebis (applicatione)
Sesaxeb.
24. amgvarad, Cven mokled gadmoveciT ekumenuri saqmianobis viTareba da
mivuTiTeT im principebze, romlebic mas unda warmarTavdes. axla ki mzera
rwmeniT momavlisken mivmarToT. wmida kreba mouwodebs erTgulebs, Tavi
Seikavon yovelgvari zerelobisa da aragonivruli miswrafebisgan, romelmac erTobisken WeSmarit winsvlas SeiZleba ziani miayenos. maTi ekumenuri saqmianoba ver ganxorcieldeba, Tu is ar iqna sruliad da gulrwfelad kaTolikuri, anu im WeSmaritebis erTguli, romelic mociqulebisa da
mamebisgan miviReT, da im sarwmunoebasTan Sexamebuli, romelsac kaTolike
eklesia mudam aRiarebda (professa). amasTanave, is iseTi sisrulisken unda
miiswrafvodes, romelsac, ufals surs, rom droTaA viTarebaSi, zrdis procesSi, misma sxeulma miaRwios.
wmida krebas dabejiTebiT surs, rom kaTolike eklesiis SvilTa iniciativebi gamijnul ZmaTaA iniciativebTan erTobaSi xorcieldebodes, ise, rom
araviTari dabrkoleba ar Seiqmnas gangebis gzebze da suli wmidis miswrafebebi (impulsionisbus) winaswar ar ganisajos. kreba acxadebs, rom mas gacnobierebuli aqvs Semdegi: mocemuli wmida amocana yvela qristianis Serigeba
qristes erTiani da erTaderTi eklesiis erTobaSi aRemateba adamianur
Zalebsa da SesaZleblobebs. amitom kreba Tavis imeds amyarebs eklesii-

147

vatikanis II kreba

sTvis qristes locvaze, Cvens mimarT mamis siyvarulze, suli wmidis Zalaze. xolo sasoebaman ar arcxnis, rameTu siyuaruli RmrTisa ganfenil ars
gulTa Sina CuenTa suliTa wmidiTa (rom. 5, 5).
yovelive erTad da cal-calke, rac am dekretSi gamocxadda,
wmida krebis mamebma moiwones. da Cvenc, im samociqulo uflebamosilebiT, romelic qristesgan gadmogveca, amas pativdebul mamebTan erTad suli wmidaSi veTanxmebiT, vadgenT,
vawesebT da vbrZanebT, rom is, rac krebaze dadginda, gamoqveyndes sadideblad RmrTisa.

romi, wm. petresTan, 1964 wlis 21 dekemberi.


me, pavle, kaTolike eklesiis episkoposi
(mohyveba mamaTa xelmowerebi)

148

dekreti
eklesiaSi episkoposTa
samoZRvro msaxurebis Sesaxeb
CHRISTUS DOMINUS

pavle episkoposi,
RmrTis msaxurTa msaxuri,
wmida krebis mamebTan erTad,
samudamo saxsovrad

dekreti
eklesiaSi episkoposTa
samoZRvro msaxurebis Sesaxeb
Sesavali
1. ufali qriste, cxoveli RmrTis Ze, movida, raTa Tavisi eri codvaTagan gamoexsna1 da yvela adamiani wmidaeyo. Tavadac mamis mier movlinebulma,
man Tavisi mociqulebi moavlina,2 wmidayo isini da suli wmida gadasca, raTa
maT mama dedamiwaze ganedidebinaT da adamianebi gamoexsnaT, aRsaSenebelad guamisa qristesisa (efes. 4, 12).
2. romis pontifeqsi petres memkvidrea, romelsac qristem Tavisi cxvrebi da kravebi samwysod miando. qristes am eklesiaSi, saRmrTo ganwesebiT, igi
sulTa mzrunvelobis uzenaesi, sruli, uSualo da sayovelTao uflebamosilebiT sargeblobs. igi yvela erTgulTa mwyemsad iqna movlinebuli, raTa
ezruna sayovelTao eklesiis saerTo sikeTisaTvis da calkeul eklesiaTa
sikeTisTvisac. amitom mas yvela eklesiaze xarisxobrivi (ordinariae) Zalauflebis upiratesoba gaaCnia.
magram Tavad episkoposebic, suli wmidis mier dasmulni, mociqulTa adgils ikaveben, rogorc sulTa mwyemsebi.3 uzenaes pontifeqsTan erTad movlinebulni, isini mis xelisuflebas eqvemdebarebian, raTa saukuno mwyemsis
qristes saqme mudmivad aRasrulon.4 mociqulebsa da maT memkvidreebs qristem davaleba da ufleba misca, daemoZRvraT yvela xalxebi, xolo adamianebi wmidaeyoT da emwysoT. amgvarad, maTTvis miniWebuli suli wmidis mier
episkoposebi gaxdnen sarwmunoebis namdvili da WeSmariti moZRvarni, pontifeqsebi da mRvdlebi.5
3. episkoposebi yvela eklesiis sazrunavs iziareben. saepiskopo xeldasxmis (per consecrationem) Sedegad maT saepiskoposo funqcia miiRes,6 romelic
RmrTis sayovelTao eklesiasTan mimarTebaSi moZRvrobasa da samRvdlo
mmarTvelobas gulisxmobs. am funqcias isini erTobaSi da uzenaesi pontifeqsis meTaurobiT asruleben, kolegiaSi anu [erT] sxeulad gaerTianebulni.
funqcias, romelic maTTvis rwmunebuli uflis samwysos nawilze vrceldeba, isini calcalke asruleben; TiToeuli misTvis mindobili calkeuli
eklesiisTvis zrunavs, zogjer ki sxvadasxva eklesiaTa saerTo problemebs
1
Sdr. maT. 1, 21.
2
Sdr. ioan. 20, 21.
3
Sdr. CONC. VAT. I, Const. dogm. I, de ecclesia Christi, Pastor aeternus, cap. 3, D 1821 (3061).
4
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de ecclesia Christi, Prooem., D 1821 (3050).
5
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de ecclesia, Lumen Gentium, cap. III, nn. 21, 24, 25: AAS 57
(1965), p. 24-25, 29-31.
6
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de ecclesia, Lumen Gentium, cap. III, n. 21: AAS 57 (1965), pp.
24.25.

151

vatikanis II kreba

erToblivad agvareben. wmida kreba iTvaliswinebs adamianTa sazogadoebaSi arsebul mdgomareobas, romelic Cvens droSi axal iersaxes iZens,7 da ganizraxavas, ufro zustad gansazRvros episkoposTa samRvdlo funqcia. man
Semdegi daadgina.
Tavi I
episkoposebi da sayovelTao eklesia

I. episkoposTa roli sayovelTao eklesiasTan mimarTebaSi


4. sakramentuli xeldasxmisa da kolegiis meTaursa da wevrebTan ierarqiuli erTobis (communione) ZaliT episkoposebi saepiskoposo sxeulis wevrebs warmoadgenen.8 episkoposTa xarisxi mociqulTa kolegiis memkvidrea
samRvdlo moZRvrobasa da marTvaSi. masSi mudam imyofeba samociqulo sxeuli, erTiani mis TavTan: romis pontifeqsTan, romlis gareSe is arasodes
arsebobs; amdenad, es saepiskoposo sxeulic warmoadgens mTel eklesiaSi
uzenaesi da sruli uflebamosilebis subieqts, Tumca am uflebamosilebis
gamoyeneba mxolod romaeli pontifeqsis TanxmobiT SeiZleba.9 es uflebamosileba sazeimod sruldeba msoflio krebaze.10 amitom wmida kreba adgens, rom yvela episkoposs, vinc saepiskoposo kolegiis wevria, msoflio
krebaze monawileobis ufleba aqvs.
kolegialuri uflebamosileba SeiZleba ganxorcieldes dedamiwis sxvadasxva kuTxeSi gansaxlebul episkoposTa mier papTan erTad, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu kolegiis Tavi maT kolegialuri qmedebisken mouwodebs, an Tundac
daeTanxmeba an Tavisuflad miiRebs dedamiwis sxvadasxva kuTxeSi mcxovreb
episkoposTa erTian moqmedebas, rom amgvarad ganxorcieldes WeSmaritad
kolegialuri qmedeba.11
5. dedamiwis sxvadasxva kuTxidan SerCeuli episkoposebi eklesiis uzenaes mwyemss, krebaze Zalze qmediT daxmarebas uweven, im saxiT, romelic papma daadgina an daadgens. krebas sakuTriv episkoposTa sinodi ewodeba da
rogorc mTeli kaTolikuri saepiskopos warmomadgeneli, is aRniSnavs, rom
yvela episkoposi ieraqiuli erTobis saxiT msoflio eklesiisTvis mzrunvelobis monawilea.12
6. episkoposebma, rogorc mociqulTa legitimurma memkvidreebma da
saepiskoposo kolegiis wevrebma, mudam unda icodnen, rom isini erTmaneTTan arian dakavSirebulni; isini yvela eklesiebisTvis unda zrunabdnen,
radgan saRmrTo dadgenilebiTa da samociqulo funqciis ganwesebiT, TiToeuli episkoposi, sxva episkoposebTan erTad, pasuxismgebelia eklesiisTvis.13 maT gansakuTrebiT im regionebisTvis unda izrunon, sadac RmrTis
sityvis uwyeba jer ar momxdara, an sadac mRvdleTa mcirericxovnebis gamo
qristes erTgulebs qristianuli cxovrebis mcnebebisgan ganSoreba an sulac rwmenis dakargva emuqreba.
7
8
9
25-27.
10
11
12
790.
13

152

Sdr. IOANNES XXII, Const. apost. Humane salutis, 25 dec. 1961: AAS 54 (1962), p. 6.
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, Const. apost. Humane salutis, 25 dec. 1961: AAS 54 (1961), p. 6.
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de ecclesia, Lumen Gentium, cap. III, n. 22: AAS 57 (1965), pp.
CONST. VAT. II, Cost. dogm. de ecclesia, ibid.
CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de ecclesia, ibid.
Sdr. PAULUS VI, Motu proprio Apostolica Sollicitudo, 15 sept. 1965: AAS 57 (1965), pp. 775Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de ecclesia, cap. III, n. 23: AAS 57 (1965), pp. 27-28.

CHRISTUS DOMINUS

amitom mTeli gulmodginebiT unda Seecadon, rom erTgulebma mxurvaled xeli Seuwyon da ganaviTaron evangelizaciisa da mociqulobis saqme.
amasTan erTad, yuradReba unda miaqcion imas, rom sasuliero msaxurebma,
agreTve damxmareebma (rogorc moweseebma, aseve saero pirebma) Sesaferisi
momzadeba gaiaron misiebsa da im regionebSi samuSaod, romlebic samRvdeloTa naklebobiT gamoirCeva. episkoposebma imisTvisac unda izrunon, rom,
SeZlebisdagvarad, maTi mRvdelmsaxurebis zogierTi waramomadgeneli xsenebul misiebs Seudges da diocezebSi wavides, raTa iq mudmivad an Tundac
garkveuli droiT wmida msaxureba aRasrulos.
garda amisa, episkoposebs yovelTvis unda axsovdeT, rom saeklesio qonebiT sargeblobisas maT ara mxolod Tavisi diocezebis moTxovnilebebi
unda gaiTvaliswinon, aramed sxva calkeuli eklesiebisac: isini xom qristes
erTiani eklesiis nawilebia. amgvarad, maT sxva diocezebsa Tu regionebsac
unda miaqcion yuradReba, raTa maTi gaWirveba Seumsubuqon.
7. upirveles yovlisa, isini Zmuri siyvaruliT unda moeqcnen im sasuliero mesveurebs, romlebic qristes saxelisaTvis gaWirvebasa da tanjvas iTmenen, sapatimroSi imyofebian, an saSualeba ara aqvT, Tavisi msaxureba Seasrulon. maT mimarT WeSmariti qmediTi zrunva aris saWiro, rom TanamoZmeTa
locviTa da mxardaWeriT, maTi tkivili mineldes da Semsubuqdes.

II. episkoposebi da samociqulo saydari


8. a) episkoposebs, rogorc mociqulTa memkvidrebs, maTTvis rwmunebul
diocezebSi TavisTavad aqvT xarisxobrivi (ordinaria), sakuTari da uSualo
uflebamosileba, romelic maTi samRvdlo funqciis SesrulebisTvis aris
saWiro. amasTanave, mudam da yvelaferSi uryevi rCeba sayovelTao uflebamosileba, romelic romis pontifeqsma Tavad an sxva avtoritetis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba gamoiyenos.
b) calkeul SemTxvevaSi TiToeul episkoposs SeuZlia gaaTavisuflos
(dispensandi) eklesiis saerTo kanonisagan erTgulebi, romlebzec samarTlis
normiT misi uflebamosileba vrceldeba. amis gaakeTeba mas yovelTvis
SeuZlia, Tu miiCnevs, rom es erTgulTa sulier keTildReobas argebs, Tu,
ra Tqma unda, eklesiis uzenaesi avtoritetis mier sagangebo miTiTebebi ar
iqna mocemuli.
9. sayovelTao eklesiaSi uflebamosilebis uzenasi, sruli da uSualo aRsrulebisas romis pontifeqsi sargeblobs romauli kuriis dikasteriebiT,
romlebic, Sesabamisad, Tavis fuqncias misi saxeliTa da uflebamosilebiT,
eklesiis sakeTildReod da sulier mwyemsTa msaxurebiTvis asruleben.
da mainc, wmida krebis mamebis survilia, rom es dikasteriebi, romlebmac marTlac udidesi daxmareba gauwies romis pontifeqssa da eklesiis
mwyemsebs, daeqvemdebaros axal wess, drois, regionebisa da wes-Cveulebebis moTxovnilebebaTa Sesabamisad. es gansakuTrebiT exeba maT ricxvs, saxelwodebas, kompetencias, procedurebsa da maTi muSaobis urTierTkoordinacias.14 mamebs agreTve surT, rom im samwyso funqciis gaTvaliswinebiT,
romelic episkoposebs gaaCniaT, ufro zustad ganisazRvros romis pontifeqsis legatebis samsaxuri.
14
Sdr. PAULUS VI; allocutio ad em.mos patres cardinales, exc.mos praesules, rev.mos praelatos ceterosque Romanae curiae officiales, 21 sept. 1963: AAS 55 (1963), p. 793 ss.

153

vatikanis II kreba

10. es dikasteriebi mTeli eklesiis sakeTildReod aris Seqmnili. amitom


sasurvelia, rom, misi wevrebi, TanamSromlebi da mrCevelni, agreTve romis
pontifeqsis legatebi SeZlebisdagvarad, ufro meti odenobiT warmoadgendnen eklesiis sxvadasxva regionebs, ise, rom kaTolike eklesiis samsaxurma
anu centralurma organoebma marTlac sayovelTao saxe miiRos.
sasurvelia agreTve, rom dikasteriebis wevrTa Soris ramdenime episkoposic iqnes daSvebuli, gansakuTrebiT diocezebis episkoposebi, romlebic
SeZleben, ufro srulad warmoadginon uzenasi pontifeqsis winaSe yvela eklesiaTa Sexedulebebi, imedebi da moTxovnilebebi.
dabolos, krebis mamebs miaCniaT, rom Zalze sasargeblo iqneba, Tu dikasteriebi ufro metad mimarTaven daxmarebisTvis Rirseul, mcodne da gamocdil saero pirebs, raTa maTac TavisTvis Sesaferisi monawileoba miiRon
saeklesio saqmeebSi.
Tavi II
episkoposebi da calkeuli eklesiebi anu diocezebi

I. diocezuri episkoposebi
11. diocezi RmrTis eris nawilia, romelic episkoposs aris mindobili.
episkoposi mas samRvdeloebasTan TanamSromlobaSi mwyemsavs. Tavis mwyemss
mindobili da, saxarebisa da evqaristiis meSveobiT, episkoposis mier suli
wmidaSi Sekrebili diocezi calke (particularem) eklesias warmoadgens, romelSic WeSmaritad mkvidrobs da moqmedebs qristes erTiani, wmida, kaTolike da samociqulo eklesia.
TiToeuli episkoposs calkeuli eklesiebisTvis zrunva aqvT dakisrebuli. uzenaesi pontifeqsis uflebamosilebiT, is Tavis cxvrebs uflis saxeliT mwyemsavs, rogorc maTi sakuTari, ordinariusi da uSualo mwyemsi. ase
ganaxorcielebs igi Tavis funqcias: swavlebas, wmidayofasa da xelmZRvanelobas. amasTanave, man Tavadac unda scnos is uflebebi, romlebic patriarqebsa Tu ierarqiis sxva avtoritetebs kanonierad ekuTvniT.15
episkoposebi unda ecadon, aRasrulon Tavisi samociqulo funqcia, rogorc qristes mowmeebma yvela adamianis winaSe. maT mxolod maTTvis ki ar
unda izrunon, vinc ukve mihyveba mTavar mwyemss, aramed mTeli suliT unda
iRvawon maTTvisac, vinc ase Tu ise ascda WeSmaritebis gzas, an qristes saxareba da misi gamomxsneli gulmowyaleba (misericordiam) ar icis, sanam bolos
yvela ar iqneba moculi yovliTa keTiliTa da simarTliTa da WeSmaritebiTa (efes. 5, 9).
12. Tavisi funqciis Sesrulebisas, romelic swavlebas gulisxmobs, maT
adamianebs qristes saxareba unda auwyon; episkopoTa mniSvnelovan funqciaTa Soris es movaleoba gansakuTrebulia.16 suli [wmidis] ZaliT episkoposebma adamianebs sarwmunoebisken unda mouwodon, an cxoveli rwmena ganumtkicon. qristes saidumloeba episkoposebma adamianebs srulad unda
SesTavazon, kerZod, is WeSmaritebebi, romelTa arcodna qristes arcodna
aris, agreTve gza, RmrTiv gamocxadebuli sadideblad RmrTisa da amasTanave saukuno netarebis mosapoveblad.17
15
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de ecclesiis orientalibus catholicis, Orientalism Ecclesiarum, nn. 7-!!:
AAS 57 (1965), pp. 79-80.
16
Sdr. CONC. TRID., sess. V, decr. de reform., c.2, Msi 33, 30; sess. XXIV, decr. de reform., c. 4., Msi
33, 159; CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de ecclesia, Lumen Gentium, cap. III, n. 25: AAS 57 (1965), p. 29 ss.
17
Sdr. CONC: VAT. II, Const. dogm. de ecclesia, Lumen Gentium, cap. III, n. 25: AAS 57 (1965), pp.
29-31.

154

CHRISTUS DOMINUS

garda amisa, maT unda aCvenon, rom miwieri sinamdvile da adamianuri instituciebic, Semoqmedi RmrTis ganzraxvis Tanaxmad, adamianTa gamosaxsnelad aris mowyobili da maT, Sesabamisad, sakmaod didi wvlilis Setana
SeuZliaT qristes sxeulis aSenebis saqmeSi. dae, aswavlon, eklesiis moZRvrebis Tanaxmad, ra didad aris dasafasebeli, adamianis pirovneba, Tavisi
TavisuflebiTa da sxeulebrivi cxovrebiT; ojaxi, Tavisi erTianobiTa da
simyariT, STamomavlobis gaCeniTa da aRzrdiT; samoqalaqo sazogadoeba,
Tavisi kanonebiTa da profesiebiT; samuSao da dasveneba, xelovnebis dargebi da teqnikuri gamogonebebi; siRaribe da simdidre. dabolos, maT unda
warmoadginon principebi, romelTa safuZvelze gadawydeba iseTi urTulesi problemebi, rogoric aris materialuri qonebis floba, zrda da swori
ganawileba, mSvidoba da omi, yvela eris Zmuri Tanacxovreba.18
13. qristianuli moZRvreba episkoposebma drois moTxovnilebebis Sesabamisad unda warmoadginon. moZRvrebam im sirTuleebsa da kiTxvebs unda
upasuxos, romlebic adamianebs gansakuTrebiT awuxebs da aSinebs. moZRvrebas isini unda gaufrTxildnen, xolo erTgulebs misi dacva da gavrceleba
unda aswavlon. misi gadacemiT episkoposebma unda daamowmon eklesiis dedobrivi mzrunveloba yvela adamianis rogorc erTgulis, aseve ara erTgulis mimarT. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba Ratakebisa da sustebis mimarT
unda gamoavlinon; ufalma xom isini maTi evangelizaciisTvis moavlina.
eklesiis amocanaa, sasaubrod mivides adamianur sazogadoebasTan, romelSic Tavad cxovrobs.19 episkoposTa upirvelesi movaleoba aris, mividnen
adamianebTan, raTa maTTan saubari daiwyon da ganagrZon. WeSmariteba mudam
siyvarulTan, xolo goniereba sikeTesTan (amore) unda iyos dakavSirebuli.
amitom gamoxsnis es saubari unda gamoirCeodes enis sicxadiT da, amasTanave, simdabliTa da sirbiliT, agreTve saTanado gonivrulobiT, romelsac
ndoba unda axldes, radgan is megobrobas uwyobs xels da, bunebrivia, erTsulovnebas badebs.20
isini unda ecadon, qristianuli moZRvrebis uwyebisaTvis sadReisod arsebuli saxvadasxva saSualebebi gamoiyenon, upirveles yovlisa ki qadageba da katexeturi swavleba, romlebsac yovelTvis pirveli adgili ukavia.
garda amisa, maT unda isargeblon moZRvrebis gadmocemiT skolebSi, akademiebSi, konferenciebsa da nebismier gaerTianebze. moZRvrebis gavrceleba
SesaZlebelia sajaro deklaraciebis saxiTac, romlebsac ama Tu im movlenis gamo aqvs adgili, presisa da sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis sxva saSualebebiT, romlebic qristes saxarebis sauwyeblad srulyofilad unda iqnas
gamoyenebuli.21
14. episkoposebma yuradReba unda miaqcion, rom katexeturi swavlebis mizania, moZRvrebis meSveobiT naTelyofili sarwmunoeba adamianebSi cocxali, gasagebi da qmediTi gaxados. episkoposebma yuradReba unda miaqcion,
rom es swavleba gulmodgined miewodos bavSvebsa da mozardebs, axalgazrdebsa da zrdasrulebs. am gadacemis procesSi gasaTvaliswinebelia ara mxolod sagnisTvis Sesaferisi wesi da meTodi, aramed msmenelTa xasiaTi, SesaZleblobebi, asaki da cxovrebis pirobebi. es swavleba wmida werils, tradicias, liturgias, moZRvrobasa da cxovrebas unda emyarebodes.
304.

18

Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, Litt encycl. Pacem in terris, 11 apr. 1963, passim: AAS 55 (1963), pp. 257-

19
Sdr. PAULUS VI, litt. encycl. Ecclesiam Suam, 6 aug. 1964: AAS 56 (1964), p. 639.
20
Sdr. PAULUS VI, litt. encycl. Ecclesiam Suam, 6 aug. 1964: AAS 56 (1964), p. 644-645.
21
Sdr. CONC: VAT. II, Decr. de instrumentis communicationis socialis, Inter mirifica, AAS 56 (1964),
pp. 145-153.

155

vatikanis II kreba

episkoposebma unda izrunon imisaTvis, rom katexetebi Tavisi funqciisaTvis saTanadod moemzadon, safuZvlianad gaecnon eklesiis moZRvrebas,
agreTve Teoriulad da praqtikulad Seiswavlon pedagogieuri disciplinebi. episkoposebi agreTve unda Seecadon, ganaaxlon mozrdilTa katexeturi swavleba, an misi adaptacia moaxdinon.
15. Tavisi funqciis Sesrulebisas, romelic wmidayofaSi gamoixateba,
episkoposebs unda axsovdeT, rom Tavadac adamianTagan iyvnen rCeulni
da adamianebisTvis dayenebulni, raTa RmerTTan urTierTierTobisas
codvebisTvis ZRveni da msxverpli mietanaT. marTlac, episkoposebs axarebs xarisxis saidumlos sisavse. maTi uflebamosilebis aRsrulebisas
maTze damokidebulni arian mRvdlebi (saepiskoposo xarisxis mzrunveli
TanamSromlebi rom yofiliyvnen, isinic axali aRTqmis WeSmarit mRvdelmsaxurebad iqnen xeldasxmulni) da diakonebic (msaxurebisTvis daniSnulni (ordinati), isini RmrTis ers episkoposTan da mis samRvdeloebasTan
(presbyterio) erTad emsaxurebian). amgvarad, Tavad episkoposebi RmrTis
saidumloebaTa mTavari ganmkarguleblebi (dispensatores) arian. isini warmarTaven, asazrdoeben da icaven maTTvis rwmunebul mTels liturgiul
cxovrebas eklesiaSi.22
episkoposebi mudam unda ecadon, rom qristes erTgulebma evqaristiis
meSveobiT ufro Rrmad Seicnon da SeigrZnon (vivant) aRdgomis saidumloeba,
raTa mWidrod Seikrnen erTi sxeulad, qristes siyvarulis erTianobaSi.23
locvasa da msaxurebasa amis sitysasa (saqme 6, 5) gankrZalulni, episkoposebi cdiloben, rom yvelani, visTvisac zrunva maT abariaT, erTsulovnad
locvaSi iyvenen gankrZalulni,24 saidumloTa miRebiT madlSi gaizardon da
uflisTvis erTguli mowmeni iyvnen.
episkoposebi srulyofilebisken miiswrafvian da cdiloben, xeli Seuwyon
Tavis samRvdeloTa, moweseTa da saeroTa sulierobis daxvewas, TiToeuli
maTganis mowodebis Sesabamisad.25 amasTanave maT unda axsovdeT, rom Tavad
unda miscen sulierobis magaliTi siyvarulSi, simdablesa da cxovrebis simartiveSi. episkoposebma unda wmidayon maTTvis mindobili eklesiebi, raTa
maTSi srulad gabrwyindes qristes sayovelTao eklesiis gancda. amitom maT
maqsimalurad xeli unda Seuwyon samRvdelmsaxuro da samoweseo mowodebas
da misionerul mowodebas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba dauTmon.
16. Tavis funqciaSi, romelic mamobasa da mRvdlobas gulisxmobs, episkoposebi TavisianTa Soris unda iyvnen rogorc masaxurni,26 keTili mwyemsebi,
romlebic icnoben Tavis cxvrebs da isinic icnoben maT, WeSmariti mamebi,
romlebic gamoirCevian siyvarulis suliTa da yvelas mimarT mzrunvelobiT da vis RmrTivmoniWebul avtoritetsac yvela nebayoflobiT daemorCileba. maT Tavisi samwysos mTeli ojaxi ise unda Sekribon da daawyon, rom
yvelas gacnobierebuli hqondes Tavisi movaleobebi da yvelam siyvarulis
erTobaSi icxovros da imoqmedos.
es rom ufro qmediTad ganxorcieldes, episkoposebma, yovlisa-ve-Ts
saqmisa keTilisa ganmzadebul (2tim. 2, 21) da yovlisa damTmenebma rCeul22
Sdr. CONC. VAT.II, Const. de sacra liturgia, Sacrosanctum Consilium, AAS 56 (1964), p. 97 ss.;
PAULUS VI, Motu proprio Sacrum Liturgiam, 25 jan. 1964: AAS 56 (1964), p. 139 ss.
23
Sdr. PIUS XII, Litt. encycl. Mediator Dei, 20 nov. 1947: AAS 39 (1947), p. 521 ss.; PAULUS VI,
Litt. encycl. Mysterium Fidei, 3 sep. 1965: AAS 57 (1965), pp. 753-774.
24
Sdr. saqme 1, 14 da 2, 46.
25
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de ecclesia, Lumen Gentium, cap. VI, n. 44-45: AAS 57 (1965),
pp. 50-52.
26
Sdr. luk. 22, 26-27.

156

CHRISTUS DOMINUS

Ta maTTs (2tim. 2, 10), Tavisi cxovreba ise unda moawyon, rom is drois
moTxovnilebebs Seesabamebodes.
episkoposebi yovelTvis gansakuTrebuli siyvaruliT unda moepyran mRvdelmsaxurebs: isini xom episkoposTa funqciebisa da mzrunvelobis nawils
Tavis Tavze iReben da maT yoveldRiuri gulmodginebiT asruleben. episkoposebma isini Svilebad da megobrebad unda miiCnion,27 mzad iyvnen, maT mousminon da ase, ndobiT aRsavse urTierTobaSi, mTeli diocezis samwyso saqmisTvis iRvawon.
maT sulier, inteleqtualur da materialur pirobebs episkoposebi
yuradRebiT unda moekidon, raTa mRvdelmsaxurebs SeeZloT, jansaRad da
RmrTismosavad icxovron da Tavisi msaxureba erTgulad da nayofierad
Seasrulon. amitom episkoposebma instituciebs xeli unda Seuwyon da sagangebo Sexvedrebi moawyon, romlebic mRvdlemsaxurebs dro da dro Sekrebis
SesaZleblobas miscems, raTa cxovrebis ganaxlebisTvis ufro xangrZlivi
sulieri wvrTna gaiaron da saeklesio disciplinebSi codna gaiRrmavon. es
exeba, upirveles yovlisa, wmida werilsa da Teologias, umniSvnelovanes
socialur sakiTxebs, agreTve samRvdlo moqmedebis axal meTodebs. qmediTi
gulmowyalebiT episkoposebi im mRvdelmsaxurebs unda moekidon, vinc ama
Tu im saxiT safrTxeSi imyofeba an raRacaSi Secda.
imisaTvis, raTa episkoposebma erTgulTa keTildReobisTvis ise iRvawon,
rogorc es TiToeuli maTganis mdgomareobas Seefereba, unda Seecadon,
namdvilad gaigon maTi moTxovnilebebi im socialuri viTarebis pirobebSi, romlebSic isini cxovroben. amisaTvis maT saTanado saSualebebs unda
mimarTon, upirveles yovlisa, socialur gamokiTxvebs. maT yvelas mimarT
marTebT yuradReba, ganurCevlad asakis, mdomareobis, erovnebis, iqnebian
isini adgilobrivi macxovreblebi, Camosulebi Tu wamsvlel-momsvlelebi. am samwyso mzrunvelobis aRsrulebisas episkoposebma Tavis erTgulebs
maTi wili saeklesio saqmeebisa unda miandon, scnon maTi movaleoba da
ufleba, romelic qristes saidumlo (mystici) sxeulis SenebaSi qmediT TanamSromlobas niSnavs.
episkoposebi siyvaruliT unda moepyran gamijnul Zmebs, urCion erTgulebs, maT mimarT didi humanuroba da sikeTe (caritate) gamoavlinon, agreTve
xeli Seuwyon ekumenizms, ise, rogorc is eklesias esmis.28 Tavad mounaTlavebsac ki isini gulisyuriT unda moepyran, raTa maTTvisac gabrwindes ieso
qristes sikeTe, romlis mowmenic yvelas winaSe episkoposebi arian.
17. saWiroa xeli Seewyos mociqulobis sxvadasxva formas, agreTve,
episkoposis xelmZRvanelobiT, rogorc sayovelTao diocezSi, aseve mis
calkeul regionebSi, yvela samociqulo saqmis koordinaciasa da Sinagan
kavSirs, raTa yvela iniciativa da institucia (katexeturi, misioneruli,
saqvelmoqmedo, socialuri, saojaxo, saswavlo da nebismieri sxva), samwyso
miznisken iyos mimarTuli da SeTanxmebuli moqmedebiT warimarTos, rac
diocezis erTianobasac ufro naTlad warmoaCens.
gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs erTgulTa movaleoba, romelic,
TiToeuli maTganis mdgomareobisa da SesaZleblobis Sesabamisad, mociqulobis aRsrulebas (excercendum) gulisxmobs. sasurvelia, maT monawileoba
miiRon saeroTa mociqulobis sxvadasxva saqmeebSi, upirveles yovlisa, kaTolikur qmedebaSi, da xeli Seuwyon mas. agreTve saWiroa im asociaciebisTvis xelSewyoba da daxmareba, romlebic, pirdapir Tu iribad, zebunebrivi
miznisken miiswrafvis, anu ufro srulyofili cxovrebisken miiltvis, cdi27
28

Sdr. ioan. 15, 15.


Sdr. CONC. VAT.II, Decr. de oecumenismo, Unitatis redintegratio, AAS 57 (1965), pp. 90-107.

157

vatikanis II kreba

lobs, qristes saxareba yvelas auwyos, qristianul moZRvrebasa da sajaro


kultmsaxurebas xeli Seuwyos, socialuri miznebi ganaxorcielos, RmrTismosavi Tu saqvelmoqmedi saqmeebi aRasrulos.
mociqulobis formebi Zireulad unda Seesabamos dRevandelobis moTxovnilebebs. isini adamianTa ara marTo sulier da zneobriv viTarebas iTvalisiwinebdes, aramed socialurs, demografiulsa da ekonomikursac. yovelive amis efeqturad da nayofierad Sesrulebas didad uwyobs xels socialuri da religiuri Ziebani, romlebsac pastoraluri sociologiis samsaxurebi awarmoebs. maT dabejiTebiT vuwevT rekomendacias.
18. sagangebo yuradRebas imsaxureben is erTgulebi, romlebic [garkveuli] cxovrebis pirobebis gamo ar SeuZliaT, sakmarisad isargeblon sakrebuloTa saerTo xarisxobrivi (ordinaria) samwyso mzrunvelobiT, an mas mTlianad
arian moklebulni. aseTebi arian mravalricxovani migrantebi, devnilebi da
ltolvilni, mezRvaurebi da mfrinavebi, momTabareni da sxva msgavsi adamianebi. Sesabamisi samwyso meTodebi unda SemuSavdes imisaTvis, raTa xeli
Seewyos im adamianTa sulier cxovrebas, vinc dasvenebis mizniT droebiT
sxva regionebisken miemarTeba.
episkoposTa konferenciebma, upirveles yovlisa, qveynis SigniT, gulmodgined unda Seiswavlos gadaudebeli sakiTxebi, romlebic zemoxsenebul
jgufebs exeba, da, saTanado saSualebebiTa da instituciebiT, erTsulovnad da SeerTebuli ZalebiT Seecados, maTTvis sulierad izrunos. upirveles yovlisa, maT unda gaiTvaliswinon samociqulo saydris mier dadgenili29 an dasadgeni normebi, romlebic drois, adgilisa da pirovnebaTa viTarebas unda Seesabamebodes.
19. Tavisi samociqulo funqciis aRsrulebisas, romelic sulTa gamoxsnisken aris mimarTuli, episkoposebi nebismieri samoqalaqo xelisuflebisgan sruli da SeuzRudavi TavisuflebiTa da damoukideblobiT sargebloben. amitom ar SeiZleba saeklesio funqciis wvrTnisas maTTvis pirdapir Tu
iribad xelis SeSla, an samociqulo saydarTan da sxva saeklesio avtoritetebTan da Tavis qveSevrdomebTan Tavisuflad urTierTobis akrZalva.
wmida mwyemsebi, Tavisi samwysos sulieri zrunviT moculni, qmediTad
xels uwyoben socialur da samoqalaqo sferoSi winsvlasa da keTildReobas. amisaTvis isini, Tavisi movaleobis farglebsa da episkoposebisTvis
Sesaferisi saxiT, aqtiurad exmarebian sajaro xelisuflebas, mouwodeben
samarTliani kanonebisadmi morCilebisa da kanonierad dadgenili xelisuflebisadmi pativiscemisken.
20. episkoposTa samociqulo funqcia ufali qristes mier iqna dadgenili. is sulieri da zebunebrivi miznisken aris mimarTuli. amitom wmida
kreba ganacxadebs, rom episkoposTa dasaxeleba da dayeneba warmoadgens
kompetenturi saeklesio xelisuflebis sakuTriv, sagangebo da TavisTavad
eqskluziur uflebas.
eklesiis Tavisuflebis sworad dacvisa da erTgulTa keTildReobisTvis
ufro efeqturad da advilad xelSewyobis mizniT, wmida kreba gamoTqvams
survils, rom momavalSi samoqalaqo xelisuflebas ar mieniWos araviTari
ufleba da privilegia, romelic saepiskoposo movaleobasTan dakavSirebiT
arCevas, dasaxelebas, wardgenas an daniSnvas gulisxmobs. xolo samoqalaqo
29
Sdr. S. PIUS X., Motu proprio Iampridem, 19 mart. 1914: AAS 6 (1914), p. 173 ss.; PIUS XII,
Const. ad. Exsul Familia, 1 aug. 1952: AAS 44 (1952), p. 649 ss.; Leges Operis Apostolatus Maris, 21 nov. 1957:
AAS 50 (1958), pp. 375-383.

158

CHRISTUS DOMINUS

xelisufalT, romelTa keTilganwyobas saeklesio nebis mimarT wmida kreba madlierebiT aRiarebs da didad afasebs, igi umorCilesad (humanissime)
sTxovs, samociqulo saydarTan TaTbiris Sedegad, nebayoflobiT Tqvas
uari uflebebsa da privilegiebze, romlebiTac amJamad SeTanxmebisa Tu
Cveulebis safuZvelze sargeblobs.
21. episkoposTa samwyso funqcia Zalze mniSvnelovania da mZimea. amitom
dabejiTebiT movuwodebT diocezis episkoposebs an uflebebiT maT tol
pirebs, rom nebayoflobiT an kompetenturi uflebamosili piris SeTavazebiis safuZvelze, uari Tqvan Tavis movaleobaze, Tuki xandazmulobis an
sxva seriozuli mizezis gamo Tavisi funqciis Sesruleba uWirT. Tu kompetenturma uflebamosilma pirma gadadgoma daakmayofila, man unda izrunos
imisaTvis, rom gadamdgari piri saTanado xelSewyoba hqondes da misTvis Sesaferisi uflebebi gaaCndes.

II. diocezebis sazRvrebis dadgena


22. imisaTvis, raTa diocezma Tavisi mizani Seasrulos, eklesiis buneba naTlad unda gamovlindes RmrTis erSi, romelic am diocezs ekuTvnis.
episkoposebs unda SeeZloT, nayofierad Seasrulon maTSi Tavisi samwyso
funqciebi. da bolos, RmrTis eris gamoxsnisadmi msaxureba rac SeiZleba
srulyofilad unda ganxorcieldes.
yovelive es moiTxovs diocezebis sazRvrebis Sesabamis dadgenas, agreTve
samRvdeloebisa da saxsrebis gonivrul, mociqulobis moTxovnilebebis Sesabamis ganawilebas. es yvelaferi sasikeToa ara marto samRvdelobisa da
qristes erTgulebisTvis (maT es pirdapir exeba), aramed mTeli kaTolike
eklesiisTvisac.
amitom, diocezebis sazRvrebis dadgenasTan dakavSirebiT, wmida kreba
adgens: ramdenadac amas sulTa keTildReoba moiTxovs, SeZlebisdgvarad
male, saTanado sifrTxiliT, am sakiTxis gadasinjva unda moxdes: diocezebi
SeiZleba gaimijnos, danawildes an gaerTiandes, maTi sazRvrebi Seicvalos,
saepiskoposo saydrisTvis ufro Sesaferisi adgili SeirCes, an sulac (gansakuTrebiT es exeba didi qalaqebisgan Sedgenil diocezebs) axali Sinagani
danawileba moxdes.
23. diocezuri sazRvrebis dadgenisas, upirveles yovlisa, xeluxleblad unda iqnas miCneuli TiToeuli diocezis organuli erTianoba pirovnebebTan, samsaxurebsa da instituciebTan: yovelive aman rogorc cocxalma
organizma unda iarsebos. calkeul SemTxvevebSi yvela garemoebis guldasmiT gaTvalisiwnebis safuZvelze, SeiZleba Semdegi zogadi kriteriumebiT
vixelmZRvaneloT:
1) diocezis sazRvrebis dadgenisas SeZlebisdagavarad gasaTvaliswinebelia RmrTis eris Semadgenlobis mravalferovneba. aman SeiZleba didad
Seuwyos xeli samwyso mzrunvelobis ganxorcielebas. amasTanave saWiroa
zrunva imisaTvis, rom SeZlebisdagvarad erTianad iqnas SenarCunebuli am
eris demografiul Sedgenilobasa da samoqalaqo samsaxurebsa Tu socialur instituciebs Soris erToba, romlebic mis organul struqturas qmnis. amitom TiToeuli diocezis teritoria erT mTlianobas unda warmoadgendes.
amavdroulad, yuradReba unda mieqces samoqalaqo sazRvrebis farglebs,
agreTve adamianebisa da adgilebis gansakuTrebul viTarebebs, magaliTad,
fsiqologiurs, ekonomikurs, geografiuls, istoriuls.

159

vatikanis II kreba

2) diocezuri teritoriis sidide da misi macxovreblebis raodenoba


sazogadod iseTi unda iyos, rom, erTis mxriv, Tavad episkoposma (Tundac
sxvebis daxmarebiT), SeZlos, Seasrulos pontifikaliebi da samwyso vizitebi gaakeTos, saTanadod warmarTos da SeaTanxmos diocezaSi samociqulo
saqme, gaicnos, upiveles yovlisa, Tavisi mRvdelmsaxurni, agreTve moweseni
da saeroni, romlebic diocezur saqmeebSi monawileoben. meores mxriv, sakmarisad didi da saTanado asparezi unda arsebobdes imisaTvis, raTa yvelam,
rogorc episkoposma aseve samRvdeloebam, mTeli Tavisi Zala msaxurebas
moaxmaron. amasTanave, isini yovelTvis unda iTvaliswinebdnen sayovelTao
eklesiis moTxovnilebebs.
3) diocezSi gamoxsnis msaxureba ufro nayofierad rom ganxorcieldes,
Semdegi wesis gaTvaliswineba aris saWiro: TiToeul diocezs Tavis gankargulebaSi unda hyavdes samRvdeloni, romlebic raodenobiTa da SesaZleblobebiT RmrTis eris mwysobas kargad SeZleben. ar unda iyos samsaxurebis,
instituciebisa da saqmeebis nakleboba, romlebic calkeuli eklesiisTvis
aris gankuTvnili da kargi mmarTvelobisa da samociqulo saqmis aRsasruleblad aris aucilebeli. da bolos, unda arsebobdes (an momavalSi mainc
gonivruli windaxedulobiT mopovebul iqnas) saxsrebi pirovnebebisa da instituciebis Sesanaxad.
amave mizans unda iTvaliswinebdes diocezuri episkoposis zrunva sulieri moTxovnilebebisTvis iq, sadac gansxvavebuli wesis erTgulebi cxovroben. episkoposs SeuZlia, es mRvdelmsaxurTa an mocemuli wesis sakrebuloebis meSveobiT ganaxorcielos, an saepiskoposo vikariusis meSveobiT,
romelic saTanado uflebamosilebiT aris aRWurvili da, SesaZloa, saepiskoposo niSniTac aris Semkuli. episkoposma Tavadac SeiZleba Seasrulos
gansxvavebul wesTa ordinariusis funqcia. Tuki yovelive es, garkveuli
mosazrebiT, samociqulo saydris gadawyvetilebiT, SeuZlebelia, maSin gansxvavebuli wesebisTvis maTi sakuTari ierarqia unda dawesdes.
msgavs viTarebaSi saWiroa yuradReba im erTgulTa mimarT, romlebsac
gansxvavebuli ena aqvT. es unda moxdes im mRvdelmsaxurTa meSveobiT an amave enis parusiebis saSualebiT, an saepiskoposo vikariusis SuamavlobiT,
romelic enas kargad flobs da, garkveul SemTxvevaSi, saepiskoposo niSniTac aris Semkuli. yovelive es SeiZleba sxva, ufro mizanSewonili gadawyvetilebebiTac mowesrigdes.
24. 22-23-e muxlebis Sesabamisad, diocezebis Secvlasa da ganaxlebas
rac Seexeba, xeluxlebeli rCeba aRmosavleTis eklesiebis disciplina.
amave dros, sasurvelia, rom kompetenturma saepiskoposo konferenciebma
es saqmeebi ganixilon, TiToeulma Tavisi teritoriisaTvis. saWiroebis
SemTxvevaSi maT SeuZliaT sagangebo saepiskoposo komisia moiwvion. magram
manamde yovelTvis unda mousminon Sesabamisi provinciebisa Tu regionebis
episikoposebs, xolo Semdeg Tavisi ganzraxvebi da survilebi samociqulo
saydars SesTavazon.

I. samRvdlo funqciaSi diocezuri episkoposis TanamSromlebi


1) TanaSemwe da damxmare episkoposebi
25. diocezebis mmarTvelobaSi episkoposTa samRvdlo funqcisTvis
zrunva yovelTvis unda iTvaliswinebdes uflis samwysos keTildReobas,
rogorc umaRles princips. imisaTvis, rom es saTanadod ganxorcieldes,
damxmare episkoposebis dayeneba aris saWiro, radgan zogjer diocezuri

160

CHRISTUS DOMINUS

episkoposi TviTon ver asrulebs yvela saepiskoposo funqcias, ise, rogorc amas sulTa keTildReoba moiTxovs. amis mizezi sxvadasxva SeiZleba
iyos: diocezis sidide, mcxovrebTa didi ricxvi, mociqulobis sagangebo
viTareba an sxvagvari mizezebi. zogjer gansakuTrebuli aucilebloba moiTxovs, rom Tavad diocezuri episkoposis dasaxmareblad TanaSemwe episkoposis dayeneba moxdes. episkoposis TanaSemweebi da damxmareebi Sesabamisi
ZalauflebiT unda iyvnen aRWurvilni, raTa yovelTvis SenarCunebuli
iyos docezuri mmarTvelobis erTianoba da, imavdroulad, maTi saqmianoba
ufro qmediTi gaxdes, xolo sakuTriv episkoposebTa Rirseba kargad iqnas
daculi.
maSasadame, TanaSemwe da damxmare episkoposebi mowodebulni arian imisaTvis, raTa gaiziaron diocezuri episkoposebis mzrunveloba. amitom
maT Tavisi funqcia ise unda Seasrulon, rom yvela saqmeSi masTan srul
TanxmobaSi iyvnen. garda amisa, maT mudam unda gamoavlinon morCileba da
mowiweba diocezuri episkoposis mimarT, romelsac, Tavis mxriv, Zmurad
unda uyvardes TanaSemwe da damxmare episkoposebi da maT pativiscemiT
epyrobodes.
26. Tu sulTa keTildReoba amas moiTxovs, diocezur episkoposi ar unda
moeridos, ulebamosil xelisuflebas erTi an meti damxmare sTxovos, romlebic diocezisTvis memkvidrebis uflebis gareSe iqnebian daniSnulni.
Tu daniSnvis Sesaxeb werilebi mocemul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT winaswar
arafers iTvaliswinebs, diocezurma episkoposma Tavis damxmare Tu damxmareebi unda daniSnos generalur vikariusebad an sapiskoposo vikariusebad
mainc, romlebic mxolod misi xelisuflebisgan iqnebian damokidebulni.
episkoposi maT unda daeTaTbiros mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis mogvarebisas,
gansakuTrebiT samociqulo xasiaTisa.
Tu uflebamosilma xelisuflebam sxvagvarad ar daadgina, damxmare
episkoposebisTvis kanoniT gansazRvruli uflebamosilebebi da SesaZleblobebi diocezuri episkoposis funqciasTan erTad ar amoiwureba. sasurvelia agreTve, rom saydris vakanturobis SemTxvevaSi, funqcia, romelic
diocezis marTvas gulisxmobs, miendos damxmare episkoposs, an, Tu isini
ramdenime arian, erTerT damxmares, Tu ra Tqma unda, seriozuli mizezebi
sxva gamosavlisken ar mianiSnebs. TanaSemwe episkoposi, romelic, cxadia,
memkvidred iqneba dasaxelebuli, diocezurma episkoposma yovelTvis generalur vikariusad unda daayenos. sagangebo SemTxvevebSi uflebamosilma
xelisufalma mas SeiZleba ufro didi uflebebic mianiWos.
diocezis awmyo da momavali keTildReobis maqsimalurad uzrunvelsayofad, episkoposi da TanaSemwe umniSvnelovanes sakiTxebSi erTmaneTTan
TaTbirs ar unda moeridon.

2) diocezuri kuria da sabWoebi


27. diocezur kuriaSi yvelaze gamorCeuli aris generaluri vikariusis
samsaxuri. yovelTvis, roca swori diocezuri mmarTveloba amas moiTxovs,
episkoposma SeiZleba daayenos erTi an ramdenime saepiskoposo vikariusi.
diocezis gansazRvrul nawilSi, moqmedebis garkveul sferoSi, an garkveuli wesis erTgulebTan mimarTebaSi isini im uflebamosilebiT sargebloben,
romelsac sayovelTao samarTali generalur vikariuss miakuTvnebs.
diocezur mmarTvelobaSi episkoposis TanamSromelTa ricxvs isinic
ekuTvnian, vinc mis senatsa Tu mis sabWos Seadgens, magaliTad, sakaTedro
Tavi, mrCevelTa jgufi an sxva sabWoebi, adgilis garemoebisa Tu Tavisebu-

161

vatikanis II kreba

rebis Sesabamisad. saWiroebosda mixedviT, es instituciebi, gansakuTrebiT


sakaTedro meTaurebi, axali wesis moTxovnilebebs unda daeqvemdebaros.
mRvdelmsaxurebma da saero pirebma, romlebic diocezur kurias ekuTvnian, unda icodnen, rom isini Tavad uweven daxmarebas episkoposis samRvdlo msaxurebas.
diocezuri kuria ise unda moewyos, rom episkoposisTvis mosaxerxebel
saSualebad iqces, ara marto diocezur mmarTvelobaSi, aramed samociqulo
saqmis aRsrulebaSic.
didad sasurvelia, rom calkeul diocezSi sagangebo samRvdlo sabWo
daarsdes, romelsac Tavmjdomareobas Tavad diocezuri episkoposi gauwevs da romelSic sagangebod arCeuli samRvdeloni, moweseebi da saeroni
miiReben monawileobas. am sabWos amocana iqneba, gamoikvlios, Seiswavlos
da praqtikuli daskvnebi gamoitanos yovelive imis mimarT, rac samRvdlo
(pastoralia) saqmeebs exeba.

3. diocezuri samRvdeloeba
28. yvela mRvdeli (presbyteri), rogorc diocezuri, aseve mowese, qristes
erTian mRvdelmsaxurebas episkoposTan erTad asrulebs. isini saepiskoposo xarisxis mzrunvel TanamSromlebs warmoadgenen. amitom sulTaTvis
zrunvis saqmeSi pirveli adgili diocezur mRvdelmsaxurebs ukaviaT. isini
calkeuli eklesiisTvis arian incardinati an gankuTvnilni (addicti) da mTeli Tavisi arsebiT mas unda emsaxuron, raTa uflis samwysos erTi nawili mwyemson.
amitom isini erT samRvdlos (presbyterium) da erT ojaxs Seadgenen, romlis
mama episkoposi aris. Tavis mRvdlmsaxurTa Soris wmida msaxurebaTa ukeTesad da ufro Tanasworad ganawilebisTvis, mas aucileblad unda gaaCndes
Tavisufleba Tanamdebobebisa da beneficiebis miniWebisTvis (conferendis).
amitom unda moixsnas is uflebebi da privilegiebi, romlebic am Tavisuflebas ama Tu im saxiT xels uSlis.
urTierTobebi episkopossa da diocezur mRvdelmsaxurebs Soris,
upirveles yovlisa, zebunebrivi siyvarulis kavSirebs unda efuZnebodes.
episkoposis nebasTan mRvdelmsaxurTa nebis erTobam maTi samRvdlo moqmedeba ufro nayofieri unda gaxados. sulieri msaxurebis ganviTarebis mizniT, sasurvelia, episkoposma miiwvios mRvdelmsaxurni, upirveles yovlisa, samRvdlo saqmis Sesaxeb sasaubrod. es unda moxdes ara marto garkveul
SemTxvevebSi, aramed, SeZlebisdagvarad, regularulad, dadgenil dros.
garda amisa, yvela diocezuri mRvdelmsaxuri erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli unda iyos. maT mTeli diocezis sulieri simdidrisTvis zrunva unda
amoZravebdeT. maT unda axsovdeT, rom is simdidre, romelsac isini saeklesio msaxurebis safuZvelze iZenen, maT wmida funqciasTan aris dakavSirebuli. isini unda Seecadon, ramdenadac SeuZliaT, uxvad Seewion diocezis
materialur moTxovnilebebsac.
29. episkoposis uaxloesi TanamSromlebi is mRvdelmsaxurebic arian,
romlebsac man samRvdlo funqcia an zesakrebulos xasiaTis samociqulo
saqme miando. is SeiZleba diocezis gansazRvruli teritoriisTvis, erTgulTa sagangebo jgufisTvis an moqmedebis garkveuli tipisTvis iyos
gankuTvnili.
gansakuTrebiT sasargeblo saqmes ewevian is mRvdelmsaxurni, romlebsac
episkoposma skolebSi, sxva instituciebsa Tu gaerTianebebSi mociqulobis
sxvadasxva funqciebi miando. is mRvdelmsaxurnic, romlebic zediocezuri

162

CHRISTUS DOMINUS

saqmeebisTvis arian gankuTvnilni, brwinvale samociqulo saqmeebs axorcieleben. sasurvelia, rom isini, upirveles yovlisa, im episkoposis sagangebo
mzrunvelobis qveS imyofebodnen, vis diocezSic mkvidroben.
30. garkveuli azriT, episkoposis TanamSromlebi arian sakrebulos winamZRvrebi, romlebsac, rogorc sakuTriv mRvdlebs, diocezebis
garkveul nawilebSi episkoposis uflebamosilebis qveS sulTaTvis zrunva
aqvT mindobili.
1. am zrunvis ganxorcielebisas sakrebulos winamZRvrebma Tavis damxmareebTan erTad ise unda Seasrulon swavlebis, wmidayofisa da xelmZRvanelobis funqcia, rom erTgulebma da sakrebulos wevrebma Tavi diocezisa da
mTelis sayovelTao eklesiis namdvil wevrebad igrZnon. amitom maT unda
iTanamSromlon sxva winamZRvrebsa da mRvdelmsaxurebTan, romlebic samRvdlo funqcias mocemul teritoriaze asruleben (mag. saolqo vikariusebi,
dekanebi), an romlebic zesakrebulos xasiaTis saqmeebisTvis arian gankuTvnilni, raTa samRvdlo zrunva diocezSi erTianobas moklebuli ar iyos da
ufro efeqturi gaxdes.
garda amisa, sulTaTvis zrunva mudam unda iyos misioneruli suliT
gamsWvaluli, raTa is saTanadod iyos gavrcelebuli yvelaze, vinc sakrebuloSi cxovrobs. Tu samRvdelo pirebs garkveul jgufebamde miRweva ar
SeuZliaT, maT dasaxmareblad sxvebs unda mouxmon, maT Soris saero pirebsac, raTa isini samociqulo saqmeSi maT mxarSi amoudgnen.
sulTaTvis zrunva ufro qmediTi rom gaxdes, Zalze sasurvelia mRvdelmsaxurTa erToblivi cxovreba, gansakuTrebiT maTi, vinc erTsa da imave
sakrebulos ekuTvnis. is xels uwyobs samocqiulo qmedebas da erTgulebs
siyvarilisa da erTobis magaliTs aZlevs.
2. moZRvrobis funqciis Sesrulebisas sakrebuloebis winamZRvarTa movaleobas warmoadgens yvela qristes erTgulisTvis RmrTis sityvis qadageba,
raTa isini, sarwmunoebaze, imedsa da siyvarulze dafuZnebulebma, qristeSi
gaizardon da qristianulma sakrebulom siyvaruli ise daamowmos, rogorc
es ufalma gvirCia.30 maTi movaleoba isic aris, rom katexeturi swavlebiT
erTgulebi miiyvanon gamoxsnis saidumloebis srul (asakisTvis Sesaferis)
codnamde. am swavlebis gadacemisTvis maT ara mxolod moweseTa daxmarebas
unda mimarTon, aramed saeroTa TanamSromlobasac. maT erTgvari qristianuli moZRvrebis Zmoba unda Camoayalibon.
wmidayofis saqmis aRsrulebisas sakrebulos winamZRvrebma unda izrunon imisaTvis, rom evqaristiuli msxverplis zeimi qristianuli sakrebulos
mTeli cxovrebis centri da mwvervali iyos. amasTanave, isini unda Seecadon,
rom erTgulebi saidumloTa RmrTismosavi da xSiri miRebisa da liturgiaSi
Segnebuli da aqtiuri monawileobis safuZvelze sulieri sazrdoTi ikvebebodnen. sakrebulos winamZRvars isic unda axsovdeT, rom sinanulis saidumlo gansakuTrebiT uwyobs xels qristianul cxovrebas. amitom isini mzad
unda iyvnen, mousminon erTgulTa aRsarebebs, xolo saWiroebis SemTxveveSi amisTvis sxva mRvdelmsaxurebsac mouwodon, romlebic sxvadasxva enebs
floben.
samRvdlo samsaxuris aRsrulebisasas sakrebulos winamZRvrebma, upirveles yovlisa, Tavisi samwysosTvis unda izrunon. amave dros, isini yvela
cxvris msaxurni arian, amitom maT qristianuli cxovrebis ganviTarebas
xeli unda Seuwyon rogorc calkeul erTgulebSi, aseve ojaxebsa da gaerTianebebSi (gansakuTrebiT maTSi, romlebic Tavs mociqulobas uZRvnian),
agreTve mTels samrevlo sakrebuloSi. maT unda moinaxulon saxlebi da
30

Sdr. ioan. 13, 35.

163

vatikanis II kreba

skolebi, rogorc amas samRvdlo funqcia moiTxovs, didi yuradReba gamoiCinon mozardebisa da axalgazrdebis mimarT, Raribebsa da sneulebs mamobrivi siyvaruliT moepyran, da bolos, sagangebo yuradReba mSromelebis
mimarT gamoavlinon da Seecadon, erTgulebi ise warmarTon, rom maT samociqulo saqmeTa aRsrulebaSi Tavisi wvlili Seitanon.
3. sakrebulos vikariusebi, rogorc sakrebuloebis TanamSromlebi,
samRvdlo msaxurebaSi yoveldRiurad Zvirfas da qmediT saqmes asruleben,
sakrebulos winamZRvris uflebamosilebisadmi daqvemdebarebiT. amitom
winamZRvrebsa da vikariusebs Soris Zmuri urTierToba unda iyos, da urTierTsiyvaruli da pativiscema mudam sufevdes. isini erTmaneTs unda
Seewion rCevebiT, daxmarebiTa da magaliTiT da sakrebulos mimarT zrunva
erTsulovani nebiTa da erToblivi mondomebiT ganaxorcielon.
31. rodesac episkoposma unda gansajos, Tu ramdenad Sesaferisia mRvdelmsaxuri ama Tu im sakrebulos warmarTvisaTvis, man ara marto misi
moZRvreba [anu Teoriuli codna] unda gaiTvaliswinos, aramed misi RmrTismosaoba, mociquluri gulmodgineba da sxva niWebi da Tvisebebi, romlebic
sulTaTvis zrunvis saTanadod ganxorcielebisTvis aris aucilebeli.
sakrebulos funqciis mTeli arsi sulier keTildReobaSi mdgomareobs.
imisaTvis, raTa episkoposma sakrebuloTa aRWurva (provisionem) ufro advilad
da ukeTesad SeZlos, moweseTa ufleba unda SenarCunebul iqnas, xolo nebismieri uflebebi [Tanamdebobaze] wardgenis, daniSnvis an misi SenarCunebis Sesaxeb unda gauqmdes. aseve unda gauqmdes konkursis wesi (Tu aseTi arsebobs),
iqneba is sazogado Tu kerZo. winamZRvrebma TavianT sakrebuloebSi unda gaixaron maTi samsaxuris simdgradiT, romelsac sulieri keTildReoba moiTxovs.
amgvarad, moixsneba gansxvaveba gadayenebad (amovibiles) da gadauyenebad (inamovibiles) sakrebuloTa Soris, gadaisinjeba da gamartivdeba procedura, romelic winamZRvrebis gadayvanasa (translatione) da gadayenebas (amotione) gulisxmobs.
amgvarad, bunebrivi da kanonikuri Tanasworobis SenarCunebiT, episkoposi
ukeTesad daakmayofilebs sulieri keTildReobis moTxovnilebebs.
xolo sakrebuloTa winamZRvrebs, romlebsac xandazmuloba an sxva seriozuli mizezi xels uSlis, samsaxuri wesisamebr da nayofierad Seasrulon, dabejiTebiT movuwodebT, sakuTari surviliT an episkoposis SeTavazebis safuZvelze, samsaxurze uari Tqvan. episkoposma gadamdgarni Sesaferisi pirobebiT unda uzrunvelyos.
32. da bolos, sulTa gamoxsna is kriteriumi unda iyos, romliTac ganisazRvreba an gadaisinjeba sakrebuloTa Seqmna (erectiones) an gauqmeba (supressiones), agreTve sxva saxis siaxleebi, romlebsac episkoposma sakuTari uflebamosilebiT SeiZleba ganaxorcielos.

4. moweseni
33. yvela moweseni (maT Semdgom sxva instituciebis wevrebic ganekuTvnebian, romlebic evangelur rCevebs aRiareben), Tavisi mowodebis Sesabamisad, movaleni arian, didi gulmodginebiT iRvawon qristes mTeli saidumlo
sxeulis Senebisa da zrdisaTvis, agreTve calkeuli eklesiebis keTildReobisaTvis.
am miznisken isini, upirveles yovlisa, locviT, monaniebis saqmeebiTa da
sakuTari cxovrebis magaliTiT unda miiswrafvodnen. wmida kreba maT yovelive amis pativiscemisa da gulmodgined ganxorcielebisken mouwodebs,
rac maTi ganuxreli zrdis safuZveli unda iyos. isini sul ufro metad

164

CHRISTUS DOMINUS

unda CaerTon gareSe samociqulo saqmeebSi da mxedvelobaSi hqondeT Tavisi sakuTari wesis (religionis) xasiaTi.
34. mowese mRvdelmsaxurebma, romlebic samRvdelo samsaxurSi imyofebian da Tavadac saepiskoposo xarisxis mzrunveli TanamSromlebi arian,
dRes, mzardi sulieri moTxovnilebebis gamo, episkoposebs SeiZleba didi
daxmareba gauwion. amitom, garkveuli gagebiT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom isini
marTlac miekuTvnebian diocezis samRvdeloebas, radgan, sulier winamZRvarTa (praesulum) xelmZRvanelobiT sulebisTvis zrunvasa da samociqulo
saqmeebSi monawileoben. xarisxis sxva wevrebic, kacebi da qalebic, romlebic Tavadac garkveuli saxiT diocezur ojaxs ganekuTvnebian, wmida ierarqias did daxmarebas uweven. maT SeuZliaT (da es kidec unda gaakeTon) kidev
ufro metadac daexmaron mas, risi aucileblobac samociqulo moTxovnilebebis zrdiT aris ganpirobebuli.
35. imisaTvis, raTa samociqulo saqme calkeul diocezSi yovelTvis sruliad SeTanxmebulad sruldebodes da diocezuri disciplinis erToba savsebiT daculi iyos, Semdegi ZiriTadi principebi aris dadgenili:
1. yvela moweseebi, rogorc mociqulTa memkvidreni, episkoposis mimarT
erTgulad morCilni da mowiwebulni unda iyvnen. yovelTvis, rodesac isini
mociqulobis saqmisken kanonierad arian mowodebulni, maT Tavisi funqcia
ise unda Seasrulon, rom Tavad gaxdnen episkoposis damxmareni da misdami
daqvemdebarebulni.31 moweseni gulmodgined da erTgulad unda misdevdnen
episkoposTa dadgenilebebsa da mowodebebs, raTa kacobriobis gamoxsnis
msaxurebaSi mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitanon. amasTanave, instituciis saxe
ucvleli da konstituciaTa Sesabamisi rCeba. am ukanasknelTa modifikacia,
aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi, mizandasaxulad, krebis am dekretis Tanaxmad
SeiZleba moxdes. sulieri moTxovnilebebisa da diocezuri samRvdeloebis
naklebobis gamo, episkoposma SeiZleba mouwodos ara mxolod mWvretelobiTi cxovrebiT dakavebul samoweseo instituciebs, daxmareba gauwion mas
sxvadasxva samRvdlo msaxurebaSi, TiToeuli instituciis TaviseburebaTa
Sesabamisad. zemdgomebma SeZlebisdagvarad mxari unda dauWiron am daxmarebas, romelic SeiZleba sakrebuloze droebiT pasuxismgeblobis aRebasac
gulisxmobdes.
2. moweseni, gareSe mociqulobisaTvis mivlenilni, sakuTari wesis (religionis) suliT unda iyvnen gamsWvalulni da regularuli meTvalyureobisa da
Tavis zemdgomTa mimarT daqvemdebarebis mimarT mudam erTgulni rCebodnen. Tavad episkoposebi am movaleobas ar unda amZafrebdnen.
3. aRmoyvana, romliTac papi an sxva saeklesio uflebamosili piri moweseebs TavisTan gaiwvevs, ris Sedegadac isini episkoposTa iurisdiqciidan
gamodian, upirveles yovlisa, instituciaTa Sinagan wess exeba. misi meSveobiT instituciebSi yvelaferi ufro organulad unda iyos dakavSirebuli,
rac samoweseo urTierTobebis ganviTarebisa da srulyofis safuZveli unda
gaxdes.32 amasTanave, man saSualeba unda misces uzenaes pontifeqss, rom isini Tavis gankargulebaSi hyavdes sayovelTao eklesiis sasikeTod,33 an sxva
uflebamosil pirs _ Tavisi iurisdiqciis eklesiaTa sasikeTod. amsTanave,
aRmoyvana ar gamoricxavs imas, rom TiToeul diocezSi moweseebi episkopo31
Sdr. PIUS XII, Allocutio, 8 dec. 1950: AAS 43 (1951), p. 28; PAULUS VI, Allocutio, 23 maii
1964: AAS 56 (1964), p. 571.
32
Sdr. LEO XIII, Const. ap. Roamnos Pontifices, 8 maii 1881: acta Leonis XIII, vol. II (1882), p. 234
ss.
33
Sdr. PAULUS VI, Allocutio, 23 maii 1964: AAS 56 (1964), pp. 570-571.

165

vatikanis II kreba

sTa iurisdiqcias daeqvemdebarebian samarTlis wesis Tanaxmad, ramdenadac


amas moiTxovs maTi samRvdlo funqciis Sesruleba da sulTaTvis zrunvis
sworad warmarTva.34
4. yvela moweseni, rogorc aRmoyvanilni, aseve araaRmoyvanilni, adgilobriv ordinariusTa xelisuflebas eqvemdebarebian, rac Semdeg sferoebs moicavs: RmrTismsaxurebis sajaro aRsruleba (amasTanave, daculi
unda iyos wesTa mravalferovneba), sulTaTvis zrunva, xalxisTvis wmida
winaswarmetyvelebis gadacema, qristes erTgulTa upirveles yovlisa, bavSvebis religiuri da moraluri aRzrda, katexeturi swavleba da liturgiuli ganaTleba, agreTve samRvdeloebis statusis Rirseba da sxvadasxva
saqmeebi, romlebic wmida mociqulobis aRsrulebas gulisxmobs. saerTo
wesisa da meTvalyureobis TvalsazrisiT, moweseTa kaTolikuri skolebic
adgilobriv ordinariusebs eqvemdebareba. amasTanave, ZalaSi rCeba moweseTa ufleba, romelic am skolaTa xelmZRvanelobas gulisxmobs. Tavis mxriv,
moweseni valdebulni arian gaiTvaliswinon yvelaferi, rasac episkoposTa
krebebi Tu konferenciebi kanonierad yvelasTvis savaldebulod adgens.
5. TanamSromloba unda ganviTardes sxvadasxva samoweseo instituciaTa
Soris, agreTve maTsa da diocezur samRvdeloebas Soris. unda arsebobdes
mWidro koordinacia yvela samociqulo saqmesa da moqmedebas Soris. isini
mTlianad unda iyos damokidebuli sulTa da gonebaTa zebunebriv mizanswrafvaze, romelic siyvarulze iqneba aRmocenebuli da dafuZnebuli.
samociqulo saydari am koordinaciisTvis sayovelTao eklesiis masStabiT
zrunavs, sulieri mwyemsebi imaves Tavis diocezSi akeTeben, da bolos, sapatriarqo krebebi da episkoposTa konferenciebi sakuTar teritoriaze moqmedeben.
episkoposebma an episkoposTa konferenciebma, agreTve zemdgomma moweseebma an umaRles zemdgom [pirTa] konferenciebma, im samociqulo saqmeTa
interesebidan gamomdinare, romlebic moweseTa mier sruldeba, winaswari
urTierTTaTbiris Sedegad unda imoqmedon.
6. episkoposebsa da moweseTa Soris urTierTobebi SeTanxmebulad da
nayofierad rom ganviTardes, episkoposebi da zemdgomi moweseebi gansazRvrul drosa da sasurveli sixSiriT unda Seikribon, raTa ganixilon sakiTxebi, romlebic sazogadod mocemul teritoriaze mociqulobas exeba.
Tavi III
episkoposTa TanamSromloba mraval eklesiaTa saerTo
keTildReobisaTvis

I. sinodebi, krebebi da gansakuTrebiT episkoposTa konferenciebi


36. eklesiis [arsebobis] pirveli saukuneebidan moyolebuli, episkoposebi, miuxedavad imisa, rom isini calkeuli eklesiebis mesveurni iyvnen,
siyvarulis Zmuri erTobiTa da mociqulebisTvis gadacemuli sayovelTao misiisTvis zrunviT, erToblivi ZaliTa da nebiT iRwvodnen rogorc
sazogado, aseve calkeul eklesiaTa keTildReobisaTvis. am mosazrebiT
daarsda sinodebi, adgilobrivi (provincialia) krebebi, dabolos, plenaruli krebebi. maTze episkoposebi adgenen Tanabar wesebs, romlebic daculi unda iyos sxvadasxva eklesiebSi rogorc sarwmunoebis WeSmaritebis
swavlebisTvis, aseve saeklesio disciplinisTvis.
wmida msoflio krebas surs, rom sinodebisa da krebebis pativdebuli instituciebi kvlav ganmtkicdes, raTa ukeTesad da ufro efeqturad ganxor34

166

Sdr. PIUS XII, Allocutio, 8 dec. 1950: l.c.

CHRISTUS DOMINUS

cieldes sarwmunoebis zrda da disciplinis SenarCuneba sxvadasxva eklesiaSi, drois moTxovnilebebis Sesabamisad.
37. gansakuTrebiT Cvens droSi episkoposebi xSirad saTanado nayofierebiT ver asruleben Tavis funqcias, Tu isini sxva episkoposebTan mWidro
Tanxmobasa da TanamSromlobaSi ar moqmedeben. episkoposTa konferenciebma, mraval qveynebSi ukve daarsebulma, nayofieri mociqulobis ucxadesi
sabuTebi warmoadgina. amitom mocemuli wmida kreba mizanSewonilad miiCnevs, rom mTels dedamiwaze erTi qveynisa Tu regionis episkoposebi erTad
Seikribon. isini dadgenil dros unda Sexvdnen erTmaneTs, raTa erTmaneTs
Tavisi codna da gamocdileba gauziaron. azrTa urTierTgacvlis Sedegi
ZalTa erTsulovneba iqneba, romelic eklesiaTa saerTo keTildReobas moxmardeba.
yovelive zemoTqmulis safuZvelze, krebas episkoposTa konferenciebis
Taobaze Semdegi dadgenileba gamoaqvs:
38. 1) episkoposTa konferencia aris erTgvari Sekreba, romelzec erTi
qveynisa Tu teritoriis episkoposebi Tavis samRvdlo funqcias erToblivad asruleben, raTa xeli Seuwyon im udides sikeTes, romelsac eklesia
adamians sTavazobs. es, upirveles yovlisa, mociqulobis formaTa da meTodebis saSualebiT xorcieldeba, romlebic drois moTxovnilebebs unda
Seeferebodes.
2) episkoposTa konferenciaSi Sedis nebismieri wesis (ritus) yvela adgilobrivi ordinariusi (generaluri vikariusebis garda), TanaSemweebi, damxmareebi da sxva titularuli episkoposebi, romlebic samociqulo saydris an
episkoposTa konferenciebis mier dakisrebul sagangebo funqcias asruleben. sxva titularuli episkoposebi, agreTve romis pontifeqsis legatebi
kanonierad ar warmoadgenen konferenciis wevrebs im misiis gamo, romelsac
isini ama Tu im teritoriaze asruleben.
adgilobriv ordinariusebsa da TanaSemweebs gadamwyveti xma ekuTvnis.
damxmare da sxva episkoposebs, romlebsac konferenciaSi monawileobis
ufleba aqvT, konferenciis wesdeba gadamwyvet an mrCevel xmas miakuTvnebs.
3) episkoposTa yovelma konferenciam Tavisi wesdeba unda SeimuSavos,
romelic samociqulo saydarma unda scnos. masSi, sxva saSualebebis gverdiT, is samsaxurebi unda iqnas gaTvaliswinebuli, romlebic miznis miRwevas
gansakuTrebiT efeqturad uwyobs xels. aseTebia, magaliTad, episkoposTa
mudmivi sabWo, saepiskoposo komisiebi, generaluri samdivno.
4) episkoposTa konferenciis gadawyvetilebebs iuridiulad savaldebulo Zala aqvT, Tu isini legitimurad iqna miRebuli im winamZRvarTa (Praesulum) ara nakleb ori mesamedi xmiT, romlebsac gadamwyveti xma aqvT konferenciaze, da Tu es gadawyvetilebebi samociqulo saydarma scno. yovelive
ZalaSia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac es saerTo kanoniT aris gansazRvruli an samociqulo saydris sagangebo mandatiT aris dadgenili, romlis
gacema sakuTari iniciativiT an Tavad konferenciis TxovniT xdeba.
5) Tu amas sagangebo viTareba moiTxovs, ramdenime qveynis episkoposebs,
samociqulo saydris TanxmobiT, SeuZliaT erTiani konferencia daarson.
garda amisa, saerTo keTildReobis ganviTarebisa da dacvisaTvis, xeli unda
Seewyos sxvadasva erTa saepiskoposo konferenciebs Soris urTierTobebs.
6) aRmosavluri eklesiebis winamZRvrebma (Praesules) Tavisi eklesiebis disciplina sinodebze unda daicvan da religiis sakeTildReod mimarTul moqmedebas efeqturad xeli Seuwyon. amitom dabejiTebiT rekomendiebulia,

167

vatikanis II kreba

rom maT mTeli teritoriis saerTo keTildReobasac gauwion angariSi, sadac svadasxva wesis ramdenime eklesia arsebobs. amisaTvis saWiroa TaTbiri
gansxvavebuli wesis Sekrebebze, uflebamosili xelisuflebis mier dadgenili normebis Sesabamisad.

II. saeklesio provinciaTa sazRvrebi


da saekleisio regionTa Camoyalibeba
39. sulTa keTildReoba moiTxovs ara marto diocezebis, aramed saeklesio provinciebis sazRvrebis saTanado dadgenas da mianiSnebs saeklesio
regionebis Seqmnis aucileblobas, raTa mociquloba socialuri da adgilobrivi viTarebis Sesabamisad ukeT ganviTardes, xolo episkoposTa urTierTobebi erTmaneTTan, mitropolitebsa da imave qveynis sxva episkoposebTan,
agreTve samoqalaqo xelisufalTan ufro martivi da nayofieri gaxdes.
40. mocemuli miznebis misaRwevas, wmida kreba Semdegs daadgens:
1) saTanadod unda gadaisinjos saeklesio provinciebis sazRvrebi, xolo
mitropolitebis uflebebi da privilegiebi axali da Sesaferisi normebiT
unda ganisazRvros.
2) wesad unda iqces, rom yvela diocezi da sxva teritorialuri sazRvrebi, romlebic uflebiT diocezs utoldeba, erTsa da imave saeklesio
provincias miekuTvnebodes. amitom diocezebi, romlebic amJamad samociqulo saydars uSualod eqvemdebareba da arcerT sxva diocezTan gaerTianebuli ar aris, an erT axal saeklesio provincias unda qmnides an yvelaze
axlomdebare Tu Sesabamis provincias miuerTdes. saerTo kanonis normis
Tanaxmad, isini mTavarepiskoposis samitropolito uflebamosilebas unda
daeqvemdebaros.
3) mizanSewonili Tu iqneba, saeklesio konferenciebi saeklesio regionebad unda gaerTiandes, romelTa organizacia iuridiulad unda damtkicdes.
41. sasurvelia, episkoposTa uflebamosilma konferenciebma, 23-e da 24-e
muxlSi dadgenili normebis Sesabamisad, dasvas sakiTxi provinciaTa sazRvrebis dadgenisa Tu regionebis Camoyalibebis Sesaxeb, da Tavisi rCevebi da
survilebi samociqulo saydars moaxsenos.

III. episkoposebi, romlebic


diocezTaSoris urTierTobebs asruleben
42. samRvdlo moTxovnilebebi sul ufro metad moiTxovs, rom garkveuli samRvdlo funqciebi SeTanxmebulad warimarTebodes da sruldebodes.
garkveuli regionisa Tu qveynis yvela an ramdenime diocezebisTvis unda
daarsdes samsaxurebi, romelTa Sesruleba episkoposebsac SeiZleba miendos.
wmida krebis rCevis Tanaxmad, prelatebsa Tu am funqciaTa Semsrulebel
episkoposebs, diocezur episkoposebsa da saepiskoposo konferenciebs Soris mudam unda arsebobdes Zmuri urTierToba da erTsulovneba samRvdlo
mzrunvelobis saqmeSi, risi pirobebic saerTo wesiT unda ganisazRvros.
43. samxedroebisTvis sulieri mzrunveloba, maTi cxovrebis pirobebis
sagangebo viTarebebis gamo, gansakuTrebul yuradRebas moiTxovs. amitom
yvela qveyanaSi, SeZlebisdagvarad, unda daarsdes vikariati samxedroebi-

168

CHRISTUS DOMINUS

sTvis. vikariusebma da kapelanebma, diocezur episkoposebTan SeTanxmebiT,


Tavi am rTul saqmes unda miuZRvnan.35
amitom diocezurma episkoposebma samxedroTaTvis vikariusebs sakmarisad bevri mRvdelmsaxurebi unda gadascen, romlebic am mniSvnelovani funqciisTvis Sesaferisni iqnebian. amasTanave, episkoposebma mxari unda dauWiron samxedroTa sulieri keTilReobisTvis sasargeblo iniciativebs.36
ZiriTadi miTiTebebi
44. wmida kreba Semdegs daadgens: kanonikuri samarTlis kodeqsis gadasinjvisas saTanadod unda ganisazRvros kanonebi, im principebis normaTa
Sesabamisad, romlebic mocemul dekretSi aris Camoyalibebuli. amasTanave,
gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos komisiaTa da krebaTa mamebis mier gamoTqmuli
SeniSnvebi.
wmida kreba daadgens, rom unda Seiqmnas generaluri saxelmZRvaneloebi
(Directoria) sulebisaTvis zrunvis saqmeSi. es saWiroa episkoposebisa da sakrebuloTa winamZRvrebisTvis, raTa maT mtkice safuZvlebi gaaCndeT Tavisi
samRvdlo funqciis ufro advilad da efeqturad SesrulebisTvis.
unda Sedges agreTve specialuri saxelmZRvanelo (Directorium), romelic
moxmardeba samRvdlo zrunvas erTgulTa gansakuTrebuli jgufebis mimarT, sxvadasxva qveynebisa da regionebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli viTarebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. saWiroa agreTve Sedges saxelmZRvenelo (Directorium)
qristiani xalxis katexeturi aRzrdisaTvis. masSi gadmocemuli unda iyos
am aRzrdis funamenturi principebi da mimarTulebebi, agreTve ganxiluli
iyos im wignebis momzadeba, romlebic am Temas exeba. mocemul saxelmZRvaneloTa Sedgenisas unda gaTvaliswinebul iqnas is SeniSvnebi, romlebic komisiebma an krebaTa mamebma gamoTqves.
yovelive erTad da cal-calke, rac am dekretSi gamocxadda,
wmida krebis mamebma moiwones. da Cvenc, im samociqulo uflebamosilebiT, romelic qristesgan gadmogveca, amas pativdebul mamebTan erTad suli wmidaSi veTanxmebiT, vadgenT,
vawesebT da vbrZanebT, rom is, rac krebaze dadginda, gamoqveyndes sadideblad RmrTisa.

romi, wm. petresTan, 1965 wlis 28 oqtomberi


me, pavle, kaTolike eklesiis episkoposi
(mohyveba mamaTa xelmowerebi)

35
Sdr. S.C. CONSISTORIALIS, Instructio de Vicariis Castrensibus: 23 apr. 1951: AAS 43 (1951), pp.
562-565; Formula servanda in relatione de statu Vicariatus Castrensis conficienda, 20 oct. 1956: AAS 49 (1957),
pp. 150-163; Decr. De Sacrorum Liminum Visitatione a Vicariis Castrensibus peragenda, 28 febr. 1959: AAS 51
(1959), pp. 272-74; Decr. Facultas audiendi confessiones militum Cappellanis extenditur, 27 nov. 1960: AAS 53
(1961), pp. 49-50. Sdr. agreTve S. C. De RELIGIOSIS, Instructio de Cappellanis militum religiosis, 2 febr.
1955: AAS 47 (1955), pp. 93-97.
36
Sdr. S. C. CONSISTORIALIS, Epistula a Em.mos PP. DD.
Carinales atque Exc.mos PP. DD. Archi
episcopos, Episcopos ceterosque Ordinarios Hispanicae Ditionis, 21 iun. 1951: AAS 43 (1951), p. 566.

169

dekreti
samoweseo cxovrebis
ganaxlebis Sesaxeb
PERFECTAE CARITATIS

pavle episkoposi,
RmrTis msaxurTa msaxuri,
wmida krebis mamebTan erTad,
samudamo saxsovrad

dekreti
samoweseo cxovrebis
ganaxlebis Sesaxeb
1. konstituciaSi, romelsac Lumen gentium _ xalxTa naTeli ewodeba,
wmida krebam winaswarve miuTiTa, rom srulyofili siyvarulis Zieba saxarebiseuli rCevebis saSualebiT dasabams saRmrTo moZRvris swavlebasa da magaliTebSi iRebs. is zeciuri sasufevlis ucxades niSans warmoadgens. axla
ki krebas ganzraxuli aqvs, ganixilos sakiTxi im instituciaTa cxovrebisa
da disciplinis Sesaxeb, romelTa wevrebi ubiwoebas, siRatakesa da morCilebas aRiareben, da maTi moTxovnilebebi Cveni drois viTarebis Sesabamisad
daakmayofilos.
eklesiis dasabamiTgan arsebobdnen iseTi mamakacebi da qalebi, romlebic saxarebiseul rCevaTa meSveobiT cdilobdnen, rac SeiZleba ufro Tavisuflad gahyolodnen qristes da misTvis miebaZaT. maT Soris mravali,
suli wmidis STagonebiT, ganmartoebiT cxovrobda, an aarsebda samoweseo
ojaxebs, romlebsac eklesia sixaruliT iRebda da Tavisi uflebamosilebiT
dadebiTad afasebda. amis Sedegad, saRmrTo ganzraxviT, religiur jgufTa
gansacvifrebeli simravle aRmocenda, ramac didad Seuwyo xeli imas, rom
eklesia ara marto ganmzadebuliyo yovlisa mimarT saqmisa keTilisa (2tim.
3, 17) da saqmed msaxurebisa, aRsaSeneblad guamisa qristesisa (efes. 4, 12)
aramed Tavis SvilTa sxvadasxva niWebiT Semosili, warmoCinebuliyo viTarca sZali Semkuli qmrisa mimarT Tsisa (gamocx. 21, 2), da misi meSveobiT gancxadebuliyo mravalferi igi sibrZne RmrTisa (Sdr. efes. 3, 10).
niWTa aseT mravalferovnebaSi yvela, visac RmerTi saxarebiseul rCevaTa
ganxorcielebisken mouwodebs da vinc maT erTgulad aRiarebs, ufals Tavs
gansakuTrebulad uZRvnis da mihyveba qristes, umankosa da Rataks (Sdr. maT.
8, 20; luk. 9, 58), romelmac morCilebiT vidre sikudiliTa miT juarisaTa
(Sdr. fil. 2, 8) adamianebi gamoisyida da wmida yo. ase, STagonebulni siyvaruliT, romelic maT gulebSi suli wmidam ganfina (Sdr. rom. 5, 5), isini sul
ufro metad cxovroben qristesa da misi sxeulisaTvis, romel ars eklesia
(Sdr. kol. 1, 24). rac ufro mxurvaled SeuerTdebian isini qristes Tavisi ZRveniT, romelic mTel maT cxovrebas moicavs, miT ufro gamdidrdeba eklesiis cxovreba da ufro nayofieri gaxdeba misi mociquloba.
saxarebiseul rCevaTa aRsarebis safuZvelze uflisadmi miZRvnili
cxovrebis udidesi Rirebuleba ukeTesad rom warmoCndes da is Tavisi aucilebeli funqciiT Tanamedrove viTarebaSi eklesiis keTildReobas kidev
ufro metad rom emsaxuros, mocemuli wmida kreba ayalibebs debulebebs,
romlebic samoweseo instituciebis cxovrebisa da disciplinis ganaxlebisa
da adaptaciis mxolod ZiriTad principebs moicavs (gaTvaliswinebulia institituciaTa Taviseburebebi), agreTve erToblivi cxovrebis im sazogadoebaTa ZiriTad principebs, romlebic aRTqmebisa da saero instituciebis
gareSe arseboben. xolo kerZo normebi, romlebic ZiriTadi principebis da-

173

vatikanis II kreba

muSavebisa da gamoyenebisTvis aris aucilebeli, kompetenturma uflebamosilma pirebma krebis Semdgom unda daadginon.
2. samoweseo cxovrebis ganaxleba da adaptacia mTeli qristianuli
cxovrebis wyaroebsa da instituciebis dasabamier STagonebasTan mudmiv
dabrunebas da, imavdroulad, drois cvalebad viTarebasTan maT SeTanxmebas niSnavs. es ganaxleba, suli wmidisa da eklesiis impulsiT warmarTuli,
Semdegi principebis Tanaxmad unda ganxorcieldes:
a) samoweseo cxovrebis umaRlesi norma gulisxmobs: gavyveT qristes,
ise, rogorc amas saxareba gvaswavlis. es unda iyos yvela instituciebisTvis uzenaesi wesi.
b) Tavad eklesiis keTildReoba moiTxovs, rom instituciebs Tavisi sakuTari saxe da funqcia hqondeT. amitom maT unda aRiaron da erTgulad
daicvan damfuZnebelTa suli da sakuTari ganzraxvebi, agreTve jansaRi
tradiciebi, rac erTobliobaSi ama Tu im instituciis memkvidreobas warmoadgens.
g) yvela instituciam monawileoba unda miiRos eklesiis cxovrebaSi. sakuTari Taviseburebebis Sesabamisad, man eklesiis iniciativebi da ganzraxvebi unda gaiTavisos da SeZlebisdagvarad ganaviTaros. es exeba bibliis,
liturgiis, dogmatikis, samRvdlo, ekumenur, misionarul da socialur
sferoebs.
d) instituciebma Tavis wevrebs sakmarisi informacia unda miawodos
Tanamedrove adamianis cxovrebis pirobebisa da eklesiis problemaTa Sesaxeb, raTa sarwmunoebis Suqze maT brZnulad gansajon Tanamedrove viTareba
da, samociqulo moSurneobiT (zelo) aRgznebulebma, adamianebs ufro qmediTi daxmareba aRmouCinon.
e) samoweseo cxovreba, upirveles yovlisa, gulisxmobs imas, rom moweseni
qristes unda gahyvnen da RmerTTan saxarebiseul rCevaTa aRsarebis safuZvelze gaerTiandnen. saWiroa seriozulad dafiqreba imis Sesaxeb, rom optimaluri adaptacia Cveni drois moTxovnilebebisadmi Sedegs ver gamoiRebs,
Tu is ganaxlebis suliT ar iqna STagonebuli. is yovelTvis ZiriTad rols
unda asrulebdes, TviT sagareo saqmianobaSic.
3. cxovrebis, locvisa da moRvaweobis wesi yvelgan, gansakuTrebiT ki misiaTa adgilebSi, saTanadod unda Seesabamebodes moweseTa sadReiso fizikur da fsiqikur pirobebs, agreTve - TiToeuli instituciis Taviseburebis
mixedviT - mociqulobis aucileblobas, kulturul moTxovnilebebsa da
socialur Tu ekonomikur garemoebebs.
amave kriteriumebis mixedviT unda gadaisinjos institutebis mmarTvelobis arsic.
konstituciebi, saxelmZRvaneloebi (directoria), Cveulebebis (usuum),
locvebisa da wesebisa (caeremoniarum) wignebi, agreTve sxva saxis kodeqsebi
saTanadod unda gadaisinjos da, moZvelebuli miTiTebebis gauqmebis Sedegad, mocemuli wmida krebis dokumentebis Sesabamisad gaformdes.
4. ganaxleba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi iqneba warmatebuli da adaptacia
swori, Tu is instituciis yvela wevris TanamSromlobiT ganxorcieldeba.
xolo ganaxlebisa da adaptaciis normebis dadgena da kanonebis Camoyalibeba, agreTve sakmarisi da gonivruli gamocdilebis gansazRvra kompetenturi uflebamosili pirebis, upirveles yovlisa, generaluri meTaurebis saqmea. amasTanave, ramdenadac saWiroa, ZalaSi rCeba, samarTlis normis
Tanaxmad, wmida saydris an adgilobriv ordinariusTa mier damtkiceba. Ta-

174

PERFECTAE CARITATIS

vis mxriv, zemdgomni saTanado formiT unda daeTaTbiron da mousminon Tavisi instituciis wevrebs im sakiTxebSi, romlebic mTeli intituciisTvis
saintereso problemebs exeba.
qalTa monastrebis ganaxlebisa da adaptaciisaTvis SeiZleba movusminoT federaciebis asambleisa da sxva kanonierad Sekrebil gaerTianebaTa
survilebsa da rCevebs.
yvelas unda axsovdes, rom ganaxlebis imedi ufro metad unda emyarebodes wesebisa da konstituciebis dacvas, vidre kanonTa ricxvis zrdas.
5. yvela intituciis wevrebs unda axsovdeT, rom saxarebiseul rCevaTa
aRsarebiT maT saRmrTo mowodebas pasuxi gasces. amitom isini ara marto
mkvdarni arian codvisTvis (Sdr. rom. 6, 11), aramed samyaroze uaris TqmiT,
mxolod RmrTisaTvis cxovroben. mTeli Tavisi cxovreba maT mis msaxurebas miuZRvnes. swored es warmoadgens erTgvar gansakuTrebul xeldasxmas,
romelsac naTlobis xeldasxmaSi Rrmad aqvs fesvebi gamdgari da mas ufro
srulad gamoxatavs.
maT isic unda icodnen, rom radgan es TviTmiZRvna eklesiam miiRo, maT
eklesiis msaxurebac evalebaT.
RmrTis msaxureba maTSi saTnoebaTa (virtutum) wvrTnas unda moiTxovdes
da aviTarebdes, upirveles yovlisa, simdablisa da morCilebis, simtkicisa
da ubiwoebis, romelTa meSveobiTac isini qristes damdablebas (Sdr. fil. 2,
7-8) da, amave dros, mis sulismier cxovrebas (Sdr. rom. 8, 1-13) iziareben.
amitom moweseni, Tavisi aRTqmis erTgulni, qristesTvis yvelafers toveben (Sdr. maT. 10, 28) da mas Seudgebian, rogorc erTaderT saxmars (Sdr.
luk. 10, 42; maT. 19, 21). isini ismenen mis sityvas (Sdr. luk. 10, 39) da zrunaven
RmrTisaze (Sdr. 1kor. 7, 32).
amitom nebismieri instituciis wevrebma, romlebic, upirveles yovlisa,
mxolod RmerTs eZieben, unda Seurwyan mWvreteloba (misi meSveobiT isini
gonebiTa da guliT RmerTs ukavSirdebian) samociqulo siyvaruls (misi meSveobiT isini cdiloben, gamosyidvis saqmeSi monawileoba miiRon da RmrTis
sasufeveli gaavrcelon).
6. vinc samociqulo rCevebs aRiarebs, upirveles yovlisa, RmerTs unda
eZiebdes da uyvares igi, romelmac Cven pirvelma Segviyvara (Sdr. 1ioan. 4,
10). yvela viTarebaSi is unda Seecados, qristesTan erTad RmerTSi dafarul
cxovrebas ewios (Sdr. kol. 3, 3). aqedan momdinareobs da sazrdoobs moyvasis siyvaruli samyaros gamosaxsnelad da eklesiis aRsaSeneblad. am siyvaruliT cxoveliyofa da xelmZRvanelobs saxarebiseul rCevaTa gamocdilebac.
amitom instituciaTa wevrebi gulmodgine sibejiTiT unda Seecadon,
qristianuli sulierobis WeSmariti wyaroebis safuZvelze, asazrdoon
locvis suli da Tavad locva. upirveles yovlisa, maT yoveldRiurad xelSi
unda eWiroT wmida werili, raTa misi kiTxviTa da masze fiqriT Seiswavlon
gardamatebuli mecniereba ieso qristesi (Sdr. fil. 3, 8). maT unda guliTa
da bagiT aRasrulon saRmrTo liturgia, gansakuTrebiT wmida evqaristiis
saidumloeba, eklesiis sulis Sesabamisad, da am umdidresi warodan Tavisi
sulieri cxovreba asazrdoon.
saRmrTo kanonisa da wmida sakurTxevlis trapezTan danayrebulT, maT
Zmurad unda uyvardeT qristes asoebi, xolo mRvdelTa mimarT isini Svilebriv mowiwebasa da siyvaruls unda amJRavneben. isini sul ufro metad
unda cxovrobdnen da ganicdidnen eklesiasTan erTad, da mis misias Tavi mTlianad miuZRvnan.

175

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7. instituciebi, romlebic mTlianad mWvretelobisTvis aris gankuTvnili (maTi wevrebi mxolod RmrTisaTvis arian moclilni martoobasa da dumilSi, bejiT locvasa da sasixarulo monaniebaSi), yovelTvis inarCuneben
(rogori mZafric ar unda iyos qmediTi mociqulobis aucilebloba) ubrwyinvales nawils qristes mistikur sxeulSi, romelSic asoebsa mas yovelsa ara igive saqme aqus (rom. 12, 4). Tavisi qebiT maT RmrTisaTvis udidesi
msxverpli moaqvT, RmrTis ers siwmidis uxvi nayofebiT asxivosneben, Tavisi
magaliTiT aRafrTovaneben da mis zrdas nayofieri mociqulobiT uzrunvelyofen. amgvarad, isini eklesiis Rirsebasa da zeciur madlTa wyaros warmoadgenen. da mainc, maTi cxovrebis wesi zemoT ganxiluli principebisa da
ganaxlebisadmi misadagebuli kriteriumebis Sesabamisad unda gadaisinjos.
amasTanave, uwmidesad unda iyos SenarCunebuli maTi gandgoma samyarosagan
da mWvretelobiTi cxovrebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli wvrTna.
8. eklesiaSi mravali institucia arsebobs, rogorc samRvdelo, aseve saero, romlebic sxvadasxva samociqulo saqmeebisadmi aris miZRvnili. maT sxvadasxva niWebi gaaCnia, maTTvis micemuli madlis Sesabamisad: gina romeli
hmsaxurebdes msaxurebiTa miT; gina romeli aswavebdes swavliTa miT; [...]
romeli miscemdes uxuebiT; romeli zeda-adgebodis moswrafebiT; romeli swyalobdes mxiarulebiT (rom. 12, 5-8). xolo ganyofani madlTani
arian, da igive suli ars ( 1kor. 12, 4).
am instituciebSi Tavad samoweseo cxovrebis bunebas warmoadgens samociqulo qmedeba da qvelmoqmedeba, rogorc wmida msaxureba da siyvarulis
saqme, romelsac maT eklesia miandobs da romelic eklesiis saxeliT sruldeba. amitom misi wevrebis mTeli samoweseo cxovreba samociqulo suliT
unda ganimsWvalos, xolo maTi mTeli samociqulo qmedeba samoweseo suliT
unda aigos. samoweseo instituciebis wevrebma, upirveles yovlisa, Tavis
mowodebas rom upasuxon, anu qristes gahyvnen da mas misi asoebis saxiT emsaxuron, aucilebelia, rom maTi samociqulo moqmedeba masTan mWidro erTobas emyarebodes. aqedan gamomdinare, ganmtkicdeba Tavad siyvarulic
RmrTisa da moyvasis mimarT.
am instituciebma Tavisi wes-Cveulebebi saTanadod unda Seusabamos mociqulobis moTxovnilebebs, romlebsac isini Tavad eZRvneba. samoweseo
cxovreba, samociqulo saqmeebisadmi miZRvnili, mravalferovani formebiT
imoseba. ganaxleba da adaptacia am mravalferovnebas aucileblad unda
iTvaliswinebdes, xolo sxvadasxva instituciebSi maTi wevrebis cxovreba,
qristes msaxurebisTvis gankuTvnili, maTi sakuTari da maTTvis Sesaferisi
saSualebebiT unda sazrdoobdes.
9. samonastro cxovrebis pativsadebi institucia erTgulad unda iyos
daculi. is yoveldRiurad sul ufro metad unda gabrwyindes Tavisi WeSmariti suliT, rogorc aRmosavleTSi, aseve dasavleTSi. saukuneTa manZilze
man didi damsaxureba moipova eklesiisa da adamianTa Tanamegobrobis winaSe. monazonTa mTavar movaleobas warmoadgens Tavmdabali da amave dros
keTilSobili msaxureba, romelsac isini monastris kedlebSi saRmrTo didebulebas uZRvnian. maT SeiZleba saRmrTo kults mTlianad miuZRvnan Tavi
dafarul cxovrebaSi an legitimurad Seasrulon mociqulobisa Tu qristianuli siyvarulis esa Tu is saqme. amitom, instituciis Taviseburebis
SenarCunebis pirobebSi, unda ganaxldes Zveli saqvelmoqmedo tradiciebi
da ise SeeTanxmos isini dRevandel sulier moTxovnilebebs, rom monastrebi qristianuli xalxis aRmSeneblobis erTgvar cocxal centrebad (seminaria) iqces.

176

PERFECTAE CARITATIS

aseve im ordenebma (religiones), romlebic Tavisi ganwesebiTa Tu dadgenilebiT mWidrod arian dakavSirebuli samociqul cxovrebasTan, sagundo
samsaxursa da samonastro wesrigTan, Tavisi cxovrebis wesi ise unda Seusabamon maTTvis Sesaferis samociqulo moTxovnilebebs, rom eklesiis sasikeTod erTgulad SeinarCunon maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli cxovrebis forma,.
10. mowese saeroTa cxovreba, rogorc mamakacebisa, aseve qalebisa, TavisTavad warmoadgens saxarebiseul rCevaTa aRsarebis srulyofil statuss.
es cxovreba Zalze sasargebloa eklesiis samRvdlo funqciisaTvis axalgazrdobis aRzrdis, avadmyofTaTvis zrunvisa da sxva saxis msaxurebaTa
aRsrulebis saqmeSi. amitom wmida kreba mas didad afasebs, mis wevrebs maT
mowodebaSi ganamtkicebs da mouwodebs maT, Tavisi cxovreba dRevandelobis moTxovnilebebs Seusabamon.
wmida kreba ganacxadebs, rom ZmaTa instituciebSi (maTi saero xasiaTis
SenarCunebis viTarebaSi), generaluri meTavis gadawyvetilebiT, araferi
uSlis xels imas, rom zogierTma wevrma TavianT saxlebSi, samRvdelmsaxuro
moTxovniolebebis dasakmayofileblad, wmida xarisxi miiRos.
11. sekularuli instituciebi Tumca ar aris samoweseo instituciebi,
isini mainc warmoagens saxarebiseul rCevaTa WeSmarit da srul aRsarebas
im samyaroSi, romelsac eklesia cnobs. am aRsarebas xeldasxma moaqvs mamakacebisa da qalebisaTvis, saero da samRvdelo pirebisaTvis, romlebic
samyaroSi cxovroben. amitom isini unda Seecadon, mTlianad uZRvnan Tavi
RmerTs srulyofil siyvarulSi, xolo Tavad instituciebma Tavisi sakuTari da gansakuTrebuli, e.i. sekularuli saxe SeinarCunon, raTa warmatebiT
da yvelgan _ ase vTqvaT, samyaroSi da samyarosagan _ aRasrulon mociquloba, romlis aRsasrulebladac Seiqmnen.
maT cxadad unda icodnen, rom ver SeZleben aseTi funqciis Sesrulebas,
Tu maTi wevrebi saRmrTo da adamianur saqmeebSi ise ar iqnebian ganswavlulni, rom marTlac iyvnen safuari samyaroSi qristes sxeulis gansamtkiceblad da sazrdelad. amitom xelmZRvanelebma seriozulad unda izrunon
Tavisi instituciebis wevrTa aRzrdisaTvis (upirveles yovlisa, sulierisTvis), agreTve xeli Seuwyon mis Semdgom gaRrmavebas.
12. ubiwoeba sasufevlisaTs caTasa (maT. 19, 12), romelsac moweseni
aRiareben, madlis ukidures niWad unda iqnes miCneuli. is gansakuTrebuli
saxiT aTavisuflebs adamianis guls (Sdr. 1kor. 7, 32-35), raTa is sul ufro
metad aRegznos siyvaruliT RmrTisa da yvela adamianis mimarT. amitom
ubiwoeba aris ciur sikeTeTa gansakuTrebuli niSani da yvelaze ufro Sesaferisi saSualeba, romliTac moweseebs SeuZliaT, mondomebiT miuZRvnan
Tavi saRmrTo msaxurebas da samociqulo saqmeebs. ase moagoneben isini yvela qristes erTguls am gansacvifrebel kavSirs, RmrTis mier daarsebuls,
romelic momaval saukuneSi mTlianad unda gancxaddes. am kavSiris ZaliT
eklesias erTaderT saqmrod qriste hyavs.
amitom aucilebelia, rom moweseebs, romlebic Tavis aRTqmaTa erTgulad dacvas cdiloben, swamdeT uflis sityvebisa. isini unda endobodnen RmrTis Semweobas da Tavisi Zalebi gadaWarbebulad ar Seafason. isini
xorcis mokvdinebisken unda iswrafodnen da grZnobebs imorCilebdnen. maT
ar unda ugulebelyon bunebrivi saSualebebic, romlebic gonebriv da sxeulebriv sijansaRes uwyobs xels. ase isini ar ahyvebian mcdar Teoriebs,
romelTa Tanaxmad srulyofili Tavis Sekaveba SeuZlebelia an sazianoa
adamianis ganviTarebisaTvis. erTgvari sulieri instinqtiT isini uaryofen

177

vatikanis II kreba

yvelafers, rac maT ubiwoebas safrTxes uqmnis. yvelas, gansakuTrebiT ki


zemdgomT (Superiores) unda axsovdeT, rom ubiwoeba ufro saimedod maSin aris
daculi, rodesac instituciis wevrebs Soris erTobliv cxovrebaSi WeSmaritad Zmuri siyvaruli sufevs.
srulyofili Sekavebis dacva adamianuri bunebis Sinagan midrekilebebs
exeba. amitom kandidatebs ubiwoebis aRsareba (professionem castitatis) dacva
mxolod im SemTxvevaSi SeuZliaT da isini mxolod maSin miiReben amis uflebas, rodesac gaivlian namdvilad sakmaris gamocdas da aucilebel fsiqologiur da afeqtur simwifes miaRweven. isini unda gaafrTxilon ara marto
im saSiSroebis Sesaxeb, romelic ubiwoebas emuqreba, aramed isini unda aRzardon kidec ise, rom maT RmrTisadmi miZRvnili uqorwinebloba mTlianobaSi maTi pirovnebis sikeTed miiTvalon.
13. nebayoflobiTi siRatake, romelic qristes mimdevrobas gulisxmobs,
misi niSania, romelic dRes gansakuTrebiT fasobs. moweseebi siRatakes
gulmodgined unda misdevdnen da, Tu saWiroa, is axali formebiTac unda
gamoxaton. misi meSveobiT qristes siRatakes veziarebiT, romelic CvenTvis dagalxakna mdidari igi, raTa Cven misi siRaribiT gavmdidrebuliyaviT
(Sdr. 2kor. 8, 9; maT. 8, 20).
rac Seexeba samoweseo siRatakes, ara kmara zemdgomebisadmi morCileba
qonebiT sargeblobis saqmeSi, aramed aucilebelia, rom moweseni iyvnen saqmiTa da suliT Ratakni, xolo saunje caSi hqondeT (Sdr. maT. 6, 20).
Tavis msaxurebaSi yvelas gacnobierebuli unda hqondes, rom is muSaobis
saerTo kanons eqvemdebareba. cxovrebisaTvis da Tavisi saqmisTvis aucilebeli saxsrebis mopovebiT maT uari unda Tqvan yovelgvar araaucilebel
sazrunavze da miendon zeciuri mamebis gangebas (Sdr. maT. 6, 25).
samoweseo kongregaciebma Tavis konstituciebSi SeiZleba neba darTon
Tavis wevrebs, uari Tqvan memkvidreobiT miRebul an misaReb simdidreze.
adgilobrivi garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebis safuZvelze, instituciebi
unda miiswrafvodnen siRatakis erTgvarad koleqtiuri mowmobisaken. isini
nebayoflobiT unda aZlevdnen Tavis qonebas eklesiis sxva moTxovnilebaTa dasakmayofileblad da RaribTa dasaxmareblad, romlebic yvela moweses
guliTadad unda uyvardes (Sdr. maT. 19, 21; 25, 34-46; iak. 2, 15-16; 1ioan. 3, 17).
instituciaTa provinciebma da saxlebma erTmaneTSi materialuri dovlaTi
unda gainawilon: visac meti aqvs, ufro xelmokleebs unda daexmaros.
instituciebs (Tu maTi wesebi da konstituciebi sapirispiros ar iTvaliswinebs) aqvT ufleba, hflobdnen yvelafers, rac aucilebelia droebiTi
cxovrebisa da saqmisaTvis. amasTan erTad, isini unda eridon yovelgvar fufunebas, gadaWarbebul momxveWelobasa da simdidris dagrovebas.
14. morCilebis aRTqmiT moweseni mTlianad uZRvnian Tavis nebas RmerTs,
TiTqosda msxverplad swiraven mas sakuTar Tavs da amis saSualebiT ufro
myarad da saimedod uerTdebian gamomxsnel saRmrTo nebas. rogorc qriste,
romelic mamis nebis aRsasruleblad movida (Sdr. ioan. 4, 34; 5, 30; ebr. 10, 7;
fsalm. 40 (39), 9), xati monisa miiRo (fil. 2, 7) da vnebaTagan morCileba iswavla (Sdr. ebr. 5, 8), ase moweseni, suli wmidis zemoqmedebiT, sarwmunoebaSi emorCilebian zemdgomebs, romlebic RmerTs ganasaxiereben da qristeSi
maT yvela ZmaTa msaxurebisken miuZRvebian, rogorc Tavad qriste mamisadmi
morCilebis gamo Zmebs emsaxureboda da mravalTa gamosasyidad Tavisi suli
dado (Sdr. maT. 20, 28; ioan. 10, 14-18). amgvarad, isini sul ufro mWidrod
uekavSirdebian eklesiis msaxurebas da cdiloben, miaRwion qristes asakis
sisrules (Sdr. efes. 4, 13).

178

PERFECTAE CARITATIS

amitom moweseebma Tavisi zemdgomebis mimarT unda gamoavlinon morCileba, saRmrTo nebis mimarT rwmenisa da siyvarulis suliT gamsWvaluli, Tanaxmad wesdebaTa da konstituciaTa normebisa. ganawesebis ganxorcielebisa da maTTvis mindobili funqciebis aRsasruleblad moweseebma unda moixmaron Tavisi gonebisa da nebis Zalebi, agreTve bunebisa
da madlis niWni. maT unda gacnobierebuli hqondeT, rom isini, saRmrTo
ganzraxvis Sesabamisad, qristes sxeulis aSenebisTvis iRwvian. aseTi samoweseo morCileba ara marto amcirebs adamianuri pirovnebis Rirsebas,
aramed piriqiT, simwifisken mihyavs is, radgan afarTovebs RmrTis SvilTa Tavisuflebas.
xolo zemdgomni, maTTvis mindobili sulebisaTvis pasuxismgebelni (Sdr.
ebr. 13, 17), Tavisi funqciis SesrulebaSi RmrTis nebis morCilni, ZmaTaTaTvis msaxurebis suliT gamsWvalulni, ise unda sargeblobdnen Tavisi uflebamosilebiT, rom siyvaruli gamoxaton, romliTac RmerTs isini uyvars.
maT qveSevrdomebs rogorc RmrTis Svilebs unda uxelmZRvanelon, pativi
scen adamianis pirovnebas, xeli Seuwyon maT nebayoflobiT daqvemdebarebas
da aucileblad Tavisufleba mianiWon, gansakuTrebiT im sferoSi, romelic
monaniebis saidumlosa da sulier xelmZRvanelobas exeba. isini moweseebs
amzadeben imisaTvis, rom maTi funqciebis Sesrulebasa da sxvadasxva wamowyebebSi TanamSromlobisas aqtiuri da pasuxismgeblobiT aRsavse morCileba
gamoavlinon. amitom zemdgomni mzad unda iyvnen moweseTa mosasmenad da mxari dauWiron maT erTsulovnebas instituciisa da eklesiis sakeTildReod.
amasTanave, ZalaSi rCeba maTi uflebamosileba, gadawyviton da gansazRvron
is, rac aris gasakeTebeli.
meTaveebi (Capitula) da sabWoebi erTgulad unda asrulebdnen mmarTvelobis saqmeSi maTTvis mindobil funqcias. TiTouli maTgani Tvaiseburad
unda gamoxatavdes yvela wevrTa monawileobasa da mzrunvelobas mTeli sakrebulos sasikeTod.
15. maT erToblivi cxovrebiT unda icxovron, pirveladi eklesiis msgavsad, romelSic simravlisa mis morwmuneTasa iyo guli da goneba erT
(Sdr. saqme 4, 32). es cxovreba unda sazrdoobdes saxarebiseuli moZRvrebiT,
wmida liturgiiTa da gansakuTrebiT evqaristiiT. is erTi da imave sulis
(spiritus) locvasa da ziarebaSi unda mimdinareobdes (Sdr. saqme 2, 42). moweseni, rogorc qristes asoebi, ZmaT moyuarebiTa urTierTas mowled mosurne, urTierTpativiscemiT erTmaneTs unda uswrebdnen (Sdr. rom. 12, 10) da
urTierTars simZime itvirTon (gal. 6, 2). RmrTis siyvaruli, suli wmidis
meSveobiT gulebSia ganfenili (Sdr. rom. 5, 5) da sakrebulo, rogorc WeSmariti ojaxi, uflis saxeliT Sekrebili, misi TandaswrebiT xarobs (Sdr. maT.
18, 20). aRmasrulebeli Sjulisa siyuaruli ars (rom. 13, 10), siyuaruli,
romel-igi ars simtkice srulebisa (kol. 3, 14). misi meSveobiT Cven viciT,
rom mivicvaleniT sikudilisagan cxorebas (1ioan. 3, 14). metic: ZmaTa erToba qristes mosvlas cxadyofs (Sdr. ioan. 13, 35; 17, 21) da misgan mociqulobis didi Zala momdinareobs.
wevrTa Soris Zmobis kavSirebi ufro mWidro rom iyos, isini, visac moqceulni, TanamSromlebi an sxva saxeli ewodeba, cxovrebasa da sakrebulos saqmeebTan mWidro urTierTobaSi unda iyvnen. Tu garemoebani marTlac
sxvas ar gvTavazobs, unda SevecadoT, qalTa instituciebSi debis erT xarisxze (genus) gadavideT. am dros unda SenarCunebul iqnas mxolod is gansxvaveba pirTa Soris, romelsac saqmeTa sxvadasxvaoba moiTxovs, im saqmeTa, romlebisTvisac debi gansakuTrebuli saRmrTo mowodebiT an sagangebo
unarebiT arian gankuTvnilni.

179

vatikanis II kreba

rac Seexeba mamakacTa monastrebsa da instituciebs, romlebic mxolod


saero pirTagan ar Sedgeba, maTi Taviseburebisa da konstituciebis normebis miedviT, maT SeuZliaT Tanabari pirobebiT, Tanaswori uflebebiTa da
movaleobebiT samRvdeloebisa da saeroTa miReba, garda maTi, vinc wmida xarisxidan momdinareoben.
16. papis klauzura ZalaSi unda darCes monazoni qalebisaTvis, romlebic
mxolod mWvretelobiT cxovrebas ewevian, magram is unda Seicvalos droisa
da adgilis garemoebaTa Sesabamisad, moixsnas moZvelebuli Cveulebebi da
mosmenil iqnas Tavad monasterTa xmebi.
xolo sxva monazoni qalebi, romlebic dadgenilebiT sagareo mociqulobas uZRvnian Tavs, papis klauzuridan unda iqnen aRmoyvanilni, raTa maT
maTTvis mindobili mociqulobis fuqnciebis ukeTesad Sesruleba SeZlon.
amasTanave, unda SenarCunebul iqnas klauzura konstituciaTa normaTa Tanaxmad.
17. samoweseo samosi, rogorc xeldasxmis niSani, martivi da mokrZalebuli, Raribi da amasTanave Rirseuli unda iyos. garda amisa, is unda pasuxobdes janmrTelobis, droisa da adgilis garemoebebs, unda esadagebodes
moiqulobis moTxovnilebebs. samosi, rogorc mamakacebisa, aseve qalebis,
romelic am normebs ar Seesabameba, unda Seicvalos.
18. instituciebis ganaxleba da adaptacia maqsimalurad damokidebulia
misi wevrebis momzadebaze. amitom instituciis wevrebi, romlebic samRvdeloni ar arian, aseve mowese qalebi,samociqulo saqmeebis Sesasruleblad
maSinve noviciatis Semdeg ar unda dainiSnon. maTi samoweseo, samociqulo,
samoZRvro da teqnikuri momzadeba, romelic Sesabamisi wodebebis miRebasac gulisxmobs, am miznisaTvis saTanadod aRWurvil saxlebSic unda gagrZeldes.
samoweseo cxovrebis Tanamedrove pirobebis moTxovnilebebisadmi adaptacia mxolod garegnuli rom ar iyos, xolo vinc dadgenilebis Tanaxmad gareSe mociqulobiT aris dakavebuli, man Tavisi funqciis Sesruleba SeZlos,
maT unda Tanmimdevrulad, gonebrivi niWisa da pirovnuli Taviseburebebis
Sesatyvisad, Tanamedrove sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis zne-Cveulebebsa da
aRqmisa Tu fiqris formebs gaecnon. es aRzrda elementebis harmoniuli Serwymis safuZvelze ise unda ganxorcieldes, rom man wevrTa erTobas xeli
Seuwyos.
mTeli Tavisi cxovrebis manZilze wevrebi unda ecadon, gulmodgined
srulyon es sulieri, samoZRvro da teqnikuri kultura. am miznis ganxorielebisTvis zemdgomni maT SeZlebisdagvarad saTanado pirobebiTa da droiT
unda uzrunvelyofdnen.
zemdgomTa movaleobas warmoadgens agreTve zrunva imisaTvis, rom xelmZRvanelebi, sulieri moZRvarni da maswavleblebi optimalurad iyvnen
SerCeulni da safuZvlianad momzadebulni.
19. axali instituciebis Seqmnisas saWiroa seriozulad dafiqreba maTi
aucileblobis an Tundac didi sargeblobisa da ganviTarebis SesaZleblobebis Sesaxeb, rom ar Seiqmnas usargeblo an Tundac aucilebel Zalas moklebuli intituciebi. axal eklesiebSi xeli unda ganviTardes samoweseo
cxovrebis is formebi, romlebic mosaxleobis zneTa Taviseburebasa da adgilobriv Cveulebebsa Tu garemoebebs iTvaliswinebs.

180

PERFECTAE CARITATIS

20. instituciebma unda erTgulad SeinarCunon da ganaviTaron maTi sakuTari saqme da, mTeli eklesiisa da diocezis sargeblobis gaTvaliswinebiT,
Seusabamon isini droisa da adgilis moTxovnilebebs. amisTvis maT saTanado saSualebebi unda gamoiyenon, maT Soris axali. amasTanave, maT uari unda
Tqvan iseT saqmianobaze, romelic instituciis sulsa da mis WeSmarit bunebas dRes aRar pasuxobs.
samoweseo instituciebSi mTlianad unda iyos daculi misioneruli suli
da, TiToeuli maTganis xasiaTis Sesabamisad, is ise unda Seesabamebodes dRevandel moTxovnilebebs, rom saxarebis qadageba yvela xalxebisaTvis kidev
ufro qmediTi gaxdes.
21. im instituciebsa da monastrebs, romlebic, adgilobriv ordinariusTa azriTa da wmida saydris gansjiT, momavali ganviTarebis imeds ar iZleva, unda aekrZalos momavalSi novicebis miReba. es instituciebi, ramdenadac es SesaZlebelia, unda SeuerTon sxva instituciebs an ufro warmatebul monasters, romlebic misgan mizniTa da suliskveTebiT didad gansxvavebuli ar iqneba.
22. saWiroebis mixedviT da wmida saydris nebarTvis safuZvelze, damoukidebelma instituciebma da monastrebma unda Camoayalibos federaciebi (Tu
isini ama Tu saxiT erTsa da imave samoweseo ojaxs miekuTvneba), kavSirebi
(Tu maT TiTqmis erTnairi konstituciebi aqvs da maTi moxmarebis formac
erTnairi suliskveTebiT aris gamsWvaluli, gansakuTrebiT Tu isini metismetad sustia) an asociaciebi (Tu isini erTi da imave an msgavsi sagareo saqmeebiT aris dakavebuli).
23. saWiroa mxari davuWiroT ufros zemdgomTa konferenciebsa Tu sabWoebs, romlebic wmida saydris mier Seiqmna. maT SeiZleba warmatebiT Seuwyos xeli calkeul instituciaTa mier maTi miznis ufro srulyofilad
miRwevas, eklesiis sakeTildReod ufro qmediTi erTsulovnebis ganviTarebas, gansazRvrul teritoriaze saxarebis muSakTa ufro gawonasworebul
ganawilebas, agreTve moweseebisTvis saerTo sakiTxTa ganxilvas. mociqulobis ganxorcielebasTan dakavSirebiT saepiskoposo konferenciebTan saTanado koordinacia da TanamSromloba unda damyardes.
msgvasi konferenciebi SeiZleba sekularuli instituciebisTvisa daarsdes.
24. mRvdelmsaxurebi da qristianuli aRmzrdelebi seriozulad unda
Seecadon, rom eklesiis moTxovnilebaTa Sesabamisad kvlav gaizardos samoweseo mowodebani, romlebic guldasmiT da safuZvlianad iqneba SerCeuli. Cveulebriv (ordinaria) qadagebaSic ufro xSirad aris saWiro saubari
saxarebisuli rCevebisa da samoweseo statusis miRebis Sesaxeb. mSoblebi,
romlebic Tavis Svilebs qristianul zneobaTa Sesabamisad aRzrdian, maT
gulebSi samoweseo mowodeba unda ganaviTaron da daicvan.
instituciebisTvis nebadarTulia gaavrcelon Tavis Sesaxeb cnobebi da
moZebnon kandidatebi, oRond im pirobiT, Tu es saTanado gonivrulobiTa
da wmida saydrisa da adgilobrivi ordinariusis mier dadgenil normaTa
dacviT gakeTdeba.
amasTan erTad, moweseebs unda axsovdeT, rom maTi sakuTari cxovrebis
magaliTi warmoadgens maTi instituciis saukeTeso rekomendaciasa da samoweseo cxovrebis miRebis mowodebas.

181

vatikanis II kreba

25. instituciebi, romlebisTvisac adaptaciisa da ganaxlebis es normebi


dgindeba, mzad unda iyvnen, Tavis saRmrTo mowodebasa da Cveni drois eklesiaSi Tavis funqcias upasuxon. wmida kreba didad afasebs maTi cxovrebis
wess, romelic ubiwoebaSi, siRatakesa da morCilebaSi mimdinareobs. aseTi
cxovrebis nimuSi Tavad ufali qristea. krebas maTi nayofieri saqmis didi
imedi aqvs, rogorc dafarulis, aseve Riasi. amitom moweseebma sruli rwmeniT, RmrTisa da moyvasisadmi siyvaruliT, jvrisadmi siyvaruliTa da momavali didebis imediT qristes Sesaxeb keTili uwyeba mTels samyaroSi unda
gaavrcelon, raTa maTi mowmoba yvelam miiRos da Cveni mama, romelic aris
caTa Sina, gandidebul iqnas (Sdr. maT. 5, 16). ase, uwmidesi RmrTismSoblis,
qalwuli mariamis locviT, romlis cxovreba yvelasTvis wesia,1 isini yoveldRiurad gaizrdebian da gamoxsnis ufro uxv nayofs moitanen.
yovelive erTad da cal-calke, rac am dekretSi gamocxadda,
wmida krebis mamebma moiwones. da Cvenc, im samociqulo uflebamosilebiT, romelic qristesgan gadmogveca, amas pativdebul mamebTan erTad suli wmidaSi veTanxmebiT, vadgenT,
vawesebT da vbrZanebT, rom is, rac krebaze dadginda, gamoqveyndes sadideblad RmrTisa.

romi, wm. petresTan, 1965 wlis 28 oqtomberi.


me, pavle, kaTolike eklesiis episkoposi
(mohyveba mamaTa xelmowerebi)

182

S. AMBROSIUS, De Virginitate, 1. II, c. II, n. 15.

dekreti
mRvdelTa aRzrdis Sesaxeb
OPTATAM TOTIUS

pavle episkoposi,
RmrTis msaxurTa msaxuri,
wmida krebis mamebTan erTad,
samudamo saxsovrad

dekreti
mRvdelTa aRzrdis Sesaxeb
Sesavali
wmida krebas savsebiT gacnobierebuli aqvs, rom mTeli eklesiis sasurveli ganaxleba didad aris damokidebuli qristes suliT STagonebul
mRvdelTa msaxurebaze.1 kreba adasturebs samRvdlo aRzrdis uaRresad
did mniSvnelobas da ganacxadebs zogierT Zireul princips, romlebic
saukuneTa manZilze aprobirebul kanonebs ganamtkicebs. krebas maTSi
garkveuli siaxleebi Seaqvs, romlebic mocemuli wmida krebis konstituciebsa da dekretebs, agreTve drois cvalebad pirobebs Seesabameba.
Tavad kaTolikuri mRvdelmsaxurebis erTianobis safuZvelze es samRvdlo momzadeba orive samRvdeloebisa da nebismieri wesis (ritus) mRvdelmsaxurTaTvis aris aucilebeli. amitom mocemuli miTiTebebi, romlebic
uSualod diocezur samRvdeloebas Seexeba, saTanado modifikaciebiT
yvelasTvis Rirebulia.

I. mRvdelTa aRzrdis programa calkeul qveynebSi


1. xalxTa da regionTa udidesi mravalferovnebis gamo mxolod zogadi
kanonebis Camoyalibeba aris SesaZlebeli. calkeuli qveynebisa da TiToeuli wesisTvis mRvdelTa aRzrdis programa unda SemuSavdes, romelsac
episkoposTa konferencia daadgens.2 garkveuli drois Semdeg is unda gadaisinjos da samociqulo saydris mier iqnas aprobirebuli. universaluri
kanonebi unda Seesabamos adgilisa da drois sagangebo viTarebebs, raTa mRvdelTa aRzrda mudam Seesabamebodes im regionTa samRvdlo moTxovnilebebs, romlebSic msaxureba unda ganxorcieldes.
1
RmrTis mTeli eris winsvla, Tavad qristes nebiT, didad aris damokidebuli
mRvdelTa msaxurebaze. es cxadia im sityvebidan, romlebiTac ufalma mociqulebi da maTi
mimdevrebi Tu TanamSromlebi daadgina saxarebis mauwyeblebad (praecones), axlad rCeuli
eris winmZRolebad da RmrTis saidumloTa ganmgeblebad (dispensatores). amasve adasturebs
mamebisa da wmidanebis gamonaTqvamebi, agreTve uzenaesi pontifeqsebis mravaljeradi dokumentebi. ix. upirveles yovlisa, S. PIUS X, exhort. ad clerum Haerent animo, 4 aug. 1908: S. PII
X Acta IV, pp. 236-264. PIUS XI, encycl. Ad catholici Sacedrotii, 20 dec. 1935: AAS 28 (1936), gansakuTrebiT pp. 37-52. PIUS XII, adhort. apost. Menti Nostrae, 23 sept. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), pp. 657-702.
IOANNES XXIII, enycl. Sacerdotii Nostri primordia, 1 aug. 1959: AAS 51 (1959), pp. 545-579. PAULUS
VI, epist. apost. Summi Dei Verbum, 4 nov. 1963: AAS 55 (1963), pp. 979-995.
2
samRvdelmsaxuro ganaTleba mTlianobaSi, anu seminariis organizacia, sulieri
ganaTleba, saswavlo programa, aRsazrdelTa erToblivi cxovreba da disciplina, agreTve
samRvdlo praqtika sxvadasxva adgilobriv viTarebebs unda Seesabamos. es adaptacia ZiriTad sakiTxebSi saerTo normebis Tanaxmad unda ganxorcieldes: sekularuli (samRvdeloebisTvis episkoposTa konferenciebis mier, xolo regularuli samRvdeloebisTvis,
Sesabamisad, uflebamosili zemdgomebis mier (Sdr. Statuta generalia constitutioni apostolicae Sedes
Sapientiae adnexa, art. 19).

185

vatikanis II kreba

II. samRvdlo mowodebisaTvis meti xelSewyoba


2. mowodebebisaTvis xelSewyoba aris is movaleoba,3 romelic mTels
qristianul sazogadoebas exeba. man is, upirveles yovlisa, sruli qristianuli cxovrebiT unda ganaxorcielos, rasac xels uwyoben ojaxebi,
sarwmunoebis, siyvarulisa da mowiwebis suliT STagonebulni (isini erTgvar dawyebiT seminariebs warmoadgenen), agreTve sakrebuloebi, romelTa nayofier cxovrebaSi TviT mozardebic ki monawileoben. moZRvarni
da yvela, vinc ama Tu im saxiT bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis aRzrdisaTvis
zrunavs, gansakuTrebiT ki kaTolikuri gaerTianebani, unda Seecadon,
maTTvis mindobili mozardebi ise aRzardon, rom isini saRmrTo mowodebas Caswvdnen da mas sixaruliT gahyvnen. yvela mRvdelmsaxurma maqsimaluri mociquluri gulmodginebiT xeli unda Seuwyos mowodebebs da
mozardTa sulebi mRvdelmsaxurebisken sakuTari cxovrebis magaliTiT
miizidos. misi cxovreba unda iyos mokrZalebuli, qmediTi da sixaruliT
aRsavse, samRvdelmsaxuro urTierTsiyvaruliTa da aqtiuri urTierTTanamSromlobiT gamsWvaluli.
rac Seexeba episkoposebs, maTi movaleoba aris, Seagulianon samwyso,
raTa xeli Seuwyon mowodebebs da izrunon yvela Zalisa da Sromis gaerTianebisTvis. dae, isini, rogorc mamebi, msxverpls ar moeridon da Semweoba aRmouCinon maT, visac uflis xvedrisTvis mowodebulad miiCneven.
RmrTis eris es qmediTi erTsulovneba mowodebebisTvis xelSewyobis saqmeSi saRmrTo gangebis qmedebas Seesabameba, romelmac qristes ierarqiul
mRvdelmsaxurebaSi monawileobisTvis RmrTiv rCeuli adamianebi Sesabamisi niWebiT daajildova da maT Tavisi madliT daexmara. eklesiis kanonier
msaxurebs is avalebs, mouwodon kandidatebs, romlebic aseTi didi funqciis Sesrulebisken gulrwfeli suliskveTebiTa da srulad Tavisuflad
miiswrafvian, Semowmebis Sedegad, isini suli wmidis beWdiT daamtkicon da
eklesiis msaxurebas miuZRvnan.4
wmida krebis rCevaa, gamoyenebul iqnas, upirveles yovlisa, erToblivi
TanamSromobis tradiciuli saSualebebi, rogoric aris gulmodgine locva,
qristianuli monanieba, agreTve qristes erTgulTa aRzrda, romelic ufro
safuZliani unda gaxdes; is xorcieldeba qadagebiT, katexizaciiT, agreTve
sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis saxvadasxva saSualebebiT, romlebic samRvdelmsaxuro mowodebis aucileblobas, mis bunebasa da sidiades cxadyofen. garda amisa, kreba brZanebs, rom mowodebis saqmeni, romlebic calkeuli diocezis, regionisa Tu qveynis farglebSi am sakiTxTan dakavSirebuli
papis dokumentebis Sesabamisad ukve gakeTda an unda gakeTdes, unda warimarTos mowodebaTa xelSesawyobad mimarTuli sayovelTao samRvdlo moqmedebis saxiT, meTodurad da Tanmimdevrulad, brZnulad da mondomebiT,
yvela Sesaferisi saSualebis gamoyenebiT, romlebsac dRes fsiqologia da
sociologia gvTavazobs.5
3
yvelaze ufro mZime gasaWirTa Soris, romlebsac eklesia dRes ganicdis, TiTqmis yvelgan mowodebaTa didi deficiti dominirebs. - Sdr. PIUS XII, adhort. apost. Menti Nostrae: rogorc kaTolikur regionebSi, aseve misionerul miwebze mRvdelmsaxurTa ricxvi
umetes SemTxvevaSi mzard moTxovnilebebs ar Seesabameba: AAS 42 (1950), p 682. IOANNES
XXIII: saeklesio da samoweseo mowodebaTa problema papis yoveldRiuri zrunvis sagania (Ex allocutione ad I Congressum Internationalem de Vocationibus ad Status Perfectionis, 16 dec. 1961:
LOsservatore Romano, 17 dec. 1961).
4
PIUS XII, const. apost. Sedes Sapientiae, 31 maii 1956: AAS 48 (1956), p.357. PAULUS VI, epist.
apost. Summi Dei Verbum, 4 nov. 1963: AAS 55 (1963), pp. 984 ss.
5
Sdr. gansakuTrebiT PIUS XII, Motu proprio Cum nobis de Pontificio Opere Voationum Sacerdotalium apud S. Congregationem Seminariis et Studiorum Universitatibus praepositam constituendo, 4 nov.
1941: AAS 33 (1941), p. 479; amave kongregaciis mier 8 seqtembers gamoqveynebuli dadgenile-

186

OPTATAM TOTIUS

amasTanave aucilebelia, rom mowodebaTa xelSewyoba Tavisi guluxvobiT


gascdes calkeuli diocezis, qveynis, samoweseo ojaxisa da wesis farglebs.
sayovelTao eklesiis moTxovnilebaTa gaTvaliswinebis safuZvelze, upirveles yovlisa, im regionebs unda gaewios daxmareba, sadac uflis venaxis
muSakebi gansakuTrebiT saWironi arian.
3. mcire seminariebSi, romlebic mowodebis Canasaxebis ganviTarebisTvis
iqna daarsebuli, sagangebo samoweseo momzadebis meSveobiT, upirveles
yovlisa ki saTanado sulieri xelmZRvanelobiT, aRsazrdelebi unda moamzadon imisaTvis, rom isini keTilSobili suliTa da wminda guliT gahyvnen
qristes gamomsyidvels. zemdgomTa mamobrivi xelmZRvanelobiTa da mSoblebis saTanado TanamSromlobis pirobebSi, maT unda icxovron mozardTa
asakis, sulisa da ganviTarebisaTvis Sesaferisi cxovrebiT, romelic jansaR fsiqologiur normebs savsebiT Seesabameba. ugulebelsayofi ar aris
saTanado cxovrebiseuli gamocdileba da ojaxTan damokidebuleba.6 ufrosi seminariebisTvis dadgenili wesebi SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas mcire
seminariebSic, Tuki isini am seminariebis mizansa da programas Seesabameba.
aRsazrdelTa mecadineoba ise unda iyos organizebuli, rom maT misi gagrZeleba daubrkolebliv sxvaganac SeZlon, Tu isini cxovrebis sxva statuss
airCeven.
aseTive mzrunvelobiT unda ganvaviTaroT mozardebisa da axalgazrdebis mowodebis Canasaxebi sagangebo instituciebSi, romlebic garkveuli
adgilobrivi viTarebis gamo imave miznebs emsaxureba, rasac mcire seminariebi, agreTve maTi, vinc sxva skolebsa Tu ganaTlebis kerebSi aRizrdeba.
safuZvlianad unda xeli Seewyos agreTve instituciebsa da sxva iniciativebsac, gankuTvnils maTTvis, vinc mowiful asakSi gadawyvita, rom mowodebas gahyoloda.

III. ufrosi seminariebis organizacia


4. ufrosi seminariebi mRvdelmsaxurTa momzadebisTvis aris aucilebeli.
maTSi mowafeTa aRzrdis miyani maTi WeSmarit sulier mwyemsebad Camoyalibeba unda iyos, Cveni uflis ieso qristes msgavsad, romelic aris moZRvari,
mRvdelmsaxuri da mwyemsi.7 maSasadame, saWiroa maTi momzadeba (a) sityvis
msaxurebisTvis, raTa isini ufro Rrmad Caswvdnen RmrTis gamocxadebul sityvas, dafiqrebiT SeiTvison is da gamoxaton eniTa da zneobiT; (b) kultmsaxurebisa da wmidayofisTvis, raTa locvisa da wmida liturgiisas gamoxsnis
saqme evqaristuli msxverpliTa da saidumloTa meSveobiT aRasrulon; (g)
mRvdelTa msaxurebisTvis, raTa icodnen, rogor warmoadginon qriste adamianTa winaSe, romelic ara movida, viTarmca imsaxura, aramed msaxurebad
da micemad suli Tsi sasrad mravalTa (mark. 10, 45; Sdr. ioan. 13, 12-17),
raTa yvelas monad qceulma, umravlesni SeiZinos (Sdr. 1kor. 9, 19).
amitom aRzrdis yvela aspeqti (sulieri, gonebrivi da disciplinaruli)
SeTanxmebuli qmedebiT am samwyso miznisaken unda mivmarToT. xolo yvela
xelmZRvaneli da moZRvari am miznis miRwevisaken dabejiTebiT da SeTanxmebulad unda miiswrafodes. amave dros, isini erTgulad unda daemorCilon
episkoposTa uflebamosilebas.
bebisa da normebis danarTTan erTad. Motu proprio Cum supraemae de Pontificio Opere primario
religiosarum vocationum, 11 febr. 1955: AAS 47 (1955), p. 266; wmida kongregaciis mier gamoqveynebuli dadgenilebebisa da normebis danarTiT (iqve, gv. 298-301). CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de
accomodata renovatione vitae religiosae, n. 24. Decr. de pastorali Episcoporum munere in Ecclesia, n. 15.
6
Sdr. PIUS XII, adhort. apost. Menti Nostrae, 23 sept. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), p. 685.
7
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II; Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 28.

187

vatikanis II kreba

5. mowafeTa aRzrda didad aris damokidebuli brZnul kanonebsa da karg


aRmzrdelebze. amitom seminariaTa xelmZRvanelebi da moZRvarni saukeTeso adamianTagan unda iyvnen arCeulni.8 saWiroa maTi guldasmiT momzadeba
safuZvliani swavlebis, saTanado samRvdlo gamocdilebisa da sagangebo
sulieri da pedagogiuri ganaTlebis meSveobiT. am miznis misaRwevad aucilebelia instituciebis daarseba, an saTanadod organizebuli kursebis Camoyalibeba mainc, agreTve seminariaTa xelmZRvanelebis SekrebaTa organizacia, romlebic garkveuli sixSiriT Catardeba.
rac Seexeba xelmZRvanelebsa da moZRvarT, maT unda gaacnobieron, rom
mowafeTa aRzraSi warmateba didad aris damokidebuli maTi azrovnebisa
da moqmedebis wesze. reqtoris xelmZRvanelobiT, maT suliTa da qmedebiT
umWidroes Tanxmobas unda miaRwion. erTmaneTTan da aRsazrdelebTan erTad maT is ojaxi unda Camoayalibon, romelic uflis locvas Seefereba:
raTa iyvnen erTobiT (ioan. 17, 11). aRsazrdelebSi maT im sixaruls unda
gaufrTxildnen, romelic maTi mowodebiT aris ganpirobebuli. episkoposi
gulmodgined da siyvaruliT unda amxnevebdes seminariis TanamSromlebsa
da aRsazrdelebs. igi maT winaSe unda wardges, rogorc WeSmariti mama qristeSi. da bolos, yvela mRvdelmsaxuri seminarias rogorc diocezis guls
unda aRiqvamdes da mas sixaruliT exmarebodes.9
6. TvalmouxuWavi mzrunvelobiT, TiToeuli aRsazrdelis asakisa da ganviTarebis donis mixedviT, saWiroa dakvirveba, Tu ramdenad sworia kandidatebis ganzraxva da Tu aris maTi gadawyvetileba Tavisufali nebiT ganpirobebuli. amasTanave, unda Semowmdes maTi sulieri, zneobrivi da gonebrivi
mzadyofna, fizikuri da fsiqiuri sijansaRe. gasaTvaliswinebelia agreTve
ojaxisgan memkividerobiT gadmocemuli midrekileba. mniSvnelovania isic,
aqvT Tu ara kandidatebs unari, itvirTon samRvdelmsaxuro movaleoba da
aRasrulon samwyso funqciebi.10
yvelaferSi, rac aRsazrdelTa arCevasa da Semowmebas exeba, aucilebelia sulis simtkice, maSinac ki, rodesac mRvdelmsaxurTa savalalo naklebobas ganvicdiT,11 radgan RmerTi ar dauSvebs, rom mis eklesias msaxurni
moakldes, Tu mxolod Rirseulebs warvadgenT. xolo visac mRvdelmsaxurebis saTanado unari ar gaaCnia, mamobrivi zrunviT unda warvmarToT ise,
rom maT Sesaferis dros sxva pasuxismgebloba itvirTon. maT qristianuli
mowodebis gaacnobierebaSi unda davexmaroT, raTa isini saero mociqulobas sixaruliT Seudgnen.
7. iq, sadac calkeul diocezebs ar SeuZliaT Tavisi sakuTari seminaria
kargad moawyon, ramdenime diocezisTvis an mTeli regionisTvis saerTo se8
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Ad Catholici Sacerdotii, 20 dec. 1935: AAS 28 (1936), p. 37: upirvelesi saqme xelmZRvanelTa da moZRvarTa safuZvliani arCevani unda iyos. mieciT aseTi
saxis wmida seminariebs udidesi RirsebiT dajildovebuli mRvdelmsaxurni. nu moeridebiT, gverdze gadaadebinoT maT seriozuli movaleobebi: isini SeiZleba ufro mniSvnelovnadac gamoiyurebodes, magram mainc ver Seedreba am mTavar saqmes, romelsac veraferi
Secvlis. saukeTesoTa arCevis am principis Sesaxeb laparakobs pius XII brazilieli ordinariusebisadmi mimarTul samociqulo werilSi (23 aprili 1947), Discorsi e Radiomessaggi IX,
pp. 579-580.
9
seminariebisTvis daxmarebis aRmoCenis saerTo movaleobis Sesaxeb Sdr. PAULUS
VI, epist. apost. Summi Dei Verbum, 4 nov. 1963: AAD 55 (1963), p. 984.
10
Sdr. PIUS XII, adhort. apost. Menti Nostrae, 23 sept. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), p. 684. Sdr. S. C.
DE SACRAMENTIS, litt. circulares Magna equidem ad locorum Ordinarios, 27 dec. 1935, n. 10. moweseTa
Sesaxeb Sdr. Statuta Generalia adnexa Const. apost. Sedes Sapientiae, 31 maii 1956, art. 33. PAUKUS VI,
epist. apost. Summi Dei Verbum, 4 nov. 1963: AAS 55 (1963), pp. 987 s.
11
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Ad Catholici Sacerdotii, 20 dec. 1935: AAS 28 (1936), p. 41.

188

OPTATAM TOTIUS

minariebi unda daarsdes da ganviTardes. es saSualebas mogvcems, aRsazrdelebs ufro safuZvliani ganaTleba mivceT, rac am saqmis uzenaesi kanonia.
aseTi seminariebi, rogorc regionaluri aseve nacionaluri, im wesdebebiT
unda xelmZRvanelobdes, romlebic am saqmiT dainteresebulma episkoposebma12 daadgines da samociqulo saydarma daamtkica.
im seminariebSi, sadac bevri aRsazrdelia, mmarTvelobisa da swavlebis
erTianoba unda davicvaT. sasurvelia aRsazrdelebis danawileba mcire
jgufebad, raTa maTi pirovnuli ganviTareba ufro nayofieri iyos.

IV. sulieri aRzrdis gaRrmaveba


8. sulieri aRzrda mWidrod unda iyos dakavSirebuli samoZRvro da
samRvdlo aRzrdasTan. sulieri xelmZRvanelis daxmarebiT,13 is ise unda
ganxorcieldes, rom aRsazrdelebma mamasTan misi Zis ieso qristes meSveobiT Rrma da safuZvlian kavSirSi cxovreba iswavlon. xeldasxmis meSveobiT
isini qristes mRvdelmsaxurs unda daemsgavson. isini unda mieCvion, masTan
mTeli cxovreba, rogorc megobrebma, mWidro urTierTobaSi gaataron.14
qristes aRdgomis saidumloeba maT ise unda ganicadon, rom momavalSi mas
is xalxic aziaron, romelic maT iqneba mindobili. qristes Zieba maT unda
iswavlon RmrTis sityvis Sesaxeb erTgulad fiqrSi, eklesiis wmida saidumloebebTan aqtiur urTierTobaSi, upirveles yovlisa, evqaristiasa da saRmrTo msaxurebaSi (in officio divino);15 episkoposSi, romelmac isini moavlina da
adamianebSi, romlebTanac Tavad movlenil iqnen, gansakuTrebiT RatakebSi,
bavSvebSi, sneulebSi, codvilebsa da urwmunoebSi. maT Svilebrivi ndobiT
unda uyvardeT da Tayvans scemdnen unetares qalwuls mariams, romelic
jvarze momakvdavma qristem mowafes rogorc deda miando.
didad dasafasebelia wvrTnani mowiwebaSi, romelTa mniSvneloba eklesiis sapatio gamocdilebam daadastura. amave dros, sulieri aRzrda mxolod maT erTobliobas ar warmoadgens da ara mxolod samoweseo grZnobas
unda aviTarebdes. aRsazrdelebma, upirveles yovlisa, saxarebiseulad
cxovreba unda iswavlon, gaZlierdnen rwmenaSi, imedsa da siyvarulSi, raTa
am RirebulebaTa wvrTnaSi locvis suli moipovon,16 Tavisi mowodeba ganamtkicon da daicvan, sxva saTnoebebsac Zala Sehmaton da yvela adamianis
qristesTvis SeZenis surviliT ganimsWvalon.
9. aRsazrdelebi unda ganimsWvalon eklesiis saidumloebiT, romelsac mocemulma wmida krebam sagangebod naTeli mohfina. mdabali da
Svilobrivi siyvaruliT Sepyrobilni, mRvdelmsaxurebad aRzrdilni,
isini Tavis episkoposs rogorc erTguli TanamSromlebi gverdSi unda
edgnen da ZmebTan erTad saerTo saqme akeTon. maT is erToba unda daamowmon, romelic adamianebs qristesken miizidavs.17 maT unda iswavlon,
12
dadgenilia, rom regionaluri Tu nacionaluri seminariebis wesdebaTa gansazRvrebaSi yvela dainteresebuli episkoposi unda monawileobdes. amasTanave gauqmebulia
1357-e kanonis miTiTeba, 4 CIC.
13
Sdr. PIUS XII, exhort. apost. Menti Nostrae, 23 sept. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), p. 674. S.C. De SEM.
ET STUD. UNIV., La Formazione spirituale del candidato al sacerdozio, Citt del Vaticao 1965.
14
Sdr. S. PIUS X, exhort. ad Clerum catholicum, Haerent animo, 4 aug. 1908: S. PII X Acta, IV, p.
242-244. PIUS XII, adhort. apost. Menti Nostri Mrimordia, 1 aug. 1959: AAS 51 (1959), pp. 550 s.
15
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Mediator Dei, 20 nov. 1947: AAS 39 (1947), pp. 547 ss. da 572 s. IOANNES XXIII, adhort. apost. Sacrae Laudis, 6 ian. 1962: AAS 54 (1962), p. 69. CONC. VAT. II, Const. de Sacra
Liturgia, art. 16 da 17. S.C. RITUUM, Instructio ad exsecutionem Constitutionis de Sacra Liturgia recte ordinandam, 26 sept. 1964, nn. 14-17: AAS 56 (1964), pp. 880 s.
16
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Sacerdotii Nostri Primordia: AAS 51 (1959), pp. 559 s.
17
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 28.

189

vatikanis II kreba

guluxvad miiRon monawileoba mTeli eklesiis cxovrebaSi, Tanaxmad wm.


avgustinesi: ramdenadac qristes eklesia gviyvars, imdenad gagvaCnia
suli wmida.18 aRsazrdelebma naTlad unda gaacnobieron, rom isini ara
mbrZaneblobisTvis an pativisTvis arian mowodebulni, aramed mTlianad
RmerTs unda emsaxuron da samRvdlo msaxureba aRasrulon. maTSi gansakuTrebiT yuradRebiT unda ganvaviTaroT samRvdelmsaxuro morCileba, Ratakad cxovrebis wesi da sakuTari Tavis uaryofis suli,19 ise, rom
SeeZloT ucbad uari Tqvan imazec, rac akrZaluli ar aris, magram usargebloa, da jvarcmul qristes daemsgavson.
aRsazrdelebma unda icodnen im tvirTis Sesaxeb, romelic maTi xvedria.
maT ar unda davumaloT samRvdelmsaxuro cxovrebis sirTuleebi. miuxedavad amisa, maT momaval garjaSi mxolod safrTxe ki ar unda dainaxon, aramed
ufro metad sulieri cxovrebisTvis unda moemzadon, romelsac maTi samRvdlo qmedeba maqsimalur simtkices SesZens.
10. aRsazrdelebi, romlebic maTi wmida da mtkice kanonebis Sesabamisad
samRvdlo uqorwinebulobis sapatio tradicias misdeven, safuZvlianad unda
iyvnen momzadebulni am statusisaTvis, romelSic isini sasufevlisaTs
caTasa (maT. 19, 12) saqorwino erTobaze uars amboben. isini ufals misdeven
ganuyofeli siyvaruliT,20 romelic Zireulad Seefereba axal aRTqmas, mowmoben momavali saukunis aRdgomas (Sdr. luk. 20, 36)21 da saocrad Sesaferis
daxmarebas hpoveben im srulyofili siyvarulis mudmiv wvrTnaSi, romelic
maT saSualebas aZlevs, samRvdelmsaxuro msaxurebaSi yvelasaTvis yvelaferi gaxdnen.22 maT Rrmad unda Seignon, rogori madlierebiT unda miiRon es
statusi; maT is ara marto rogorc saeklesio kanonis miTiTeba unda miiRon,
aramed rogorc RmrTis Zvirfasi niWi, romelic mokrZalebiT unda iTxovon
da romelsac Tavisuflad da uxvad unda upasuxon, suli wmidis madlis zemoqmedebiTa da SemweobiT.
aRsazrdelebma kargad unda icodnen qristianuli qorwinebis movaleobaTa da Rirsebis Sesaxeb, romelic qristesa da eklesias Soris siyvaruls
ganasaxierebs (Sdr. efes. 5, 32). maT naTlad unda icodnen qristesadmi miZRvnili qalwulobis upiratesoba,23 raTa mowifulad mofiqrebuli da didsulovani arCevanis safuZvelze, sxeuliTa da suliT Tavi ufals mTlianad
miuZRvnan.
isini unda gavafrTxiloT im saSiSroebaTa Sesaxeb, romlebic gansakuTrebiT Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi emuqreba maT siwmides.24 saRmrTo da
adamianuri saSualebebis gamoyenebiT, maT ise unda iswavlon qorwinebaze
uaris Tqma, rom maTi cxovreba da moRvaweoba uqorwinebelobisagan ara marto sruliad ar dazaraldes, aramed piriqiT: ukeTesad SeZlon sulisa da
sxeulis warmarTva, met simwifes miaRwion da ufro srulyofilad Caswvdnen saxarebis netarebas.

18
S. AUGUSTINUS, In Io. tract. 32, 8: PL 35, 1646.
19
Sdr. PIUS XII, adhort. apost. Menti Nostrae: AAS 42 (1950), pp. 662 s., 685, 690. IOANNES
XXIII, encycl. Sacerdotii Nostri Primordia: AAS 51 (1959), pp. 551-553; 556 s. PAULUS VI, encycl. Ecclesiam suam, 6 aug. 1964: AAS 56 (1964), pp. 634 s. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, gansakuTrebiT
Sen. 8.
20
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Sacra Virginitas, 25 mart. 1954: AAS 46 (1954), pp. 165 ss.
21
Sdr. S. CYPRIANUS, De habitu virginum, 22: PL 4, 475. S. AMBROSIUS, De virginibus I, 8, 52:
PL 16, 202 s.
22
Sdr. PIUS XII, adhort, apost. Menti Nostrae: AAS 42 (1950), p. 663.
23
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Sacra Virginitas, l.c., pp. 170-174.
24
Sdr. PIUS XII, adhort. apost. Menti Nostrae, l.c., pp. 664 da 690.

190

OPTATAM TOTIUS

11. qristianuli aRzrdis normebi wmidad unda iyos daculi. saWiroa maTi
saTanado Sevseba uaxlesi fsiqologiuri da pedagogiuri aRmoCenebiT. amitom brZnulad warmarTuli aRzrdis safuZvelze mowafeebSi unda Camoyalibdes saTanado adamianuri simwife, romelic, upirveles yovlisa, sulis
garkveul simtkiceSi, azriani gadawyvetilebebis miRebis unarSi, agreTve
movlenebisa da adamianebis Sesaxeb swor gansjaSi gamoixateba. aRsazrdelebi Tavisi xasiaTis formirebas unda mieCvion, sulis simtkice gamoimuSavon
da saerTod, im RirebulebaTa dafaseba iswavlon, romlebic adamianTa Soris gansakuTrebiT fasobs da maT qristes msaxurebisken izidavs.25 aseTia
gulrwfeloba, samarTlianisTvis dauRalavi zrunva, dapirebis Sesruleba,
urTierTobaSi zrdiloba, saubarSi mokrZalebuloba, siyvarulTan Sezavebuli.
seminariis cxovrebis disciplina unda Sefasdes ara marto rogorc erToblivi cxovrebisa da siyvarulis mtkice sayrdeni, aramed rogorc mTeli
aRzrdis ganuyofeli nawilic. is aucilebelia imisaTvis, rom adamiani sakuTari Tavis ganmgebeli iyos, miaRwios srul pirovnul simwifes da Camoiyalibos sxva sulieri Tvisebebi, romlebic eklesiis gegmazomier da nayofier
moRvaweobas maqsimalurad xels uwyobs. es disciplina ise unda ganxorcieldes, rom aRsazrdelebi zemdgomTa uflebamosilebas damorCildnen
Sinagani mzadyofnis anu sindisis safuZvelze (Sdr. rom. 13, 5), agreTve zebunebrivi mizezebiT. disciplinis normebi aRsazrdelTa asaks ise unda miesadagos, rom isini TandaTan mieCvion damoukideblobasa da TavisuflebiT
gonivrulad sargeblobas, spontanurad da mondomebiT moqmedebas,26 Zmebsa
da saero pirebTan TanamSromlobas.
seminariis mTeli ganrigi, mowiwebisa da dumilisken swrafviT, agreTve
urTierTdaxmarebis surviliT gamsWvaluli, ise unda iyos organizebuli,
rom is mRvdelmsaxuris momavali cxovrebis erTgvari iniciacia iyos.
12. imisaTvis, rom sulier aRzrdas ufro myari safuZveli hqondes da
aRsazrdelebi Tavis mowodebas mowifuli gadawyvetilebis safuZvelze
gahyvnen, episkoposebma unda gansazRvron Sesaferisi vada ufro intensiuri
dawyebiTi sulieri swavlebisTvis. maT movaleobas warmoadgens agreTve imis
gansazRvra, mizanSewonilia Tu ara swavlaSi erTgvari wyvetilis SemoReba
anu dawyebiTi samRvdlo praqtikis SemoReba, rac mRvdelmsaxurobis kandidatebis ukeTesad Semowmebis SesaZleblobas iZleva. calkeuli regionis
TaviseburebaTa Sesabamisad, episkoposebma unda gadawyviton, saWiroa Tu
ara asakobrivi zRvaris gadaweva xeldasxmisaTvis, romelic amJamad saerTo kanoniT aris gansazRvruli. episkoposebma unda gadawyviton agreTve,
mizanSewonilia Tu ara, rom saRmrTismetyvelo kursis Semdgom aRsazrdelebma garkveuli drois manZilze diakonuri xarisxi aRasrulon, sanam mRvdelmsaxurni gaxdebian.

V. saeklesio ganaTlebis gadasinjva


13. aRsazrdelebis sakuTriv saeklesio ganaTlebis dawyebamde maT iseTi
humanitaruli da sabunebismetyvelo ganaTleba unda miiRon, romelic axalgazrdebs maT qveyanaSi umaRlesi ganaTlebis miRebaSic daexmareba. garda
amisa, maT unda Seiswavlon laTinuri ena, romelic aucilebelia maTTvis
Zalze mravalricxovani wyaroebisa da saeklesio dokumentebis gagebisa da
25
26

Sdr. PAULUS VI, epist. apost. Summi Dei Verbum, 4 nov. 1963: AAS 55 (1963), p. 991.
Sdr. PIUS XII adhort. apost. Menti Nostrae, l.c., p. 686.

191

vatikanis II kreba

gamoyenebisaTvis.27 savaldebulod unda iqnas miCneuli liturgiuli enis


Seswavlac, romelic yovel calkeul wesSi gamoiyeneba. da bolos, sasurvelia wmida werilisa da gadmocemis enaTa saTanado codnac.
14. saeklesio ganaTlebis gadasinjvisas, upirveles yovlisa, yuradReba
Semdegs unda mieqces: filosofiuri da Teologiuri disciplinebi ufro
harmoniulad unda Seewyos erTmaneTs da erToblivad iyos mimarTuli
aRsazrdelTa gonebaTaTvis qristes saidumloebis sul ufro metad gaxsnisken. es saidumloeba mTels kacobriobas exeba, is ganuwyvetliv viTardeba eklesiaSi da, upirveles yovlisa, samRvdlo msaxurebis meSveobiT moqmedebs.28
aseTi xedva aRsazrdelebs Tavidanve rom CamouyalibdeT, saeklesio
ganaTlebas win Sesavali unda uZRodes, romelsac garkveuli moculoba
eqneba. gamoxsnis saidumloeba SesavalSi ise unda iyos gadmocemuli, rom
aRsazrdelebi Caswvdnen saeklesio disciplinaTa mniSvnelobas, maT mimdevrobasa da samRvdlo mizans. maT unda davexmaroT, raTa SeZlon, mTeli Tavisi cxovreba sarwmunoebaze daafuZnon, sarwmunoebiT gamsWvalon da ganmtkicdnen Tavis mowodebaSi, romelic pirovnuli mzadyofniTa da sixaruliT unda aRasrulon.
15. filosofiuri disciplinebi ise unda vaswavloT, rom aRsazrdelebi adamianis, samyarosa da RmrTis Sesaxeb safuZvlian da myar codnas
daeuflon. amisaTvis isini unda icnobdnen mudam Rirebul filosofiur
memkvidreobas,29 gaiTvaliswinon Tanamedrove filosofiuri gamokvlevebi, gansakuTrebiT iseTebi, romlebsac maT qveyanaSi yvelaze didi gavlena
aqvT, agreTve uaxlesi samecniero progresi, raTa sworad Caswvdnen dRevandelobis Taviseburebas da saTanadod moemzadon Tavisi drois adamianebTan
saubrisaTvis.30
filosofiis istoria ise unda gadmovceT, rom aRsazrdelebma gaigon sxvadasxva sistemaTa sawyisi principebi, miiRon is, rac maTSi aris WeSmariti,
xolo Secdomebi safuZvelSive SeniSnon da uaryon.
Tavad swavlebis meTodi siyvaruls unda aRvivebdes aRsazrdelebSi. is
WeSmaritebis mkacri Ziebisken, dacvisa da damtkicebisken gvibiZgebs, rac
imavdroulad adamianuri Semecnebis sazRvrebis patiosan aRiarebasac gulisxmobs. Zalian didi yuradReba unda mieqces filosofiasa da cxovrebis
WeSmariti problemebs Soris mimarTebas, agreTve SekiTxvebs, romelebic
aRsazrdelebs aRelvebs. maT unda davexmaroT, gaigon kavSiri filosofiur
gansjasa da gamoxsnis saidumloebebs Soris, romlebic TeologiaSi sarwmunoebis umaRles Suqze ganixileba.
16. sarwmunoebis Suqze da eklesiis moZRvrobis xelmZRvanelobiT31 Teologiuri disciplinebi ise unda iyos gadmocemuli, rom aRsazrdelebma
27
Sdr. PAULUS VI, epist. apost. Summi Dei Verbum, l. c., p. 993.
28
Sdr. CONC. VAT.II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, nn. 7 da 28.
29
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Humani generis, 12 aug. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), pp. 571-575.
30
Sdr. PAULUS VI, encycl. Ecclesiam suam, 6 aug. 1964: AAS 56 (1964), pp. 637 ss.Humani generis, 12 aug. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), pp. 567-569. Allocutio Si diligis, 31 maii 1954: AAS 46 (1954), pp. 314 s.
PAULUS VI, allocutio in Gregoriana Pontificia Studiorum Universitate habita, 12 mart. 1964: AAS 56 (1964),
pp. 364 s. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia,n. 25.
31
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Humani generis, 12 aug. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), pp. 567-569. Allocutio Si
diligis, 31 maii 1954: AAS 46 (1954), pp. 314 s. PAULUS VI, allocutio in Gregoriana Pontificia Studiorum
Universitate habita, 12 mart. 1964: AAS 56 (1964), pp. 364 s. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia,n.
25.

192

OPTATAM TOTIUS

kaTolikuri moZRvreba saRmrTo gamocxadebidan safuZvlianad SeiTvison,


masSi Rrmad Sevidnen, is Tavisi sulieri cxovrebis sazrdod aqcion32 da misi
samRdlo msaxurebaSi uwyeba, gadmocema da dacva SeZlon.
wmida werilis swavlas (is mTeli Teologiis erTgvari suli unda iyos)33
aRsazrdelebi gansakuTrebuli mondomebiT unda vaziaroT. saTanado Sesavlis Semdeg isini safuZvlianad unda gaecnon egzegezis meTods da Caswvdnen
saRmrTo gamocxadebis ZiriTad Temebs. wmida wignebis yoveldRiur kiTvasa
da maTze fiqrSi maT stimuli da sazrdo unda miiRon.34
dogmaturi Teologiis gadmocemisas jer bibliuri Temebi unda iyos mocemuli. aRsazrdelebs unda vaCvenoT, Tu ra wvlili Seitanes aRmosavluri
da dasavluri eklesiebis mamebma gamocxadebis calkeul WeSmaritebaTa erTgulad gadmocemisa da damuSavebis saqmeSi. Semdgom unda gadmoices dogmis
istoria, gaTvaliswinebul iqnas misi kavSiri eklesiis zogad istoriasTan,35
rac SeiZleba meti naTeli unda moefinos gamoxsnis saidumloebebs; aRsazrdelebma, wm. Tomas moZRvrebis Tanaxmad, maTSi Rrmad Sesvla da maT Soris
urTierTkavSiris danaxva unda iswavlon.36 maT unda SeeZloT am saidumloebaTa amocnoba liturgiul qmedebebsa37 da eklesiis mTels cxovrebaSi, sadac isini mudam arseboben da moqmedeben. aRsazrdelebma adamianuri
problemebis gadawyveta gamocxadebis Suqze unda eZion, misi saukuno WeSmaritebebi adamianTa cvalebad samyaros miusadagon da Tanamedroveebs isini
maTTvis Sesaferisi formiT gadascen.38
aseve unda ganaxldes sxva Teologiuri disciplinebi qristes saidumlosa da gamoxsnis istoriasTan maTi mimarTebis kuTxiT. gansakuTrebul
yuradRebas saWiroebs moraluri Teologiis srulyofa, romlis samecniero gadmocemam (is arsebiTad emyareba wmida werilis moZRvrebas) naTeli unda mohfinos erTgulTa amaRlebul mowodebas qristeSi da maT
movaleobas, samyaros cxovrebisaTvis siyvaruliT nayofi gamoiRon. kanonikuri samarTlisa da saeklesio istoriis gadmocemaSi gasaTvaliswinebelia eklesiis saidumlo, Tanaxmad dogmaturi konstitucisa eklesiis Sesaxeb, romelic am krebam gamosca. wmida liturgia, romelic
32
Sdr. S. BONAVENTURA, Intenarium mentis in Deum, Prol., n. 4: (nuravin) daijerebs,
rom sakmarisia kiTxva cxebis gareSe, spekulacia gacemisaTvis mzadyofnis gareSe, kvleva
Tayvaniscemis gareSe, mimoxilva aRtacebis gareSe, mecniereba RmrTismosaobis gareSe,
Wkua simdablis gareSe, sibejiTe saRmrTo madlis gareSe, mWvreteloba RmrTiv STagonebuli sibrZnis gareSe (S. BONAVENTURA, Opera Omnia, V, Qaracchi 1891, p. 296).
33
Sdr. LEO XIII; ENCYCL: Providentissimus Deus, 18 nov. 1893: ASS 26 (1893-94), p. 283.
34
Sdr. COMMISSIO BIBLICA, Instructio de Sacra Scriptura recte docenda, 13 maii 1950: AAS 42
(1950), p. 502.
35
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Humani Generis, 12 aug. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), pp. 568 s.: ...wmida disciplinebi mudam axalgazrdoavdeba wmida wyaroTa SeswavliT. gamocdilebidan viciT, rom
sapirispiro Tvalsazrisi, romelic wmida memkvidreobis Semdgom kvlevas ugulebelyofs,
unayofo xdeba.
36
Sdr. PIUS XII, Sermo ad Alumnos Seminariorum, 24 iunii 1939: AAS 31 (1931), p. 247: WeSmaritebis Ziebasa da gavrcelebaSi Sejibri,... wmida Tomas moZRvrebis rCevaTa Sesabamisad,
ara Tu moixsneba, aramed piriqiT, gaZlierdeba da ufro mtkiced warimarTeba. PAULUS
VI, Allocutio in Gregoriana Pont. Studiorum Univ. habita, 12 mart. 1964: AAS 56 (1964), p. 365: (maswavleblebi)... mowiwebiT undaismendnen eklesiis moZRvarTa xmas, romelTa Soris saRmrTo
aqvinels upirevelesi adgili ukavia. doqtor angelikusis niWis Zala iseTi didia, iseTi
gulrwfelia WeSmaritebis siyvaruli da iseTi Rrma aris misi sibrZne, romelic umaRlesi
WeSmaritebebis gamokvlevaSi, ganmartebasa da maT erTmaneTTan dakavSirebaSi vlindeba, rom misi moZRvreba yvelaze ufro qmediTi xaSualeba xdeba ara marto sarwmunoebis
safuZvlebis mtkiced SenaxvisaTvis, aramed jansaRi ganviTarebis nayofis sasargeblo da
utyuari mopovebisTvis. Sdr. agreTve 1965 wlis 10 seqtembers Tomistebis VI saerTaSoriso kongresis winaSe warmoTqmuli sityva.
37
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. de Sacra Liturgia, nn. 7 da 16.
38
Sdr. PAULUS VI, encycl. Ecclesiam suam, 6 aug. 1964: AAS 56 (1964), pp. 640 s.

193

vatikanis II kreba

WeSmaritad qristianuli sulis pirvel da aucilebel wyarod unda miviCnioT, unda iswavlebodes wmida liturgiis Sesaxeb konstituciis 15-e da
16-e konstituciis Tanaxmad.39
sxvadasxva regionebSi arsebuli viTarebis saTanadod gaTvaliswinebis
safuZvelze, aRsazrdelebs meti informacia unda miewodos eklesiebisa da
saeklesio sakrebuloebis Sesaxeb, romlebic romis samociqulo saydrisgan
aris gamijnulni, raTa maT, mocemuli wmida krebis miTiTebaTa Sesabamisad,
SeZlon, yvela qristians Soris erTobis aRdgenis saqmeSi Tavisi wvlili
Seitanon.40
aRsazrdelebs sxva religiebic unda gavacnoT, romlebic ama Tu im regionSi gansakuTrebiT aris gavrcelebuli. maT unda gaigon, RmrTis ganzraxviT, ra gaaCniaT am religiebs kargi da WeSmariti, iswavlon Secdomebis
uaryofa da SeZlon WeSmaritebis naTlis gadmocema maTTvis, visac is ar
gaaCnia.
17. samoZRvro aRzrdis mizani marto cnebaTa gadmocema ki ar aris,
aramed aRsazrdelTa WeSmariti Sinagani formirebaa. amitom unda gadaisinjos didaqtikuri meTodebi, romlebsac leqciebSi, saubrebsa da
savarjiSoebSi viyenebT, agreTve aRsazrdelTa mecadineobiT (rogorc
individualuriT, aseve jgufuriT) dainteresebis saSualebebi. yuradReba unda mieqces mTlianobaSi aRzrdis erTianobasa da simtkices, Tavi
unda avaridoT disciplinaTa da leqciaTa metismetad did raodenobas
da SeveSvaT im kiTxvebs, romlebsac TiTqmis aRaraviTari mniSvneloba
ara aqvT; sjobs, isini ufro maRali akademiuri kvlevis sagani gavxadoT.
18. episkoposebma unda izrunon imisaTvis, rom saTanado xasiaTiT, RirsebiTa da niWiT dajildovebuli axalgazrdebi gavagzavnoT specialur institutebSi, fakultetebze Tu universitetebSi wmida mecnierebaTa da sxva
saWiro saganTa Sesaswavlad. amgvarad unda movamzadoT umaRlesi samecniero ganaTlebis mqone mRvelmsaxurni, romlebic SeZleben mociqulobis sxvadasxva moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebas. araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar unda
ugulebelvyoT maTi sulieri da samRvdlo ganaTleba, gansakuTrebiT Tu
isini jer mRvdelmsaxurni ar gamxdaran.

VI. sakuTriv samRvdlo aRzrdis gaumjobeseba


19. samRvdlo mzrunveloba, romelmac mTlianobaSi aRsazrdelTa ganaTlebaze unda moaxdinos gavlena,41 gulisxmobs maT safuZvlian momzadebasac wmida moZRvrobasTan sagangebod dakavSirebul sakiTxebSi. ase39
CONC.VAT.II, Const. de Sacra Liturgia, nn. 10, 14, 15, 16. S.C. RITUUM, Instructio ad exsecutionem Constitutionis de Sacra Liturgia recte ordinandam, 26 sept. 1964, nn. 11 et 12: AAS 56 (1964), pp. 879 s.
40
Sdr. CONC.VAT.II, Decretum de Oecumenismo, nn. 1, 9, 10.
41
Tu rogori unda iyos mRvdlis srulyofili saxe, amis Sesaxeb SeiZleba davaskvnaT ukanaskneli pontifeqsebis sabuTebidan, sadac dawvrilebiT aris laparaki mRvdelmsaxurTa cxovrebis, niWTa da aRzrdis Sesaxeb. ix. upirveles yovlisa, S. PIUS X, exhortatio
ad Clerum Haerent animo: S.PII X Acta IV, pp. 237 ss. PIUS XI, encycl, As Catholici Sacerdotii: AAS 28
(1936), pp. 5 ss. PIUS XII, adhort. apost. Menti Nostrae: AAS 42 (1950), pp. 657 ss. IOANNES XXIII, enycl.
Sacerdotii Nostri primordia: AAS 51 (1959), pp. 545 ss. PAULUS VI, epist. apost. Summi Dei Verbum: AAS
55 (1963), pp. 979 ss. samRvdlo momzadebis Sesaxeb mravali cnobisTvis ix. agreTve encycl.
Mystici Corporis (1943), Mediator Dei (1947), Evangelii Praecones (1951), Sacra Virginitas (1954), Musicae
Sacrae Disciplina (1955), Princeps Pastorum (1959), agreTve Const. apost. Sedes Sapientiae (1956) moweseTa Sesaxeb. pius XII, ioane XXIII da pavle VI seminarielebisa da mRvdelmsaxurTa mimarT
warmoTqmul sityvebSi xSirad ganmartavdnen keTili mwyemsis saxes.

194

OPTATAM TOTIUS

Tebia, upirveles yovlisa, katexizacia da qadageba, liturgiuli kultmsaxureba da saidumloTa ganweseba (sacramentorum administratione), qvelmoqmedeba, SemcdarTa da urwmunoTaTvis daxmarebis gawevis movaleoba,
agreTve sxva samRvdlo funqciebi. saWiroa maTi safuZvliani ganaTleba
sulieri xelmZRvanelobis saqmeSic, raTa SeeZloT, eklesiis yvela Svili moamzadon sruliad gacnobierebuli da samociqulo qristianuli
cxovrebisaTvis da Tavisi statusisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli movaleobis
SesrulebisaTvis. aseTive mzrunvelobiT maT unda iswavlon daxmarebis gaweva mowese kacebisa da qalebisaTvis, raTa isini Tavisi mowodebis madliT iyvnen moculni da, sxvadasxva instituciaTa Taviseburebis
Sesabamisad, warmatebas miaRwion.42
aRsazrdelebSi unda ganviTardes saTanado unar-Cvevebi, romlebic xels
Seuwyobs adamianebTan dialogis damyarebas. aseTia sxvebis mosmenis unari
da qvelmoqmedebiT gamsWvaluli gulRiaoba sxvadasxva adamianuri problemis winaSe.43
20. aRsazrdelebma unda iswavlon damxmare saSualebebiT sargebloba,
romlebsac pedagogiuri, fsiqologiuri Tu sociologiuri disciplinebi
gvTavazobs,44 zusti meTodebisa da saeklesio xelisuflebis mier dadgenili normebis Sesabamisad. isini safuZvlianad unda movamzadoT imisaTvis,
rom maT SeZlon, ganawyon saeroni samociqulo moRvaweobisaTvis45 da xeli
Seuwyon mociqulobis sxvadasxva, ufro nayofieri formebis ganviTarebas.
aRsazrdelebi unda ganimsWvalon WeSmaritad kaTolikuri suliT, romelic
maT aCvevs sakuTari diocezis, qveynisa Tu wesis sazRvrebis gadalaxvas da
mTeli eklesiisTvis daxmarebis gawevas, raTa Sinaganad mzad iyvnen, saxareba
yvelgan iqadagon.46
21. aRsazrdelebma aucileblad unda iswavlon mociqulobis aRsrulebis
xelovneba, ara marto Teoriulad, aramed praqtikuladac. maT unda SeeZloT moqmedeba sakuTari pasuxismgeblobiT da sxvebTan TanamSromlobaSi.
amitom swavlis periodSic da ardadegebis drosac isini Sesaferisi wvrTnis
meSveobiT unda Seudgnen samRvdlo praqtikas, rac aRsazrdelTa asakisa da
adgilobrivi viTarebis Sesabamisad unda ganxorcieldes, episkoposTa keTilgonieri gansjis Tanaxmad, meTodurad da samRvdlo saqmeSi gamocdil
adamianTa xelmZRvanelobiT. mudam unda gvaxsovdes zebunebriv saSualebaTa mniSvnelobac.47

VII. saswavlo periodis Semdgomi ganaTleba


22. dRevandeli sazogadoebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli viTarebaSi sruliad
aucilebelia, seminariebSi swavlis dasrulebis Semdegac gagrZeldes da
42
statusis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb, romelic saxarebiseul rCevaTa aRsarebiT ganisazRvreba, Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, cap. VI; Decret. de accommodata renovatione
vitae religiosa.
43
Sdr. PAULUS VI, encycl. Ecclesiam suam, 6 aug. 1964: AAS 56 (1964) xSirad, gansakuTrebiT gv. 635.
44
Sdr. gansakuTrebiT IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Mater et Magistra, 15 maii 1961: AAS 53 (1961),
pp. 401 ss.
45
Sdr. gansakuTrebiT CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 33.
46
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 17.
47
papis mravali dokumenti gvafrTxilebs, rom saxifaToa samRvdlo moqmedebaSi
zebunebrivi miznis ugulebelyofa an Tundac praqtikulad zebunebriv saSualebaTa gauTvaliswinebloba. Sdr. gansakuTrebiT 41-e SeniSvnaSi xsenebuli dokumentebi.

195

vatikanis II kreba

srulyofa ganicados samRvdelmsaxuro ganaTlebam.48 episkoposTa konferenciebis movaleobaa, TiToeul qveyanaSi gamoiyenon Sesaferisi saSualebebi, rogoric aris samRvdlo institutebi, romlebic saTanadod SerCeul
sakrebuloebTan TanamSromloben, perioduli Sekrebebi da saTanado wvrTnani (praqtika). maTi saSualebiT axalgazrda samRvdeloeba SeZlebs sulieri, inteleqtualuri da samRvdlo aspeqtiT TandaTanobiT eziaros samRvdelmsaxuro cxovrebasa da samociqulo moRvaweobas, kidev ufro metad
ganaaxlos da ganaviTaros isini.

daskvna
mocemuli wmida krebis mamebi ganagrZoben tridentis krebaze dawyebul
saqmes da ndobiT akisreben seminariaTa xelmZRvanelebsa da moZRvrebs, aRzardon qristes momavali mRvdelmsaxurebi ganaxlebis suliT, romelsac es
wmida kreba uWers mxars. mamebi dabejiTebiT mouwodeben maT, vinc emzadeba
samRvdlo msaxurebisTvis, gaacnobieron, rom maT mindobilia eklesiis imedi da sulTa gamoxsna. dae, maT sixaruliT miiRon mocemuli dekretis normebi da moitanon uxvi nayofi, romelic saukunod darCeba.
yovelive erTad da cal-calke, rac am dekretSi gamocxadda,
wmida krebis mamebma moiwones. da Cvenc, im samociqulo uflebamosilebiT, romelic qristesgan gadmogveca, amas pativdebul mamebTan erTad suli wmidaSi veTanxmebiT, vadgenT,
vawesebT da vbrZanebT, rom is, rac krebaze dadginda, gamoqveyndes sadideblad RmrTisa.

romi, wm. petresTan, 1965 wlis 28 oqtomberi


me, pavle, kaTolike eklesiis episkoposi
(mohyveba mamaTa xelmowerebi)

48
wm. saydris ukanaskneli dokumentebi dabejiTebiT miuTiTeben axal mRvdelmsaxurTaTvis zrunvis aucileblobaze. aRsaniSnavia, upirveles yovlisa, Semdegi: PIUS XII,
Motu proprio quandoquidem, 2 aprilis 1949: AAS 41 (1949), pp. 165-167; exhortatio apost. Menti Nostrae, 23
septembris 1950: AAS 42 (1950); constitutio apostolica (pro Religiosis) Sedes Sapientiae, 31 maii 1956 et Statuta
generalia adnexa; allocutio ad sacerdotes Convictus Barcinonensis, 14 iunii 1957: Discorsi e Radiomessagi,
XIX, pp. 271-273. PAULUS VI, allocutio coram sacerdotibus Intituti Gian Matteo Giberti diocesis Veronensis, 13 martii 1964.

196

deklaracia
qristianuli aRzrdis Sesaxeb
GRAVISSIMUM EDUCATIONIS

NOSTRA AETATE

pavle episkoposi,
RmrTis msaxurTa msaxuri,
wmida krebis mamebTan erTad,
samudamo saxsovrad

deklaracia
qristianuli aRzrdis Sesaxeb
Sesavali
aRzrdis mniSvneloba is sakiTxia, romelsac wmida msoflio kreba yuradRebiT swavlobs: Cvens droSi adamianis cxovrebaSi ganaTlebas didi
adgili ukavia da misi gavlena sazogadoebaze sul ufro izrdeba.1 axalgazrdebis aRzrda, agreTve zrdasrulTa mudmivi aRzrda Cvens droSi
sul ufro advili da Tan sul ufro Zneli xdeba. adamianebi ufro srulyofilad acnobiereben Tavis Rirsebas da movaleobebs. maT surT, ufro
aqtiuri monawileoba miiRon sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, gansakuTrebiT
ekonomikursa da politikurSi.2 gansacvifrebeli teqnikuri da samecniero kvlevis progresi, agreTve socialuri komunikaciis axali saSualebebi
ufro xelmisawvdoms xdis adamianebisTvis (maT axla meti Tavisufali dro
aqvT) sulier da kulturul memkvidreobas, xolo mWidro urTierTobebis
arseboba ara marto adamianTa jgufebs, aramed erTa Sorisac maT srulyofas uwyobs xels.
amitom yvelgan sul ufro metad cdiloben aRzrdis saqmisTvis xelSewyobas. adamianTa kerZod, bavSvebisa da mSoblebis Zireuli uflebebi, romlebic aRzrdas exeba, cxaddeba da mtkicdeba sajaro dokumentebiT.3 aRsazrdelTa ricxvis swrafi matebis gamo izrdeba skolaTa
ricxvi da xdeba maTi srulyofa, imneba sxva saswavlo dawesebulebebi.
axali eqsperimentebiT viTardeba swavlisa da aRzrdis meTodebi. did
Zalisxmeva xmardeba imas, rom es yvelaferi yvela adamianisaTvis iyos
xelmisawvdomi, Tumca Zalze bevri bavSvi da axalgazrda dRemde moklebulia elementaruli ganaTlebis miRebis SesaZleblobas, xolo sxvebs
1
mravali dokumentidan, sadac gaSuqebulia ganTlebis sakiTxi, upirveles yovlisa, Sdr. BENEDICTUS XV, epist. apost. Communes Litteras, 10 apr. 1919: AAS 11 (1919), p. 172. PIUS
XI, enycl. Divini Illius Magistri, 31 dec. 1929: AAS 22 (1930), pp. 49-86. PIUS XII, alloc. ad Iuvenes A.C.I., 20
apr. 1946: Discorsi e Radiomessagi 8, pp. 53-57. ID., alloc. ad Patres familiae Galliae, 18 sept. 1951: Discorsi e
Radiomessaggi 13, pp. 241-245. IOANNES XXIII, nuntius tricessimo exacto anno ex quo encycl. Divini Illius
Magistri editae sunt, 30 dec. 1959: AAS 52 (1960), pp. 57-59. PAULUS VI, alloc. ad sodales F.I.D.A..E. (Federazione Istituti Dipendenti dallAutorit Ecclesiastica), 30 dec. 1963: Encicliche e Discorsi di S. S. Paolo VI, I,
Roma 1964, pp. 601-603. garda amisa, ix. Acta et Documenta Concilio Oecumenico Vaticano II apparando,
series I, Antepraeparatoria, vol. III, pp. 363-364, 370-371, 373-374.
2
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Mater et Magistra, 15 maii 1961: AAS 53 (1961), pp. 413, 415-417,
424. misive, encycl. Pacem in terris, 11 par. 1963: AAS 55 (1963), pp. 278 s.
3
Sdr. Professionem Universalem iurium humanorum (Dclaration des droits de lhomme) (adamianis uflebaTa deklaracia), romelic damtkicda 1948 wlis 10 dekembers gaerTianebuli
erebis organizaciis generaluri sabWos mier. Sdr. agreTve Dclaration des droits de lenfant
(bavSvis uflebaTa deklaracia), 1959 wlis 20 noemberi. Protocole additionnel la convention
de sauvegarde des droits de lhomme et des liberts fondamentale (adamianis uflebebisa da Zireul
TavisuflebaTa dacvis konvenciis damatebiTi protokoli), parizi, 1952 wlis .20 marti.
adaminis uflebebis sayovelTao deklaraciasTan dakavSirebiT ix. IOANNES XXIII, encycl.
Pacem in terris, 11 apr. 1963: AAS 55 (1963), pp. 295s.

199

vatikanis II kreba

Sesaferisi aRzrda ara aqvT, romelic WeSmaritebasac asazrdoebs da siyvarulsac.


wmida deda eklesiam Tavisi misia unda Seasrulos, romelic man misi saRmrTo damfuZneblisgan miiRo: man gamoxsnis saidumloeba yvela adamians unda
auwyos da yvelaferi qristeSi aRadginos. amisTvis eklesiam unda izrunos
adamianis cxovrebaze mTlianobaSi, maT Soris mis miwier cxovrebazec, imdenad, ramdenadac is zeciur mowodebasTan aris dakavSirebuli.4 MmaSasadame,
eklesia monawileobs eklesia aRzrdis ganviTarebisa da gavrcelebis saqmeSi. amitom acxadebs wm. kreba qristianuli aRzrdis zogierT fundamentur
princips, gansakuTrebiT skolebTan dakavSirebiT. krebis Semdeg es principebi unda daxvewos specialurma komisiam, xolo episkoposTa konferenciebma isini unda ganaxorcielos adgilobrivi pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT.
1. yvela adamians, ganurCevlad rasis, mdgomareobisa Tu asakisa, aqvs
pirovnuli Rirseba da, Sesabamisad aRzrdis ganuxreli ufleba,5 romelic
Seesabameba TiToeulis mowodebas,6 agreTve xasiaTis, sqesis, kulturisa
da erovnuli tradiciebis Taviseburebebs. amasTan erTad, is unda iyos Ria
sxva erebTan Zmuri urTierTobisTvis, raTa xeli Seewyos msoflioSi WeSmarit erTobas da mSvidobas. WeSmariti aRzrdis daniSnuleba aris adamianis
pirovnebis formireba, misi umaRlesi miznisa da, amave dros, sazogadoebis
keTildReobis gaTvaliswinebiT, romlis wevrsac adamiani warmoadgens da
romelSic is Tavis funqcias Seasrulebs, roca gaizrdeba.
amrigad, fsiqologiuri, pedagogiuri da didaqtikuri mecnierebis progresis gaTvaliswinebiT, saWiroa bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis daxmarebis gaweva, raTa maT harmoniulad ganaviTaron fizikuri, moraluri da
inteleqtualuri monacemebi, TandaTanobiT ufro srulyofilad igrZnon
pasuxismgebloba, ganuxrelad ecadon, swored warmarTon piradi cxovreba
da miaRwion WeSmarit Tavisuflebas, dabrkolebaTa gabedulad da mtkiced
gadalaxviT. garkveul asakSi saWiroa maTi pozitiuri da gonivruli aRzrda seqsualur sferoSi. amasTanave, isini unda movamzadoT sazogadoebriv
cxovrebaSi monawileobisTvis, ise, rom aucilebeli da xelsayreli saSualebebis sworad gamoyenebiT SeZlon, aqtiurad Caeban sxvadasxva sazogadoebri gaerTianebaSi, mzad iyvnen sxvebTan dialogisTvis da siamovnebiT iRvawon sazogado keTildReobisTvis.
amasTanave, wmida kreba ganacxadebs: bavSvebsa da axalgazrdebs aqvT
ufleba, vubiZgoT imisken, rom maT sworad da sindisierad Seafason
zneobrivi Rirebulebebi, Tavisi pirovnuli simpaTiiT (adhaesione) aRiqvan
isini, da sul ufro srulyofilad Seicnon da uyvardeT RmerTi. amitom
kreba dabejiTebiT sTxovs yvelas, vinc xalxs marTavs an aRzrdas xelmZRvanelobs, izrunos imisTvis, rom axalgazrdobas es ufleba arasdros
waerTvas. xolo eklesiis Svilebs kreba mouwodebs, keTilSobilurad iRvawon aRzrdis yvela sferoSi, upirveles yovlisa imisaTvis, rom aRzrdisa da ganaTlebis jerovani sikeTe rac SeiZleba swrafad gavrceldes
mTels msoflioSi yvela adamianze.7
2. yvela qristians, vinc wylidan da suli wmididan xelaxali SobiT axal
4
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII. encycl. Mater et Magistra, 15 maii 1961: AAS 53 (1961), p. 402. CONC.
VAT. II, Const. Dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 17.
5
PIUS XII, nuntius radioph., 24 dec. 1942: AAS 35 (1943), pp. 12, 19. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Pacem in terris, 11 apr. 1963: AAS 55 (1963), pp. 259 s. Sdr. agreTve adamianis uflebaTa deklaracia,
SeniSvna 3.
6
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Divinis Illius Magistri, 31 dec. 1929: AAS 22 (1930), pp. 50s.
7
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Mater et Magistra, 15 maii 1961: AAS 53 (1961), pp. 441 s.

200

GRAVISSIMUM
NOSTRA AETATE
EDUCATIONIS

qmnilebad iqca,8 vinc RmrTis Svilad iwodeba da aris kidec aseTi, aqvs uleba qristianuli aRzrdisa. es aRzrda mxolod imisTvis ar aris gamiznuli,
rom adamianis pirovnebam simwifes miaRwios, ise, rogorc es zemoT iyo aRwerili. misi ZiriTadi mizandasaxuleba mdgomareobs SemdegSi: monaTlulebma, romlebic TandaTanobiT gamoxsnis saidumloebas eziarebian, sul
ufro metad unda gaacnobieron sarwmunoebis niWi, romelic miiRes; maT
unda iswavlon _ upirveles yovlisa, liturgiul qmedebaSi _ RmrTis _
mamis Tayvaniscema suliTa da WeSmaritebiT (Sdr. ioan. 4, 23) da sakuTari
cxovrebis gardasaxva axali adamianis Sesaferisad, simarTliTa da siwmidiTa WeSmaritebisaTa (efes. 4, 22-24), raTa iqcnen mamakacad srulad,
sazomad hasakisa savsebisa mis qristesisa (efes. 4, 13), da xeli Seuwyon mistikuri sxeulis zrdas. garda amisa, maT gacnobierebuli unda hqondeT Tavisi mowodeba, sCveodeT, mowmobdnen im sasoebas, romelic maT Soris aris
(Sdr. 1petr. 3, 15) da xels uwyobdnen samyaros qristianul gardasaxvas. ase
moxmardeba bunebrivi Rirebulebebi, qristesgan adamianis gamosyidvaSi nagulisxmevi da CarTuli, mTeli sazogadoebis keTildReobas.9 amitom es wm.
kreba sulTa mwyemsebs Seaxsenebs maT umniSvnelovanes movaleobas: yvelaferi gaiRon imisaTvis, rom es qristianuli aRzrda yvela erTgulisaTvis
iyos misawvdomi, upirveles yovlisa ki axalgazrdobisaTvis, romlebic eklesiis imeds warmoadgenen.10
3. mSoblebs, raki maT Svilebs sicocxle misces, umniSvnelovanesi movaleoba _ STamomavlebis aRzrda _ akisriaT. maT pirvel da mTavar aRmzrdelebad mSoblebi unda miviCnioT.11 aRzrda Zalze mniSvnelovani movaleoba
aris. aRzrdisas raRacis nakleboba veRar anazRaurdeba. mSoblebis amocanaa, Seqmnan ojaxuri garemo, RmrTisa da adamianTa mimarT siyvaruliTa da
mowiwebiT gacxovelebuli, rac xels Seuwyobs mTlianobaSi SvilTa aRzras,
rogorc pirovnuli, aseve sazogadoebrivi TvalsazrisiT. maSasadame, ojaxi
aris im sazogadoebriv RirebulebaTa pirveli skola, romlebsac nebismieri
sazogadoeba saWiroebs. gansakuTrebiT qristianul ojaxSi, romelsac miniWebuli aqvs qorwinebis saidumlos madli da movaleoba, Svilebs adreuli
asakidan unda aswavlidnen, naTlobisas miRebuli sarwmunoebis Tanaxmad,
Seicnon RmerTi da Tayvani scen mas, agreTve uyvardeT moyvasi. aqve iReben isini rogorc jansaRi adamianuri sazogadoebis, aseve eklesiis pirvel
gamocdilebas. da bolos, ojaxis meSveobiT isini TandaTan xdebian samoqalaqo sazogadoebisa da RmrTis eris wevrebi. amitom mSoblebma unda igrZnon, ra didi mniSvneloba aqvs WeSmaritad qristianul ojaxs RmrTis eris
cxovrebisa da ganviTarebisaTvis.12
aRmzrdelobiTi funqciis SesrulebisTvis, romelic upirveles yovlisa ojaxs akisria, mTeli sazogadoebis xelSewyobaa saWiro. garda mSobelTa
da sxvaTa uflebebisa, visac aRzrdaSi monawileoba miandes, garkveuli movaleobebi da uflebebi akisria samoqalaqo sazogadoebas. misi movaleobaa,
moawesrigos is, rac aucilebelia droebiTi saerTo keTildReobisTvis.
sazogadoebis movaleobas armoadgens agreTve sxvdasxva formiT axalgazrdobis aRzrdisTvis xelSewyoba: mSobelTa da, Sesabamisad, im pirTa
uflebebisa da movaleobebis dacva, vinc aRzrdaSi monawileobs, da maTTvis
8
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Divini Illius Magistri, l.c. p. 83.
9
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 36.
10
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decret. de Pastorali Episcoporum munere in Ecclesia, nn. 12-14.
11
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Divini Illius Magistri, l.c. pp. 59 s. misive, encycl. Mit brennender Sorge,
14 martii 1937: AAS 29 (1937), pp. 164 s. PIUS XII, alloc. ad primum congressum nationalem Consociationis
Italicae Magistrorum catholicorum (A.I.M.C.), 8 sept. 1946: Discorsi e Radiomessaggi 8, p. 218.
12
Sdr. CONC. VAT, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, nn. 11, 35.

201

vatikanis II kreba

daxmarebis gaweva, xolo mSobelTa da sxva sazogadoebaTa mxridan iniciativis naklebobis SemTxvevaSi, aRzrdis saqmis warmarTva subsidiarobis principis Sesabamisad, oRond mSobelTa survilebis gaTvaliswinebiT. garda
amisa, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis saqmea, daarsos sakuTari skolebi da institutebi, ramdenadac amas saerTo keTildReoba moiTxovs.13
dabolos, aRzrdis funqcia gansakuTrebulad eklesias akisria, ara marto imitom, rom mas, rogorc adamianTa sazogadoebas, aRzrda ZaluZs, aramed
upirveles yovlisa imitom, rom misi movaleoba aris, auwyos yvela adamians
gamoxsnis gza, acnobos morwmuneebs qristes cxovreba da daexmaros maT ganuwyveteli mzrunvelobiT, raTa SeZlon, am cxovrebis sisavses miaRwion.14
amitom eklesia, rogorc deda, unda ecados, Tavisi Svilebi ise aRzardos,
rom maTi cxovreba qristes suliT ganimsWvalos. amave dros, eklesia daxmarebas sTavazobs yvela ers, iRvawos adamianis pirovnebis yovelmxrivi
srulyofisTvis, miwieri sazogadoebis keTildReobisa da ufro humanuri
msoflios aSenebisTvis.15
4. Tavis aRmzrdelobiT saqmianobaSi eklesia cdilobs, gamoiyenos yvela Sesaferisi saSualeba. upirveles yovlisa, is zrunavs im saSualebebze,
romlebic sakuTriv misia. maT Soris pirveli ki aris katexizaciuri aRzrda,16 romelic rwmenas naTels hfens da ganamtkicebs, cxovrebas qristes
sulis Tanaxmad asazrdoebs, gviZRveba liturgiul saidumloebaSi Segnebuli da qmediTi monawileobisken17 da gvibiZgebs samociqulo qmedebisken.
eklesia didad afasebs sxva saSualebebsac, romlebic kacobriobis saerTo
memkvidreobas ganekuTvneba da xels uwyobs sulier daxvewasa da adamianis
formirebas. eklesia cdilobs, es saSualebebic Tavisi suliT gansWvalos
da aRamaRlos. maT ricxvs miekuTvneba socialuri komunikaciis saSualebebi,18 mravalricxovani kavSirebi, romlebic sulier da fizikur wvrTnas emsaxureba, axalgazrduli gaerTianebebi da, gansakuTrebiT, skolebi.
5. aRzrdis saSualebaTa Soris gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania skola.19
misi misiis Sesruleba gamoixateba SemdegSi: dauRalavi zrunvis Sedegad
is aviTarebs gonebriv SesaZleblobebs, xels uwyobs gansjis unaris gamomuSavebas, aziarebs moswavleebs winaparTagan gadmocemul kulturul
memkvidreobas, aviTarebs RirebulebaTa aRqmas, amzadebs profesiuli
cxovrebisTvis, Sobs megobrul urTierTobas aRsazrdelTa Soris, romlebic xasiaTiTa da socialuri mdgomareobiT gansxvavdebian, aRvivebs maTSi
13
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Divini Illius Magistri, l.c. pp. 63 s. PIUS XII, nuntius radioph. 1 iunii 1941:
AAS 33 (1941), p. 200. misive, alloc. ad primum Congressum nationalem Consociationis Italicae Magistrorum
catholicorum, 8 sept. 1946: Discorsi e Radiomessagi 8, p. 218. subsidiarobis principisaTvis Sdr.
IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Pacem in terris, 11 apr. 1963: AAS 55 (1963), p. 294.
14
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Divini Illius Magistri, l.c. pp. 53 s., 56 s. misive, encycl. Non abbiamo
bisogno, 29 iunii 1931: AAS 23 (1931), pp, 311 s. PIUS XII, litt. Secretariae Status ad XXVIII Hebdaomadam
Soc. Ital. 20 sept. 1955: LOsservatore Romano, 29 sept. 1955.
15
eklesia iwonebs im samoqalaqo, adgilobriv, nacionalur da internacionalur
xelisufalT, romlebsac gacnobierebuli aqvT Tanamedroveobis gadaudebeli amocanebi
da yvela Rones xmaroben imisaTvis, rom yvela erisTvis xelmisawvdomi iyos ufro srulyofili aRzrda da kultura. Sdr. PAULUS VI, alloc. coram Foederatarum Nationum Coetu generali, 4 oct. 1965: LOsservatore Romano, 6 oct 1965.
16
Sdr. PIUS XI, Motu proprio Orbem catholicum, 29 iunii 1923: AAS 15 (1923), pp. 327-329. Decret. Provide sane, 12 ian. 1935: AAS 27 (1935), pp. 145-152. CONC. VAT. II, Decret. de Pastorali Episcoporum munere in Ecclesia, nn. 13, 14.
17
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. de Sacra Liturgia, n. 14.
18
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decret. de Instrumentis communicationis socialis, nn. 13 et 14.
19
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Divini Illius Magistri, l.c., p. 76. PIUS XII; alloc. ad Associationuem Magistrorum Catholicorum Bavariae, 31 dec. 1956: Discorsi e Radiomessaggi 18, p. 746.

202

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NOSTRA AETATE
EDUCATIONIS

urTierTgagebis grZnobas. garda amisa, skola warmoadgens erTgvar centrs,


romlis moRvaweobasa da winsvlaSi erTad unda monawileobdnen ojaxebi,
maswavleblebi, sxvadasxvagvari gaerTianebebi, romlebic aviTareben kulturul, samoqalaqo, religiur cxovrebas, samoqalaqo sazogadoebasa da
adamianTa mTel erTobas.
lamazi da mZime tvirTi aris maTi mowodeba, vinc mSoblebs maTi movaleobis SesrulebaSi exmareba da, adamianTa erTobis saxeliT, skolaSi aRzrdis
funqcias kisrulobs. es mowodeba gansakuTrebul niWs moiTxovs, rogorc
gonebrivs, aseve suliers. igi saWiroebs ufaqizes momzadebas da mudmiv mzadyofnas ganaxlebisa da adaptaciisTvis.
6. mSoblebi, romelTa pirveli da ganuxreli movaleoba da ufleba aris
Svilebis aRzrda, skolaTa arCevanSi Tavisuflebi unda iyvnen. amitom sajaro xelisuflebam, romlis amocana moqalaqeTa Tavisuflebis dacvaa, unda
izrunos samarTliani ganawilebisTvis, raTa sajaro subsidiebi ise gaices,
rom mSoblebs SeeZloT sakuTari sindisis karnaxiT marTlac Tavisuflad
airCion skolebi.20
garda amisa, saxelmwifos saqmea, izrunos imisaTvis, rom yvela moqalaqes
SeeZlos jerovani monawileoba miiRos kulturaSi da saTanadod moemzados
samoqalaqo movaleobebisa da uflebebis ganxorcielebisTvis. amitom Tavad saxelmwifom unda uzrunvelyos saTanado saskolo aRzrda, rac bavSvTa uflebis dacvas niSnavs. saxelmwifo unda zrunavdes maswavlebelTa
kompetenturobisa da swavlis donisTvis, aRsazrdelTa janmrTelobisTvis
da saerTod, mTeli saskolo sistemis ganviTarebisTvis. aucilebelia subsiadiarobis principis gaTvaliswineba da, Sesabamisad, skolaTa yovelgvari
monopoliis gamoricxva, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba adamianis pirovnebis bunebriv uflebebs, Tavad kulturis winsvlasa da gavrcelebas, moqalaqeTa
mSvidobian Tanaarsebobas, agreTve pluralizms, romelic dRes mraval sazogadoebaSi arsebobs.21
wm. kreba mouwodebs qristes erTgulebs, eZion aRzrdis saTanado meTodebi da swavlebis principebi, izrunon maswavlebelTa formirebaze, raTa
maT SeZlon axalgazrdebis sworad aRzrda, da arsebuli saSualebebiT daxmareba gauwion mTel saskolo muSaobas (upirveles yovlisa, mSobelTa kavSirebis meSveobiT), gansakuTrebiT zneobrivi aRzrdis saqmeSi, romelsac
skola unda iZleodes.22
7. amasTan erTad, aucilebelia, rom eklesia grZnobdes UumniSvnelovanes
movaleobas: gulmodgined izrunos yvela Tavisi Svilis zneobrivi da religiuri aRzrdisTvis. gansakuTrebuli siyvaruliTa da zrunviT eklesia
gverdSi unda edgas im mraval bavSvs, romlebic arakaTolikur skolebSi
swavloben. es Tanadgoma unda ganxorcieldes maswavlebelTa da xelmZRvanelTa cxovrebis mowmobiT, amxanagTa samociqulo moRvaweobiT,23 agreTve
im mRvdelTa da saero pirTa msaxurebiT, vinc maT gadascems gamoxsnis moZ20
Sdr. CONC. PROV. CINCINNATENSE III, a. 1861: Collatio Lacensis, III, col. 1240, c/d. PIUS
XI, encycl. Divini Illius Magistri, l.c. pp. 60, 63 s.
21
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Divini Illius Magistri, l. c. p. 63. misive, encycl. Non abbiamo bisogno, 29
iunii 1931: AAS 23 (1911), p. 305. PIUS XII, litt Secretariae Status ad XXVIII Hendomadam Soc. Ital., 20 sept.
1955: LOsservatore Romano, 29 sept. 1955. PAULUS VI, alloc. ad Associationem Chriatianam Operariorum
Italiae (A.C.L.I.), 6 oct. 1963: Encicliche e Discorsi di Paolo VI, I, Roma 1964, p. 230.
22
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, nuntius tricesimo exacto anno es quo litt. encycl. Divini Illius Magistri editae
sunt, 30 dec. 1959: AAS 52 (1960), p. 57.
23
eklesia didad afasebs samociqulo moRvaweobas, romelsac SeiZleba eweodnen
amave skolebSi kaTolike maswavleblebi da moswavleebi.

203

vatikanis II kreba

Rvrebas maTi asakisa da mdgomareobis Sesabamisad, agreTve uwevs sulier


daxmarebas sasargeblo iniciativebiT, droisa da garemoebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT.
mSoblebs eklesia Seaxsenebs, rom maT seriozuli movaleoba akisriaT:
uzrunvelyon da moiTxovon kidec, rom maT bavSvebs SeeZloT daxmarebiT
sargebloba da winsvla qristianuli da saero ganaTlebis urTierTSexamebiT. amitom eklesia miesalmeba im samoqalaqo xelisuflebebsa da sazogadoebebs, romlebic iTvaliswineben dRevandeli sazogadoebis pluralizms
da zrunaven religiuri TavisuflebisaTvis, agreTve exmarebian ojaxebs,
imisaTvis, rom SvilTa aRzrda yvela skolaSi maTi ojaxebis zneobrivi da
religiuri principebis Sesabamisi iyos.24
8. eklesiis roli saskolo sferoSi gansakuTrebuli saxiT vlindeba kaTolikur skolaSi. ra Tqma unda, kaTolikuri skolisTvis, aranakleb sxva
skolebze, mniSvnelovania kulturuli miznebi da axalgazrdebis humanuri
formireba. amasTanave, mas sakuTari amocanac aqvs: Seqmnas saskolo erTobisTvis garemo, gacxovelebuli Tavisuflebisa da siyvarulis evangeluri
suliT; daxmareba gauwios axalgazrdebs, raTa isini ganviTardnen pirovnulad da imave dros gaizardon axali qmnilebis Sesabamisad, rogorebic naTlobis Sedegad gaxdnen; da bolos, man mTeli adamianuri kultura unda warmarTos gamoxsnis uwyebisken, ise, rom aRsazrdelTa mier samyaros, cxovrebisa da adamianis Sesaxeb SeZenili codna rwmenam gananaTlos.25 amgvarad,
kaTolikuri skola, romelic jerovnad Riaa Tanamedrove viTarebisaTvis,
aCveves Tavis aRsazrdelebs, rom qmediTad iRvawon miwieri qalaqis keTildReobisaTvis, da amzadebs maT msaxurebisTvis, romlis mizani aris RmrTis
meufebis gavrceleba. samagaliTo da samociqulo cxovrebaSi wvrTniT isini
erTgvar gamoxsnis safuarad unda iqcnen adamianTa erTobisaTvis.
arsebul viTarebaSi kaTolikur skolas kvlav didi mniSvneloba aqvs.
mas SeuZlia, didad Seuwyos xeli RmrTis eris misiis Sesrulebasa da eklesiasa da adamianTa erTobas Soris dialogs, romelic orive mxrisaTvis sasargebloa. amitom es wmida kreba kvlav acxadebs, rom eklesias aqvs ufleba,
daarsos da marTos nebismieri saxisa da xarisxis skolebi. es ufleba ukve
deklarirebulia moZRvrobis mraval dokumentSi.26 kreba Segvaxsenebs, rom
am uflebis ganxorcieleba xels uwyobs sindisis Tavisuflebisa da mSobelTa uflebebis dacvas, agreTve Tavad kulturis ganviTarebas.
moZRvarT unda axsovdeT, rom arsebiTad maTze aris damokidebuli, ramdenad SeZlebs kaTolikuri skola Tavisi ganzraxvebisa da iniciativebis ganxorcielebas.27 amitom maTi momzadeba gansakuTrebuli gulmodginebiT aris
saWiro, raTa isini daeuflon rogorc saero, aseve religiur mecnierebas,
hqondeT Sesabamisi wodeba da pedagogiuri unar-Cvevebi, romlebic Taname24
Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. ad Associationem Magistrorum Cathol. Bavariae, 31 dec. 1956: Discorsi e
Padiomessaggi 18, pp. 745 s.
25
Sdr. CONC. PROV. WESTMONASTERIENSE I, a. 1852: Collatio Lacensis III, col. 1334 a/b.
PIUS XI, encycl. Divini Illius Magistri, l.c. pp. 77 s. PIUS XII, alloc. ad Associationem Magistrorum Catholicorum Bavariae, 31 dec. 1956: Discorsi e Radiomessaggi 18, p. 746. PAULUS VI, alloc. ad sodales F.I.D.A.E.
(Federazioni Istituti Dipendenti dallAutorit Ecclesiastica), 30 dec. 1963: Encicliche e Discorsi di Paolo VI; I,
Roma 1964, pp. 602 s.
26
Sdr, upirveles yovlisa, I SeniSvnaSi xsenebuli dokumentebi. garda amisa, eklesiis am uflebis Sesaxeb ganacxadebs mravali adgilobrivi kreba, agreTve episkoposTa
araerTi konferenciis ukanaskneli deklaraciebi.
27
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Divini Illius Magistri, l.c. pp 80 s. PIUS XII, alloc. ad Consociationem
Catholic. Italicam Magistrorum scholarum secundarium (U.C.I.I.M.), 5 ian. 1954: Discorsi e Radiomessaggi 15,
pp. 551-556. IOANNES XXIII, alloc. ad VI Congressum Associationis Italicae Magistrorum Catholicorum
(A.I.M.C.), 5 sept. 1959: Discorsi, Messagi, Colloqui, I, Roma 1960, pp. 427-431.

204

GRAVISSIMUM
NOSTRA AETATE
EDUCATIONIS

drove aRmoCenebs Seesabameba. erTmaneTTan da mowafeebTan siyvaruliT dakavSirebulebmaA da samociqulo suliT gamsWvalulebma, maT cxovrebiTac da
moZRvrebiTac unda warmoudginon mowmoba erT moZRvars qristes. upirveles
yovlisa, maT mSoblebTan unda iTanamSromlon. maTTan erTad, mTels aRzrdaSi
unda gaiTvaliswinon sqesTa gansxvaveba da orive sqesis daniSnuleba, romelic
maT ojaxsa da sazogadoebaSi saRmrTo gangebam ganusazRvra. isini unda Seecadon, aRsazrdelebs piradi iniciativisken ubiZgon, xolo skolis damTavrebis
Semdeg unda ganagrZon maTTvis daxmarebis gaweva rCeviT, megobrobiT, agreTve garkveuli gaerTianebebis dafuZnebiT, romlebic WeSmaritad eklesiuri
suliT iqneba gamsWvaluli. wm. kreba ganacxadebs, rom am moZRvarTa msaxureba
namdvili mociqulobaa, romelic dRevandelobisTvis Zalian Sesaferisia da
aucilebeli, da, amave dros, WeSmariti samsaxuria, sazogadoebisTvis gaweuli.
mSobel-kaTolikeebs kreba Seaxsenebs maT movaleobas: SeZlebisdagvarad maT
Tavisi Svilebi kaTolikur skolebSi unda miabaron, maT yovelmxriv daexmaron
da, Tavis SvilTa sakeTildReod, maTTan iTanamSromlon.28
9. SeZlebisdagvarad amgvari unda iyos yvela ase Tu ise eklesiaze damokidebul skola, Tumca adgilobrivi viTarebis Sesabamisad, kaTolikurma
skolam SeiZleba sxvadasxvagvari saxec miiRos.29 eklesiisTvis Zalian Zvirfasia is kaTolikuri skolebic (gansakuTrebiT isini, romlebic ufro axali
eklesiebis teritoriebze imyofeba), romlebSic arakaTolike aRsazrdelebic arian.
kaTolikuri skolebis daarsebisas da organizaciisas gasaTvaliswinebelia Tanamedrove progresis moTxovnilebebi. dawyebiTi da saSualo skolebis mfarvelobasTan erTad (isini aRzrdis saZirkvels warmoadgens), didad
dasafasebelia is skolebic, romlebic dRevandeli viTarebis specifikis
gamo gansakuTrebiT aucilebelia. aseTia profesiuli30 da teqnikuri skolebi, institutebi mozrdilTa ganaTlebisTvis, socialuri daxmarebis
gawevisaTvis, agreTve maTTvis, vinc bunebrivi naklis gamo mzrunvelobas
saWiroebs, aseve skolebi, romlebSic maswavleblebi daxelovndebian religiuri ganaTlebisa da aRzrdis sxva sferoebSi.
wmida kreba dabejiTebiT mouwodebs eklesiis mwyemsebsa da qristes yvela erTguls, ar daiSuron msxverpli kaTolikuri skolebis dasaxmareblad,
raTa maT ufro srulyofilad aRasrulon Tavisi movaleoba da gansakuTrebiT maTTvis izrunon, vinc Ratakia materialurad da moklebulia ojaxis
daxmarebasa da siyvaruls, an visTvisac ucxoa sarwmunoebis niWi.
10. eklesia didad zrunavs umaRlesi skolebisTvisac, gansakuTrebiT
universitetebisa da fakultetebisTvis. eklesia, ra Tqma unda, cdilobs,
rom masze damokidebul skolebSi calkeuli disciplina Seiswavlebodes
misi sakuTari principebis, meTodebisa da samecniero kvlevisTvis damaxasiaTebeli TavisuflebiT, raTa ufro Rrmad moxdes maTi daufleba, ufro
safuZvlianad iqnes ganxiluli axali epoqis SekiTxvebi da YZiebebi, ufro
cxadi gaxdes sarwmunoebisa da gonebis erTsulovneba. es aris eklesiis moZRvarTa, kerZod, wm. Toma akvinelis, gza.31 ase, sajarod, stabilurad da uni28
Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. ad Consociationem Cathol. Italicam Magistrorum scholarum secundarium
(U.I.C.I.I.M.), 5 ian. 1954, l.c. p. 555.
29
Sdr. PAULUS VI, alloc. ad Officium Internationale Educationis Catholicae (O.I.E.C.), 25 febr.
1964: Encicliche e Discorsi di Paolo VI, II, Roma 1964, p. 232.
30
Sdr. PAULUS VI, alloc. ad Associationem Christianam Operariorum Italiae (A.C.L.I.), 6 oct. 1963:
Encicliche e Discorsi di Paolo VI, I, Roma 1964, p. 229.
31
Sdr. PAULUS VI, alloc. coram VI Congressu Thomistico Onternaionali, 10 spt. 1965: LOsservatore Romanoo, 13-14 sept. 1965.

205

vatikanis II kreba

versalurad unda monawileobdes qristianuli azri ufro maRali kulturis ganviTarebis mcdelobaSi, xolo am institutebis aRsazrdelebi ganswavlul adamianebad unda Camoyalibdnen, romlebic mzad iqnebian, Seasrulon sazogadoebaSi seriozuli movaleobebi da iyvnen sarwmunoebis mowmeni
samyaroSi.32
kaTolikur universitetebSi, sadac ar aris Teologiis fakulteti, unda
iyos Teologiis instituti an kaTedra, sadac leqciebs saero studentebsac
waukiTxaven. cxadia, rom mecnierebis winsvla ganisazRvreba maRal samecniero doneze Sesrulebuli specialuri kvlevebiT. amitom kaTolikur universitetebSi da fakultetebze gansakuTrebiT im institutebs sWirdeba
mxardaWera, romlebic, upirveles yovlisa, samecniero gamokvlevebs emsaxureba.
wmida krebis dabejiTebiTi rCevaa, ganviTardes kaTolikuri universitetebi da fakultetebi, gavrcelebuli dedamiwis sxvadasxva kuTxeSi, gamorCeuli ara imdenad raodenobiT, rogorc samecniero doniT. isini xelmisawvdomi unda gaxdes niWieri studentebisTvis, maT Soris xelmokleTaTvis, gansakuTrebiT ki axali erebis warmomdgenlebisTvis.
sazogadoebisa da Tavad eklesiis bedi mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli
axalgazrdebis warmatebebTan, romlebic umaRles ganaTlebas iReben.33 amitom eklesiis mwyemsebma ara marto gulmodgined unda izrunon kaTolikuri
universitetebis aRsazrdelTa sulieri cxovrebisTvis, aramed yvela Tavis
Svilze unda ifiqron. episkoposTa Soris saTanado Tanxmobisas, maT arakaTolikur universitetebSic unda uzrunvelyon kaTolikuri sacxovreblebisa da kaTolikuri sauniversiteto centrebis arseboba, romlebSic
mRvdelmsaxurni, rogorc moweseni, aseve saeroni, guldasmiT arCeulni da
momzadebulni, mudam gauweven sulier da inteleqtualur daxmarebas sauniversiteto axalgazrdobas. kaTolikuri Tu sxva universitetebis gansakuTrebiT niWieri axalgazrdebi, swavlebis an kvlevis unariT dajildevebulni, sagangebo mzrunvelobiT unda aRizardon da moZRvrobisTvis moemzadon.
11. eklesia bevrs moelis wmida mecnierebaTa fakultetebis saqmianobisagan.34 eklesia maT miandobs umniSvnelovanes movaleobas: moamzadon sakuTari aRsazrdelebi ara marto samRvdelo msaxurebisTvis, aramed umaRles
saeklesio dawesebulebebSi swavlebisaTvis, individualuri samecniero
muSaobisTvis, inteleqtualuri mociqulobis gansakuTrebiT rTuli amocanebisTvis. aseve am fakultetebis saqmea wmida disciplinaTa sxvadasxva sferoebis safuZvliani kvleva, raTa ufro Rrmad iyos gagebuli wmida
gamocxadeba, ufro xelmisawvdomi gaxdes winaparTagan gadmocemuli qristianuli sibrZnis memkvidreoba, ganviTardes dialogi ZmebTan da araqristianebTan, da gaeces pasuxi SekiTxvebs, romlebic mecnierebaTa progresis
gamo daisva.35
32
Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. ad magistros et alumnos Institutorum Superiorum Cathol. Galliae, 21 sept.
1950: Discorsi e Radiomessaggi 18, pp. 219-221. misive, litt. ad XXII Congressum Pax Romana, 12 aug.
1952: Discorsi e Radiomeesagi 14, pp. 567-569. IOANNES XXIII, alloc. ad Foederationem Universitatum
Catholicarum, 1 apr. 1959: Discorsi, Messagi, Colloqui, Im Roma 1960, pp. 226-229. PAULUS VI, alloc. ad
Senatum Academicum Universitatis Catholicae Mediolanensis, 5 apr. 1964: Encicliche e Discorsi di Paolo VI, II,
Roma 1964, pp. 438-443.
33
Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. ad Senatum Academicum er alumnos Universitatis Romanae, 15 iunii 1952:
Discorsi e Radiomessaggi 14, p. 208: xvalindeli sazogadoebis mmarTveloba arsebiTad efuZneba dRevandeli universitetebis gonebasa da guls.
34
Sdr. PIUS XI, Const. apost. Deus Scientiarum Dominus, 24 maii 1931: AAS 23 (1931), pp. 245247.
35
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Humani Generis, 12 aug. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), pp. 568 s., 578. PAULUS

206

GRAVISSIMUM
NOSTRA AETATE
EDUCATIONIS

amitom saeklesio fakultetebma, sakuTari kanonebis saTanadod gadasinjviT, safuZvlianad unda ganaviTaron wmida mecnierebebi da monaTesave
disciplinebi, gamoiyenon uaxlesi meTodebi da saSualebebi, da moamzadon
msmenelebi ufro Rrma gamokvlevebisTvis.
12. TanamSromloba, romelic diocezur, erovnul da saerTaSoriso doneze sul ufro saWiro da mtkice xdeba, saskolo saqmeSic Zalian aucilebelia. amitom yovelgvari Zalisxmeva aris saWiro kaTolikur skolebs Soris
koordinaciis dasamyareblad, agreTve maT da sxva skolebs Soris TanamSromlobis ganviTarebisTvis, rac adamianTa mTeli erTobis keTildReobas
emsaxureba.36
ufro safuZvliani koordinacia da erToblivi saqme ufro did nayofs
gamoiRebs, gansakuTrebiT umaRles skolebSi. amitom yvela universitetis
sxvadasxva fakulteti erTmaneTs unda daexmaros, ramdenadac amis saSualebas sagani iZleva. Tavad universitetebSic unda miiswrafodnen mWidro urTierTTanamSromlobisken, erTad unda moawyon saerTaSoriso konferenciebi, gainawilon samecniero kvlevis sferoebi, swrafad acnobon erTmaneTs
aRmoCenebi da droebiT gacvalon pedagogebi, mokled, yvelaferi gaakeTon
TanamSromlobis gansamtkiceblad.
daskvna
wm. kreba dabejiTebiT mouwodebs axalgazrdebs, gaacnobieron aRmzrdelobiTi amocanebis mniSvneloba da keTilSobilurad iyvnen mzad am saqmisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT im qveynebSi, sadac maswavlebelTa nakleboba safrTxes uqmnis axalgazrdebis aRzrdas.
wm. kreba uRrmes madlobas gamoTqvams mRvdelmsaxurebis, mowese Zmebisa
da debis, agreTve saero pirebis mimarT. saxarebis suliT gamsWvalulni, isini SesaniSnav movaleobas asruleben da aRmzrdelobiT saqmes nebismieri saxisa da donis skolaSi ewevian. wm. kreba mouwodebs maT, ganagrZon saqme, romelic ikisres, aRsazrdelebi qristes suliT STaagonon, da ise gamorCeulni iyvnen pedagogiur xelovnebasa da samecniero muSaobaSi, rom ara marto
eklesiis Sida ganaxlebas Seuwyon xeli, aramed Seinaxon da gaaRrmavon misi
keTilmyofeli arseboba (praesentiam) dRevandel samyaroSi, gansakuTrebiT
inteleqtualur sferoSi.
yovelive erTad da cal-calke, rac am deklaraciaSi gamocxadda, wmida krebis mamebma moiwones. da Cvenc amas im samociqulo
uflebamosilebiT, romelic qristesagan gadmogveca, pativdebul mamebTan erTad suli wmidaSi veTanxmebiT, vadgenT da
vawesebT, da vbrZanebT, rom is, rac krebaze dadginda, gamoqveyndes sadideblad RmrTisa.

romi, wm. petresTan, 1965 wlis 28 noemberi


me, pavle, kaTolike eklesiis episkoposi
(mohyveba mamaTa xelmowerebi)

VI, encycl. Ecclesiam suam, Pars III, 6 aug. 1964: AAS 56 (1964), pp. 637-659. CONC.VAT. II, Decret. de
Oecumenismo.
36
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Pacem in terris, 11 apr. 1963: AAS 55 (1963), pp. 284 et passim.

207

deklaracia
eklesiis damokidebulebis Sesaxeb
araqristianuli religiebis mimarT
NOSTRA AETATE

pavle episkoposi,
RmrTis msaxurTa msaxuri,
wmida krebis mamebTan erTad,
samudamo saxsovrad

deklaracia
eklesiis damokidebulebis Sesaxeb
araqristianuli religiebis mimarT
1. Cvens droSi, roca kacobrioba sul ufro mWidrod erTiandeba da izrdeba kavSirebi sxvadasxva erebs Soris, eklesia ufro Rrmad ufiqrdeba sakiTxs, Tu rogori unda iyos misi damokidebuleba araqristianuli religiebis
mimarT. eklesiis movaleobaa, xeli Seuwyos erTianobasa da siyvaruls adamianTa Soris da, Sesabamisad, xalxTa Sorisac. amitom eklesia, upirveles
yovlisa, ufiqrdeba imas, Tu ra aqvT adamianebs saerTo da ra ubiZgebs maT
urTierTobisaken.
yvela xalxi erT sazogadoebas warmoadgens, maT erTi warmomavloba aqvT.
RmerTma xom adamianTa mTeli modgma mTels dedamiwaze ganasaxla.1 maT aqvT
erTi mizani: RmerTi, romlis winaswargangeba, sikeTis mowmoba da gamoxsnis
Sesaxeb fiqrebi yvelaze ganefineba,2 sanam rCeulni ar gaerTiandebian wmida
qalaqSi, romelsac gananaTlebs RmrTis dideba, da sadac xalxebi ivlian mis
naTelSi.3
sxvadasxva religiebisgan adamianebi elian pasuxs adamianuri yofierebis
dafarul amocanebze, romlebic, rogorc uwin, aseve dResac, adamianTa gulebs Rrmad aRelvebs: mainc ra aris adamiani? ra azri da ra mizani aqvs Cvens
cxovrebas? ra aris sikeTe da ra aris codva? saidan warmoiqmneba tanjva da
ra daniSnuleba aqvs mas? romeli gza migviyvans WeSmarit bednierebasTan?
ra aris sikvdili, samsjavro da sazRauri sikvdilis Semdgom? dabolos, ra
aris is ukanaskneli da gamouTqmeli saidumloeba, romelic moicavs Cvens
arsebobas, saidanac warmoviqmnebiT da saiTkenac miviswrafviT.
2. ukve Zveli droidan dRemde sxvadasxva xalxebSi arsebobs erTgvari
aRqmis unari im dafaruli Zalis mimarT, romelic adamianis cxovrebaSi saganTa da movlenaTa cvlis Tanaarsia. zogjer es aris uzenaesi RmrTaebis
an sulac mamis aRiareba. es aRqma da aRiareba maT cxovrebas Rrma religiuri SinaarsiT msWvalavs. religiebi, romlebic kulturis progresTan aris
dakavSirebuli, cdilobs, amave SekiTxvebs pasuxi gasces ufro faqizi cnebebiTa da ufro daxvewili eniT. ase, induizmSi adamianebi ikvleven saRmrTo saidumloebas da gamoxataven mas miTebis amouwuravi nayofierebiTa da
filosofiis gamWvalavi cnebebiT. isini cdiloben, gaTavisufldnen Cveni
yofierebis SiSebisagan. amisTvis isini mimarTaven asketuri cxovrebis formebs, Rrma meditacias, an siyvaruliTa da ndobiT TavSesafars pouloben
RmerTSi. budizmSi, misi sxvadasxva formis Sesabamisad, aRiareben am cvalebadi samyaros ukidures ukmarisobas da aswavlian im gzis Sesaxeb, romliTac adamianebi, RmrTismosavi da ndobiT aRsavse guliT, SeZleben miaRwion
1
2
3

Sdr. saqme 17, 26.


Sdr. sibr. 8, 1; saq. 14, 17; rom. 2, 6-7; 1tim. 2, 4.
Sdr. gamocx. 21, 23s.

211

vatikanis II kreba

sruli Tavisuflebis statuss an uzenaes gasxivosnebas, sakuTari SesaZleblobebiTa Tu zemodan SemweobiT. aseve sxva religiebi, romlebic mTels
msoflioSi arsebobs, cdilobs, sxdasxva saSualebebiT dauxvdes adamianTa
sulier mousvenrobas da SesTavazos gzebi, ese igi moZRvrebani, cxovrebiseuli darigebebi da wmida wesebi.
kaTolike eklesia ar uaryofs arafers iqidan, rac am religiebSi aris
WeSmariti da wmida. is gulwrfeli pativiscemiT ganixilavs moqmedebisa da
cxovrebis im formebs, darigebebsa da moZRvrebebs, romlebsac miuxedavad
maTi didi gansxvavebisa imisgan, rasac Tavad eklesia emxroba da aswavlis
xSirad moaqvs sxivi im WeSmaritebisa, romelic yvela adamians gananaTlebs.
is auwyebs da ganuxrelad unda auwyebdes qristes, romelic aris gza, WeSmariteba da cxovreba (ioan. 14, 6). masSi adamianebi hpoveben religiuri cxovrebis sisavses, romelSic RmerTma yvelaferi Semoiriga.4
maSasadame, is mouwodebs Tavis Svilebs, rom gonivrulad da siyvaruliT,
sxva religiaTa mimdevrebTan saubrisa da TanamSromlobis gziT, maT daamowmon qristianuli sarwmunoeba da cxovreba, aRiaron, Seinaxon da ganaviTaron is sulieri da moraluri sikeTeebi da is socio-kulturuli Rirebulebebi, romlebic maT aqvT.
3. eklesia pativiscemiT uyurebs muslimebsac, romlebic Tayvans scemen erT RmerTs, cocxalsa da arsebuls (subsistentem), mowyalesa da yovlisSemZles, cisa da miwis Semoqmeds,5 adamianebTan mosaubres. isini mTeli suliT cdiloben, mis dafarul zraxvebsac (decretis) ki daemorCilon, rogorc
abrahami daemorCila RmerTs (islamuri sarwmunoeba siamovnebiT imowmebs
xolme mas). muslimebi ar aRiareben iesos rogorc RmerTs, magram pativs
scemen mas rogorc winaswarmetyvels da eTayvanebian mis dedas, qalwul
mariams, romelsac zogjer mowiwebiT uxmoben kidec. amasTan erTad, isini
elian gankiTxvis dRes, rodesac RmerTi miuzRavs yvela aRmdgar adamians.
amrigad, isini pativs scemen zneobriv cxovrebas da RmerTs Tayvans scemen
locviT, mowyalebiTa da marxviT.
saukuneTa manZilze mravali uTanxmoeba da mtroba gaCnda qristianebsa
da muslimebs Soris, da mainc, wmida kreba yvelas mouwodebs, daiviwyon warsuli, gulrwfelad Seecadon, gaugon erTmaneTs da yvela adamianisaTvis
daicvan da ganaviTaron socialuri samarTlianoba, zneobrivi Rirebulebebi, mSvidoba da Tavisufleba.
4. eklesiis saidumloebis kvlevisas es wmida kreba mogvagonebs im kavSiris Sesaxeb, romliTac axali aRTqmis xalxi abrahamis modgmasTan aris dakavSirebuli.
qristes eklesia scnobs, rom misi sarwmunoebisa da rCeulobis sawyisebi, gamoxsnis saRmrTo saidumloebis Tanaxmad, ukve gvaqvs patriarqebTan,
mosesa da winaswarmetyvelebTan. igi aRiarebs, rom qristes yvela erTguli, sarwmunoebiT abrahamis Svili,6 mowodebulia am patriarqis mier, xolo
eklesiis gamoxsna saidumlod miniSnebulia rCeuli eris gamosvlaSi monobis miwidan. amitom eklesias ar SeuZlia daiviwyos, rom man Zveli aRTqmis
gamocxadeba miiRo im eris meSveobiT, romelTanac RmerTma Tavisi gamouTqmeli gulmowyaleobiT Zveli kavSiris dadeba ineba. eklesia verc imas
daiviwyebs, rom is sazrdoobs im keTili zeTisxilis fesvisgan, romelzec
4
Sdr. 2kor. 5, 18-19.
5
Sdr. S. GREGORIUS VII, Epist. 21 ad Anzir (Nacir), regem Mauritaniae: ed. CASPAR in MGH Ep.
sel. II, 1920, I, p. 288, 11-15; PL 148, 450 s.
6
Sdr. gal. 3, 7.

212

NOSTRA AETATE

damynobilia veluri zeTisxilis rtoebi warmarTni.7 eklesias swams, rom


qristem, mSvidobam Cvenma, jvris meSveobiT Seariga iudevelebi da warmarTebi da Tavis TavSi orive gaaerTiana.8
eklesias yovelTvis Tvalwin aqvs mociquli pavles sityvebi misi modgmis
adamianTa Sesaxeb: romelTa-iyo Svileba da dideba da aRTqumani da Sjulis-debani da msaxurebani da miTxrobani; romelTani iyvnes mamani da romelTagan qriste orcielad (rom. 9, 4-5), romelic aris Ze qalwuli mariamisa. eklesias isic axsovs, rom mociqulebi eklesiis saZirkvelni da svetni
- iudevelTa erSi iSvnen, iseve rogorc maTi pirveli mowafeebi, romlebmac
qristes saxareba auwyes samyaros.
wmida werilis mowmobiT, ierusalimma ver Seicno Tavisi moxilvis Jami,9
iudevelebma ar miiRes saxarebis didi nawili, bevri maTgani ki sulac daupirispirda mis gavrcelebas.10 miuxedavad amisa, mociqulis Tanaxamad, iudevelebi, mamaTa gamo, dRemde sayvarelni arian RmrTisaTvis, romlis niWni da
mowodeba Seunanebelia.11 winaswarmetyvelebTan da imave mociqulTan erTad
eklesia elodeba dRes, romelic mxolod RmrTisaTvis aris cnobili, rodesac yvela eri erTxmad mouwodebs ufals da mas erTsulovnad emsaxureba
(sof. 3, 9).12
Zalze didi sulieri memkvidreoba saerToa qristianebisa da iudevelebisTvis. amitom wmida krebas surs, xeli Seuwyos da ganaviTaros urTierTgageba da pativiscema orive mxridan, rac, upirveles yovlisa, bibliuri da
Teologiuri kvleviTa da Zmuri saubrebiT miiRweva.
iudevel xelisufalTa da maTi momxreebis moTxovna iyo qristes sikvdili.13 miuxedavad amisa, mis vnebaSi damnaSaved ver miviCnevT ganurCevlad yvela iudevels, arc maT, vinc maSin cxovrobda, arc Cvens Tanamedroves. eklesias SeiZleba vuwodoT RmrTis axali eri. amis miuxedavad, iudevelebi ar
unda warmovadginoT rogorc RmrTisagan gankicxulebi da dawyevlilebi,
TiTqos es wmida werilidan gamomdinareobdes. amitom sayuradReboa, rom
katexizmoSi da RmrTis sityvis qadagebaSi ar aswavlon is, rac ar Seesabameba
saxarebis WeSmaritebas da qristes suls.
eklesia kicxavs yovelgvar devnas nebismieri adamianis mimarT. mas axsovs,
rom saerTo memkvidreoba aqvs iudevelebTan. mas politikuri mosazrebebi
ki ar amoZravebs, aramed saxarebiseuli siyvaruli. is Rrmad wuxs yovelgvari siZulvilis, devnisa da antisemitizmis gamovlinebis gamo, rac ki odesme
an vinmes mier iudevelTa winaaRmdeg yofila mimarTuli.
eklesia yovelTvis miiCnevda da miiCnevs, rom qristem Tavisi usazRvro
siyvaruliT nebayoflobiT daiTmina vneba da sikvdili yvela adamianis codvis gamo, raTa yvela gamoxsniliyo. eklesiis amocanaa, qadagebisas auwyos
qristes jvari, rogorc RmrTis sayovelTao siyvarulis niSani da yoveli
madlis wyaro.
5. Cven ar SegviZlia movuwodoT RmerTs, yvelas mamas, Tu uars vambobT
Zmurad movepyraT zogierT adamians, RmrTis xatad Seqmnils. adamianis mimarTeba RmrTisadmi mamisadmi da adamianis mimarTeba adamianebisadmi
Zmebisadmi imdenad aris erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli, rom wmida werili
ambobs: romelsa ara uyuardes, man ara icis RmerTi (1ioan. 4, 8).
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Sdr. rom. 11, 17-24.


Sdr. efes. 2, 14-16.
Sdr. luk. 19, 44.
Sdr. rom. 11, 28.
Sdr. rom. 11, 28-29. Sdr. Const. dogm. Lumen Gentium, n. 16.
Sdr. es. 66, 23; fs. 66, 4
Sdr. ioan. 19, 6.

213

vatikanis II kreba

amgvarad, safuZveli ecleba yovelgvar Teoriasa Tu praqtikas, romelsac Semoaqvs gansxvaveba Rirsebisa da, Sesabamisad, uflebebis sakiTxSi adamiansa da adamians Soris, xalxsa da xalxs Soris.
maSasadame, eklesia gmobs adamianTa Soris yovelgvar diskriminacias da
Zaladobas rasisa Tu kanis feris, socialuri mdgomareobisa Tu religiis
gamo. amitom wmida kreba, romelic mihyveba wmida mociqulTa _ petresa da
pavles kvals, mxurvaled evedreba qristes erTgulebs: slva Tqueni warmarTTa Soris gaqunden keTili (1petre 2, 12), rom maT hqondeT, Tu SesaZlebelia, mSvidoba yvela adamianTan,14 raTa SeWmaritad iyvnen Svilebi mamisa,
romelic aris caTa Sina.15
yovelive erTad da cal-calke, rac am deklaraciaSi gamocxadda, wmida krebis mamebma moiwones. da Cvenc, im samociqulo
uflebamosilebiT, romelic qristesgan gadmogveca, amas pativdebul mamebTan erTad suli wmidaSi veTanxmebiT, vadgenT
da vawesebT, da vbrZanebT, rom is, rac krebaze dadginda, gamoqveyndes sadideblad RmrTisa.

romi, wm. petresTan, 1965 wlis 28 oqtomberi


me, pavle, kaTolike eklesiis episkoposi
(mohyveba mamaTa xelmowerebi)

14
15

214

Sdr. rom. 12, 18.


Sdr. maT. 5, 45

dogmaturi konstitucia
saRmrTo gamocxadebis Sesaxeb
DEI VERBUM

DEI VERBUM

pavle episkoposi,
RmrTis msaxurTa msaxuri,
wmida krebis mamebTan erTad,
samudamo saxsovrad

dogmaturi konstitucia
saRmrTo gamocxadebis Sesaxeb
Sesavali
1. RmrTis sityvis krZalulebiT msmeneli da darwmunebiT ganmcxadebeli wmida kreba misdevs wm. ioanes sityvebs: giTxrobT Tquen cxorebasa mas
saukunesa, romeli iyo mamasa Tana da gamogCnda Cuen; romeli guesma da vixileT, giTxrobT Tquen, raTa Tquenca ziareba gaqundes Cuen Tana da ziareba Cueni mamisa Tana da Zisa misisa Tana ieso qristessa (1ioane 1, 2-3). amitom
krebas, tridentisa da vatikanis I krebaTa mimdevars, ganzraxuli aqvs warmoadginos WeSmariti moZRvreba saRmrTo gamocxadebisa da misi gadmocemis
Sesaxeb, raTa gamoxsnis uwyebis mosmeniT mTelma msofliom irwmunos, rwmeniT imedovnebdes, imedovnebiT uyvardes.1
Tavi I
Tavad gamocxadeba
2. RmerTma misi saTnoebiTa da sibrZniT isurva Tavisi Tavis gamocxadeba da
uwyeba Tavisi nebis saidumlosi (Sdr. efes. 1, 9), romliTac adamianebi qristes,
ganxorcielebuli sityvis saSualebiT suli wmidaSi mamas mieaxlebian da saRmrTo bunebis Tanamoziareni xdebian (Sdr. efes. 2, 18; 2 petr. I, 4). am gamocxadebiT
uxilavi RmerTi (Sdr. kol. I, 15; 1tim. 1, 17) Tavisi siyvarulis siuxviT adamianebs, rogorc megobrebs, mimarTavs (Sdr. gamosvl. 33, 11; ioane 15, 14-15) da maTTan saubrobs (Sdr. bar. 3, 38), raTa isini TavisTan saurTierTod miiwvios da am
urTierTobis wevrebad miiRos. gamocxadebis es gangebuleba iqmneba qmedebaTa
da sityvaTa Sinagani urTierTkavSiriT, iseve rogorc saqmeni, gamoxsnis istoriaSi RmrTis mier aRsrulebulni, cxadyofen da ganamtkiceben moZRvrebasa da
mas, rac sityvebiT gamoxatula, xolo sityvebi gvauwyeben saqmeebs da aSuqeben
saidumlos, romelsac isini Seicaven. rogorc RmrTis, aseve adamianTa gamoxsnis Sesaxeb Rrma WeSmariteba CvenTvis am gamocxadebiT qristeSi sxivosndeba,
romelic aris Suamavali da imavdroulad mTeli gamocxadebis sisavse.2
3. RmerTma, sityviT yovelives Semqmnelma (Sdr. ioan. 1, 3) da Semnaxvelma, _
romelic qmnilebebSi mudmivad amowmebs Tavis Tavs adamianTaTvis (Sdr. rom. I,
19-20) da uzenaesi gamoxsnis gzis gaxsnas ganizraxavs, _ dasabamiTve gamouCina Tavisi Tavi Cvens pirvelwinaparT. maTi dacemis Semdeg man isini gamosyidvis
dapirebiT gamoxsnis imediT aRadgina (Sdr. dab. 3, 15). igi ganuwyvetlad zrunavda adamianTa modgmisTvis, rom yvelasTvis, vinc erTgulebiT keTil saqmeebSi
gamoxsnas eZiebda, saukuno cxovreba eCuqebina (Sdr. rom. 2, 6-7). Tavis droze
man abraams mouwoda, raTa misi STamomavloba did xalxad eqcia (Sdr. dab. 12,
1
2

Sdr. S. AUGUSTINUS, De cathechizandis rudibus, c. IV, 8: PL 40, 316.


Sdr. maTe 11, 27; ioane 1, 14 da 17; 14, 6; 17, 1-3; 2 kor. 3, 16 da 4, 6; ef. 1, 3-14.

217

vatikanis II kreba

2). RmerTma es xalxi patriarqebis Semdeg mosesa da winaswarmetyvelTa mier ganaswavla, raTa xalxs igi ecno erTaderT cocxal da WeSmarit RmerTad, winaganmgebel mamad da samarTlian msajulad, da dalodeboda aRTqmul mxsnels.
ase, saukuneTa manZilze, man ganumzada gza saxarebas.
4. mas Semdeg, rac RmerTma mravalgzis da mravalgvarad winaswarmetyvelTa piriT ilaparaka, igi ukuanasknelTa amaT dReTa metyoda Cuen Zisa mier
Tsisa (ebr. 1, 1-2). man marTlac gamogzavna Tavisi Ze _ saukuno sityva, romelic yvela adamians gananaTlebs (illuminat), raTa Zem icxovros adamianTa
Soris da maT RmrTis saidumloni auwyos (Sdr. ioan. 1, 1-18). ieso qriste,
ganxorcielebuli sityva, adamiani adamianebTan movlinebuli,3 sityuaTa RmrTisaTa itys (ioan. 3, 34) da asrulebs gamoxsnis saqmes, romelic mas
mamam misca saqmnelad (Sdr. ioan. 5, 36; 17, 4). amitom igi, visi mxilvelic xedavs mamasac (Sdr. ioan. 14, 9), srulad aRasrulebs gamocxadebas, aRasrulebs mTeli Tavisi aqmyofobiTa (praesentia) da gamoCinebiT, sityvebiTa da
saqmeebiT, niSnebiTa da saswaulebiT, gansakuTrebiT ki Tavisi sikvdiliTa da mkvdreTiT brwyinvale aRdgomiT, da bolos WeSmaritebis suli wmidis movlinebiT. saRmrTo mowmeobiT ieso qriste adasturebs, rom RmerTi
namdvilad CvenTan aris, raTa codvisa da sikvdilis wyvdiadisagan gagvaTavisuflos da saukuno cxovrebaSi aRgvadginos.
maSasadame, qristianuli gangebuleba, ramdenadac is aris axali da saboloo kavSiri (foedus... definitivum), arasodes gardava, da ukve ar aris mosalodneli araviTari axali sajaro gamocxadeba brwyinvale gamoCinebamde uflisa Cvenisa ieso qristesi (Sdr. 1tim. 6, 14 da tit. 2, 13).
5. gamomcxadebeli RmrTis mimarT Segvferis sarwmunoebis morCileba
(rom. 16, 26; Sdr. rom. 1, 5; 2 kor. 10, 5-6), romliTac adamiani mTlianad da Tavisuflad eZleva RmerTs, roca gonebasa da nebas srulad uqvemdebarebs
gamomcxadebel RmerTs4 da misgan mocemul gamocxadebas nebayoflobiT
iRebs. am sarwmunoebis arsebobisTvis saWiroa RmrTis madli, romelic mas
winuZRvis da exmareba, da suli wmidis Sinagani Semweoba, romelic aRZravs
guls da mas RmrTisken miaqcevs, gonebas Tvals uxels, da aniWebs yvelas
WeSmaritebis miRebisa da rwmenis sitkboebas.5 imisaTvis, raTa kidev ufro
gaRrmavdes gamocxadebis gageba, suli wmida Tavis niWTa saSualebiT (per
dona sua) ganuwyvetliv srulyofs sarwmunoebas.
6. RmerTma ineba, saRmrTo gamocxadebiT gamoeCina da emcno Tavisi Tavi
da adamianTa gamoxsnasTan dakavSirebuli Tavisi nebis saukuno gadawyvetilebebi (decreta), raTa isini saRmrTo saTnoebebs eziaron, romlebic sruliad aRemateba adamianuri gansjisaTvis xelmisawvdom gagebas.6
wmida kreba aRiarebs (confitetur), rom RmerTi, yovelives Tavi da bolo,
namdvilad SeiZleba Secnobil iqnas qmnilebaTa safuZvelze adamianuri gonebis bunebrivi naTliT (Sdr. rom. 1, 20). kreba aswavlis, rom am gamocxadebas unda vumadlodeT, rom is, rac saRmrTo saqmeTa Soris adamianuri
gonebisTvis TavisTavad miuwvdomeli ar aris, yvelam SeiZleba Seicnos
adamianuri modgmis dRevandel mdgomareobaSic, Seicnos advilad, mtkice
darwmunebulobiTa da Secdomis yovelgvari minarevis gareSe.7
3
4
5
6
7

218

Epist. ad Diognetum, 8, 4: Funk I, 403.


Conc. Vat. I, Const. dogm. De fide cath., cap. 3 de fide: DENZ. 1789 (3008).
Conc. Araus, II, can. 7: Denz. 180 (377). Conc. Vat. I, l. c.: DENZ, 1791 (3010).
Conc. Vat. I, Const. dogm. De fide cath., cap. 2 de revelatione: DENZ. 1786 (3005).
iqve, DENZ. 1785 da 1786 (3004 da 3005).

DEI VERBUM

Tavi II
saRmrTo gamocxadebis gadmocema
7. rac RmerTma yvela xalxTa xsnisaTvis gamogvicxada, man es ukeTilesad
ise ganawesa, rom saukunod xelisSeuxebad egos (permanerent) da yvela Taobas
gadmoeces. amitom qristem _ ufalma, romelSic uzenaesi RmrTis mTeli gamocxadeba sruldeba (Sdr. 2 kor. 1, 20; 3, 16 _ 4, 6), daakisra mociqulebs, rom
saxareba, adre winaswarmetyvelTa mier aRTqmuli, Tavad mis mier aRsrulebuli da sakuTari piriT gancxadebuli, yvelas uqadagon, rogorc xsnis
yvela WeSmaritebisa da zneobrivi wesis wyaro,8 da amcnon saRmrTo niWni. es
erTgulad Seasrules im mociqulebma, romlebmac zepir qadagebaSi, magaliTebsa da dawesebulebebSi (institutionibus) is gadmosces, rac qristes bageTagan, saubridan Tu saqmeTagan Seityves an suli wmidis CagonebiT Seicnes,
aseve im mociqulebma da samociqulo mamebma, romelTac, imave suli wmidis
STagonebiT, werilobiT gvauwyes xsnis Sesaxeb.9
imisaTvis, raTa saxareba yovelTvis xelSeuxeblad da cocxlad Senaxuliyo eklesiaSi, mociqulebma memkvidreebad datoves episkoposebi, romelTac
Tavisi sakuTari samoZRvro xarisxi gadasces.10 es wmida gadmocema da orive
aRTqmis wmida werili aris sarkesaviT, romelSic eklesia Tavis miwier gzaze
Wvrets RmerTs; RmrTisagan eklesia yvelafers iRebs, sanam ar miva iqamde, rom
RmerTi pirispir ixilos, imgvarad, rogoric is aris (Sdr. 1ioan. 3, 2).
8. amgvarad, samociqulo qadageba, romelic STagonebis gziT daweril
wignebSi gansakuTrebuli saxiT gadmoica, droTa dasasrulamde uwyveti
memkvidreobiT unda Senaxuliyo. amitom mociqulebi, romlebic gadmoscemen imas, rac Tavad miiRes, mouwodeben erTgulT, misdion gadmocemebs,
romlebic sityvisa Tu werilis saSualebiT SeiTvises (Sdr. 2Tes. 2, 15), da
ibrZolon sarwmunoebisTvis, romelic maT erTxel gadmoecaT (Sdr. iud.
3).11 mociqulTagan gadmocemuli moicavs yvelafers, rac xels uwyobs RmrTis xalxis cxovrebis wmidad warmarTvasa da sarwmunoebis zrdas. ase, Tavis
moZRvrebaSi, cxovrebasa da RmrTismsaxurebaSi eklesia maradamyofebs (perpetuat) da yvela Taobas gadascems yovelives, rac Tavad aris, yovelives, rac
swams.
mociqulTagan momdinare es gadmocema suli wmidis SemweobiT eklesiaSi viTardeba:12 izrdeba gadmocemul saqmeTa da sityvaTa wvdoma, rogorc
morwmuneTa WvretiTa da swavliT, romlebic yovelive amas Tavis gulSi
Semoikreben (Sdr. luk. 2, 19 da 51), aseve gancdil sulier saqmeTa Sinagani
gagebiT, da agreTve imaTi uwyebiT (praeconio), vinc saepiskoposo memkvidreobiT WeSmaritebis myari (certum) qarizma miiRo. ase, saukuneTa svlaSi, eklesia
ganuwyvetliv miiswrafis saRmrTo WeSmaritebis sisavsisaken, sanam masSi ar
aRsruldeba sityvani RmrTisani.
wmida mamaTa naTqvamni adastureben am gadmocemis macocxlebel awmyoobas (praesentiam), romlis simdidre morwmune da mlocveli (orantis) eklesiis
moRvaweobasa da cxovrebas Seerwymis. amave gadmocemiT cnobili xdeba wmida wignTa mTliani kanoni; Tavad wmida wignebi eklesiaSi ufro Rrmad gai8
Sdr. Mt. 28, 19 20 da Mc. 16, 15. Conc. Trid., Sess. 4, decr. De canonicis Scripturis : DENZ.
783 (1501).
9
Sdr. Conc. Trid., l. c. Conc. Vat. I, Sess. 3, Const. dogm. De fide catholica, cap. 2 de revelatione :
DENZ, 1787 (3006).
10
S. IRENAEUS, Adv. Haer. III, 1: PG 7, 848; Harvey, 2, p. 9
11
Sdr. Conc. Nicaenum II: Denz. 303 (602). Conc. Const. IV, Sess. 10, can. 1: DENZ. 336 (650652).
12
Sdr. Conc. Vat. I, Const. dogm. De fide catholica, cap. 4 de fide et ratione: DENZ. 1800 (3020).

219

vatikanis II kreba

geba da ganuwyvetliv cxovelmoqmedi xdeba. ase RmerTi, romelmac adre


ilaparaka da romelic Tavisi sayvareli Zis sZals ganuwyvetliv esaubreba,
da suli wmida, romlis saSualebiT saxarebis cocxali xma JRers eklesiaSi,
xolo eklesiis saSualebiT samyaroSi, morwmuneT uZRveba WeSmaritebis
sisavseSi da maTSi amkvidrebs qristes sityvas (Sdr. kol. 3, 16).
9. amgvarad, wmida gadmocema da wmida werili erTmaneTTan mWidrod kavSirsa da urTierTobaSi arian: orive, erTi da imave saRmrTo wyarodan momdinare, garkveulwilad erT mTlianobad Seirwymis da erTi da imave miznisken
iswrafvis. marTlac, wmida werili aris RmrTis laparaki (locutio), ramdenadac is saRmrTo sulis STagonebiT Seqmnili naweriT dasturdeba, xolo
wmida gadmocema sityvas RmrTisas (verbum Dei), romelic ufalma qristem da
suli wmidam mociqulebs miando, maT memkvidreebs srulad gadascems, raTa
mas, WeSmaritebis manaTobeli sulis SemweobiT, Tavisi qadagebiT erTgulad
emsaxuron, ganmarton is da gaavrcelon. maSasadame, eklesia Tavis darwmunebulobas yovelive gamocxadebulTan mimarTebaSi mxolod wmida werilidan ar iZens. amitom orives miReba da Tayvaniscema krZalvisa (pietatis) da pativiscemis Tanabari gancdiT gvmarTebs.13
10. Owmida gadmocema da wmida werili Seadgenen saRmrTo sityvis erT wmida saunjes, romelic eklesiisTvis iqna mindobili. masze damokidebuli
mTeli wmida xalxi, Tavis mwyemsebTan erTiani, mudmivad gankrZalulia (perservat) mociqulTa moZRvrebasa da ziarebaSi, puris gatexvasa da locvebSi
(Sdr. saqm. 2, 42). ase, gadmocemuli sarwmunoebis SenaxvaSi, aRsrulebasa da
aRsarebaSi aRmocendeba winamZRvarTa da morwmuneTa (Antistitum et fidelium) ganumeorebeli erTsulovneba.14
saRmrTo sityvis, dawerilisa Tu gadmocemulis, namdvili ganmartebis
movaleoba mxolod eklesiis cocxal moZRvrobas (magisterium) daekisra,15
romlis uflebamosileba (auctoritas) ieso qristes saxeliT sruldeba. es
moZRvroba RmrTis sityvis zemdgomi ki ar aris, aramed mas emsaxureba; is
aswavlis mxolod imas, rac gadmoica, radgan saRmrTo davalebiTa (mandato) da suli wmidis SemweobiT sityvas krZalviT ismens, mas wmidad icavs da
erTgulad ganmartavs; is rwmenis erTiani saunjidan iZens yovelive imas,
rasac warmogvidgens RmrTivgamocxadebulad da amdenad rogorc sarwmunos.
amgvarad, cxadia, rom wmida gadmocema, wmida werili da eklesiis moZRvroba, RmrTis ubrZnesi ganzraxvis (consilium) Tanaxmad, imdenad urTierTdakavSirebuli da Tanaziaria (consociari), rom uerTmaneTod ar arseboben,
da yvela erTad da TiToeuli Taviseburad, erTiani suli wmidis moqmedebiT, warmatebiT uwyobs xels sulTa gamoxsnas.
Tavi III
wmida werilis RmrTivSTagonebuloba da misi ganmarteba
11. yovelive saRmrTod gamocxadebuli, rasac wmida werili Seicavs da
warmogvidgens, suli wmidis CagonebiT Caiwera. samociqulo sarwmunoe13
Sdr. Conc. Trid., Sess. 4, l. c.: DENZ. 783 (1501).
14
Sdr. Pius XII, Const. apost. Munificentissimus Deus, 1 nov. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), p. 756, S. Cypriani, Epist. 66, 8: CSEL (Hartel) III, B, p. 733: eklesia, mRvdelTan erTiani xalxi da Tavis mwyemsze
damokidebuli samwyso.
15
Sdr. Conc. Vat. I, Const. dogm. De fide catholica, cap. 3 de fide: DENZ. 1792 (3011).

220

DEI VERBUM

bis safuZvelze, wmida dedas eklesias wmidad da kanonikurad miaCnia rogorc Zveli, aseve axali aRTqmis wignebi, mTlianad, maTi yvela nawiliTurT,
imitom rom maT, suli wmidis STagonebiT dawerilT (Sdr. ioan. 20, 31; 2 tim.
3, 16, 2pet. 1, 19-21; 3, 15-16), avtorad RmerTi hyavT, da aseTebad gadmoecnen
isini eklesias.16 wmida wignebis Sesadgenad RmerTma marTlac is adamianebi
airCia, romlebsac TavianT unarebisa da SesaZleblobebis sruli gamoyenebiT,17 Tavad RmrTis maTSi da maTi saSualebiT moqmedebis safuZvelze,18
werilobiT, rogorc namdvil avtorebs, yovelive is da mxolod is unda gadmoecaT, rac Tavad mas surda.19
yvelaferi, rasac ganacxadeben STagonebuli avtorebi anu hagiografebi, suli wmidisgan gancxadebulad unda vcnoT (retineri) da vaRiaroT, rom
wmida werilis wignebi mtkiced, erTgulad da ucdomelad aswavlian im WeSmaritebas, romelic RmerTma isurva, rom Cveni gamoxsnis mizniT, wmida
nawerTa saxiT (Litteris Sacris) aRbeWdiliyo.20 amgvarad, werili erTobili
RmrTivSTagonebul da sargebel samoZRureblad ars da samxilebelad,
gamosasworebelad da saswavlelad simarTlisa, raTa srulqmnili iyos
kaci RmrTisa, yoveli keTili saqmisTs ganmzadebuli (2tim. 3, 16-17).
12. wmida werilSi RmerTma ilaparaka adamianTa piriT, rogorc adamianma.21 imisaTvis, rom wmida werilis ganmmartebeli Caswvdes imas, risi Setyobinebac RmerTs CvenTvis surda, man yuradRebiT unda gamoikvlios, Tu ris
gamoxatvas ganizraxavdnen sinamdvileSi hagiografebi da risi gancxadeba
indoma RmerTma maTi sityvebiT.
hagiografTa ganzraxvis amosaxsnelad sxvaTa da sxvaTa Soris gasaTvaliswinebelia literaturuli Janrebi. WeSmariteba xom sxvadasxvagvarad warmogvidgeba da gamoixateba sxvadasxva teqstSi, iqneba is istoriuli, winaswarmetyveluri, poeturi Tu kidev sxva romelime Janrisa.
ganmmartebelmac is azri unda eZios, romlis gamoxatva surda hagiografs garkveul pirobebSi, droisa da kulturis garemos Sesabamisad,
da romelsac is im droisTvis damaxasiaTebeli literaturuli Janris
gamoyenebiT gamoxatavda.22 imisTvis, rom sworad gavigoT is, risi gancxadeba surda Tavisi naweriT wmida saqmeTa aRmwers (sacer auctor), saTanadod
unda gaviTvaliswinoT gancdis, Tqmis, Txrobis Cveuli, mkvidri Taviseburebebi, romlebic hagiografis dros iyo gabatonebuli, aseve is Taviseburebebi, romlebic im xanaSi iyo damaxasiaTebeli sazogadod adamianTa urTierTobebisTvis.23
wmida werili unda wakiTxul iqnes da ganimartos imave sulis saSualebiT, romlis saSualebiTac is daiwera.24 amitom wmida teqstebis azris swori
gagebisaTvis aranakleb sagulisxmoa mTliani werilis Sinaarsi da misi erTianoba, mTeli eklesiis cocxali gadmocemisa da sarwmunoebis Tanxmobis
16
Sdr. Conc. Vat. I, Const. dogm. de fide catholica, cap. 2 de revelatione: DENZ. 1787 (3006).
Comm. BIBLICA, Decr. 18 iunii 1915: DENZ. 2180 (3629); EB 420. (Enchr. Bibl.). S. S. C. S. Officii, epist.
22 dec. 1923: EB 499.
17
Sdr. Pius XII, encycl. Divino afflante Spiritu, 30 sept. 1943: AAS 35 (1943), p. 314; EB 556.
18
adamianSi da adamianis saSualebiT: Sdr. ebr. 1, 1 da 4, 7; 2 sam. 23, 2; maTe 1, 22 da sxv.
Conc. Vat. I: Schema de doctr. cath., nota 9: Coll. Lac. VII, 522.
19
Leo XIII, encycl. Providentissimus Deus, 18 nov. 1893: DENZ. 1952 (3293); EB 125.
20
Sdr. S. AUGUSTINUS, Gen. ad litt. 2, 9, 20: PL 34, 270-271; Epist. 82, 3: PL 33, 277; CSEL 34, 2,
p. 354. S. THOMAS, De ver. q. 12, a. 2, c. CONC. TRID., Sess. 4, de canonicis Scripturis: DENZ. 783 (1501).
Leo XIII, encycl. Providentissimus: EB 121, 126-127. Pius XII, encycl. Sivino afflante: EB 539.
21
S. AUGUSTINUS, De Civ. Dei, XVII, 6, 2: PL 41, 537; CSEL XL, 2, 228.
22
S. AUGUSTINUS, De Doctr. Christ., III, 18, 26: PL 34, 75-76.
23
PIUS XII, l. c.: DENZ. 229 (3829-3830); EB 557-562.
24
Sdr. BENEDICTUS XV, encycl. Spiritus Paraclitus, 15 sept. 1920: EB 469. S. HIERONYMUS,
In Gal. 5, 19-21: PL 26, 417 A..

221

vatikanis II kreba

gaTvaliswinebiT. am wesebis Sesabamisad, egzegetebma xeli unda Seuwyon wmida werilis azris ufro Rrmad gagebasa da gadmocemas, raTa maTi erTgvarad
mosamzadebeli SeswavliT eklesiis msjavri (iudicum) mwifdebodes. yvelaferi, rac werilis ganmartebis Taviseburebas Seexeba, sabolood eqvemdebareba eklesiis msjavrs, eklesia ki RmrTis sityvis SenaxviTa da ganmartebiT
asrulebs saRmrTo davalebasa da samsaxurs.25
13. amgvarad, wmida werilSi vlindeba, RmrTis Seuryvneli WeSmaritebisa
da siwmidis samudamo Senaxvisas, saukuno sibrZnis saocari Camosvla (condescensio), raTa viswavloT RmrTis gamouTqmeli saTnoeba, da is, Tu rogor
mdabldeba igi Tavis metyvelebaSi, roca Cvens bunebas winaganagebs da misTvis zrunavs.26 marTlac, RmrTis sityvani, adamianur enebze gamoxatulni,
adamianuri metyvelebis msgavsni Seiqmnen, iseve rogorc odesRac adamianTa
msgavsi Seiqmna saukuno mamis sityva, romelmac adamianuri xorcis siZabune
miiRo.
Tavi IV
YZveli aRTqma
14. uaRresad mosiyvarule RmerTma, romelic mzrunvelad ganizraxavs da
amzadebs mTeli adamianuri modgmis gamoxsnas, gansakuTrebuli gegmis safuZvelze TavisTvis airCia xalxi, romelsac dapirebebs miandobda. RmerTma
kavSiri daamyara abraamTan (Sdr. dab. 15, 18) da, moses gziT, israelis xalxTan
(Sdr. gamosvl. 24, 8), xolo am kavSiris saSualebiT gamoecxada, sityvebSica
da saqmeebSic, Tavis rCeul xalxs erTaderT WeSmarit da cocxal RmerTad.
es moxda imisTvis, raTa israels gamoecada, Tu ra saRmrTo gzebi midis adamianebisken, da, winaswarmetyvelTa piriT RmrTis saubris safuZvelze, es
gzebi dRidan dRemde sul ufro Rrmad da mkafiod gaego da maT Sesaxeb codna sul ufro farTod gaevrcelebina xalxebSi (Sdr. fs. 21, 28-29; 95, 1-3; is. 2,
1-4; ier. 3, 17). gamoxsnis gangebuleba, wmida avtorTa mier winaswarnauwyebi,
moTxrobili da ganmartebuli, Zveli aRTqmis wignebSi warmodgeba rogorc
sityva RmrTisa. amitom es RmrTivSTagonebuli wignebi waruval Rirebulebas inaxaven: rameTu raodeni-igi daiwera, Cuenda samoZRureblad daiwera,
raTa moTminebiTa miT da nugeSinis-cemiTa wignTaTa sasoeba guaqundes
(rom. 15, 4).
15. Zveli aRTqmis gangebuleba upirveles yovlisa gankuTvnili iyo
imisTvis, rom moemzadebina qristes _ sayovelTao gamomxsnelis (redemptoris) mosvla da misi mesianuri meufebis dadgoma, winaswarmetyvelurad
emcno is (Sdr. luk. 24, 44; ioan. 5, 39; 1pet. 1, 10) da sxvadasxva niSniT gamoexata (Sdr. 1kor. 10, 11). Zveli aRTqmis wignebi (isini adamianTa modgmis
im mdgomareobas^iTvaliswineben, romelic qristes mier gamoxsnis droTa
uwinaresia) yvelasTvis cxadyofen imis codnas, Tu vin aris RmerTi da
vin adamianebi, da Tu rogor moqmedebs mosamarTle da mowyale RmerTi
adamianebTan mimarTebaSi. rac unda arasrulyofilsa da droebiTs Seicavdes es wignebi, isini mainc WeSmarit saRmrTo pedagogias amJRavnebs;27
isini gamoxatavs RmrTis cocxal aRqmas (sensum), maTSi Senaxulia umaRlesi moZRvrebani RmrTis Sesaxeb, mxsneli sibrZne adamianuri cxovrebis Sesaxeb, locvaTa saocari saganZuri da, bolos, maTSi Cveni gamoxsnis
25
26
27

222

Sdr. CONC. VAT. I, Const. dogm. De fide catholica, cap. 2 de revelatione: DENZ. 1788 (3007).
S. Io. CHRYSOSTOMUS, In Gen. 3, 8 (hom. 17, 1): PG 53, 134.
PIUS XI, encycl. Mit brenennder Sorge, 14 martii 1937: AAS 29 (1937), p. 151.

DEI VERBUM

saidumloa dafaruli. amitom qristianebma es wignebi mowiwebiT (devote)


unda miiRon.
16. maSasadame, RmerTma, aRTqmaTa orive wignis STamagonebelma da avtorma, brZnulad ise ganawesa, rom axali aRTqma dafarulia ZvelSi, axalSi ki
Zveli ixsneba.28 miuxedavad imisa, rom qristem Tavis sisxlSi daafuZna axali
kavSiri (Foedus) (Sdr. luk. 22, 20; 1kor. 11, 25), mainc, Zveli aRTqmis wignebi,
saxarebis uwyebaSi mTlianad miRebulni,29 axal aRTqmaSi iZenen da avlenen
Tavis srul mniSvnelobas (Sdr. maT. 5, 17; luk. 24, 27; rom. 16, 25-26; 2kor. 3,
14-16), xolo axal aRTqmas isini, Tavis mxriv, naTels hfenen da ganmartaven.
Tavi V
axali aRTqma
17. sityva RmrTisa, romelic aris Zliereba RmrTisa yvela morwmunis gamosaxsnelad (Sdr. rom. 1, 16), axali aRTqmis nawerebSi araCveulebrivi saxiT
warmodgeba da Tavis Zalas avlens. roca moiwia JamTa sisavse (Sdr. gal. 4, 4),
sityva xorciel iqmna da damkvidrda Cvens Soris, savse madliTa da WeSmaritebiT (Sdr. ioan. 1, 14). qristem daamyara miwaze meufeba RmrTisa, moqmedebebiTa da sityvebiT gamoavlina Tavisi mama da Tavisi Tavi, xolo sikvdiliT, aRdgomiTa da brwyinvale amaRlebiT, agreTve suli wmidis gamogzavniT Tavisi saqme aRasrula. miwidan amaRlebuli, yvelas Tavisken miizidavs
(Sdr. ioan. 12, 32) Tavad igi, erTaderTi, visac saukuno cxovrebis sityvani
aqvs (Sdr. ioan. 6, 68). magram es saidumlo ar iyo ganxsnili sxva TaobaTaTvis
ise, rogorc is axla gamoecxada suli wmidaSi mis wmida mociqulebsa da
winaswarmetyvelebs (Sdr. efes. 3, 4-6), gamoecxada imisTvis, rom maT saxareba eqadagaT, iesosadmi, qristesa da uflisadmi rwmena aReZraT da eklesia
SeekribaT. am saqmeTa mudmiv da saRmrTo mowmeobas axali aRTqmis nawerebi
warmoadgenen.
18. yvelasTvis cnobilia, rom yvela nawerTa Soris, TviT axali aRTqmisac
ki, saxarebebi damsaxurebulad gamorCeulia, radgan isini ganxorcielebuli sityvis, Cveni gamomxsnelis cxovrebisa da moZRvrebis gansakuTrebul
mowmeobas warmoadgenen.
eklesia yovelTvis da yvelgan cnobda da cnobs oTxi saxarebis samociqulo warmomavlobas. qristes gankargulebiT mociqulebma is iqadages, rac
Semdeg maT da maTTan daaxlovebulma samociqulo mamebma suli wmidis STagonebiT Cven werilobiT gadmogvces, rogorc rwmenis safuZveli, _ oTxTavi anu maTes, markozis, lukasa da ioanes saxareba.30
19. wmida deda eklesia mtkiced da sruliad ucvlelad cnobda da cnobs,
rom oTxi xsenebuli saxareba, romelTa istoriulobas igi uyoymanod adasturebs, sarwmunod gadmoscems imas, rasac ieso Ze RmrTisa, adamianTa
Soris mkvidri, maTi saukuno gamoxsnisTvis akeTebda da aswavlida, vidre
dRemde misi amaRlebisa (Sdr. saqme 1, 1-2). xolo is, rac mas uTqvams da gaukeTebia, mociqulebma uflis amaRlebis Semdeg msmenelebs gagebis im gansakuTrebuli sisavsiT gadmosces, romelic Tavad miiRes,31 qristes brwyinvale
28
S. AUGUSTINUS, Quest. in Hept. 2, 73: PL 34, 623.
29
S. IRENAEUS, Adv. Haer. III, 21, 3: PG 7, 950 ( = 25, 1: HARVEY 2, p. 115). S. CYRILLUS
HIEROS., Catech. 4, 35: PG 33, 497. THEODORUS MOPS., In Soph. 1, 4-6: PG 66, 452D 453A..
30
Sdr. S. IRENAEUS, adv. Haer. III, 11, 8: PG 7, 885; SAGNARD, p. 194.
31
ioane 2, 22; 12, 16; Sdr. 14, 12; 16, 12, 12-13; 7, 39.

223

vatikanis II kreba

movlenebiT darigebulebma da WeSmaritebis sulis naTebiT ganswavlulebma.32 wmida avtorebma Seadgines oTxi saxareba, romelSic zogi ram zepiri an
sulac ukve werilobiTi gadmocemidan SerCevis Sedegad Seitanes, zogisac
sinTezi gaakeTes, an eklesiaTa mdgomareobis gaTvaliswinebiT ganmartes.
saboloo jamSi maT macneobis (praeconii) forma ise SeinarCunes, rom is, rasac
iesos Sesaxeb gvatyobinebdnen, mudam WeSmariti da gulwrfeli yofiliyo.33
isini werdnen TavianTi sakuTari xsovnisa da mogonebis Tu imaTi mowmeobis
safuZvelze, romelni dasabamiTgan TT-mxilvel da msaxur yofil iyvnes
sitysa mis, maTi ganzraxva iyo is, rom Cven gvecno im sityvebis WeSmariteba, romlebic gviswavlia (Sdr. luk. 1, 2-4).
20. oTxi saxarebis garda, axali aRTqmis kanoni Seicavs wmida pavles epistoleebsa da sxva samociqulo nawerebsac, romlebic suli wmidis STagonebiT Seiqmna. RmrTis brZnuli ganzraxviT (consilio), am nawerebiT is dasturdeba, rac ufal qristes ukavSirdeba. es nawerebi sul ufro metad ganacxadeben
mis WeSmarit moZRvrebas (genuina Eius doctrina), gvamcnoben qristes saRmrTo
saqmis gamomxsnel Zalas, mogviTxroben eklesiis dasabamisa da misi saocari
gavrcelebis Sesaxeb, da winaswar gvauwyeben mis brwyinvale dasrulebas.
ufali ieso, dapirebisamebr, Tavis mociqulebTan iyo (Sdr. maT. 28, 20);
man mociqulebs gamougzavna nugeSinismcemeli suli, romelic maT WeSmaritebis sisavseSi gaZRoloda (Sdr. iovan. 16, 13).
Tavi VI
wmida werili eklesiis cxovrebaSi
21. eklesia mudam Tayvans scemda wmida werils, iseve rogorc Tavad
sxeuls uflisas. rogorc RmrTis sityvis, aseve qristes sxeulis sufridan
igi yovelTvis, gansakuTrebiT wmida liturgiaSi, iRebs purs da mas morwmuneT sTavazobs. eklesias mudam miaCnda da miaCnia wmida werili, wmida
gadmocemasTan erTad, Tavisi sarwmunoebis uzenaes wesad. wmida werili,
RmrTivSTagonebuli da erTxel da samudamod naweriT dadasturebuli,
ucvlelad gvauwyebs Tavad RmrTis sityvas da winaswarmetyvelTa da mociqulTa sityvebSi aJRerebs suli wmidis xmas. amitom, saeklesio mqadagebloba (praedicatio), iseve rogorc Tavad qristianuli religia, wmida weriliT
unda sazrdoobdes da xelmZRvanelobdes. mama, romeli ars caTa Sina, Tavis
Svilebs siyvaruliT egebeba da esaubreba wmida wignebSi. RmrTis sityvaSi
iseTi simtkice da Zalaa (vis ac virtus), rom is eklesiisTvis warmoadgens sayrdensa da energias, eklesiis SvilTaTvis ki sarwmunoebis simZlavres, sulis
sazrdosa (animae cibus) da sulieri cxovrebis (vitae spiritualis) sufTa da mudmiv
wyaros. amitom wmida werilsac SesaniSnavad miesadageba es sityvebi: rameTu cxovel ars sityua RmrTisa da moqmed (ebr. 4, 12), romeli SemZlebel
ars aRSenebad da mocemad Tquenda mkdrobisa yovelTa Sina wmidaTa. (saqme
20, 32; Sdr. 1 Tes. 2, 13).
22. qristianebs farTod unda miesvlebodeT wmida werilTan. amitom eklesiam dasabamiTve Zveli aRTqmis is uZvelesi berZnuli Targmani cno Tavisad, romelic samocdaaTi kacis saxels atarebs. eklesia yovelTvis pativiscemiT epyroba sxva, aRmosavlursa da laTinur Targmanebsac, upirveles
yovlisa ki imas, romelsac vulgata ewodeba. sityva RmrTisa yvela drois
32
Sdr. ioane 14, 26; 16, 13.
33
Sdr. instruqcia Sancta Mater Ecclesia, gamocemuli bibliis Seswavlis papis sabWos
mier: AAS 56 (1964), p. 715.

224

DEI VERBUM

gankargulebaSi unda iyos, amitom eklesia dedobrivad zrunavs imisTvis,


rom sxvadasxva enis Targmanebi Sesabamisi da zusti iyos da Targmani ZiriTadad wmida wignebis pirveladi teqstebidan ganxorcieldes. Tu es Targmanebi, xelsayrel pirobebSi da eklesiis Zalauflebis (auctoritate) TanxmobiT,
Sesrulda Cvengan gamijnul ZmebTan TanamSromlobis safuZvelze, isini
mainc SeiZleba gamoiyenos yvela qristianma.
23. ganxorcielebuli sityvis sZali, eklesia, ganswavluli suli wmidisgan, cdilobs, yoveldRiurad sul ufro Rrmad Caswvdes wmida werilis gagebas, rom Tavisi Svilebi uwyvetliv asazrdoos saRmrTo saubriT (eloquiis).
amitom, wesisamebr, igi mxars uWers wmida mamebis, rogorc aRmosavleTis,
aseve dasavleTis, da wmida liturgiebis Seswavlas. kaTolike egzegetebma
da wmida RmrTismetyvelebis sxva moRvaweebmac (cultores), ZalTa gulmodgined gaerTianebiT imisTvis unda iRvawon, rom wmida moZRvrobis zedamxedvelobiT, Sesabamisi damxmare saSualebebis gamoyenebiT, saRmrTo werilebi
ise gamoikvlion da warmoadginon, rom saRmrTo sityvis rac SeiZleba met
msaxurs SeeZlos RmrTis xalxisTvis werilobiTi sazrdos uxvad miwodeba.
es gananaTlebs gonebas, ganamtkicebs nebas da aRagznebs adamianTa gulebs
RmrTis siyvarulisken.34 wmida kreba Seagulanebs eklesiis Svilebs, bibliis
mcodneT (cultoribus), rom bednierad wamowyebuli saqme yoveldRiurad da ganuxrelad ganagrZon ganaxlebuli ZalebiTa da mTeli gulmodginebiT, eklesiis suliskveTebis Sesabamisad.
24. wmida RmrTismetyveleba, wmida gadmocemasTan erTad, eyrdnoba RmrTis daweril sityvas rogorc uryev saZirkvels. igi masSi Zlierdeba da mudam axalgazrdavdeba, roca qristes saidumloSi dafarul mTel WeSmaritebas sarwmunoebis naTliT ikvlevs. wmida werili Seicavs sityvas RmrTisas;
RmrTivSTagonebulni, is WeSmaritad RmrTis sityvaa. amitom wmida werilis
Seswavla wmida RmrTismetyvelebis samSvinvels hgavs.35 wmida werilis am
sityviT jansaRad ikvebeba da wmidad Zlierdeba sityvis msaxureba, kerZod
samoZRvro qadageba, katexizacia da yovelgvari qristianuli darigeba, romelSic liturgiul homilias gansakuTrebuli adgili unda ekavos.
25. amitom yvela RmrTismsaxurni, upirveles yovlisa qristes mRvdelni da sxvebi, rogorebic arian diakonni da katexizatorni, romelnic wesisamebr sityvis samsaxurSi dganan, gulmodgine sulismieri (sacra) kiTxviTa
da gamowvlilviTi SeswavliT wmida werils unda daeyrdnon, raTa romelime
maTgani ar gaxdes RmrTis sityvis uSinaarso da zedapirulad mqadagebeli,
Tu is Sinaganad misi msmeneli ar aris.36 gansakuTrebiT wmida liturgiaSi
maT unda gadascen saRmrTo sityvis ukidegano simdidre maTTvis mindobil
morwmuneebs. wmida kreba dabejiTebiTa da sagangebod mouwodebs yvela
qristians, gansakuTrebiT moweseebs, rom saRmrTo werilis xSiri kiTxviT
Seiswavlon gardamatebuli mecniereba ieso qristesi (fil. 3, 8), radgan
wmida werilis arcodna qristes arcodnaa.37 ase rom xalisiT Seudgnen Tavad wmida teqstis wvdomas, iqneba es wmida liturgiis gziT, romelic saR34
Sdr. Pius XII, encycl. Divino afflante: EB 551, 553, 567. Comm. BIBLICA, Instructio de S.
Scriptura in Clericorum Seminariis et Religiosorum Collegiis recte docenda, 13 maii 1950: AAS 42 (1950), pp.
495-505.
35
Sdr. Leo XIII, encycl. Providentissimus: EB 114. BENEDICTUS XV, encycl. Spiritus Paraclitus:
EB 483.
36
S. AUGUSTINUS, Serm. 179, I : PL 38, 966.
37
S. Hieronymus, Comm. in Is., Prol.: PL 24, 17. Sdr. BENEDICTUS XV, encycl. Spiritus Paraclitus: EB 475-480. PIUS XII, encycl. Divino afflante: EB 544.

225

vatikanis II kreba

mrTo sityvebiT aris datvirTuli, an krZalulebiTi kiTxvis meSveobiT, an


amisTvis gankuTvnili dawesebulebaTa gziT, an sxva damxmare saSualebebiT, romlebic Cvens droSi yvelgan sanaqebod vrceldeba eklesiis mwyemsTa
TanxmobiTa da mzrunvelobiT. sagulisxmoa, rom locvas Tan unda axldes
wmida werilis kiTxva, raTa RmerTsa da adamians Soris Sedges saubari, radgan mas vesaubrebiT, roca vloculobT, mas vismenT, roca saRmrTo gamonaTqvamT vkiTxulobT.38
eklesiis mesveurT (sacris...Antistitibus), visTanac aris samociqulo moZRvreba,39 Sehferis, rom saTanadod ganaswavlon maTTvis mindobili morwmuneebi, Tu rogor gamoiyenon maT saRmrTo wignebi, gansakuTrebiT axali
aRTqma da, upirveles yovlisa, saxareba. es SesaZlebelia wmida teqstebis im
TargmanTa daxmarebiT, romlebsac aucilebeli da namdvilad sakmarisi ganmartebebi axlavT, raTa eklesiis Svilebi uxifaTod da sargebliT urTierTobdnen wmida werilTan da misi suliT garemoicvan (imbuantur).
garda amisa, unda momzaddes wmida werilis gamocemani, saTanado SeniSvnebis darTviT, romlebsac araqristiannic moixmaren da romlebic maTTvis
Sesabamisi garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT unda Sedges. sulTa mwyemsebma (animarum Pastores) da nebismieri mdgomareobis qristianebma gonivrulad unda
izrunon maTi gavrcelebisTvis.
26. dae, wmida wignTa kiTxviTa da swavliT sityua RmrTisa rbiodes da
ididebodis (2 Tes. 3, 1) da gamocxadebis saunje, eklesiisTvis mindobili,
adamianTa gulebs sul ufro metad avsebdes. rogorc ziarebis saidumloebaSi gulmodgine xSiri (frequente) matulobs eklesiis cxovreba, aseve SeiZleba imedi gvqondes, rom sulier cxovrebas axal biZgs miscems mometebuli
Tayvaniscema RmrTis sityvisa, romelic hgies ukunisamde (es. 40, 8; Sdr.
1pet. 1, 23-25).
yovelive erTad da cal-calke, rac am dogmatur konstituciaSi gamocxadda, wmida krebis mamebma moiwones. da Cvenc, im
samociqulo uflebamosilebiT, romelic qristesgan gadmogveca, amas pativdebul mamebTan erTad suli wmidaSi veTanxmebiT, vadgenT, vawesebT da vbrZanebT, rom is, rac krebaze dadginda, gamoqveyndes sadideblad RmrTisa.

romi, wm. petresTan, 1965 wlis 18 noemberi


me, pavle, kaTolike eklesiis episkoposi
(mohyveba mamaTa xelmowerebi)

38
39

226

S. AMBROSIUS, De officiis ministrorum I, 20, 88: PL 16, 50.


S. IRENAEUS, Adv. Haer. IV, 32, 1: PG 7, 1071 ( = 49, 2 HARVEY, 2, p. 255).

dekreti
saeroTa mociqulobis Sesaxeb
APOSTOLICAM ACTUOSITATEM

pavle episkoposi,
RmrTis msaxurTa msaxuri,
wmida krebis mamebTan erTad,
samudamo saxsovrad

dekreti
saeroTa mociqulobis Sesaxeb
Sesavali
1. wmida krebas surs, rom RmrTis eris samociqulo moRvaweoba ufro intensiuri gaxdes.1 is did yuradRebas uTmobs qristes erTgul saero pirebs.
man sxvagan ukve ilaparaka maTi gansakuTrebuli da sruliad aucilebeli
rolis Sesaxeb.2 saeroTa mociquloba, Tavad qristianuli mowodebidan gamomdinare, eklesiaSi arasdros ar unda Sesustdes. wmida werili brwinvaled aCvenebs (Sdr. saqme 11, 19-21; 18, 26; rom. 16, 1-16; fil. 4, 3), rogori qmediTi da nayofieri iyo es moRvaweoba Zvels eklesiaSi.
Cvens droSic saeroTa aranaklebi Zalisxmeva aris saWiro. metic: dRevandeli viTareba maTgan kidev ufro metad moiTxovs intensiursa da farTo
mociqulobas. ganuwyvetliv izrdeba mosaxleoba, progress ganicdis mecniereba da teqnika, adamianTa Soris urTierTobebi sul ufro mWidro xdeba.
yovelive aman uzomod gaafarTova saero pirTa mociqulobis sivrce, romelic xSir SemTxvevaSi mxolod maTTvis aris xelmisawvdomi. amave, dros,
Cndeba axali problemebi, romlebic maTgan ganuwyvetliv yuradRebasa da
Zalisxmevas moiTxovs. amgvari mociquloba axla kidev ufro aucilebelia,
radgan Zalze ganmtkicda adamianuri cxovrebis mravali sferos avtonomia
(es asec unda iyos), rac zogjer eTikuri da religiuri wesisgan gandgomas
iwvevs da qristianuli cxovrebisTvisac saxifaToa. amasTanave, mraval regionSi, sadac mRvdelmsaxurni jer mravalricxovanni ar arian an msaxurebisTvis aucilebel Tavisuflebas zogjer moklebulni arian, eklesia saeroTa moRvaweobis gareSe faqtiurad ver SeZlebda aqtualuri (praesens) da
qmediTi yofiliyo.
am mravaferovan da gadaudebel aucileblobas naTlad gamoxatavs suli
wmidis qmedeba, romelic saero pirebs dRes kidev ufro metad aniWebs sakuTari pasuxismgeblobis SegrZnebas da maT qristesa da eklesiis msaxurebisken ubiZgebs.3
mocemul dekretSi kreba apirebs naTeli mohfinos mociqulobis bunebas, xasiaTsa da mravalsaxeobas, auwyos misi ZiriTadi principebis Sesaxeb da Camoayalibos samRvdlo miTiTebebi, romlebic mociqulobis ufro
efeqturad aRsrulebisTvis iqneba gamiznuli. kanonikuri samarTlis gadasinjvisas yovelive es saeroTa mociqulobis mimarT normad unda iqnas
miCneuli.
1
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, const. apost. Humanae Salutis, 25 dec. 1961: AAS 54 (1962), pp. 7-10.
2
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, nn. 33 ss. Sdr. agreTve Const. de Sacra liturgia, nn. 26-40. Secr. de intrumentis communicationis socialis. Decr. de Oecumenismo. Decr. de pastorali
Episcoporum munere in Ecclesia, nn. 16, 17, 19. Declaratio de educatione christiana, nn. 3, 5, 7.
3
Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. ad Cardinales, 18 febr. 1946: AAS 38 (1946), pp. 101-102. misive, sermo
ad Iuvenes Operarios Catholicos, 25 aug. 1957: AAS 49 (1957), p. 843.

229

vatikanis II kreba

Tavi I
mociqulobisaTvis saeroTa mowodeba
2. eklesia imisTvis Seiqmna, rom man qristes meufeba RmrTis sadideblad
mTels dedamiwaze gaavrcelos da yvela adamiani gamomxsneli gamosyidvis
monawileni gaxados,4 raTa maTi meSveobiT mTeli samyaro WeSmaritad qristesken iyos mimarTuli. mistikuri sxeulis yovelgvari qmedeba, am miznisken gankuTvnili, mociqulobad iwodeba, romelsac eklesia yvela Tavisi
wevris meSveobiT axorcielebs, Tumca sxvadasxva saSualebebiT; qristianuli mowodeba xom Tavisi bunebiT mociqulobisken mowodebac aris. rogorc
cocxali sxeulis agebulebaSi arcerTi aso ar aris sruliad pasiuri, aramed yvela monawileobs sxeulis cxovrebasa da mis qmedebaSi, aseve qristes
sxeulSi, romelic aris eklesia, mTeli sxeuli izrdeba Sewevnisaebr sazomisa TToeulisa asosa (efes. 4, 16). metic: asoTa kavSiri da Senawevreba am
sxeulSi iseTia (Sdr. efes. 4, 16), rom asos Sesaxeb, romelic Tavisi SesaZleblobis farglebSi sxeulis zrdas ar emsaxureba, unda iTqvas, rom is usargebloa eklesiisTvis da sakuTari TavisTvisac.
eklesiaSi aris sxvadasxvagvari msaxureba, magram misia erTiania. mociqulebsa da maT memkvidreebs qristem daakisra funqcia, romelic misi saxeliT
swavlebas, wmidayofasa da mmarTvelobas gulisxmobs. magram saeronic, romlebmac gaiziares qristes funqciebi - mRvdelmsaxureba, qadageba, mefoba - eklesiasa da samyaroSi RmrTis mTeli eris misiidan Tavis kuTvnil wils asruleben.5 Tavisi moRvaweobiT isini realurad axorcieleben mociqulobas adamianTa evangelizaciisa da wmidayofisTvis, warmaval saganTa wesis evangeluri
suliT gamsWvalvisa da srulyofisaTvis. am sferoSi maTi moRvaweoba qristes
naTel mowmobas warmoadgens da adamianTa gamoxsnas emsaxureba. saeroTa statusi samyaroSi arsebobasa da saero saqmeebiT cxovrebas gulisxmobs. RmerTi
maT mouwodebs, Tavisi mociquloba samyaroSi sulieri simtkiciT aRasrulon.
3. saero pirebs aqvT mociqulobis movaleoba da ufleba, romelic qristesTan meTavesTan (Capite) maT erTobas emyareba. naTlobiT qristes
sxeulSi damkvidrebulni, mironcxebiT (per Confirmationem) suli wmidis madliT ganmtkicebulni, isini Tavad uflis mier arian mociqulobisTvis
gankuTvnilni. isini miZRvnilni arian samRvdlo sameufos da wmida xalxs
(Sdr. 1petre 2, 4-10), raTa yovelgvari saqmiT sulieri msxverpli Seswiron
da dedamiwis zurgze yvelgan qristes mowmeni iyvnen. xolo saidumloTa saSualebiT, upirveles yovlisa, uwmidesi evqaristiiT, is siyvaruli gadaicema da sazrdoobs, romelic mTeli mociqulobis suls warmoadgens.6
mociquloba sruldeba rwmenaSi, imedsa da siyvarulSi, romlebic suli
wmidam eklesiis yvela wevris gulSi gaavrcela. siyvarulis mcneba, romelic uflis umTavresi davalebaa, yvela qristes erTguls ubiZgebs, moipovos RmrTis dideba misi sasufevlis mosvliT da saukuno cxovreba yvela
adamianisaTvis, raTa maT icodnen mxolo WeSmariti RmerTi da is, vinc
ieso qriste moavlina (Sdr. ioan. 17, 3).
maSasadame, yvela qristes erTguls brwyinvale movaleoba akisria: iRvawon imisaTvis, raTa gamoxsnis saRmrTo uwyeba yvela adamianma mTels dedamiwaze Seicnos da miiRos.
am mociqulobis aRsasruleblad suli wmida RmrTis eris wmidayofas msaxurebisa da saidumloTa meSveobiT axorcielebs, erTgulebs gansakuTre4
5
6

230

Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Rerum Ecclesiae: AAS 18 (1926), p. 65.


Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 31.
Sdr. iqve, 33; Sdr. agreTve 10.

APOSTOLICAM ACTUOSITATEM

bul niWebs argunebs (Sdr. 1kor. 12, 7), ganuyofs TToeulad kacad-kacadsa,
viTarca hnebavs (1kor. 12, 11), raTa TiToeuli emsaxuros sxvas im madliT,
romelic miiRo, da Tavad isini iyvnen viTarca keTilni mneni mraval-ferisa mis niWisa RmrTisani (I petr. 4, 10), mTeli sxeulis siyvaruliT aRsaSeneblad (Sdr. efes. 4, 16). am qarizmaTa (Tundac martivebis) miRebidan TiToeul
morwmunes eZleva ufleba da ekisreba movaleoba, gamoiyenos (exercendi) isini
adamianTa sasikeTod da eklesiis aRsaSeneblad, rogorc eklesiaSi, aseve
samyaroSi, suli wmidis TavisuflebiT, romelic qris iq, sadac surs (ioan. 3,
8), da imave dros, qristesmieri urTierTobiT ZmebTan, gansakuTrebiT Tavis
mRvdlebTan. maTi movaleoba aris, gansajon qarizmaTa WeSmariti bunebisa
da maTi swori gamoyenebis Sesaxeb, ara dasavsebelad sulisa, aramed raTa
yovelive gamoscadon da keTili SeikrZalon (Sdr. 1Tes. 5, 12. 19. 21).7
4. qriste, mamis mier movlinebuli, eklesiis mTeli mociqulobis wyaro
da dasabamia. cxadia, rom saeroTa mociqulobis nayofiereba qristesTan
cxovel erTobaze aris damokidebuli, Tanaxmad uflis sityvisa: romeli daadgres Cem Tana, da me mis Tana, aman moiRos nayofi mravali, rameTu
Tnier Cemsa arara Zal-gic yofad arca erTi (ioan. 15, 5). es cxovreba, qristesTan mWidro erTobiT gamsWvaluli, eklesiaSi sulieri saSualebebiT
sazrdoobs, romlebic yvela erTgulebisTvis saziaroa, gansakuTrebiT
wmida liturgiaSi aqtiuri monawileobis gamo.8 es saSualebebi saero pirebma ise unda gamoiyenon, rom yoveldRiuri cxovrebis pirobebSi miwieri movaleobebis Sesrulebisas qristesTan erToba maTi cxovrebisgan ki
ar gamijnon, aramed Tavisi saqme RmrTis nebis Sesabamisad akeTon da am
erTobiT kidev ufro gaizardon. am gziT saeroni gulmodgined da sixaruliT meti siwmidisken unda miiswrafvodnen, xolo sirTuleebis gadalaxvas gonivrulad da moTminebiT unda Seecadon.9 arc ojaxuri zrunva,
arc sxva saero saqmianoba sulieri cxovrebis arsisgan gaucxoebuli ar
unda iyos, Tanaxmad mociqulisa: yovelsave, rasaca iqmodiT sityT gina
Tu saqmiT, yovelsave saxeliTa uflisa iesosiTa, hmadlobdiT RmerTsa
da mamasa mis mier (kol. 3, 17).
aseTi cxovreba rwmenis, imedisa da siyvarulis gamudmebul wvrTnas moiTxovs.
mxolod sarwmunoebis naTelSi da RmrTis sityvis Sesaxeb fiqrSi SeiZleba yovelTvis da yvelgan RmrTis Secnoba, romelSic cxovel varT da viqceviT da varT (saqme 17, 28). mxolod ase SevZlebT yvela movlenaSi misi nebis
Ziebas, yvela adamianSi, axlobelsa Tu ucxoSi, qristes amocnobas, agreTve
sworad gansjas warmaval saganTa WeSmariti mniSvnelobisa da Rirebulebis
Sesaxeb, romlebic maT TavisTavad da adamianis daniSnulebasTan (ad finem)
mimarTebaSi gaaCnia.
visac aseTi rwmena aqvs, is RmrTis SvilTa gamocxadebis imediT cxovrobs.
mas axsovs uflis jvari da aRdgoma.
qristesTan erTad RmerTSi dafarulni, simdidreTa msaxurebisgan Tavisufalni, isini saukuno sikeTisaken miiswrafvian. am cxovrebis msxemobaSi
isini Tavs guluxvad uZRvnian mTlianad RmrTis sasufevlis gavrcelebas,
warmavali sagnebis wesis qristianuli suliT formirebasa da srulyofas.
cxovrebis winaaRmdegobaTa wiaRSi isini imedSi Zalas ikreben, radgan miaCniaT, rom ver Rirs arian vnebani igi amis Jamisani mermisa mis Tana didebisa,
romel gamoCinebad ars Cuenda momarT (rom. 8, 18).
7
8
9

Sdr. iqve, 12.


Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. de Sacra Liturgia, n. 11.
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 32; Sdr. agreTve 40-41.

231

vatikanis II kreba

RmrTisagan momdinare siyvaruliT STagonebulni, isini sikeTes qmnian


yovelTave mimarT, xolo ufrosad saxleulTa maT mimarT sarwmunoebisaTa (gal. 6, 10). maT ganiSores yoveli zakuveba da orguleba da Suri da
yovelive Zris sityua (1petre 2, 1) da ase miizidaven adamianebs qristesken. xolo siyuaruli RmrTisa ganfenil ars gulTa Sina CuenTa suliTa wmidiTa, romeli-igi mocemul ars Cuenda (rom. 8, 18). igi saero pirebs
aniWebs unars, realurad Tavis cxovrebaSi gamoxaton netarebaTa suli. isini gahyvnen Ratak qristes, amitom arc warmaval simdidreTa naklebobiT daRondebian da arc siWarbiT moiwoneben Tavs. mdabali qristes mimbaZvelni,
isini amao didebas ar daewafebian (Sdr. gal. 5, 26), aramed Seecdebian, RmerTs ufro moawonon Tavi vidre adamianebs, mudam mzad iyvnen, qristesTvis
yvelaferi datovon (Sdr. luk. 14, 26) da iyvnen devnilni simarTlisaTvis
(Sdr. maT. 5, 10), radgan axsovT uflis sityvebi: romelsa hnebavs Semodgomad Cemda, uvaryavn Tavi Tsi da aRiRen juari Tsi da Semomidegin me (maT.
16, 24). qristianuli megobrobiT Sekrulni, isini erTmaneTs yovelgvar gasaWirSi unda daexmaron.
saeroTa sulieri cxovrebis am wesma gansakuTrebuli Tviseba unda SeiZinos, Sesabamisad maTi statusisa, iqneba es qorwineba, ojaxi, uqorwinebuloba, qvrivoba, sneuleba, profesiuli Tu socialuri saqmianoba. amitom maT
gamudmebiT unda ganaviTaron maTi is Tvisebebi da niWni, romlebic am mdgomareobebs Seesabameba, da gamoiyenon agreTve is niWni, romlebic sakuTriv
maT suli wmidisgan miiRes.
garda amisa, saeroni, romlebic, Tavis mowodebis Sesabamisad, eklesiis
mier aprobirebul erTerT asociaciasa Tu institutSi Sevidnen, unda Seecadon, maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli sulieri cxovrebis Taviseburebac SeiTvison.
maT didad unda daafason profesiuli gamocdileba, ojaxuri da samoqalaqo grZnoba, agreTve is Rirebulebebi, romlebic socialur urTierTobebs exeba, rogoric aris patiosneba, samarTlianobis suli, gulrwfeloba,
humanuroba, sulieri simtkice, romelTa gareSe WeSmariti qristianuli
cxovreba ver iarsebebs.
amgvari sulieri samociqulo cxovrebis saukeTeso nimuSs warmoadgens
unetaresi qalwuli mariami, mociqulTa dedofali. is dedamiwaze yvelasaTvis saerTo cxovrebiT cxovrobs, romelic savsea ojaxuri zrunviTa da
garjiT. amasTanave, is yovelTvis Sinaganad dakavSirebuli iyo Tavis ZesTan
da sruliad gansakuTrebulad monawileobda macxovris saqmeSi. axla ki igi,
zecaSi amaRlebuli, Tavisi dedobrivi siyvaruliT zrunavs Tavisi Zis ZmebisTvis, romlebic jerac msxemoben, xifaTsa da gaWirvebaSi imyofebian, sanam ar mivlen bednier samSobloSi.10 mas yvelam udidesi mowiwebiT unda sces
Tayvani da mis dedobriv zrunvas Tavisi cxovreba da mociquloba miandos.
Tavi II
miznebi
5. qristes gamosyidvis saqme, romelic TavisTavad adamianTa gamoxsnas
Seexeba, mTeli warmavali wesis ganaxlebasac moicavs. amitom eklesiis misia
ara marto qristes uwyebasa da misi madlis adamianebisTvis motanas gulisxmobs, aramed saxarebiseuli suliT warmaval saganTa wesis gamsWvalvasa da
srulyofasac. amgvarad, saeroni, romlebic eklesiis am misias asruleben,
Tavis mociqulobas axorcieleben eklesiasa da samyaroSi, sulier da warmaval wesSic. es wesebi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdeba, magram RmrTis erTian
10

232

Sdr. iqve, 62. Sdr. agreTve 65.

APOSTOLICAM ACTUOSITATEM

ganzraxvaSi isini ise mWidrod aris erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli, rom Tavad


RmerTs nebavs, mTeli samyaro, rogorc axali qmnileba, qristeSi aRadginos,
jer amqveynad, xolo Semdeg, srulyofilad, ukanasknel dRes. orive wesis
Tanaxmad, saero piri, romelic erTgulic aris da moqalaqec, mudam erTiani
qristianuli sindisiT unda xelmZRvanelobdes.
6. eklesiis misia adamianTa gamoxsnas exeba, romlis miRweva sarwmunoebiTa da misi madliT xdeba. eklesiisa da yvela misi wevris mociqulobis mizani,
upirveles yovlisa, samyarosaTvis qristes uwyebis sityvebiTa da saqmeebiT
gamocxadeba da misi madlis gaziarebaa, rac, arsebiTad, sityvisa da saidumloTa msaxurebiT xorcieldeba. es samRvdeloebis sagangebo movaleoba
aris, romelSic saeronic did rols asruleben, radgan isini WeSmaritebis
TanaSemweni (3 ioane 8) arian. swored am sferoSi saeroTa mociquloba da
samRvdlo msaxureba erTmaneTs avsebs.
saero pirebs uamravi SesaZlebloba aqvT, ganaxorcielon evangelizaciisa da wmida-yofis mociquloba. Tavad qristianuli cxovrebis mowmobasa
da keTil saqmeebs, zebunebrivi suliT aRsrulebuls, aqvs unari, miizidos
adamianebi rwmenasa da RmerTTan. radgan ufali ambobs: egreT brwyinevdin
naTeli Tqueni winaSe kacTa, raTa ixilen saqmeni Tquenni keTilni da adidebden mamasa Tquensa zecaTasa (maT. 5, 16).
aseTi saxis mociquloba ara marto cxovrebis mowmobaSi mdgomareobs. WeSmariti mociquloba eZebs SesaZleblobas, qriste sityvebiT auwyos urwmunoebs, raTa isini rwmenasTan miiyvanos, da morwmuneebs, raTa isini daarigos,
ganamtkicos da ufro mgznebare cxovrebisken miizidos; rameTu siyuaruli
igi qristesi mawuevs Cuen (2kor. 5, 14), da yvelas gulSi unda gaismas mociqulis sityvebi: va ars Cemda, ara Tu vaxarebde (1kor. 9, 16).11
Cvens epoqaSi axali SekiTxvebi ibadeba da saxezea umZimesi Secdomebi,
romlebic religiis, zneobrivi wesisa da Tavad adamianTa sazogadoebis Zireuli dangrevisken mivyavarT. amitom es wm. kreba dabejiTebiT mouwodebs
saero pirebs, rom TiToeulma Tavisi niWisa da codnis mixedviT, eklesiis
sulis Sesabamisad, ufro aqtiurad miiRos monawileoba qristianuli principebis ganmartebaSi, dacvasa da Tanamedrove problemebisadmi maTi misadagebis saqmeSi.
7. samyaros mimarT RmrTis ganzraxva gulisxmobs imas, rom adamianebma SeTanxmebulad aRadginon da ganuwyvetliv srulyon warmaval saganTa wesi.
yvelaferi, rac warmaval sferos Seadgens (aseTebia cxovrebisa da ojaxis Rirebulebebi, kultura, ekonomikuri sinamdvile, xelovnebis dargebi da
profesiebi, politikuri erTobis instituciebi, saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi da sxva amdagvari, agreTve maTi evolucia da progresi) ar aris mxolod
saSualebebi, romlebic adamianis saboloo miznis miRwevas emsaxureba, aramed
maT sakuTari Rirebulebac aqvT, RmrTisagan miniWebli. es asea, ra kuTxiTac
ar unda SevxedoT maT: TavisTavad Tu rogorc sayovelTao warmavali sferos
nawils: da ixilna RmerTman yovelni, raodenni qmnna. da aha keTil friad (dab.
1, 31). es maTi bunebrivi sikarge gansakuTrebul Rirebulebas iZens adamianis
pirovnebasTan maTi urTierTobis safuZvelze, romelTa msaxurebisTvisac
isini Seiqmnen. da bolos, RmerTma ineba rogorc bunebrivi aseve zebunebrivi
sinamdvile ieso qristeSi Seerwya, raTa iyos igi Tavadi yovelsa Sina mTavar
(kol. 1, 18). es mizandasaxuloba ar niSnavs imas, rom warmaval wess ar gaaCnia
TavisTavadoba, sakuTari miznebi, kanonebi, saSualebebi an is ar aris adamian11
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Ubi arcano, 23 dec. 1922: AAS 14 (1922), p. 659. PIUS XII, encycl. Summi
Pontificatus, 20 oct. 1939: AAS 31 (1939), pp. 442-443.

233

vatikanis II kreba

Ta keTildReobisaTvis mniSvnelovani. piriqiT: is kidev ufro ganamtkicebs


mis Zalasa da sakuTriv mis Rirsebas da, amave dros, mas Seusabamebs im saerTo
mowodebas, romelic adamians amqveynad gaaCnia.
istoriis manZilze warmaval saganTa moxmareba mZime SecdomebiT waibilwa. adamianebi, pirveladi codviT daRdasmulebi, xSirad cdebodnen
WeSmarit RmerTTan, adamianis bunebasa da zneobriv kanonebTan mimarTebaSi. amis Sedegi iyo adamianur zneTa da instituciebis mankiereba da Tavad
adamianuri pirovnebis ugulebelyofa. Cvens droSic mraval adamians sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebaTa da teqnikis progresis metismetad sjera. maT
warmavali sinamdvile TiTqos kerpad aqcies da axla ufro metad misi monebi
arian, vidre uflisa.
mTeli eklesiis amocanaa, iRvawos imisaTvis, rom adamianebma SeZlon warmavali sinamdvilis wesis sworad ageba da RmrTisaken misi mimarTva. mRvdlebis movaleobas warmoadgens, cxadad auwyon qmnilebis miznisa da samyaroTi
sargeblobis Sesaxeb, zneobrivi da sulieri daxmareba gauwion adamianebs,
raTa warmavali sinamdvilis wesi qristeSi aRdges.
xolo saero pirebma warmavali wesis aRdgena sakuTar movaleobad unda
miiCnion da am sferoSi, saxarebis Suqisa da eklesiis sulis winamZRolobiT,
pirdapir da garkveulad imoqmedon. rogorc moqalaqeebma, maT sxva moqalaqeebTan unda iTanamSromlon. maT sakuTari gamocdileba unda gamoiyenon da pasuxismgebloba Tavis Tavze aiRon. yvelgan da yvelaferSi maT RmrTis sasufevlis samarTali unda eZion. warmavali wesi ise unda aRdges, rom
misi sakuTari kanonebis srulad dacvis pirobebSi is qristianuli cxovrebis umaRles principebs unda Seesabamebodes da sxvadasxva adgils, drosa da
erebs esadagebodes. aseTi saxis mociqulobis saqmeTa Soris gansakuTrebiT
mniSvnelovania qristianTa sazogadoebrivi moRvaweoba. wmida krebas surs,
rom is gavrceldes mTels droebiT sferoze, maT Soris kulturazec.12
8. mociqulobis yovelgvari aRsruleba dasabamsa da Zalas siyvarulSi
unda iRebdes. zogierTi saqme Tavisi bunebiT aris iseTi, rom SeiZleba am
siyvarulis cxovel gamoxatulebad iqces. ufalma qristem ineba, rom aseTi
saqmeebi misi mesianuri misiis niSnebi yofiliyo (Sdr. maT. 11, 4-5).
kanonSi yvelaze didi mcneba gulisxmobs RmrTis mTeli guliT siyvarulsa da moyvasis rogorc sakuTari Tavis siyvaruls (Sdr. maT. 22, 37-40).
qristem gaiTavisa moyvasis mimarT siyvarulis es mcneba da mas axali mniSvneloba SesZina. man ineba, Tavadac yofiliyo siyvarulis iseTi obieqti, rogorc misi Zmebi arian. man Tqva: raodeni uyavT erTsa amas mcireTagansa ZmaTa CemTasa, igi me miyavT (maT. 25, 40). adamianuri bunebis miRebiT maT raRac
zebunebrivi solidarobiT mTeli kacobrioba erT ojaxad Semoikriba da
siyvaruli Tavisi mowafeebis niSnad aqcia. man Tqva: amiT cnan yovelTa, viTarmed Cemni mowafeni xarT, ukueTu iyuarebdeT urTierTas (ioan. 13, 35).
wmida eklesia evqaristiul serobas imTaviTve agape-s ukavSirebda.
siyvarulis kavSiriT igi cxadyofda Tavis srul erTianobas qristesTan. igi
yovelTvis siyvarulis am niSniT Seicnoba. mas uxaria sxvebis iniciativa da,
amave dros, mas miaCnia, rom saqvelmoqmedo saqmeebi mis movaleobasa da ganuxrel uflebas warmoadgens. amitom eklesia gansakuTrebiT pativs scems
gulmowyalebas RatakTa da sneulTa mimarT, e. w. saqvelmoqmedo saqmeebsa
da urTierTdaxmarebas, mimarTuls yovelgvari adamianuri gaWirvebis Sesamsubuqeblad.13
12
Sdr. LEO XIII, encycl. Rerum Novarum: AAS 23 (1890-91), p. 647. PIUS XI, encycl. Quadrogesimo Anno: AAS 23 (1931), p. 190. PIUS XII, nuntius radioph., 1 iunii 1941: AAS 33 (1941), p. 207.
13
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Mater et Magistra: AAS 53 (1961), p. 402.

234

APOSTOLICAM ACTUOSITATEM

axla urTierTobis saSualebebi ufro swrafi gaxda, adamianebs Soris


manZili gadailaxa da mTeli msoflios mosaxleobam erTi ojaxis saxe miiRo. aseT viTarebaSi saqvelmoqmedo moRvaweobam da saqmeebma ufro gadaudebeli da universaluri saxe SeiZina. saqvelmoqmedo saqmeebiT dRes yvela
adamianisa da yvela moTxovnilebis dakmayofileba aris SesaZlebeli da aucilebelic. sadac ar unda iyvnen is adamianebi, romlebsac ara aqvT sakvebi, sasmeli, samosi, saxl-kari, wamali, samuSao, ganaTleba da sxva ram, rac
normaluri cxovrebis SesaZleblobas iZleva, an isini, visac gasaWiri Tu
sneuleba tanjavs, vinc devnas an patimrobas ganicdis, maT yvelgan qristianuli siyvaruli unda eZiebdes da hpovebdes, daudgromeli mzrunvelobiT
amxnevebdes da daxmarebis aRmoCeniT tkivils umsubuqebdes. es movaleoba,
upirveles yovlisa, calkeul adamianebsa da im xalxs ekisreba, romlebic
gansakuTrebiT mdidrebi arian.14
aseTi siyvarulis ganxorcieleba yovelgvar eWvze maRla rom idges da
aseTad warmoCndes, saWiroa Semdegi: moyvasSi unda davinaxoT RmrTis xati,
romlis mixedviTac igi Seiqmna, da ufali qriste, romelsac marTlac sTavazoben imas, rasac Rataks aZleven; gansakuTrebuli adamianobiT pativi unda
vceT im pirovnebis Tavisuflebasa da Rirsebas, romelic daxmarebas iRebs;
ganzraxvis siwmide ar unda SeibRalos raime piradi sargeblobis ZiebiT an
batonobis mcdelobiT;15 upirveles yovlisa, unda dakmayofilebul iqnas
samarTlianobis moTxovnilebebi, raTa saqvelmoqmedo saCuqariviT ar mivitanoT is, rac samarTlianobiT isedac aucileblad unda iyos mocemuli.
amasTanave, ara marto borotebis Sedegebi unda ganadgurdes, aramed mizezebic, xolo daxmareba ise unda ganxorcieldes, rom isini, vinc mas iRebs,
TandaTanobiT gaTavisufldnen garegani damokidebulebisagan da sakuTari
moTxovnilebebis dakmayofileba TviTon SeZlon.
saeroni didad unda afasebdnen da SeZlebisdagvarad daexmaron saqvelmoqmedo saqmeebsa da sazogadoebriv wamowyebebs, iqneba isini kerZo, sazogado Tu saerTaSoriso. maTi meSveobiT SesaZlebelia daxmarebis gaweva
calkeuli met-naklebad gaWirvebuli adamianebisa da xalxebisaTvis. am saqmeSi yvela keTili nebis adamianTan TanamSromloba aris saWiro.16
Tavi III
mociqulobis sxvadasxva asparezi
9. saeroni Tavis mravalferovan mociqulobas eklesiaSic da samyaroSic axorcieleben. erTsa da meore SemTxvevaSic samociqulo moRvaweobis
sxvadasxva asparezi ixsneba. gavixsenoT maT Soris yvelaze mniSvnelovnebi.
esenia: saeklesio sakrebuloebi, ojaxebi, axalgazrdebi, socialuri garemo, erovnuli da saerTaSoriso seqtorebi. xolo radganac Cvens droSi qalebi ufro aqtiurad arian Cabmulni mTlianad sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi,
amitom gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba maTi monawileobis gafarToebas eklesiis mociqulobis sxvadasxva sferoSi.
10. saeroni, qristes mRvdelmsaxuris, winaswarmetyvelisa da mefis
funqciis moziareni, aqtiur monawileobas iReben eklesiis cxovrebasa da
moRvaweobaSi. eklesiis sakrebuloebSi maTi moRvaweoba imdenad mniSvnelo14
Sdr. iqve, gv. 440-441.
15
Sdr. iqve, gv. 442-443.
16
Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. ad Pax Romana M.I.C., 25 apr. 1957: AAS 49 (1957), pp. 298-299; da
gansakuTrebiT IOANNES XXIII, Ad Conventum Consilii Food and Agriculture Organisation (F.A.O.), 10
nov. 1959: AAS 51 (1959), pp. 856, 866.

235

vatikanis II kreba

vania, rom mis gareSe mRvdelTa mociquloba umetes SemTxvevaSi Tavis mizans
srulyofilad ver aRwevs. WeSmaritad samociqulo suliT dajildovebuli
saeroni, im kacebisa da qalebis msgavsad, romlebic saxarebis uwyebaSi pavles TanaSemweni iyvnen (Sdr. saqme 18, 18, 26; rom. 16, 3), avseben imas, rac maT
Zmebs daaklda, da amSvideben rogorc mRvdelTa, aseve danarCeni erTguli
xalxis suls (Sdr. 1kor. 16, 17-18). seroni sazrdoobon Tavisi sakrebulos
liturgiul cxovrebaSi qmediTi TanamSromlobiT da aqtiurad monawileoben mis samociqulo saqmeebSi; maT eklesiaSi mohyavT adamianebi, romlebic
misgan SeiZleba Sors yofiliyvnen; isini gulmodgined muSaoben RmrTis sityvis gadmocemaze, gansakuTrebiT katexeturi aRzrdis meSveobiT;LTavisi
gamocdilebis safuZvelze isini ufro warmatebiT axorcieleben sulTaTvis mzrunvelobas da ganageben eklesiis qonebas.
sakrebulo samociqulo sakrebulos TvalsaCino magaliTs warmoadgens.
igi erTad krebs masSi arsebul adamianTa mravalferovnebas da mas eklesiis
universalobis wevrad aqcevs.17 saero pirebs Cveulebad unda eqceT, Tavis
mRvdelmsaxurebTan ufro mWidro TanamSromlobaSi imuSavon.18 maT eklesiis sakrebulos unda miandon Tavisi da samyaros problemebi, agreTve SekiTxvebi, romlebic adamianTa gamoxsnas exeba, raTa maTi Seswavla da gamokvleva saerTo TaTbiris safuZvelze moxdes. SesaZleblobis farglebSi isini
unda daexmaron Tavisi saeklesio ojaxis yovelgvar samociqulo da misionerul iniciativas.
saeroni mudam unda acnobierebdnen, rom isini diocezs ekuTvnian, romlis ujredsac sakrebulo warmoadgens. isini mudam mzad unda iyvnen, monawileoba miiRon diocezur wamowyebebSi, roca maTi mRvdeli amisken mouwodebs. metic: qalaqebisa da soflis regionTa moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebis mizniT,19 maT Tavisi TanamSromloba ar unda SezRudon parusiis an
diocezis sazRvrebiT, aramed unda Seecadon, ganavrcon is sakrebuloTaSoris, interdiocezur, nacionalur an internacionalur donemde, miTumetes, rom TandaTanobiT izrdeba xalxTa migracia, urTierTkavSirebis zrda
da komunikaciis simartive ukve aRar aZlevs sazogadoebis ama Tu im nawils
TavisTavSi Caketvis saSualebas. maSasadame, saero pirebma mTels dedamiwis
zurgze RmrTis eris moTxovnilebaTa dasakmayofileblad unda izrunon.
maT unda gaiTavison misioneruli saqmeebi da, materialuri an piradi daxmarebis saxiT, maTSi Tavisi wvlili Seitanon. qristianebisTvis movaleoba da
pativi aris, daubrunon RmerTs simdidris is nawili, romelsac isini misgan
iReben.
11. yvelafris Semoqmedma adamianTa sazogadoebis sawyisad da safuZvlad
saqorwino kavSiri daawesa. Tavisi madliT man is qristesa da eklesiaSi did
saidumloebad aqcia (Sdr. efes. 5, 32). amitom meuRleTa da ojaxTa mociqulobas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs rogorc eklesiisTvis, aseve samoqalaqo sazogadoebisTvis.
qristiani meuRleebi erTmaneTisTvis, Tavisi Svilebisa da sxva ojaxebisTvis madlis TanaSemweebsa da sarwmunoebis mowmeebs warmoadgenen. Tavisi
SvilebisTvis isini sarwmunoebis pirveli mauwyeblebi da maswavleblebi
17
Sdr. S. PIUS X, litt. apost. Creationis duarum novarum paroeciarum, 1 iunii 1905: AAS 38 (1905),
pp. 65-67. PIUS XII, alloc. ad fideles Paroeciae S. Saba, 11 ian. 1953: Discorsi e Radiomessagi di S. S. Pio XII,
14 (1952-1953), pp. 449-454. IOANNES XXIII, alloc. Clero et christefidelibus e diocesi suburbicaria Albanensi, ad Arcem Gandulfi habita, 26 aug. 1962: AAS 54 (1962), pp. 656-660.
18
Sdr. LEO XIII, alloc., 28 ian. 1894: Acta, 14 (1894), pp. 424-425.
19
Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. ad Parochos, etc., 6 feb. 1951: Discorsi e Radiomessaggi di S. S. Pio XII, 12
(1950-1951), pp. 437-443; 8 martii 1952: ibid., 14 (1952-1953), pp. 5-10; 27 martii 1953: ibid., 15 (1953-1954),
pp. 27-35; 28 febr. 1954: ibid., pp. 585-590.

236

APOSTOLICAM ACTUOSITATEM

arian. sityviTa da saqmiT isini maT qristianuli da samociqulo cxovrebisTvis amzadeben, brZnulad exmarebian maT mowodebis arCevanSi da mTeli yuradRebiT mfarveloben wmida mowodebas, Tuki is maTSi Tavs iCens.
meuRleTa movaleoba (rac dRes maTi mociqulobis nawili aris) yovelTvis es iyo: Tavisi cxovrebiT maT unda saqorwino kavSiris urRvevoba da
siwmide eCvenebinaT da daemtkicebinaT; maT unda mtkiced daedasturebinaT
mSobelTaTvis da meurveTaTvis miniWebuli ufleba, qristianulad aRzardon bavSvebi; maT unda daecvaT ojaxis Rirseba da legitimuroba. amitom
maT da sxva qristes erTgulebma keTili nebis adamianebTan unda iTanamSromlon, raTa samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobaSi es uflebebi xeluxleblad
iyos daculi, xolo sazogadoebis marTvis sakiTxSi gaTvaliswinebul iqnas
ojaxebis moTxovnilebebi, romlebic sacxovrebels, bavSvebis aRzrdas, muSaobis pirobebs, socialur dazRvevasa da gadasaxadebs exeba; migraciebis
mowesrigebisas ojaxis erToblivi cxovreba yvelgan unda iyos daculi.20
Tavad ojaxma es misia RmrTisagan miiRo, rac imas niSnavs, rom ojaxi sazogadoebis pirveli da cocxali ujredi unda iyos. is am misias Seasrulebs,
Tu wevrTa urTierTmowiwebiTa da RmrTisadmi erToblivad aRvlenili
locviT is eklesiis erTgvar Sinaur samlocvelod (sanctuarium) warmodgeba;
Tu mTeli ojaxi eklesiis liturgiul RmrTismsaxurebaSi CaerTveba; da bolos, Tu ojaxi aqtiur stumarTmoyvareobas gamoamJRavnebs, daicavs samarTlianobasa da sxva keTil saqmeebs, romlebic yvela ZmaTa moTxovnilebebis
dakmayofilebas emsaxureba. saojaxo mociqulobis sxvadasxva saqmeTa Soris Semdegi SeiZleba davasaxeloT: mitovebuli bavSvebis Sviloba, ucxoelTa keTilad miReba, skolaTa organizaciis saqmeSi daxmarebis gaweva, axalgazrdobisTvis mxarSi amodgoma rCeviTa da saqmeebiT, daniSnulTaTvis daxmarebis gaweva qorwinebisTvis maqsimalurad kargad momzadebis saqmeSi, daxmarebis gaweva katexizatoruli saqmisTvis, materialurad an moralurad
gaWirvebuli meuRleebisa da ojaxebisTvis Semweobis aRmoaCena, moxucebis
ara marto imiT uzrunvelyofa, rac aucilebelia, aramed maTTvis ekonomikuri progresis Sedegad miRebuli nayofis samarTlianad miniWebac.
yovelTvis da yvelgan, magram gansakuTrebiT im regionebSi, sadac saxarebis pirveli Tesli mimoifanteba, anu iq, sadac eklesia Tavis sawyis mdgomareobaSi imyofeba an raRac mZime gaWirvebas ganicdis, qristianuli ojaxebi mTeli Tavisi cxovrebiT saxarebas misdeven da qristianuli qorwinebis
nimuSs warmoadgenen, riTac isini samyaros winaSe qristes Sesaxeb uZvirfases mowmobas gvTavazoben.21
mociqulobis miznebis ufro advilad misaRwevad SeiZleba ojaxebis
garkveul jgufebad gaerTianebac iyos mizanSewonili.22
12. axalgazrdebi dRevandel sazogadoebaSi Zalze mniSvnelovan rols
asruleben.23 arsebiTad Seicvala maTi cxovrebis pirobebi, mentaliteti,
agreTve sakuTar ojaxebTan urTierToba. xSirad isini Zalian swrafad gadadian axal socialur da ekonomikurviTarebaze. izrdeba maTi socialuri
20
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Casti Connubii: AAS 22 (1930), p. 554. PIUS XII, nuntius radiophonicus, 1
ian. 1941: AAS 33 (1941), p. 203. IDEM, Delegatis ad Conventum Unionis Internationalis sodalitatum ad iura
familiae tuenda, 20 sept. 1949: AAS 41 (1949), p. 552. IDEM, Ad patresfamilias e Gallia Romam peregrinantes, 18 sept. 1951: AAS 43 (1951), p. 731. IDEM, nuntius radioph. in Natali Domini 1952: AAS 45 (1953), p.
41. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Mater et Magistra, 15 maii 1961: AAS 53 (1961), pp. 429, 439.
21
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Evangelii Praecones, 2 iunii 1951: AAS 43 (1951), p. 514.
22
Sdr. PIUS XII, Delegatis ad Conventum Unionis Internationalis sodalitatum ad iura familiae tuenda, 20 sept. 1949: AAS 41 (1949), p. 552.
23
Sdr. S.PIUS, alloc, ad catholicam Associationem Iuventutis Gallicae de pietate, scientia et actione,
25 sept. 1904: AAS 37 (1904-1905), pp. 296-300.

237

vatikanis II kreba

da agreTve politikuri mniSvneloba, magram isini TiTqos axal valdebulebaTa tvirTisTvis mzad ar arian.
sazogadoebaSi maTi mniSnelobis zrda maTgan Sesabamis samociqulo qmediTobas moiTxovs. maTi xasiaTis bunebac maT amisken ubiZgebs. sakuTari pirovnulobis gacnobierebis momwifebasTan erTad, cxovrebis qarcecxliTa
da moRvaweobis dauokeblobiT aRgznebulni, isini pasuxismgeblobas Tavis Tavze iReben da cdiloben, sazogadoebriv da kulturul cxovrebaSi
garkveuli roli iTamaSon. Tu es swrafva qristes suliT ganimsWvaleba da
eklesiis mwyemsTa mimarT morCilebiTa da siyvaruliT gacxoveldeba, maSin
misgan Zalze uxv nayofs SeiZleba velodoT. axalgazrebis pirveli da uSualo mociqulebi Tavad axalgazrebi unda gaxdnen, erTmaneTisadmi mociquloba maT erTmaneTis meSveobiT unda aRasrulon, im socialuri garemos gaTvaliswinebiT, romelSic cxovroben.24
ufrosebma unda izrunon axalgazrdebTan megobruli dialogis damyarebisTvis, romelic saSualebas miscems orive mxares, asakobrivi distanciis
gadalaxviT, Seicnon erTmaneTi da Tavis Rirebulebebs aziaron. magaliTiT
da, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, gonieri rCeviTa da qmediTi daxmarebiT ufrosebma axalgazrdobas mociqulobisken unda mouwodon. axalgazrdebi ufrosebs pativs unda scemdnen da endobodnen. da Tumca axalgazrdoba Tavisi
bunebiT siaxleebisken miiswrafvis, is Rirseul tradiciebsac jerovnad
unda afasebdes.
bavSvebic Taviseburad samociqulo moRvaweobas unda eweodnen. isinic
xom, Tavisi SesaZleblobebis farglebSi, amxanagTa Soris qristes cocxali
mowmeebi arian.
13. mociquloba sazogadoebriv garemoSi niSnavs mcdelobas, qristianuli suliT gamsWvalos mentaliteti da zne-Cveulebebi, kanonebi da
struqtura im sazogadoebaSi, romelSic yoveli Cvengani cxovrobs. es
aris saeroTa movaleoba da tvirTi, romelsac sxva veravin verasdros
ase kargad ver Seasrulebs. am sferoSi saero pirebi mociqulobas Tavisive msgavsTa mimarT asruleben. aq isini cxovrebis mowmobas sityvis
mowmobiT srulyofen.25 am sferoSi maT gansakuTrebiT kargad SeuZliaT
daexmaron Zmebs samuSaos, profesiis, kvlevis, cxovrebis, dasvenebis,
gaerTianebaTa sakiTxebSi.
samyaroSi eklesiis am misias saeroni, upirveles yovlisa, sarwmunoebasTan cxovrebis Tanxmobis safuZvelze asruleben, ris gamoc isini samyaros
naTeli xdebian. nebismier saqmeSi patiosnebiT maT SeuZliaT yvela adamianSi
siyvaruli aRZran WeSmaritebisa da sikeTisadmi, qristesa da eklesiisadmi.
Zmuri siyvaruliT isini ZmaTa cxovrebisa da muSaobis pirobebs, gaWirvebasa da imeds iziareben da ase, TandaTanobiT da SeumCnevlad, yvelas gulebs
gamomxsneli madlis moqmedebisken ganawyoben. isini srulad acnobiereben
Tavis rols sazogadoebis mSeneblobaSi da cdiloben, Tavisi Sinauri, sazogadoebrivi, profesiuli da qristianuli moRvaweoba qristianuli didsulovnebiT gamsWvalon. maTi moRvaweobis wesi TandaTanobiT cxovrebisa da
muSaobis garemoSic aRwevs.
am mociqulobam yvela adamiani unda moicvas, rogori didic ar unda
iyos maTi ricxvi. ar unda iqnas daviwyebuli arcerTi sulieri Tu warmavali simdidre, romelic SeiZleba maT mieniWos. Tumca, WeSmariti moci24
Sdr. PIUS XII, epist. Dans quelques semaines, ad Archiepiscopum Marianopolitanum, de conventibus a iuvenibus operariis christianis canadiensibus indictis, 24 mai 1947: AAS 39 (1947), p. 257; nuntius
radioph. ad J. O. C. Bruxelles, 3 sept. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), pp. 640-641.
25
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Quadragesimo Anno, 15 maii 1931: AAS 23 (1931), pp. 225-226.

238

APOSTOLICAM ACTUOSITATEM

qulebi mxolod am moRvaweobiT ar kmayofildebian da cdiloben, qriste


moyvass sityvebiTac auwyon. bevr adamians xom saxarebis mosmena da qristes Secnoba mxolod maT gverdiT myof saeroTa meSveobiT SeuZlia.
14. mociqulobas uzarmazari asparezi exsneba erovnul da saerTaSoriso
niadagze, sadac swored saeroni arian qristianuli sibrZnis msaxurni. qveynis mimarT mowiwebisa da samoqalaqo movaleobis erTguli SesrulebiT kaTolikeebi Tavs valdebulad miiCneven, xeli Seuwyon WeSmarit saerTo keTildReobas. maT Tavis Sexedulebas iseTi wona unda SesZinon, rom samoqalaqo
xelisufleba samarTlianad aRsruldes, xolo kanonebi zneobriv moTxovnilebebsa da saerTo keTildReobas Seesabamebodes. kaTolikeebma, romlebic
gamocdilni arian saxelmwifo saqmeSi da mtkiced misdeven sarwmunoebasa da
moZRvrebas, ar unda Tqvan uari sajaro saqmianobaze, radgan misi Rirseuli
SesrulebiT isini SeZleben, xeli Seuwyon saerTo keTildReobas da, amasTanave, gza gaukvalon saxarebas.
kaTolikeebi unda Seecadon, iTanamSrolon yvela keTili nebis adamianTan, raTa xeli Seuwyon yovelives, raodeni ars WeSmarit, raodeni patiosan,
raodeni marTal, raodeni wmida, raodeni sayuarel (fil. 4, 8). kaTolikeebi maTTan dialogs unda awarmoebdnen, maT gonivrulad da humanurad unda
dauxvdnen da Seecadon gamoikvlion, Tu rogor SeiZleba gaumjobesdes socialuri da sajaro instituciebi saxarebis sulis Sesabamisad.
Cveni drois TaviseburebaTa Soris gansakuTrebuli aRniSnvis Rirsia
yvela xalxebSi solidarobis mzardi da dauokebeli grZnoba. saeroTa mociqulobis movaleobas warmoadgens am grZnobis mzrunvelobiT ganviTareba
da misi gadaqceva Zmobis gulrwfel da WeSmarit gancdad. garda amisa, saeroebma unda gaacnobieron saerTaSoriso sarbielis, agreTve im sakiTxebisa
da gadawyvetilebebis (rogorc samoZRvro (doctrinalium), aseve praqtikulis)
arseboba, romlebic am sferoSi warmoiqmneba, gansakuTrebiT im xalxebTan
mimarTebaSi, romlebic progresisken miiswrafvian.26
yvelas, vinc ucxo qveynebSi muSaobs an maT exmareba, unda axsovdes, rom
erTa Soris WeSmariti Zmuri urTierTobis damyareba aris saWiro, romelSic
orive mxare erTdroulad gamcemic iqneba da mimRebic. xolo maT, vinc saerTaSoriso saqmeebis gamo an dasvenebis mizniT mogzaurobs, unda axsovdeT,
rom isini yvelgan qristes msxem macneebs (praecones itinerantes) warmoadgenen,
da marTlac aseTebi unda iyvnen.
Tavi IV
mociqulobis sxvadasxva saxeebi
15. saeroebs Tavisi mociquluri moRvaweobis aRsruleba SeuZliaT rogorc individualurad, aseve sxvadasxva sazogadoebebsa Tu asociaciebSi
gaerTianebis safuZvelze.
16. mociquloba, romelic individualurad sruldeba, uxvad gamomdinareobs WeSmaritad qristianuli cxovrebis wyarodan (Sdr. ioan. 4, 14). is aris
saeroTa yovelgvari mociqulobis maT Soris koleqtiuris _ safuZveli
da piroba, da arafers SeuZlia misi Senacvleba.
yvela saero piri mowodebula amgvari mociqulobisaTvis da valdebulia,
is aRasrulos, rogor garemoebaSic ar unda imyofebodes is, miuxedavad imisa, eqneba mas gaerTianebebSi TanamSromlobis SesaZlebloba Tu ara. individualuri mociquloba yovelTvis da yvelgan nayofieria, xolo zogjer is
26

Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Mater et Magistra, 15 maii 1961: AAS 53 (1961), pp. 448-450.

239

vatikanis II kreba

warmoadgens mociqulobis erTaderT formas, romelic arsebul viTarebas


Seefereba da saerTod SesaZlebelia.
mociqulobis mravali forma arsebobs, romelTa saSualebiTac saeroni
eklesias aSeneben, samyaros wmida- yofen da mas qristeSi cxovel-yofen.
mTeli saero cxovrebis mowmoba, romelic sarwmunoebidan, imedidan da
siyvarulidan gamomdinareobs, warmoadgens individualuri mociqulobis
gansakuTrebul formasa da Cveni droisTvis yvelaze ufro Sesaferis niSans, romelic cxadyofs, rom qriste mis erTgulebSi cxovrobs. xolo mociqulobis sityvis meSveobiT (garkveul viTarebaSi is sruliad aucilebelia)
saeroni qristes auwyeben, Tavisi mdgomareobisa da gamocdilebis Sesabamisad mis moZRvrebas ganmartaven, avrceleben da erTgulad aRiareben.
garda amisa, rogorc am qveynis moqalaqeebma, romlebic warmavali wesis
mSeneblobisa da marTvis sferoSi TanamSromloben, saero pirebma sarwmunoebis Suqze unda eZion moqmedebis ufro maRali kriteriumebi ojaxur,
profesiul, kulturul da socialiur cxovrebaSi da, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, isini sxvebsac ganumJRavnon. amasTanave maT unda gaacnobieron, rom
Tavad xdebian Semoqmedi, gamomsyidveli da wmida-myofeli RmrTis TanamSromlebi, da mas ganadideben.
da bolos, saero pirebma Tavisi cxovreba siyvaruliT unda cxovelyon
da SeZlebisdagvarad saqmeebiT gamoxaton.
dae, axsovdes yvelas, rom sajaro kultmsaxurebiTa da locviT, monaniebiT, garjaTa da cxovrebis gaWirvebaTa Tavisuflad miRebiT, riTac isini
vnebul qristes emsgavsebian (Sdr. 2kor. 4, 10; kol. 1, 24), maT SeuZliaT, yvela adamianamde miaRwion da mTeli samyaros gamoxsnas xeli Seuwyon.
17. individualuri mociquloba gansakuTrebiT iq aris aucilebeli,
sadac eklesiis Tavisufleba didad SezRudulia. am urTules viTarebaSi saeroni SeZlebisdagvarad mRvdlebs cvlian, sakuTar Tavisuflebas da
zogjer sicocxlesac safrTxis qveS ayeneben, garemomcvelebs qristianul
moZRvrebas aswavlian, maT religiuri cxovrebisa da kaTolikuri sulis
Sesabamisad aRzrdian, mouwodeben, saidumloni xSirad miiRon da mowiweba
gamoavlinon, gansakuTrebiT evqaristiis mimarT.27 wmida kreba guliTadad
madlobelia RmrTisa, romelic Cvens droSic devnaTa SuagulSi saero pirebs gmiruli gabedulebis Zalas aniWebs, da maT mamobrivi siyvaruliTa da
madlierebiT exveva.
gansakuTrebul rols individualuri mociquloba im regionebSi asrulebs, sadac kaTolikeebi mcirericxovanni da gafantulni arian. aseT adgilebSi mizanSewonilia, rom saeroni (raki maT mociqulobis aRsruleba
zemoTxsenebuli mizezebis gamo an maTi profesiuli moRvaweobisTvis damaxasiaTebeli sagangebo viTarebis safuZvelze mxolod individualurad
SeuZliaT) gaerTiandnen mcire jgufebad, instituciisa Tu organizaciis
nebismieri ufro mkacri formis gareSe, raTa yvelasTvis cxadi gaxdes eklesiis erTobis niSani, rogorc siyvarulis WeSmariti mowmoba. amgvarad, megobrobisa da gamocdilebis gaziarebis safuZvelze, erTmaneTisadmi sulieri
daxmarebiT isini Zalas ikreben, raTa gadalaxon cxovrebisa da metismetad
daqsaqsuli moRvaweobis sirTuleebi da mociqulobis ufro uxvi nayofi gamoiRon.
18. qristes erTgulTa mowodebaa, Tavisi cxovrebis sxvadasxva viTarebaSi mociquloba individualurad aRasrulon. amasTanave, maT unda
27
Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. ad I Conventum ex Omnibus Gentibus Laicorum Apostolatui proveheno, 15
oct. 1951: AAS 43 (1951), p. 788.

240

APOSTOLICAM ACTUOSITATEM

axsovdeT, rom adamians bunebiT socialuroba axasiaTebs. amitom RmerTma isurva, qristes morwmuneni RmrTis erad Seekriba (Sdr. 1petre 2, 5-10)
da erT sxeulad gaeerTianebina (Sdr. 1kor. 12, 12). maSasadame, erToblivi mociquloba kargad pasuxobs qristes erTgulTa rogorc adamianur,
aseve qristianul moTxovnilebebs. amave dros, is warmoadgens eklesiis
kavSirisa da erTobis niSans qristeSi, romelmac Tqva: rameTu sadaca
iyvnen orni gina samni Sekrebul saxelisa CemisaTs, mun var me Soris maTsa (maT. 18, 20).
amitom qristes erTgulebis mociqulobas erTsulovneba unda axasiaTebdes.28 isini mociqulebi unda iyvnen rogorc Tavis ojaxur sakrebuloebSi,
aseve sakrebuloebsa da diocezebSi (isini xom Tavadac mociqulobis sazogadoebriv xasiaTs gamoxtaven), agreTve Tavisufal jgufebSi, romlebSic
maT gaerTianeba gadawyvites.
xSirad mociquloba erTobliv moqmedebas moiTxovs, rogorc saeklesio
sakrebuloebSi, aseve sxvadasxva garemoSi; erToblivi mociquloba (apostolatus consociatus) amitomac aris mniSvnelovani. asociaciebi, erToblivi samociqulo moqmedebisTvis Seqmnili, exmarebian Tavis wevrebs da maT mociqulobisTvis amzadeben, sworad ganageben da warmarTaven maT mociqulur saqmianobas, rac imeds iZleva, rom nayofi ufro uxvi iqneba, vidre im SemTxvevaSi,
roca yvela cal-calke moqmedebs.
Tanamedrove viTarebaSi sruliad aucilebelia, rom saeroTa moRvaweobis sferoSi mociqulobis erToblivi da organizebuli forma ganviTardes,
radgan mxolod ZalTa mWidro erTobiT SesaZlebelia Tanamedrove mociqulobis yvela miznis miRweva da misi Rirebulebebis WeSmariti dacva.29 am
saqmeSi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, rom mociquloba Seexmianos im adamianTa sulier ganwyobasa da socialur viTarebas, visac is exeba. sxvagvarad
maTTvis arsebiTad Zneli iqneba, winaaRmdegoba gauwion sajaro Sexedulebebisa Tu instituciebis zewolas.
19. samociqulo gaerTianebaTa didi mravalferovneba arsebobs.30 zogierTi maTgani miznad eklesiis zogadi amocanebs isaxavs, sxva garkveuli formiT evangelizaciisa da wmida-yofisken iswrafvis, an warmavali
wesis qristianul cxovelyofas cdilobs, zogierTi ki qristes Taviseburad _ gulmowyalebisa da saqvelmoqmedo saqmeTa meSveobiT mowmobs.
am gaerTianebaTa Soris, upirveles yovlisa, unda ganvixiloT iseTi kavSirebi, romlebic xels uwyoben da Rirebuls xdian wevrTa yoveldRiuri
cxovrebis erTianobas maT rwmenasTan. es gaerTianebebi TviTmizans ar warmoadgenen. isini unda daexmaron eklesias, Seasrulon misi misia samyarosTan
mimarTebaSi. maTi mociquluri Rirebuleba eklesiis miznebTan maTi SesabamisobiT ganisazRvreba, agreTve mTeli asociqciis calkeul wevrTa qristianuli mowmobiTa da evangeluri suliT.
instituciaTa progresisa da dRevandeli sazogadoebis winsvlis pirobebSi eklesiis universaluri misia moiTxovs, rom kaTolikeebis samociqulo wamowyebebma saerTaSoriso asparezze ufro metad srulyon erTobis
sxvadasxva formebi. saerTaSoriso kaTolikuri organizaciebi ukeTesad
miaRweven Tavis mizans, Tu maTSi Semavali jgufebi maTTan ufro mWidro
kontaqts daamyareben.
28
iqve, gv. 787-788.
29
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Le plerinage de Lourdes, 2 iulii 1957: AAS 49 (1957), p. 615.
30
Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. ad Consilium Foederationis internationalis virorum catholicorum, 8 dec.
1956: AAS 49 (1957), pp. 26-27.

241

vatikanis II kreba

saeklesio xelisuflebasTan aucilebeli kavSiris SenarCunebis pirobebSi31 saero pirebs aqvT ufleba, daafuZnon gaerTianebebi,32 uxelmZRvanelon
maT da Sevidnen ukve arsebul gaerTianebebSi. amave dros, Tavi unda avaridoT ZalTa xarjvas, rasac adgili eqneba, Tu sakmarisi mizezis gareSe xeli
Seewyoba axal asociaciebsa da saqmeebs, an Tu ufro didxans, vidre saWiroa,
SenarCunebuli iqneba moZvelebuli asociaciebi an meTodebi. yovelTvis ar
aris mizanSewonili ganurCevlad im formebis gadmonergva, romlebic sxva
qveyanaSi gamoiyeneba.33
20. ukve mravali aTwleuli gavida mas Semdeg, rac saero pirebi, romlebic sul ufro metad uZRvnian Tavs mociqulobas, erTiandebian sxvadasxva
moZraobebad da asociaciebad, romlebic inarCuneben umWidroes kavSirs ierarqiasTan da, amavdroulad, misdevdnen da misdeven sakuTar miznebs. am da
sxva msgavs ufro Zvel instituciaTa Soris gansakuTrebiT aRniSnvis Rirsia
isini, romlebmac, miuxedavad imisa, rom isini moqmedebis sxvadasxva meTods
iyenebden, mainc udidesi nayofi moutanes qristes meufebas. uzenaesma pontifeqsebma da mravalma episkoposma isini damsaxurebulad moiwones da maT
xeli Seuwyves. maTgan am instituciebma kaTolikuri moRvaweobis saxeli
miiRes. Zalian xSirad maT axasiaTeben rogorc saeroTa TanamSromlobas ierarqiis mociqulobaSi.34
mociqulobis es formebi, ewodebaT maT kaTolikuri moRvaweoba Tu
sxva ram, Cvens droSi Zalze Rirebul mociqulobas asruleben. isini Semdegi
niSnebis erTobliobiT xasiaTdeba:
a) amgvari organizaciebis uSualo mizans warmoadgens eklesiis samociqulo mizani, anu adamianTa evangelizaciisken, wmida-yofisa da maTi cnobierebis qristianuli aRzrdisken swrafva, raTa maT saxarebis suliT moicvan
sxvdasxva sazogadoebebi da wreebi.
b) saeroni, romlebic ierarqiasTan Taviseburad TanamSromloben, Tavis
gamocdilebas iyeneben da pasuxismgeblobas iReben am organizaciaTa xelmZRvanelobis saqmeSi, im viTarebaTa SefasebaSi, romlebSic eklesiis samRvdlo moRvaweoba unda mimdinareobdes, agreTve moqmedebis programis SemuSavebasa da SesrulebaSi.
g) saeroni erTiani organuli sxeulis msgavsad moqmedeben, raTa ufro
kargad warmoCndes eklesiis erToba da mociquloba ufro nayofieri gaxdes.
d) saeroni, romlebic an nebayoflobiT mzad arian, uSualod iTanamSromlon ierarqiul mociqulobasTan, an mowveulni arian am saqmisaTvis,
moqmedeben Tavad iqrarqiis uzenaesi xelmZRvanelobiT, romelsac aseTi
TanamSromlobisaTvis sanqciis gacema eqsplicituri mandatis meSveobiT
SeuZlia.
Tu ierarqia daadgens, rom saerTo jamSi organizaciebs es niSnebi axasiaTebs, maSin isini kaTolikur moRvaweobad (Actio Catholica) unda scnon, Tumca,
ama Tu im adgilisa da eris moTxovnilebebidan gamomdinare, maT SeiZleba
sxvadasxva forma da saxeli hqondes.
wmida kreba dabejiTebiT rekomendacias uwevs am instituciebs. mraval
qveyanaSi isini udaod pasuxobs eklesiis mociqulobis moTxovnebs. wmida
kreba mouwodebs mRvdelmsaxurebsa da saero pirebs, romlebic am institu31
Sdr. qvemoT, Tavi V, 24.
32
Sdr. S. C. CONCILII Resolutio Corrienten., 13 nov. 1920: AAS 13 (1931), p. 139.
33
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Princeps Pastorum, 10 dec. 1959: AAS 51 (1959), p. 856.
34
Sdr. PIUS XI, epist. Quae nobis, ad Card. Bertran, 13 nov. 1928: AAS 20 (1928), p. 385. Sdr.
agreTve PIUS XII, alloc. ad. A. C. Italicam, 4 sept. 1940: AAS 32 (1940), p. 362.

242

APOSTOLICAM ACTUOSITATEM

ciebSi muSaoben, rac SeiZleba ufro efeqturad ganaxorcielon zemoTxsenebuli niSnebi da mudam Zmurad iTanamSrolon eklesiaSi mociqulobis yvela sxva formasTan.
21. mociqulobis yvela organizacia sworad unda iqnes Sefasebuli. xolo
isini, romlebic droisa da adgilis moTxovnilebaTa Sesabamisad ierarqiam
moiwona, maT rekomendacia gauwia an maTi saswrafod daarseba gadawyvita,
mRvelmsaxurebma, moweseebma da saero pirebma pirvel adgilze unda daayenon
da maTTvis Sesaferisi formiT ganaviTaron. maT Soris dRes gansakuTebiT
aRsaniSnavia saerTaSoriso kaTolikuri organizaciebi an gaerTianebebi.
22. sagangebo pativisa da dafasebis Rirsi is saeroni arian (rogorc
dauqorwineblebi, aseve daqorwinebulni), romlebic Tavis profesiuli gamocdilebiT sakuTar Tavs uZRvnian am instituciaTa da maTi saqmianobis
mudmiv an droebiT msaxurebas. eklesias didad uxaria, rom yoveldRiurad
matulobs saero pirTa ricxvi, romlebic daxmarebas uweven asociaciebsa da
samociqulo saqmeebs Tavisi qveynebis farglebSi Tu internacional asparezze, misiaTa kaTolikur sazogadobebsa da axal eklesiebSi.
dae, eklesiis mwyemsebma aseTi saeroni xalisiTa da madlierebiT miiRon,
izrunon imisaTvis, rom maTi mdgomareoba maqsimalurad akmayofilebdes
samarTlianobis, Tanasworobisa da siyvarulis moTxovnebs, gansakuTrebiT
im sferoSi, romelic maTi da maTi ojaxebis Rirseulad SenaxvisTvis aris
saWiro. saero pirebs unda hqondeT aucilebeli ganaTleba, sulieri mxardaWera da stimuli.
Tavi V
wesis dacva
23. saeroTa mociqulobam, romelsac qristes erTgulni individualurad
an erToblivad aRasruleben, saTanado adgili unda daikavos mTeli eklesiis mociqulobaSi. metic: erToba maTTan, vinc suli wmidam RmrTis eklesiis samwysod daayena (Sdr. saqme 20, 28), qristianuli mociqulobis arsebiT
elements warmoadgens. aranakleb aucilebelia TanamSromloba sxvadasxva
saxis samociqulo wamowyebaTa Soris, romelsac saTanado saxiT ierarqia
unda xelmZRvanelobdes.
erTobis sulisTvis xelSewyobis mizniT, imisaTvis, raTa eklesiis mTels
mociqulobaSi gabrwyindes Zmuri siyvaruli, saerTo miznebis misaRwevad
da imisaTvis, raTa Tavidan iqnas acilebuli zianis momtani qiSpoba, aucilebelia eklesiaSi yvela saxis mociqulobis pativiscema da maTi saTanado
urTierTSeTanxmeba, ise, rom TiToeuli maTganisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Taviseburebac SevinarCunoT.35
es gansakuTrebiT Sesaferisia maSin, rodesac eklesiaSi sagangebo qmedeba moiTxovs orive saxis samRvdeloebis, moweseebisa da saeroTa harmoniasa
da samociqulo TanamSromlobas.
24. ierarqiis amocanas warmoadgens saeroTa mociqulobisTvis xelSewyoba, principebiTa da sulieri xelSewyobiT misi aRWurva, mociqulobis aRsruleba mTeli eklesiis sakeTildReod da yuradRebis miqceva imisaTvis,
rom daculi iyos moZRvreba da wesi.
saeroTa mociquloba gulisxmobs ierarqiasTan sxvadasxva saxis urTierTobebs, mociqulobis formebisa da miznebis formaTa mravalgvarobis Sesabamisad.
35

Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Quamvis Nostra, 30 apr. 1936: AAS 28 (1936), pp. 160-161.

243

vatikanis II kreba

eklesiaSi bevri samociqulo wamowyeba arsebobs, romlebic saeroTa Tavisufal arCevans emyareba da maTi brZnuli gansjiT xelmZRvanelobs. aseTi
wamowyebebis wyalobiT garkveul viTarebaSi eklesiis misia SeiZleba ukeTesad Sesruldes, amitom ierarqia mas xSirad aqebs da rekomendacias uwevs.36
magram vercerTi wamowyeba ver daisakuTrebs saxelwodebas kaTolikuri,
Tu amaze ar iqneba legitimuri saeklesio xelisuflebis Tanxmoba.
ama Tu im saxiT ierarqia eqspliciturad cnobs saeroTa mociqulobis
zogierT formas.
eklesiis saerTo keTildReobis moTxovnilebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT,
saeklesio xelisuflebam, SeiZleba airCios is samociqulo asociaciebi da
wamowyebebi, romlebic uSualod miiswrafvian sulieri miznisken, gansakuTrebuli mfarveloba gauwios maT da maTze sagangebo pasuxismgebloba TavisTavze aiRos. amgvarad, ierarqia, romelic sxvadasxvagvarad, garemoebaTa Sesabamisad, warmarTavs mociqulobas, ama Tu im formas ufro mWidrod
ukavSirebs Tavis samociqulo funqcias. amave dros, is inarCunebs orive saxis mociqulobisTvis damaxasiaTebel bunebasa da Taviseburebas, ris gamoc
saero pirebs ar waerTmevaT SesaZlebloba, Tavisi nebiT imoqmedon. ierarqiis am aqts sxvdasxva saeklesio dokumentSi mandati ewodeba.
dabolos, ierarqia andobs saeroebs zogierT funqcias, romlebic
mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli mRvdelTa movaleobebTan. is amas akeTebs qristianuli moZRvrebis gadmocemaSi, garkveul liturgiul aqtebSi, sulTaTvis zrunvaSi. am misiis ZaliT saeroni mTlianad eqvemdebarebian uzenaes
saeklesio xelmZRvanelobas im saqmeSi, romelic funqciaTa Sesrulebas gulisxmobs.
rac Seexeba warmavali wesis saqmeebsa da instituciebs, saeklesio ierarqiis funqcias warmoadgens im zneobrivi principebis swavleba da auTenturad interpretacia, romlebsac warmaval saqmeebSi unda mivsdioT. garda
amisa, mas SeuZlia, saTanado fiqrisa da gamocdil adamianTa daxmarebiT,
gansajos zneobriv principebTan am saqmeebisa Tu instituciebis Sesabamisobis Sesaxeb, da gadawyvitos, ra aris aucilebeli zebunebrivi wesis dacvisa da ganviTarebisTvis.
25. episkoposebs, winamZRvrebs, sxva mRvdelmsaxurebs erTi Tu meore
samRvdeloebidan unda axsovdeT, rom mociqulobis aRsruleba aris saerTo
ufleba da movaleoba yvela erTgulisTvis, samRvdeloebisa Tu saero pirisTvis.37 amitom maT saero pirebTan erTad Zmurad unda iRvawon eklesiaSi
da eklesiisTvis, sagangebod izrunon saero pirebisaTvis maT samociqulo
saqmeebSi.38
aucilebelia mRvdelmsaxurTa gulmodgine SerCeva, romlebic saTanaod
da Sesaferisad iqnebian momzadebulni saeroTa mociqulobis sagangebo
formebis mxardasaWerad.39 is, vinc ierarqiisgan misiis miRebis Sedegad am
msaxurebas aRasrulebs, man ierqarqia Tavis samociqulo saqmianobaSi unda
warmoadginos, xeli Seuwyos Sesabamis urTierTobebs masTan da eklesiis
sulisa da moZRvrebis mudam erTguli iyos. misTvis mindobili kaTolikuri gaerTianebebi man sulieri cxovrebiTa da samociqulo grZnobiT unda
asazrdoos; Tavisi brZnuli rCeviT igi am gaerTianebaTa samociqulo moRvaweobas unda daexmaros da maT iniciativebs xeli Seuwyos. saero pirebTan
36
Sdr. S.C. CONCILI Resolutio Corrienten., 13 nov. 1920: AAS 13 (1921), pp. 137-140.
37
Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. ad II Conventum ex Omnibus Gentibus Laicorum Apostolatui provehendo, 5
oct. 1957: AAS 49 (1957), p. 927.
38
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 37.
39
Sdr. PIUS XII, adhort. apost. Menti Nostrae, 23 sept. 1950: AAS 42 (1950), p. 660.

244

APOSTOLICAM ACTUOSITATEM

mudmivi kavSiris damyarebiT is unda dafiqrdes imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogori


unda iyos formebi, romlebic samociqulo moRvaweobas ufro nayofiers gaxdis; man erTobis suli unda asazrdoos rogorc Tavad gaerTianebis SigniT,
aseve sxvebTan mimarTebaSi.
da bolos, moweseni, Zmebic da debic, pativs unda scemdnen saeroTa samociqulo saqmeebs. Tavisi instituciebis sulisa da normebis mixedviT isini
sixaruliTa unda Caeban saeroTa saqmeebSi40 da Seecadon, samRvdlo funqciaTa SesrulebaSi maT daxmareba gauwion, mxari dauWiron da srulyofileba mianiWon.
26. diocezebSi SeZlebisdagvarad sabWoebi unda Camoyalibdes, romlebic daexmareba eklesiis samociqulo saqmes evangelizaciisa da wmidayofis,
agreTve saqvelmoqmedo, socialur da sxva asparezze. aq samRvdeloebma da
moweseebma saero pirebTan saTanado formiT unda iTanamSromlon. sabWoebma SeiZleba xeli Seuwyos sxvadasxva saero pirTa gaerTianebaTa da wamowyebaTa urTierTkoordinacias. amasTanave daculi unda iyos TiToeuli maTganis Tavisebureba da avtonomia.41
aseTi sabWoebi, Tu es SesaZlebelia, unda arsebobdes agreTve sakrebulos Tu sakrebuloTaSoris, interdiocezul garemoSi, agreTve nacionalur an internacionalur doneze.42
garda amisa, wmida saydarTan unda Camoyalibdes gansakuTrebuli samdivno. igi emsaxureba da stimuls aZlevs saeroTa mociqulobas, rogorc centri, romelsac SeeZleba, garkveuli saSualebebiT mogvawodos informacia
saeroTa sxvadasxva wamowyebebis Sesaxeb, Seiswavlos problemebi, romlebic
amJamad am sferoSi warmoiqmneba, daexmaros Tavisi rCevebiT ierarqiasa da
saero pirebs samociqulo saqmeebSi. sadivnoSi monawileoba unda miiRos
mTels samyaroSi arsebulma saeroTa mociqulobis sxvadasxva moZraobam da
iniciativam, xolo samRvdeloebam da moweseebma saero pirebTan unda iTanamSromlon.
27. saerTo evangeluri memkvidreoba da aqedan gamomdinare qristianuli mowmobis saerTo movaleoba sasurvels xdis da xSirad moiTxovs kidec kaTolikeTa TanamSromlobas sxva qristianebTan, romelsac
calkeuli piri da eklesiis sakrebuloebi axorcieleben, calkeuli qmedebis an gaerTianebaTa saxiT, rogorc nacionalur, aseve internacionalur asparezze.43
qristianebma, romlebic samociqulo miznebisken miiswrafvian, unda iTanamSromlon maTTan, vinc qristiani ar aris, magram am Rirebulebebs aRiarebs. amas xSirad moiTxovs saerTo adamianuri Rirebulebebi.
am dinamiuri da gonivruli TanamSromlobiT,44 romelic did rols TamaSobs warmaval saqmianobaSi, saeroni mowmoben qristesTvis, samyaros macxovrisTvis, da adamianTa ojaxis erTobisaTvis.

40
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. De accommodata renovatione vitae religiosae, n. 8.
41
Sdr. BENEDICTUS XIV, De Synodo Diocesana, I, III, c. IX, n. VII-VIII: Opera omnia in tomos
XVII distributa, tom. XI (Prati, 1844), pp. 76-77.
42
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Quamvis Nostra, 30 apr. 1936: AAS 28 (1936), pp. 160-161.
43
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Mater et Magistra, 15 maii 1961: AAS 53 (1961), pp. 456-457. Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de Oecumenismo, n. 12.
44
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de Oecumenismo, n. 12. Sdr. agreTve Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n.
15.

245

vatikanis II kreba

Tavi VI
mociqulobisTvis momzadeba
28. mociqulobam Tavis srul qmediTobas SeiZleba mxolod mravalgvari da sruli momzadebis safuZvelze miaRwios. amas moiTxovs ara marto
Tavad saero piris mudmivi sulieri da samoZRvro winsvla, aramed sxvadasxva garemoebasTan, pirovnebasa da movaleobasTan dakavSirebuli
viTareba, romlebsac unda miesadagos maTi moRvaweoba. mociqulobisaTvis es momzadeba unda daemyaros im debulebebs, romlebic wmida krebam
sxvagan Camoayaliba da ganacxada.45 garda im momzadebisa, romelic yvela
qristianisTvis aris saerTo, mociqulobis mravali forma, pirTa da garemoebaTa mravalgvarobis gamo, gansakuTrebul da sagangebo momzadebas moiTxovs.
29. saeroni Taviseburad monawileoben eklesiis misiaSi. maTi samociqulo momzadeba gansakuTrebul xasiaTs iZens, romelic sakuTriv saero piris
sekularuli xasiaTidan da misi sulieri cxovrebidan momdinareobs.
samociqulo momzadeba erTgvar mTlian adamianur momzadebas gulisxmobs, romelic TiToeuli adamianis niWsa da mdgomareobas Seesabameba. saero piri, romelmac kargad icis Tanamedrove samyaro, Tavisi sazogadoebisa
da misi kulturis srulyofili wevri unda iyos.
magram upirveles yovlisa, saero pirma unda iswavlos qristesa da eklesiis misiis Sesruleba. man rwmeniT unda ganicados Sesaqmisa da gamosyidvis
saRmrTo saidumloeba. es unda moxdes suli wmidis zemoqmedebiT, romelmac
RmrTis eri cxovel-yo, yvela adamians STaunerga siyvaruli mama RmerTisa,
xolo masSi samyarosi da adamianebisa. es momzadeba yovelgvari nayofieri
mociqulobis saZirkvlad da pirobad unda miviCnioT.
sulieri momzadebis garda, saWiroa safuZvliani samoZRvro momzadeba,
kerZod Teologiuri, eTikuri, filosofiuri, asakis, garemoebisa da niWis
sxvadasxvaobis Sesabamisad. praqtikul da teqnikur momzadebasTan erTad
zogadi kulturis mniSvnelobac ar unda daviviwyoT.
keTili adamianuri urTierTobebisTvis xelSesawyobad WeSmaritad adamianuri Rirebulebebis dafaseba aris saWiro. maT Soris, upirveles yovlisa, aRsaniSnavia Zmurad Tanacxovrebisa da TanamSromlobis niWi, agreTve
urTierTobis damyarebis unari.
mociqulobisTvis momzadeba Teoriuli ganaTlebiT ar amoiwureba. saero
pirma imTaviTve TandaTanobiT da gonivrulad unda iswavlos sarwmunoebis
Suqze yvelafris ganxilva, gansja da keTeba. Tavad qmedebaSi man sxvebTan
erTad unda iswavlos sakuTari Tavis formireba da srulyofa, da, amgvarad,
eklesiis qmediTi msaxurebis dawyebac.46 es momzadeba, romelmac gamudmebiT
srulyofa unda ganicados adamianis pirovnebis mzardi simwifisa da problemaTa evoluciis gamo, dRiTi dRe ufro Rrma codnasa da Sesabamis moqmedebas moiTxovs. momzadebis yvela moTxovnilebis srulad dakmayofilebis
mizniT yovelTvis mxedvelobaSi unda gvqondes adamianuri pirovnebis erTianoba da mTlianoba, raTa misi harmonia da wonasworoba iyos SenarCunebuli.
amgvarad, saero piri Rrmad da aqtiurad ebmeva Tavad warmaval sinamdvileSi da warmatebiT asrulebs Tavis rols saqmeTa organizaciaSi. amave
45
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, cap. II, IV, V. Sdr. agreTve dekreti de Oecumenismo, nn. 4, 6, 7, 12. Sdr. agreTve zemoT, n. 4.
46
Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. Ad I Conferentiam internationalem boy-scouts, 6 iunii 1952: AAS 44
(1952), pp. 579-580. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Mater et Magistra, 15 maii 1961: AAS 53 (1961), p. 456.

246

APOSTOLICAM ACTUOSITATEM

dros, is, rogorc eklesiis cocxali wevri da mowme, warmaval sinamdvileSi


aqtualobasa da qmediTobas sZens eklesias.47
30. mociqulobisTvis momzadeba dasabams bavSvebis dawyebiT ganaTlebaSi
iRebs. mozardebi da axalgazrebi gansakuTrebulad unda eziaron mociqulobas da misi suliT ganimsWvalon. es momzadeba, axali funqciebis miRebasTan erTad, mTeli cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi srulyofas unda ganicdides.
amitom cxadia, rom maT, visac qristianuli aRzrda exeba, mociqulobisTvisac momzadebis valdebulebac akisriaT.
mSobelTa amocanaa, Tavisi Svilebi bavSvobidanve ganawyon yvela adamianis mimarT RmrTis siyvarulis Sesacnobad. TandaTanobiT, upirveles yovlisa, sakuTari magaliTiT, maT bavSvebs unda aswavlon moyvasis rogorc
materialuri, aseve sulieri moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebisTvis zrunva.
amgvarad, mTeli ojaxi da erToblivi cxovreba masSi erTgvarad mociqulobis pirvel nabijad unda iqces.
garda amisa, bavSvebi ise unda aRizardon, rom ojaxuri sazRvrebis gadalaxvisas maTi guli Ria iyos rogorc saeklesio, aseve saero sazogadoebisTvis. adgilobriv sakrebuloSi maTi integracia ise unda moxdes, rom maT
Tavi RmrTis eris cocxal da aqtiur wevrebad gaacnobieron. mRvdelmsaxurebs katexizaciasa da sityvis msaxurebaSi, agreTve sulieri xelmZRvanelobisas da sxva saxis samRvdlo msaxurebaSi mxedvelobaSi mociqulobisTvis
momzadeba unda hqondeT.
skolebis, kolegiumebisa da sxva saganmanaTleblo kaTolikuri instituciebis amocanas axalgazrdebSi kaTolikuri Segnebis Camoyalibeba da samociqulo moRvaweobisTvis xelSewyoba warmoadgens. Tu aseTi momzadeba ar
iqna (imitom rom axalgazrdebi aseT skolebSi ar dadian, an raRac sxva mizeziT), is mSoblebma, sulierma mwyemsebma da samociqulo gaerTianebebma unda
uzrunvelyon. xolo moZRvrebma da aRmzrdelebma, romlebic Tavisi mowodebiTa da movaleobiT saeroTa mociqulobis yvelaze ufro daxvewil formas
asruleben, unda Rrmad SeiTvison moZRvreba da ganimsWvalon pedagogiuri
xelovnebiT, raTa ufro warmatebiT SeZlon am ganaTlebis gadacema.
saeroTa jgufebi da gaerTianebebi, romlebic mociqulobisken an sxva
zebunebrivi mizezebisken miiswrafvian, Tavisi miznebisa da Taviseburebebis
Sesabamisad mociqulobisTvis momzadebas gulmodgined da bejiTad unda
warmarTavdnen.48 xSirad isini Tavad warmoadgenen mociqulobisTvis saTanado momzadebis Cveulebriv gzas. maTSi xorcieldeba samoZRvro, sulieri
da praqtikuli momzadeba. maTi wevrebi, Tavis kolegebTan da megobrebTan
mcire jgufebad gaerTianebuli, Tavisi samociqulo moRvaweobis meTodebsa da Sedegebs swavloben da Tavisi yoveldRiuri cxovrebis arss saxarebas
adareben.
amgvari momzadebisas saeroTa mTeli mociquloba unda iyos gaTvaliswinebuli, romelic ara marto gaerTianebaTa jgufebs SigniT unda
ganxorcieldes, aramed yovlgvar garemoSi, mTeli cxovrebis manZilze, gansakuTrebiT profesiul da socialur cxovrebaSi. metic: mociqulobisaTvis
yvela TviTon unda moemzados, rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania mozrdil
asakSi. asakTan erTad sulieri zrda mimdinareobs, amitom TiToeul adamians saSualeba eZleva, ufro Rrmad moiZios niWi, romliTac RmerTma misi
suli daajildova, da ufro warmatebiT gamoiyenos is qarizmebi, romlebic
mas suli wmidam misi Zmebis sakeTildReod mianiWa.
47
48

Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 33.


Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Mater et Magistra, 15 maii 1961: AAS 53 (1961), p. 455.

247

vatikanis II kreba

31. mociqulobis sxvadasxva formebi uTuod saWiroebs Sesaferis momzadebas.


a) rac Seexeba adamianTa evangelizaciisa da wmida-yofis mociqulobas,
am SemTxvevaSi saeroTa specialuri momzadeba aris saWiro, raTa damyardes saubari sxvebTan morwmuneebsa da urwmunoebTan, yvelasTvis qristes
uwyebis gamosacxadeblad.49
Cvens droSi yvelgan kaTolikeTa Sorisac ki _ farTod vrceldeba materializmis sxvadasxva saxeoba. amitom saero pirebma ara marto safuZvlianad unda Seiswavlon kaTolikuri moZRvreba, gansakuTrebiT sadao sakiTxebi, aramed materializmis nebismieri formis winaaRmdeg evangeliuri cxovrebiTac unda mowmobdnen.
b) rac Seexeba warmaval saganTa wesis qristianul gardaqmnas, am sferoSi
saero pirebs unda vaswavloT droebiTi keTildReobis WeSmariti mniSvnelobisa da Rirebulebis Sesaxeb, rogorc TavisTavad, aseve da adamianuri
pirovnebis miznebTan mimarTebaSic. saeroni unda gaiwafon saganTa sworad
moxmarebisa da institituciaTa organizaciis sakiTxSi. eklesiis moraluri
da socialuri moZRvrebis Sesabamisad, maT mudam mxedvelobaSi unda hqondeT saerTo keTildReoba. saero pirebma ise unda Seiswavlon socialuri
moZRvrebis safuZvlebi da misi daskvnebi, rom SeZlon, Tavisi wvli Seitanon
am moZRvrebis ganviTarebaSi da yovel calkeul SemTxvevaSi is sworad gamoiyenon.50
g) qvelmoqmedeba da gulmowyaleba qristianuli cxovrebis brwyinvale mowmobas warmoadgens. amitom samociqulo momzadeba maT ganxorcielebisken unda iyos mimarTuli, raTa qristes erTgulebma bavSvobidan
iswavlon, Zmebs TanaugrZnon da gasaWirSi didsulovnad daexmaron.51
32. saero pirebs, romlebmac Tavi mociqulobas miuZRvnes, ukve gaaCniaT
mravali damxmare saSualeba, rogoric aris sesiebi, kongresebi, ganmeorebiTi Sekrebebi, sulieri wvrTnani, xSiri Sexvedrebi, wignebi, komentarebi,
romlebic xels uwyobs wmida werilisa da kaTolikuri moZRvrebis ufro
Rrma gagebas, winsvlas sulier cxovrebaSi, samyaroSi arsebuli viTarebis
wvdomas, agreTve saTanado meTodebis aRmoCenasa da SemuSavebas.52
momzadebis es saSualebebi iTvaliswineben mocemul garemoSi ganxorcielebuli mociqulobis sxvadasxva formas.
am mizans emsaxureba centrebisa Tu umaRlesi saswavlo dawesebulebebis
daarseba, romlebmac ukve mogvces brwyinvale Sedegebi.
wmida krebas axarebs amgvari wamowyebebi, romlebic ukve ganxorcielda
zogierT regionSi, da imedi aqvs, rom maT sxva adgilebSic eqneba mxardaWera, iq, sadac amis aucilebloba arsebobs.
amasTan erTad, mociqulobis yvela sferoSi unda daarsdes dokumentaciisa da kvlevis centrebi. es exeba ara marto Teologias, aramed anTropologias, fsiqologias, sociologiasa da meTodologias, raTa ufro nayofierad ganviTardes saeroTa bunebrivi niWi, kacebisa da qalebisac, axalgazrdebisa da zrdasrulebisac.

49
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Sertum laetitiae, 1 nov. 1939: AAS 31 (1939), pp. 635-644. misive, As
laureati Act. Cath. It. 24 maii 1953: AAS 45 (1953), pp. 413-414.
50
Sdr. PIUS XII, alloc. ad Congressum Universalem Foederationis Mundialis Iuventutis Femineae
Catholicae, 18 apr. 1952: AAS 44 (1952), pp. 414-419. misive, alloc. ad Associationiem Christianam Operariorum Italiae (A.C.L.I.), 1 maii 1955: AAS 47 (1955), pp. 403-404.
51
Sdr. PIUS XII, Ad Delegatos Conventus Sodalium Caritatis, 27 apr. 1952, pp. 470-471.
52
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Mater et Magistra, 15 maii 1961: AAS 53 (1961), p. 454.

248

APOSTOLICAM ACTUOSITATEM

mowodeba
33. maSasadame, wmida kreba uflis saxeliT mouwodebs yvela saero pirs,
nebayoflobiT, didsulovnad da Tamamad upasuxon qristes xmas (igi maT
amJamad kidev ufro dabejiTebiT mimarTavs) da suli wmidis STagonebas. dae,
axalgazrdebma gaacnobieron, rom es mimarTva swored maTTvis aris gankuTvnili, da miiRon is mxned da gulRiad. Tavad ufali am wm. krebis meSveobiT kvlav iwvevs yvela saero pirs, raTa masTan ufro mWidro urTierToba
hqondeT, misi gancdebi gaiTavison (Sdr. fil. 2, 5) da mis gamomxsnel misiaSi
gaerTiandnen. igi kvlav miavlens maT yvela qalaqsa da adgilas, sadac Tavad unda wavides (Sdr. luk. 10, 1). eklesiis erTiani mociqulobis sxvadasxva
formiTa da saSualebiT (isini mudam unda Seeferebodes drois axal moTxovnilebebs) saero pirebma unda aCvenon, rom misi TanamSromlebi arian, mudam uflis saqmes akeTeben da ician, rom maTi Sroma ara cudad iyos uflisa
mier (1kor. 15, 58).
yovelive erTad da cal-calke, rac am dekretSi gamocxadda,
wmida krebis mamebma moiwones. da Cvenc, im samociqulo uflebamosilebiT, romelic qristesgan gadmogveca, amas pativdebul mamebTan erTad suli wmidaSi veTanxmebiT, vadgenT,
vawesebT da vbrZanebT, rom is, rac krebaze dadginda, gamoqveyndes sadideblad RmrTisa.

romi, wm. petresTan, 1965 wlis 18 noemberi


me, pavle, kaTolike eklesiis episkoposi
(mohyveba mamaTa xelmowerebi)

249

deklaracia
religiuri Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb
DIGNITATIS HUMANAE

pavle episkoposi,
RmrTis msaxurTa msaxuri,
wmida krebis mamebTan erTad,
samudamo saxsovrad

deklaracia
religiuri Tavisuflebis
Sesaxeb
socialuri da samoqalaqo Tavisuflebis ufleba,
romelic religiis sferoSi aqvs pirovnebasa da sazogadoebebs
1. adamianuri pirovnebis Rirsebas Cvens droSi adamianebi ufro da ufro
ukeTesad acnobiereben.1 izrdeba maTi ricxvi, vinc moiTxovs, rom adamianebi, sakuTari gansjisa da pasuxismgeblobis safuZvelze, Tavisufalni
iyvnen da Tavisuflad moqmedebdnen. isini iZulebas ki ar unda emorCilebodnen, aramed movaleobis Segnebas. amasTanave isini moiTxoven sajaro
xelisuflebis kanonmdeblobiT Sekvecas, raTa metismetad ar SeizRudos
rogorc pirovnebis, aseve gaerTianebaTa namdvili Tavisuflebis sazRvrebi. Tavisuflebis es moTxovna adamianTa sazogadoebaSi yvelaze ufro exeba adamianis sulier Rirebulebebs, rac, upirveles yovlisa, gulisxmobs
sazogadoebaSi religiis Tavisuflad wvrTnas (exercitium). vatikanis kreba
guldasmiT ganixilavs am sulier miswrafebebs. igi miznad isaxavs, ganacxados, ramdenad Seesabameba isini WeSmaritebasa da samarTals. eklesiis wmida tradiciisa da moZRvrebis gamokvleviT, is midis siaxlesTan, romelic
mudam eTanxmeba Zvels.
amitom wmida kreba aRiarebs, rom Tavad RmerTma gauxsna gza kacobriobas, romliTac, RmrTis msaxurebis meSveobiT, adamianebi SeiZleba
gamoxsnilni da netarni gaxdnen qristeSi. gvwams, rom es erTaderTi WeSmariti religia arsebobs kaTolike da samociqulo eklesiaSi, romelsac
ufalma iesom miando movaleoba, gaavrcelos is yvela adamianTa Soris da
uTxras mociqulebs: warvediT da moimowafeniT yovelni warmarTni da
naTel-scemdiT maT saxeliTa mamisaTa da ZisaTa da sulisa wmidisaTa
(maT. 28, 19-20). Tavis mxriv, yvela adamiani unda eZiebdes WeSmaritebas,
gansakuTrebiT im sferoSi, romelic exeba RmerTsa da mis eklesias, xolo
misi Secnobis Sedegad misi miReba da Senaxva.
wmida kreba aseve aRiarebs, rom es movaleoba exeba da avaldebulebs
adamianTa sindiss, xolo WeSmaritebis danergva sxvagvarad ver moxdeba,
Tu ara Tavad WeSmaritebis ZaliT, romelic gonebaSi rbilad da Tan mtkiced iWreba. religiuri Tavisufleba, romelsac adamianebi moiTxoven imisaTvis, raTa aRasrulon movaleoba - Tayvani scen RmerTs, _ gulisxmobs
samoqalaqo sazogadoebaSi iZulebis ararsebobas. is xeluxleblad tovebs
tradiciul kaTolikur moZRvrebas adamianTa da sazogadoebaTa zneobrivi movaleobebis Sesaxeb WeSmariti religiisa da qristes erTaderTi eklesiis mimarT. garda amisa, wmida kreba ganixilavs am religiuri Tavisuflebis
sakiTxs da ganizraxavs, ganaviTaros ukanaskneli uzenaesi pontifeqsebis
1
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encicl. Pacem in terris, 11 aprilis 1963: AAS 55 (1963), p. 279; ibid., p. 265
Pius XII nuntius radiophonicus, 24 dec. 1944: AAS 37 (1945), p. 14.

253

vatikanis II kreba

moZRvreba pirovnebis uflebaTa dacvisa da sazogadoebis samarTleblivi


wesrigis Sesaxeb.

I. religiuri Tavisuflebis zogadi principebi


2. vatikanis es kreba acxadebs, rom adamianis pirovnebas aqvs religiuri
Tavisuflebis ufleba. amgvari Tavisufleba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom yvela adamiani unda iyos daculi iZulebisgan calkeuli pirisa Tu socialur
jgufTa mxridan, agreTve nebismieri adamianuri xelisuflebis mxridan.
amgvarad, religiis sferoSi veravin unda aiZulon, imoqmedos sakuTari sindisis winaaRmdeg da verc xeli unda SeuSalon, imoqmedos sakuTari sindisis
Tanaxmad, gansazRvrul farglebSi, rogorc kerZo, aseve sajaro saqmeebSi,
martom Tu sxvebTan erTad. garda amisa, kreba ganacxadebs, rom religiuri
Tavisuflebis ufleba WeSmaritad efuZneba Tavad adamianuri pirovnebis
Rirsebas, ise, rogorc is gamocxadebaSi mocemuli RmrTis sityviTa da Tavad gonebiTac Seicnoba.2 religiuri Tavisuflebis es ufleba, romelic
adamianur pirovnebas gaaCnia, sazogadoebis samarTlebriv wyobaSi imgvarad
unda iyos aRiarebuli, rom is samoqalaqo samarTlad iqces.
sakuTari Rirsebis Sesabamisad, yvela adamiani, ramdenadac isini pirovnebani arian, gonebiTa da Tavisufali nebiT dajildovebulni, xolo amis safuZvelze, pirovnuli pasuxismgeblobiT aRWurvilni, TavisTavad sakuTari bunebiT arian ganwyobilni da zneobrivi valdebulebiT gamsWvalulni,
raTa eZion WeSmariteba, upirveles yovlisa religiis sferoSi. isini unda
icavdnen Secnobil WeSmaritebas da mTel Tavis cxovrebas WeSmaritebis
moTxovnilebebis mixedviT awesrigebdnen. xolo am moTxovnilebis dakmayofileba adamianebs, Tavisi bunebis Sesabamisad, ar SeuZliaT sxvagvarad Tu
ara fsiqologiuri Tavisuflebis pirobebSi, agreTve garegani iZulebisgan
daculobis pirobebSi. maSasadame, religiur Tavisuflebis uflebis safuZveli mdgomareobas ara pirovnebis subieqtur ganwyobaSi, aramed Tavad mis
bunebaSi. amitom amgvari daculobis ufleba vrceldeba maTzec, vinc ar akmayofilebs WeSmaritebis Ziebisa da misi dacvis valdebulebas; ar SeiZleba
am uflebis ganxorcielebisTvis xelis SeSla, Tuki SenarCunebulia samarTliani sajaro wesi.
3. yovelive es ufro cxadi gaxdeba, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom adamianis
cxovrebis umaRlesi norma aris Tavad saRmrTo kanoni, saukuno, obieqturi
da sayovelTao, romliTac RmerTi asrulebs sibrZnisa da siyvarulis saRmrTo ganzraxvas da ganagebs, xelmZRvanelobs da warmarTavs mTels samyaros
da adamianTa sazogadoebis gzebs. RmerTi adamians am kanons aziarebs, raTa
adamianma, saRmrTo gangebis saamuri xelmZRvanelobiT, sul ufro metad
SeZlos ucvleli WeSmaritebis Secnoba. amitom TiToeulis movaleoba da,
Sesabamisad, uflebac aris, eZios WeSmariteba religiur sferoSi, raTa, saTanado saSualebebis daxmarebiT, sindisiis Sesabamisi, swori da WeSmariti
Sexeduleba SeimuSavos.
xolo WeSmariteba unda veZioT ise, rogorc es Seefereba adamianur pirovnebasa da mis socialur bunebas, anu Tavisufali ZiebiT, moZRvrobiTa
Tu darigebiT, urTierTobiTa da dialogiT. maTi meSveobiT adamianebi
erTmaneTs umJRavneben WeSmaritebas, romelic maT aRmoaCines an fiqro2
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Pacem in terris, 11 aprilis 1963: AAS 55 (1963), pp. 260-261. PIUS
XII, nuntius radiophonicus, 24 dec. 1942: AAS 35 (1954), p. 19. PIUS XI, encycl. Mit brennender Sorge, 14
martii 1937: AAS 29 (1937), p. 160. LEO XIII, encycl. Libertas praestantissimum, 20 iunii 1888: Acta Leonis
XIII 8, 1888, pp. 237-238.

254

DIGNITATIS HUMANAE

ben, rom aRmoaCines, raTa erTmaneTs WeSmaritebis ZiebaSi daexmaron, xolo


WeSmaritebis povnis Semdeg mas mtkiced misdion piradi gadawyvetilebis
safuZvelze.
saRmrTo kanonis miTiTebebs (dictamina) adamiani swvdeba Tavisi sindisis
meSveobiT. is unda erTgulad misdevdes mas mTels Tavis saqmianobaSi, raTa
mivides RmerTTan, romelic misi mizania. amitom is ar unda iyos iZulebuli,
imoqmedos Tavisi sindisis winaaRmdeg. amasTanave ar SeiZleba mas xeli SevuSaloT, imoqmedos Tavisi sindisis Sesabamisad, upirveles yovlisa religiis sferoSi. religiis wvrTna, Tavisi xasiaTidan gamomdinare, mdgomareobs,
upirveles yovlisa, Sinaganad nebayoflobiT da Tavisufal qmedebebSi,
romlebiTac adamiani Tavis Tavs pirdapir RmrTisken mimarTavs: amgvari
qmedebebs mxolod adamianis Zala verc warmarTavs da verc akrZalavs.3 Tavad adamianis socialuri buneba moiTxovs, rom adamianma religiis Sinagani
aqtebi garegnulad gamoxatos, religiis sakiTxebSi urTierToba hqondes
sxvebTan da Tavisi religia sazogadeobrivi formiT aRiaros (profiteatur).
usamarTloba iqneba adamianuri pirovnebisa da Tavad wesis mimarT, romelic RmerTma adamianebs daudgina, Tu adamianebi ugulebelyofen religiis
Tavisufal wvrTnas, maSin, roca daculia samarTliani sajaro wyoba.
garda amisa, religiuri aqtebi, romelTa meSveobiT adamianebi kerZod da
sajarod miiswrafian RmrTisaken Tavisi sulieri gadawyvetilebis safuZvelze, Tavisi bunebiT aRemateba saganTa miwier da droSi arsebul wess. amitom
samoqalaqo xelisufleba, romlis mizani aris droebiTi saerTo keTildReobisTvis zrunva, unda scnos moqalaqeTa religiuri cxovreba da mas xeli Seuwyos. magram unda iTqvas, rom es xelisufleba gadadis Tavis sazRvrebs, Tu
Cemulobs uflebas, uxelmZRvanelos an xeli SeuSalos religiur aqtebs.
4. Tavisufleba an iZulebisgan daculoba religiur sferoSi, romelic
calkeul pirovnebebs exeba, ZalaSia maTi erToblivad moqmedebis pirobebSic. religiuri erTobebis moTxovnileba arsebobs rogorc adamianis,
aseve religiis socialuri bunebis gamo.
amitom, Tu ar irRveva sajaro wesis samarTliani moTxovnilebebi, es erTobebi samarTliT unda iyvnen daculni. es imas niSnavs, rom maT unda gaaCndeT TviTmmarTveloba sakuTari normebis mixedviT, unda SeeZloT, sajaro
kultmsaxurebiT Tayvani scen uzenaes RmrTaebas, xeli Seuwyon Tavis wevrebs religiuri cxovrebis organizaciaSi, daexmaron moZRvrebiT, Seewion
instituciebs, romlebSic maTi wevrebi TanamSromloben, raTa warmarTon
sakuTari cxovreba Tavisi religiuri principebis Sesabamisad.
religiur erTobebs agreTve aqvT imis ufleba, rom samoqalaqo xelisuflebis sakonmdeblo RonisZiebebma an admianistraciulma qmedebam xeli
ar SeuSalos maT msaxurTa arCevaSi, aRzrdaSi, daniSnvasa da gadayvanaSi,
agreTve religiur xelisufalTan da erTobebTan urTierTobaSi, romlebic
dedamiwis sxva kuTxeebSi imyofebian, religiuri Senobebis agebaSi, saWiro
qonebis mopovebasa da moxmarebaSi.
religiur erTobebs agreTve gaaCniaT Tavisi sarwmunoebis zepirad Tu
werilobiT swavlebisa da mowmobis ufleba. religiuri sarmunoebis gavrcelebasa da CveulebaTa damkvidrebisas mudam aucilebelia iseTi qmedebisgan
TavSekaveba, romelic iZulebasa Tu upatiosno da umarTebuli darwmunebas waagavs, gansakuTrebiT roca saqme exeba naklebad ganaTlebul an Ratak
adamianebs. amgvari moqmedeba unda miCneul iqnas sakuTari uflebis borotad gamoyenebad da sxvaTa uflebis darRvevad.
3
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Pacem in terris, 11 aprilis 1963: AAS 55 (1963), p. 270. PAULUS
VI, nuntius radiophonicus, 22 dec. 1964: AAS 57

255

vatikanis II kreba

garda amisa, religiuri Tavisufleba moiTxovs, rom religiur erTobebs


xeli ar SeeSaloT, Tavisuflad gamoxaton Tavisi moZRvrebis gansakuTrebuli Zala, raTa moxdes sazogadoebis mowyoba da mTelma adamianurma qmedebam sicocxle SeiZinos. adamianis socialur bunebaSi da Tavad religiis
xasiaTSi dafuZnebulia ufleba, romliTac adamianebs, romlebic sakuTar
religiur grZnobas misdeven, SeuZliaT Tavisuflad gaerTiandnen (conventus
habere) da Camoayalibon saganmanaTleblo, kulturuli, saqvelmoqmedo da
socialuri asociaciebi.
5. yovel ojaxs, rogorc sazogadoebas sakuTari ZvelisZveli uflebiT, is
uflebac gaaCnia, Tavisuflad ganagos Tavisi saSinao religiuri cxovreba
mSobelTa xelmZRvanelobiT. xolo am ukanasknelT gaaCniaT ufleba, gansazRvron, Tu ra religiuri ganaTleba miscen Svilebs, sakuTari religiuri
Sexedulebis (persuasionem) Sesabamisad. amgvarad, samoqalaqo xelisuflebam
unda scnos mSobelTa ufleba, WeSmaritad Tavisuflad airCion skolebi Tu ganaTlebis sxva saSualebebi, xolo arCevanis amgvari Tavisuflebis
gamo maT ar unda daekisroT pirdapiri Tu arapirdapiri saxiT is, rac maT
mimarT usamarTlo tvirTi iqneba. mSobelTa uflebebi im SemTxvevaSic ilaxeba, Tu bavSvebs aiZuleben, daeswron skolis im gakveTilebs, romlebic ar
Seesabameba mSobelTa religiur Sexedulebas, an Tu ganaTlebis erTaderTi
formis danergva xdeba, romelic sruliad gamoricxavs religiur aRzrdas.
6. sazogadoebis saerTo keTildReoba _ jami im socialuri cxovrebis
garemoebebisa, romelTa meSveobiT adamianebs SeuZliaT ufro srulyofilad da advilad miaRwion sakuTar srulyofas mdgomareobs, upirveles
yovlisa, adamianuri pirovnebis uflebebisa da movaleobebis dacvaSi,4
xolo zrunva religiuri Tavisuflebis uflebisaTvis ekisreba rogorc
moqalaqeebs, aseve socialur jgufebs, agreTve samoqalaqo xelisufalT,
eklesiasa da sxva religiur erTobebs, TiToeuls Taviseburad, saerTo keTildReobis mimarT maTi movaleobis Sesabamisad.
nebismieri samoqalaqo xelisuflebis movaleobaa, daicvas da xeli Seuwyos adamianis xeluxlebel uflebebs.5 amitom samoqalaqo xelisuflebam unda
ikisros samarTliani kanonebisa da sxva Sesaferisi saSualebebis meSveobiT
yvela moqalaqis religiuri Tavisuflebis qmediTi dacva, agreTve uzrunvelyofa iseTi pirobebisa, romlebic sasurvelia religiuri cxovrebis ganviTarebisTvis, raTa moqalaqeebs namdvilad SeeZloT religiuri uflebis
ganxorcieleba da Sesabamisi movaleobebis Sesruleba, da Tavad sazogadoebam isargeblos samarTlisa da mSvidobis sikeTeebiT, romlebic gamomdinareobs RmrTisa da misi wmida nebis mimarT adamianTa erTgulebidan.6
Tu erTaTvis damaxasiaTebel gansakuTrebul garemoebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT erT religiur erTobas sagangebo samoqalaqo aRiareba ergeba, aucilebelia, rom amasTanave cnon da daicvan religiur sferoSi yvela moqalaqisa da religiuri erTobis Tavisuflebis ufleba.
dabolos, samoqalaqo xelisuflebam unda izrunos imisTvis, rom moqalaqeTa samarTlebrivi Tanasworoba, romelic sazogadoebis keTildReobis
kuTvnilebaa, arasdros dazaraldes religiuri mosazrebebiT arc aSkarad
arc farulad, da arc moqalaqeTa Soris iyos diskriminacia.
4
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Mater et Magistra, 15 maii 1961: AAS 53 (1961), p. 417. misive,
encycl. Pacem in terris, 11 aprilis 1963: AAS 55 (1963), p. 273.
5
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Pacem in terris, 11 aprilis 1963: AAS 55 (1963), pp. 273-274.
PIUS XII, nuntius radiophonicaus, 1 iunii 1941: AAS 33 (1941), p. 200.
6
Sdr. LEO XIII, encycl. Immortale Dei, 1 nov. 1885: AAS 18 (1885), p. 161.

256

DIGNITATIS HUMANAE

aqedan gamomdinare, dauSvebelia, sajaro xelisuflebam ZaliT, SiSiT an


sxva saSualebebiT moqalaqeebs Tavs moaxvios ama Tu im religiis aRmsarebloba (professionem) an misi uaryofa, agreTve xeli SeuSalos vinmes, Sevides
ama Tu im religiur erTobaSi an dastovos is. miT ufro metad ewinaaRmdegeba RmrTis nebas, pirovnebisa da xalxTa ojaxis wmida uflebas iseTi qmedeba, rodesac ama Tu im saxiT mimarTaven Zalas religiis gasanadgureblad an
misTvis dabrkolebis Sesaqmnelad, iqneba es mTels kacobriobaSi, romelime
qveyanaSi Tu garkveul jgufSi.
7. religiur sferoSi Tavisuflebis ufleba adamianur sazogadoebaSi
sruldeba. amitom am uflebiT sargebloba garkveul normebs eqvemdebareba.
nebismieri TavisuflebiT sargeblobisas aucilebelia rogorc pirovnul, aseve sazogadoebriv doneze moraluri pasuxismgeblobis principis
dacva: moraluri kanonis ganxorcieleba avaldebulebs calkeul adamianebsa da socialur jgufebs gaiTvaliswinon sxvaTa uflebebic, agreTve Tavisi movaleobebi sxvaTa mimarT da sayovelTao keTildReobac. yvelas mimarT
samarTlianad da humanurad unda moqceva.
samoqalaqo sazogadoebas aqvs ufleba, Tavi daicvas im damaxinjebaTa
winaaRmdeg, romlebsac SeiZleba adgili hqondes religiuri Tavisuflebis
preteqstiT. amitom, aseTi dacvis uzrunvelyofa, upirveles yovlisa, samoqalaqo xelisuflebis saqmea. magram es unda moxdes ara nebismierad an erTerTi mxarisTvis usamarTlo xelSewyobiT, aramed samarTlebrivi normebis
Tanaxmad, romlebic Seesabameba obieqtur zneobriv wess. es normebi saWiroa
uflebaTa qmediTi dacvisTvis, rac yvela moqalaqis keTildReobas da maT
mSvidobian Tanxmobas emsaxureba. maTi daniSnuleba aris im Rirseuli saxalxo mSvidobisaTvis zrunvac, romelic warmoadgens WeSmarit samarTalSi mowesrigebul Tanacxovrebas da sajaro zneobis dacvas. yovelive es Seadgens
saerTo keTildReobis arsebiT nawils da ganisazRvreba, rogorc sajaro
wesi. sxvamxriv sazogadoebaSi aucilebelia sruli Tavisuflebis principis
dacva, romlis Tanaxmad adamians maqsimalurad meti Tavisufleba ekuTvnis
da misi SezRudva mxolod maSin SeiZleba da iseTi odenobiT, rodesac da
ramdenadac es aucilebelia.
8. Cvens droSi adamianebi sxvadasxva mizeziT zewolas ganicdian. maT safrTxe emuqreba, rom isini Tavisufal arCevans ver gaakeTeben. meores mxriv,
bevrni TiTqos ise arian ganwyobilni, rom Tavisuflebis safariT uaryofen
yovelgvar daqvemdebarebas da ugulebelyofen aucilebel morCilebas.
amitom vatikanis es kreba mouwodebs yvelas, upirveles yovlisa ki maT,
vinc sxvaTa ganaTlebisTvis zrunavs, Seecadon aRzardon iseTi adamianebi,
romlebic zneobrivi wesis dacvisas legitimur xelisuflebas daemorCilebian da WeSmariti Tavisuflebis moyvarulnic iqnebian. aseTi adamianebi
sagnebs sakuTari Sexedulebis Tanaxmad, WeSmaritebis Suqze gansjian, imoqmedeben pasuxismgeblobis grZnobiT, miiswrafian imisken, rac WeSmaritia da
samarTliani, da sxvebTan siamovnebiT iTanamSromloben.
maSasadame, sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi movaleobaTa Sesrulebas adamianebi gansakuTrebuli pasuxismgeblobiT unda moekidon. es aris is mizani,
romelsac religiuri Tavisufleba unda emsaxurebodes.

II. religiuri Tavisufleba gamocxadebis Suqze


9. vatikanis es kreba acxadebs religiur Tavisuflebaze adamianis uflebas. mis safuZvels pirovnebis Rirseba warmoadgens, romlis moTxovni-

257

vatikanis II kreba

lebebi saukunovani gamocdilebis safuZvelze ufro cxadi xdeba adamianuri gonebisaTvis. metic: Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb am moZRvrebis fesvebi wmida
gamocxadebaSi Zevs. amitom qristianebs gansakuTrebiT marTebT misi wmidad
Senaxva. Tumca gamocxadeba pirdapir ar adasturebs religiis sferoSi garegani iZulebisgan daculobis uflebas, is mainc srulad warmoaCens adamianuri pirovnebis Rirsebas, aCvenebs qristes pativiscemas adamianis Tavisuflebis mimarT, romelic xorcieldeba mis movaleobaSi: RmrTis sityvis
rwmenaSi, da gvaswavlis sulis Sesaxeb, romelic aseTi moZRvris mowafeebma
yvelaferSi unda amoicnon da misdion. yvela am ZiriTadi principiT cxadi
xdeba, Tu ras efuZneba mocemuli deklaraciis moZRvreba religiuri Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb. upirveles yovlisa, religiuri Tavisufleba sazogadoebaSi srulad Seesabameba qristianuli rwmenis aqts.
10. kaTolikuri moZRvrebis erT-erTi mTavari debulebis Tanaxmad, romelic RmrTis sityvaSi aris mocemuli da romelsac mamebi mudam qadageben,7
adamianma RmerTs rwmeniT nebayoflobiT unda upasuxos. amitom ar SeiZleba, vinme vaiZuloT, sarwmunoeba miiRos.8 rwmenis aqti Tavisi bunebiT nebayoflobiTia: adamiani, qriste macxovris mier gamosyiduli da Svilobisken ieso qristes mier mowodebuli,9 mxolod im SemTxvevaSi SeZlebs, gahyves
RmerTs, romelic Tavis Tavs gamoacxadebs, Tu is, mamis mier mowodebuli,10
RmerTs rwmenis gonivrul da Tavisufal morCilebas warmoudgens. amgvarad,
rwmenis bunebas savsebiT Sesabamisi iqneba is realoba, rodesac religiur
sferoSi adamianTa mxridan gamoricxulia nebismieri saxis iZuleba. aqedan
gamomdinare, religiuri Tavisuflebis principi sagrZnoblad uwyobs xels
saganTa iseT viTarebas, rodesac adamianebi advilad SeiZleba iqnen mowodebulni qristianuli sarwmunoebisken, raTa nebayoflobiT moicvan is da
qmediTad aRiaron cxovrebis mTel wesSi.
11. RmerTi mouwodebs adamianebs, emsaxuron mas sulsa da WeSmaritebaSi.
amitom isini valdebulebas iReben sindisSi da ara iZulebiT. RmerTi iTvaliswinebs Rirsebas adamianuri pirovnebisa, romelic Tavad Seqmna. mas sakuTari Sexeduleba unda warmarTavdes, is TavisuflebiT unda sargeblobdes.
uzenaesi saxiT es ieso qristeSi gamovlinda: masSi RmerTma srulyofilad
gamoavlina sakuTari Tavi da Tavisi gzebi. qristem, romelic aris Cveni moZRvari da ufali,11 mSvidi da mdabali guliT,12 moTminebiT miizida da mouwoda mowafeebs.13 saswaulebiT is, ra Tqma unda, adasturebda da ganamtkicebda
Tavis winaswarmetyvelebas, raTa msmenelTa rwmena aRegzno da gaemyarebi7
Sdr. LACTANTIUS, Divinarum Institutionum, V, 19: CSEL 19, pp. 463-464, 465; PL 6, 614, 616
(cap.) 20). S. AMBROSIUS, Epistola 21 ad Valentianum Imp. : PL 16, 1005. - S. AUGUSTINUS, Contra litteras Petiliani, II, 83: CSEL 52, p. 112; PL 43, 315; cf. C. 23, q. 5, c. 33: FRIEDBERG, col. 939. IDEM, Epistola
23: PL 33, 98. IDEM, Epistola 34: PL 3, 132. IDEM, Epistola 35: PL 33, 135. S. GREGORIUS M., Epistola
ad Virgilium et Theodorum Episcopos Massiliae Galliarum, Registrum Epistolarum I, 45: MGH Ep. 1 p. 72; PL
77, 510-511 (lib. I, ep. 47). ID., Epistola p. 210; PL 77, 649 (lib. III, ep. 53); cf. D. 45, c. 1: FRIEDBERG, col.
160. CONC. TOLET. IV, c. 57: MANSI 10, 633; cf. D. 45, c. 5: FRIEDBERG, col. 161-162. CLEMENS III:
X, V, 6, 9: FRIEDBERG, col. 774. INNOCENTIUS III, Epistola ad Arelatensem Archiepiscopum, X., III, 42,
3: FRIEDBERG, col. 646.
8
Sdr. CIC, c. 1351. PIUS XII, allocutio ad Praelatos auditores caeterosque aofficiales et administros Tribunalis S. Romanae Rotae, 6 oct. 1946: AAS 38 (1946), p. 394. IDEM, encycl. Mystici Corporis, 29
iunii 1943: AAS 35 (1943), p. 243.
9
Sdr. efes. 1, 5.
10
Sdr. ioan. 6, 44.
11
Sdr. ioan. 13, 13.
12
Sdr. maT. 11, 29.
13
Sdr. maT. 11, 28-30; ioan. 6, 67-68.

258

DIGNITATIS HUMANAE

na, magram ara maTi iZulebis mizniT.14 cxadia, is sayvedurobda urwmuno msmenelT, magram dasja man RmerTs miando sasjelis dRes.15 man moavlina mociqulebi qveyanaze da uTxra maT: romelsa hrwmenes da naTel-iRos, cxovndes; da romelsa ara hrwmenes, daisajos (mark. 16, 16). man icoda, rom ifqli
RvarZlTan erTad iyo daTesili, da brZana, orivesTvis ecliaT aRorZineba
vidre Jamamde mkisa, romelic iqneba saukunis aRsasrulisas.16 mas ar surda,
yofiliyo politikuri mesia da ZaliT gamefebuli.17 man amjobina, wodebuliyo Zed kacisa, romelic movida msaxurebad da micemad suli Tsi sasrad
mravalTa (mark. 10, 45). man Tavisi Tavi warmoadgina RmrTis srulyofil msaxurad,18 romelmac lerwami Semusrvili ara gantexos da patruki mbndnvare
ara daSritos (maT. 12, 20). man scno samoqalaqo xelisufleba da misi uflebebi da brZana, xarki miecaT keisrisTvis. amave dros man cxadad gaafrTxila, rom daculi unda iyos RmrTis uzenaesi uflebebi: mieciT keisrisa
keisarsa da RmrTisa RmerTsa (maT. 22, 21). da bolos, jvarze gamosyidvis
aRsrulebisas, romliTac adamianebi gamoxsnasa da WeSmarit Tavisuflebas
iZenen, man Tavisi gamocxadeba srulyo. man daamowma WeSmariteba,19 magram
ar isurva, is mowinaaRmdegeTaTvis ZaliT Tavs moexvia, radgan misi meufeba maxviliT ki ar moipoveba,20 aramed WeSmaritebis mowmobiTa da mosmeniT
myardeba. is izrdeba im siyvaruliT, romliTac qriste, jvarze amaRlebuli,
adamianebs Tavisken miizidavs.21
mociqulebi, qristes sityviTa da magaliTiT ganswavlulni, amave gzas
gahyvnen. Tavad eklesiis dasabamidan qristes mowafeebi iRwvodnen imisTvis, rom adamianebi ufali qristes aRsarebisken moiqcnen ara iZulebiT an
eSmakobiT, romelic saxarebis uRirsia, aramed upirveles yovlisa RmrTis
sityvis ZaliT.22 isini yvelas Tamamad amcnobdnen macxovris RmrTis ganzraxvas, romelsa yovelTa kacTa hnebavs cxoreba da mecnierebasa WeSmaritebisasa moslva (1 tim. 2, 4). amave dros isini pativs scemdnen sustebs,
Tundac maT mcdarad ecxovraT. amgvarad cxadyofdnen isini, Tu rogor kacad-kacadman Cuenman Tavisa TsisaTs sityua misces RmerTsa (rom. 14, 12).23
aseTi adamiani sakuTar sindiss emorCileba. qristes msgavsad, mociqulebi
yovelTvis cdilobdnen daemowmebinaT RmrTis WeSmariteba da, xalxisa da
mmarTvelTa winaSe, didi gabedulebiT ityodes sityuasa mas RmrTisasa gancxadebulad (saqme 4, 31)24. mtkice rwmeniT maT marTlac miaCndaT, rom saxareba Zali RmrTisa ars macxovrad yovlisa morwmunisa.25 yvela xorcieli saWurvelis26 uaryofiT, isini misdevdnen qristes simSvidisa da mokrZalebis magliTs. isini qadagebdnen RmrTis sityvas, sruliad darwmunebulni,
rom am sityvas Seswevs saRmrTo Zala, daamarcxos RmrTis mowinaaRmdege
Zalebi27 da miiyvanos adamianebi qristes rwmenasa da mis morCilebamde.28 ro14
Sdr. maT. 9, 28-29; mark. 9, 23-24; 6, 5-6. PAULUS VI, encycl. Ecclesiam suam, 6 aug. 1964:
AAS 56 (1964), pp. 642-643.
15
Sdr. maT. 11, 20-24; rom. 12, 19-20; 2Tes. 1, 8.
16
Sdr. maT. 13, 30 da 40-42.
17
Sdr. maT. 4, 8-10; ioan. 6, 15.
18
Sdr. es. 42, 1-4.
19
Sdr. ioan. 18, 37.
20
Sdr. maT. 26, 51-53; ioan. 18, 36.
21
Sdr. ioan. 12, 32.
22
Sdr. 1kor. 2, 3-5; 1Tes. 2, 3-5.
23
Sdr. rom. 14, 1-23; 1kor. 8, 9-13; 10, 23-33.
24
Sdr. efes. 6, 19-20.
25
rom. 1, 16.
26
Sdr. 2kor. 10, 4; 1Tes. 5, 8-9.
27
Sdr. efes. 6, 11-17.
28
Sdr. 2kor. 10, 3-5.

259

vatikanis II kreba

gorc moZRvarma, aseve mociqulebma scnes kanonieri samoqalaqo xelisufleba: yoveli suli elmwifebasa mas umTavresisasa daemorCilen;... romeli
aRdgebodis elmwifebasa, RmrTisa brZanebasa aRdgebis (rom. 13, 1-2).29 amasTanave maT ar SeeSindaT sajaro xelisuflebasTan dapirispireba, romelic
ewinaaRmdgeboda RmrTis wmida nebas: morCileba jer-ars RmrTisa ufros
vidre kacTa (saqme 5, 29).30 am gzas mihyveboda mravali martvili da erTguli saukuneTa manZilze mTels msoflioSi.
12. eklesia, saxarebis WeSmaritebis erTguli, mihyveba qristesa da mociqulebis gzas, roca igi aRiarebs, rom religiuri Tavisuflebis principi Seesabameba adamianis Rirsebasa da RmrTis gamocxadebas. eklesia xels
uwyobs am Tavisuflebas. igi droTa msvlelobaSi icavda da gadascemda moZRvrebas, miRebuls moZRvrisa da mociqulebisagan. RmrTis eri msxemobda kacobriobis istoriis bedukuRmarTobis gzaze. mis cxovrebaSi zogjer Tavs
iCenda moqmedebis iseTi forma, romelic naklebad Seefereboda saxarebis
suls, da sulac ewinaaRmdegeboda kidec mas. miuxedavad amisa, mainc mudam
ZalaSi rCeboda eklesiis moZRvreba, romlis Tanaxmad rwmenis iZulebiT
Tavs moxveva SeuZlebelia.
amgvarad, saxarebis safuari didxans moqmedebda adamianTa gonebaSi. man
didad Seuwyo xeli imas, rom droTa ganmavlobaSi adamianebs ufro safuZvlianad gaecnobierebinaT Tavisi pirovnuli Rirseba. amasTanave, unda momwifebuliyo Sexeduleba, romlis Tanaxmad saxelmwifoSi pirovneba mudam
unda iyos daculi religiur sferoSi yovelgvari iZulebisgan.
13. rac Seexeba eklesiis keTildReobasa da Tavad miwier qalaqs, da rac
yvelgan da yovelTvis unda iyos SenarCunebuli da yovelgvari xelyofisagan daculi, aqedan yvelaze gansakuTrebuli, udaod, aris is, rom eklesias
gaaCnia moqmedebis Tavisufleba, imdenad, ramdenadac amas moiTxovs zrunva
adamianTa gamoxsnisaTvis.31 es aris is wmida Tavisufleba, romliTac mxolodSobilma RmrTis Zem aRWurva eklesia, romelic man Tavisi sisxliT moipova. is imdenad bunebrivia eklesiisTvis, rom vinc mas ebrZvis, is RmrTis
nebis winaaRmdeg moqmedebs. eklesiis Tavisufleba aris Zireuli principi
im urTierTobebSi, romlebic arsebobs, erTis mxriv, eklesias, xolo meores
mxriv, sajaro xelisuflebasa da mTels samoqalaqo wess Soris.
adamianTa sazogadoebaSi da nebismieri sajaro xelisuflebis winaSe eklesia pretenzias acxadebs Tavisuflebaze, radgan is aris sulieri xelisufleba, ufali qristes mier damkvidrebuli, romelic saRmrTo mcnebiT
asrulebs davalebas, romlis Tanaxmad mas mTels msoflioSi da yvela dabadebulisTvis unda eqadaga saxareba.32 eklesia pretenzias acxadebs Tavisuflebaze agreTve imitom, rom is aris adamianTa sazogadoeba, romelTac aqvT
ufleba, icxovron samoqalaqo sazogadoebaSi qristianuli sarwmunoebis
mcnebebis Tanaxmad.33
mxolod iq, sadac religiuri Tavisuflebis principi ara marto sityvierad aris gancxadebuli an mxolod kanonebiT dadgenili, aramed namdvilad aris saqmeSi ganxorcielebuli, eklesias gaaCnia myari garantia, iuridiuli da faqtiuri, imisa, rom saRmrTo misiaSi ganxorcieldes aucilebeli
29
Sdr. 1petr. 2, 13-17.
30
Sdr. saqme 4, 19-20.
31
Sdr. LEO XIII, litterae Officio sanctissimo, 22 dec. 1887: ASS 20 (1887), p. 269. misive, litterae
Ex litteris, 7 aprilis 1887: ASS 19 (1886), p. 465.
32
Sdr. mark. 16, 15; maT. 28, 18-20. PIUS XII, encycl. Summi Pontificatus, 20 oct. 1939: AAS 31
(1939), pp. 445-446.
33
Sdr. PIUS XI, litterae Firmissimam constantiam, 28 martii 1937: AAS 29 (1937), p. 196.

260

DIGNITATIS HUMANAE

damoukidebloba, romelsac sazogadoebaSi sul ufro meti dabejiTebiT


moiTxovdnen saeklesio xelisufalni.34 amasTanave, qristes erTgulni, iseve
rogorc sxva adamianebi, sargebloben samoqalaqo uflebiT, icxovron sakuTari sindisis Tanaxmad. maSasadame, arsebobs Tanxmoba eklesiis Tavisuflebasa da im religiur Tavisuflebas Soris, romelic unda vaRiaroT rogorc
yvela adamianisa da sazogadoebaTa ufleba, da romelic iuridiulad unda
iyos daculi.
14. moimowafeniT yovelni warmarTni (maT. 28, 19) am saRmrTo mcnebis
morCili rom iyos, kaTolike eklesiam dauRalavad unda iRvawos, raTa sityua RmrTisa rbiodes da ididebodis (2Tesal. 3, 1).
amitom eklesia dabejiTebiT moiTxovs Tavisi Svilebisagan, rom hyofdnen vedrebasa, locvasa, Tayuanis-cemasa da madlobasa yovelTa kacTaTs...
rameTu ese ars keTil da saTno winaSe macxovrisa Cuenisa RmrTisa, romelsa
yovelTa kacTa hnebavs cxoreba da mecnierebasa WeSmaritebisasa moslva
(1tim. 2, 1-4).
qristes erTgulebi, Tavisi sindisis formirebisTvis, seriozulad unda
iTvaliswinebdnen eklesiis wmida da mtkice moZRvrebas.35 qristes nebiT, kaTolike eklesia aris WeSmaritebis damrigebeli (magistra), da misi movaleobaa,
auwyos WeSmariteba, romelic aris qriste, da mis Sesaxeb namdvilad aswavlos. amasTanave man Tavisi avtoritetiT unda ganacxados da ganamtkicos
zneobrivi principebi, romlebic Tavad adamianuri bunebidan momdinareobs.
garda amisa, qristianebi brZnulad unda epyrobodnen maT, vinc gareSe aris,
da Seecadon, suliTa wmidiTa, siyuaruliTa SeuorgulebeliTa, sityTa
WeSmaritebisaTa (2kor. 6, 6-7), gaavrcelon cxovrebis naTeli yovliTa gancxadebulebiTa36 da samociqulo simtkiciT, sakuTari sisxlis fasadac ki.
mowafes seriozuli valdebuleba akisria moZRvari qristes winaSe: man
ufro da ufro srulad unda Seicnos WeSmariteba, romelic misgan miiRo,
erTgulad auwyos is da Tamamad daicvas, im saSualebaTa gareSe, romlebic
ewinaaRmdegeba saxarebis suls. amasTanave, qristes siyvaruli ubiZgebs mas,
siyvaruliT, gonivrulad da moTminebiT moepyras adamianebs, romlebsac
rwmenis mimarT mcdari warmodgena an arasakmarisi codna gaaCniaT.37 amitom
gasaTvaliswinebelia movaleoba qristes cxovelmyofeli sityvis mimarT,
romlis qadagebaa saWiro, agreTve adamianis uflebebi da madlis xarisxi,
romelic RmerTma qristes meSveobiT mianiWa adamians, mowodebuls imisTvis, rom nebayoflobiT miiRos sarwmunoeba da misi aRmsarebeli iyos.
15. cxadia, rom amJamad adamianebs surT, Tavisuflad SeeZloT religiis
aRsareba, rogorc kerZod, aseve sajarod. metic: religiuri Tavisufleba
ukve gamocxadebulia mraval konstituciaSi rogorc samoqalaqo samarTali, da sazeimod aris aRiarebuli saerTaSoriso dokumentebiT38.
magram arsebobs iseTi reJimebic, sadac Tavad sajaro xelisufleba cdilobs, moqalaqeebi moaridos religiis aRmsareblobas da religiuri erTobebis cxovreba ufro rTuli da saxifaTo gaxados.
wmida kreba sixaruliT miesalmeba Cveni drois sasikeTo niSnebs da mwuxarebiT ganacxadebs mocemuli savalalo faqtebis Sesaxeb. is mouwodebs
kaTolikeebsa da yvela adamians, yuradRebiT Caufiqrdnen kiTxvas, Tu ram34
35
36
37
38

Sdr. PIUS XII, allocutio Ci riesce, 6 dec. 1953: AAS 45 (1953), p. 802.
Sdr. PIUS XII, nuntius radiophonicus, 23 martii 1952. AAS 44 (1952), pp. 270-278.
saqme 4, 29.
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Pacem in terris, 11 aprilis 1963: AAS 55 (1963), pp. 299-300.
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Pacem in terris, 11 aprilis 1963: AAS 55 (1963), p. 295-296.

261

vatikanis II kreba

denad aucilebelia religiuri Tavisufleba, gansakuTrebiT adamianuri


ojaxis dRevandel mdgomareobaSi.
cxadia, rom TanadaTan yvela xalxi sul ufro erTiandeba, sxvadasxva
kulturisa da religiis adamianebs Soris sul ufro mWidro urTierTobebi
myardeba, da bolos, izrdeba TiToeuli adamianis piradi pasuxismgebloba.
adamianTa Soris mSvidobiani urTierTobebisa da Tanxmobis damyarebisa da
ganmtkicebisTvis aucilebelia, rom religiuri Tavisufleba yvelgan iyos
uzrunvelyofili qmediTi samarTlebrivi garantiiT, agreTve daculi iyos
adamianTa uzenaesi movaleobebi da uflebebi, romlebic maT saSualebas aZlevs, Tavisuflad icxovron sazogadoebaSi religiuri cxovrebiT.
dae, RmerTma da yvelas mamam qmnas ise, rom adamianTa ojaxi, sazogadoebaSi religiuri Tavisuflebis principis gulmodgined dacviT, qristes
madliTa da suli wmidis ZaliT mivides uzenaes da saukuno aznaurebasa mas
didebisa SvilTa RmrTisaTa (rom. 8, 21).
yovelive erTad da cal-calke, rac am deklaraciaSi gamocxadda, wmida krebis mamebma moiwones. da Cvenc, im samociqulo
uflebamosilebiT, romelic qristesgan gadmogveca, amas pativdebul mamebTan erTad suli wmidaSi veTanxmebiT, vadgenT
da vawesebT, da vbrZanebT, rom is, rac krebaze dadginda, gamoqveyndes sadideblad RmrTisa.

romi, wm. petresTan, 1965 wlis 7 dekemberi


me, pavle, kaTolike eklesiis episkoposi
(mohyveba mamaTa xelmowerebi)

262

dekreti
eklesiis samisionero moRvaweobis
Sesaxeb
AD GENTES DIVINITUS

pavle episkoposi,
RmrTis msaxurTa msaxuri,
wmida krebis mamebTan erTad,
samudamo saxsovrad

dekreti
eklesiis samisionero moRvaweobis
Sesaxeb
1. xalxTan RmrTivmovlenili, eklesia sayovelTao gamoxsnis saidumlo1
unda iyos. Sinagani sayovelTaobis (kaTolikurobis) moTxovnilebiT, Tavisi damfuZneblis mcnebisadmi morCili (Sdr. mark. 16, 15), eklesia cdilobs,
yvela adamians auwyos saxareba. Tavad mociqulebi, romlebzec eklesia dafuZnda, qristes kvals mihyvebodnen, qadagebdnen WeSmaritebis sityvasa
da qmnidnen eklesiebs.2 maTi memkvidreebis movaleoba am saqmis mudmivi
gagrZeleba warmoadgens, raTa sityua RmrTisa rbiodes da ididebodis
(2 Tes. 3, 1) da yvelgan moxdes RmrTis sasufevlis uwyeba da damyareba.
magram dRevandel viTarebaSi, romelic kacobriobis axali mdgomarebis
safuZvelia, eklesia, romelic aris marili miwisa da naTeli qveynisa (Sdr.
maT. 5, 13-14), dabejiTebiT aris mowodebuli yvela qmnilebis gamoxsnisa da
ganaxlebisTvis, raTa yvelaferi aRdges qristeSi da masSi adamianebma erTi
ojaxi da RmrTis erTiani eri Seadginon.
amitom es wmida sinodi madlobas uxdis RmerTs im brwinvale saqmeebisTvis, romlebic mTeli eklesiis keTilSobiluri ZalisxmeviT aRsrulda.
mas surs SeimuSavos misioneruli moRvaweobis principebi da Tavi mouyaros
yvela erTgulis Zalas, raTa RmrTis erma, jvris viwro gziT mavalma, yvelgan gaavrcelos qristes, uflisa da saukuneTa mWvretelis (Sdr. zir. 36, 17)
sasufeveli (regnum), da misi mosvlisTvis gzebi moamzados.
Tavi I
samoZRvro safuZvlebi
2. msxemi eklesia Tavisi bunebiT misioneruli aris, radgan igi dasabams
iRebs Zis misiaSi da suli wmidis misiaSi, Tanaxmad mama RmerTis gangebulebisa (propositum).3
es gangebuleba momdinareobs siyvarulis saTavidan, anu mama RmerTis siyvarulisgan. is aris usawyiso sawyisi, romlisganac Svili iSveba
da suli wmida gamodis Zis meSveobiT. Tavisi usazRvro da gulmowyale
sikeTiT man Cven Tavisuflad Segvqmna da, amasTanave, madlierad mogviwoda, masTan cxovreba da dideba gaviziaroT. man uxvad ganavrco saRmrTo
sikeTe, romelsac amJamadac ganavrcobs, raTa is, vinc aris yvelafris
Semoqmedi, iyos yoveli yovelsa Sina (1kor. 15, 28), riTac is erTdroulad Tavis didebasac uzrunvelyofs da Cvens netarebasac. xolo RmerTma
isurva, moewodebina adamianebisTvis, raTa monawileoba mieRoT mis cxovrebaSi. man mouwoda maT ara marto cal-calke, erTmaneTTan yovelgvari
1
2
3

CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 48.


S. AUGUSTINUS, Enar. in Ps. 44, 23: PL 36, 508; CChr 38, 510.
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 1.

265

vatikanis II kreba

kavSiris gareSe, aramed rogorc erT ersac, raTa Svilnica RmrTisani


ganbneulni Sekribnes erTad (ioan. 11, 52).
3. RmrTis es sayovelTao gangebuleba, adamianTa gamosaxsnelad mimarTuli, sruldeba ara marto ase vTqvaT saidumlod adamianTa gonebasa da
maT wamowyebebSi (Tundac religiurSi), romelTa meSveobiT isini mravalgvarad eZieben RmerTs, TiTqos masTan Sexeba an misi povna surdeT, rameTu
arca Sors ars kacad-kacadisagan Cuenisa (saqme 17, 27): aseTi wamowyebebi
ganaTlebasa da gasworebas moiTxovs, Tumca RmrTis keTili gansjis meSveobiT, isini zogjer SeiZleba miviCnioT aRmzrdelobiT saSualebad, romelsac RmerTTan mivyavarT, an saxarebiseul momzadebad (preparatione evangelica).4
xolo mSvidobis dasamyareblad, anu Tavis TavTan ziarebisTvis, agreTve
Zmuri urTierTobis dasamyareblad adamianTa Soris, romlebic arian codvilni, RmerTma gadawyvita, axleburad da sabolood Semosuliyo adamianTa istoriaSi. man moavlina Tavisi Svili Cvens xorcSi, raTa adamianebi misi
meSveobiT ixsnas wyvdiadisa da satanis Zalisgan (Sdr. kol. 1, 13; saqme 10,
38) da masSi samyaro Semoirigos (Sdr. 2kor. 5, 19). amitom Ze, romlisaganca
Seqmnna saukuneni,5 man daayena yvelafris memkvidred, raTa yvelaferi masSi
aRadginos (Sdr. efes. 1, 10).
ieso qriste samyaroSi moivlina rogorc WeSmariti Suamavali RmerTsa da adamianebs Soris. is RmerTia, amitom mas Sina damkdrebul ars
yovelive savseba RmrTeebisa orcielad (kol. 2, 9), xolo Tavisi adamianuri bunebis Tanaxmad is, axali adami, ganaxlebuli kacobriobis meTaved dgindeba, savse madliTa da WeSmaritebiTa (ioan. 1, 14). amvarad,
Ze RmrTisa movida WeSmariti ganxorcielebis gzebiT, raTa adamianebi
saRmrTo bunebis moziared gaexada. is mdidari iyo da CvenTvis daglaxakda, raTa Cven gavmdidrdeT misi siglaxakiT (2kor. 8, 9). Ze kacisa movida ara imisTvis, rom mas emsaxuron, aramed raTa Tavad emsaxuros da
misces Tavisi suli mravalTa - e.i. yvelas gamosasyidad (Sdr. mark. 10,
45). wmida mamebi mudam acxadeben: ar ganikurneba is, rac ar iqna qristes
mier miRebuli.6 xolo man srulad garda codvisa - miiRo adamianuri
buneba, rogoric is Cven, Ratakebsa da glaxakebs gagvaCnia (Sdr. ebr. 4,
15; 9, 28). xolo qristem, romeli-igi mamam wmida-yo da moavlina soflad
(ioan. 10, 36), Tavis Sesaxeb ase Tqva: suli uflisa Cem zeda, romlisaTs
mcxo me maxarebelad glaxakTa, momavlina me gankurnebad SemusrvilTa
guliTa, qadagebad tyueTa gantevebisa da brmTa axilvad (luk. 4, 18). da
kidev: rameTu movida Ze kacisa moZiebad da cxorebad warwymedulisa
(luk. 19, 10).
4
Sdr. IRENAEUS, Adv. Haer. III, 18, 1: sityva arsebobs RmerTTan, romlis mierac Seiqmna yvelaferi, da romelic yovelTvis iyo adamianTa modgmasTan....: PG 7, 932. iqve, IV, 6,
7: Ze, dasabamiTve Tavisi qmnilebis Tanamdgomi, gamoucxadebs mamas yvelas, visac surs,
roca surs da rogorc es mamas surs: PG 7, 990. Sdr. iqve, IV, 20, 6 et 7: PG 7, 1037. ID., Demonstratio n. 34: PO XII, 773; Sources chr. 62, Paris 1958, p. 87. CLEMENS ALEX., Protrept. 112, 1: GCS Clemens
I, 79. ID., Strom. VI, 6, 44, 1: CCS Clemens II, 453; 13, 106, 3 da 4: GCS, iqve, 485. am moZRvrebisTvis
Sdr. PIUS XII, nuntium radioph., 31 dec. 1952. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 16.
5
ebr. 1, 2; Sdr. ioan. 1, 3 da 10; 1 kor. 8, 6; kol. 1, 16.
6
Sdr. S. ATHANASIUS, Epist. ad Epictetzm, 7: PG 26, 1060. S. CYRILLUS HIEROS., Catech. 4,
9: PG 33, 465. MARIUS VICTORINUS, Adv. Arium 3, 3: PL 8, 1101. S. BASILIUS, Epist. 261, 2: PG 32,
969. S. GREGORIUS NAZ., Epist., 101: PG 37, 181. S. GREGORIUS NYSS., Antirrheticus, adv. Apoli.,
17: PG 45, 1156. S. AMBROSIUS, Epist. 48, 5: PL 16, 1153. S. AUGUSTINUS, In Io. Evang. tr. XXIII, 6:
PL 35, 1585; CCHR. 36, 236. garda amisa, ase is ganacxadebs, rom suli wmidam imitom ar gamogvisyida, rom ar iyo ganxorcielebuli: De Agone Christ. 22, 24: PL 40, 302. S. CYRILLUS ALEX.,
Adv. Nestor. I, 1: PG 76, 20. S. FULGENTIUS, Epist. 17, 3, 5: PL 65, 454. ID., Ad Trasimundum III, 21: PL
65, 284: de tristitia et timore.

266

AD GENTES DIVINITUS

xolo rac erTxel ufalma iqadaga da rac kacobriobis gamoxsnisaTvis


masSi aRsrulda, imis qadageba da gavrcelebaa saWiro vidre dasasruladmde queyanisa (saqme 1, 8) da dawyebuli ierausalimiT (Sdr. luk. 24, 47),
raTa iman, rac erTxel aRsrulda yvelas gamosaxsnelad, droTa msxvlelobaSi yvelaferSi Sedeg gamoiRos.
4. amis ganxorcielebisTvis qristem mamisgan moavlina suli wmida, romelic
Signidan aRasrulebs Tavis gamomxsnel saqmes da eklesias gafarToebisken ubiZgebs. udaoa, rom qristes gandidebamde suli wmida ukve moqmedebda samyaroSi.7
ormocdameaTe dRes suli mowafeebSi gardamovida, raTa maTTan erTad darCes
saukunod (Sdr. ioan. 14, 16), eklesia sajarod gamoecxada mravals, daiwyo qadagebiT saxarebis gavrceleba xalxTa Soris, da bolos, kaTolikur sarwmunoebaSi, miniSnebuli iyo erTa erTianoba axali aRTqmis eklesiiT. igi yvela enaze
laparakobs, mas siyvaruliT yvela ena esmis da igi yvela enas moicavs, da ase
gadalaxavs babilonis ganbnevas.8 suli wmidis gadmosvliT xom daiwyo saqmeni mociqulTani, iseve rogorc qalwul mariamze suli wmidis gardamosvliT
qriste Caisaxa, xolo suli wmidis CamosvliT mlocvel qristeze igi Tavis msaxurebas Seudga.9 Tavad ufalma iesom, sanam man Tavisi nebiT dado Tavisi cxovreba samyarosTvis, ise moawyo samociqulo msaxureba da Sehpirda suli wmidis
movlinebas, rom orive gaerTianebuliyo gamoxsnis saqmeSi, romelic yvelgan
da yovelTvis unda ganxorcieldes.10 suli wmida aerTianebs mTels eklesias
yvela droSi urTierTobasa da msaxurebaSi, aRWuravs mas sxvadasxva ierarqiuli niWiTa da qarismebiT,11 cxovel-yofs saeklesio instituciebs, rogorc
maTive suli12 da erTgulTa sulebSi imave misiis suls STaberavs, romelic Tavad qristes amoZravebda. zoger is TvalnaTliv win uswrebs samociqulo moRvaweobas,13 da ganuwyvetliv sxvadasxva saxiT Tana sdevs da warmarTavs mas.14
7
es sulia, romelmac winaswarmetyvelTa meSveobiT ilaparaka: Symbol Constantinopol.
: DENZ. SCHOENMETZER, 150. S. LEO MAGNUS, Sermo 76: PL 54, 405-406: rodesac ormocdameaTe dRes suli wmidam aRavso uflis mowafeebi, es ar yofila msaxurebis dasawyisi, aramed iyo siuxvis axali gamovlena, radgan patriarqebi, mRvdelmsaxurebi day vela wmidani,
romlebic uwindel droSi iyvnen, amave sulis wmida yofiT sazrdoobdnen... Tumca niWTa
zoma igive ar yofila. agreTve Sermo 77, 1: PL 54, 412. LEO XIII, encycl. Divinum illud: ASS 1897,
650-651. agreTve S. IO. CHRYSOSTOMUS, Tumca is xazs usvams suli wmidis misiis siaxles
ormocdameaTe dRes: In Eph. c. 4, hom. 10, 1: PG 62, 75.
8
babilonisa da suli wmidis gadmosvlis Sesaxeb wm. mamebi xSirad laparakoben:
ORIGENES, In Genesim, c. 1: PG 12, 112. S. GREGORIUS NAZ., Oratio 41, 16: PG 36, 449. S. IO.
CHRYSOSTOMUS, Hom. 2 in Pentec., 2: PG 50, 467. ID., In Act. Apost.: PG 60, 44. S. AUGUSTINUS, En.
in Ps. 54, 11: PL 36, 636; CChr. 39, 664 s. ID., Sermo 271: PL 38, 1245. S. CYRILLUS ALEX., Glaphyra in
Genesim II: PG 69, 79. S. GREGORIUS M., Hom. in Evang., lib. II, hom. 30, 4: PL 76, 12222. S. BEDA, In
Hexaem., lib. III: PL 91, 125. ix. agreTve gamosaxuleba wm. markozis atriumSi veneciaSi. eklesia yvela enaze laparakobs da amdenad, yvelas Tavs uyris sarwmunoebis kaTolikurobaSi: S. AUGUSTINUS, Sermones 266, 267, 268, 269: PL 38, 1225-1237. ID., Sermo 175, 3: PL 38, 946. S.
IO. CHRYSOSTOMUS, In Epist. 1 ad Cor., 35: PG 61, 29. S. CYRILLUS ALEX., Fragm. in Ac. : PG 74, 758.
S. FULGENTIUS, Sermo 8, 2-3: PL 65, 743-744. suli wmidis gadmosvlis rogorc mociqulTa
xeldasxmis Sesaxeb Sdr. J. A. CRAMER, Catena in Acta SS. Apostolorum, Oxford 1938, pp. 24 s.
9
Sdr. luk. 3, 22; 4, 1; saqme 10, 38.
10
Sdr. ioan. 14-17. PAULUS VI, sityva, warmoTqmuli krebaze 1964 wlis 14 seqtembers: AAS 56 (1964), p. 807.
11
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 4.
12
S. AUGUSTINUS, Sermo 267, 4: PL 38, 1231: suli wmida imas akeTebs mTels eklesiaSi,
rasac suli akeTebs erTiani sxeulis yvela asoSi. Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 7, 8.
13
Sdr. saqme 10, 44-47; 11, 15; 15, 8.
14
Sdr. saqme 4, 8; 5, 32; 8, 26. 29.39; 9, 31; 10; 11, 24. 28; 13, 2. 4. 9; 16, 6-7; 20, 22-23; 21, 11
da sxva.

267

vatikanis II kreba

5. ufalma iesom imTaviTve mouwoda, romelTa unda mas (...). da yvna aTormetni igi, raTa iyvnen mis Tana da waravlinnes igini qadagebad (mark. 3, 13;
Sdr. maT. 10, 1-42). ase mociqulebi iqcnen axali israelis ylortebad da, amave dros, wmida ierarqiis sawyisad. Semdeg, rodesac ufalma Tavisi sikvdiliTa da aRdgomiT Tavis TavSi aRasrula Cveni gamoxsnis saidumloeba, man,
romelsac mieca yoveli elmwifeba caTa Sina da queyanasa zeda (Sdr. maT.
28, 18), vidre amaRlda zecad (Sdr. saqme 1, 11), daafuZna Tavisi eklesia rogorc gamoxsnis saidumlo da waravlina mociqulebi mTels sayaroSi, iseve,
rogorc Tavad igi moavlina mamam (Sdr. ioan. 20, 21), da daavala (mandans) maT:
warvediT da moimowafeniT yovelni warmarTni da naTel-scemdiT maT saxeliT mamisaTa da ZisaTa da sulisa wmidisaTa. da aswavebdiT maT damarxvad
yoveli, raodeni gamcen Tquen (maT. 28, 19-20). warvediT yovelsa sofelsa
da uqadageT saxareba ese yovelsa dabadebulsa. romelsa hrwmenes da naTel-iRos, cxovndes; da romelsa ara hrwmenes, daisajos (mark. 16, 15-16).
es niSnavs, rom eklesias ekisreba movaleoba gaavrcelos qristes rwmena da
gamoxsna. amas isini axorcieleben pirdapiri mcnebiT (episkoposTa qarizma,
romelsac mRvdlebi petres memkvidris, eklesiis uzenaes mRvdelTan erTad exmarebian, es mcneba mociqulebisgan memkvidreobiT miiRo), agreTve im
cxovrebiT, romelsac qriste Tavis asoebSi STaasxams, romlisagan yoveli
guami Senawevrebul da Semtkicebul ars yovliTa SeaxlebiTa uxuebisaTa
Sewevnisaebr sazomisa TToeulisa asosa; siorZilsa mas guamisasa hyofdiT
aRsaSenebelad Tavisa Tquenisa siyuaruliT (efes. 4, 16). amitom eklesiis
misia sruldeba im moqmedebaSi, romliTac igi, qristes mcnebis morCili da
suli wmidis madliTa da siyvaruliT aRZruli, yvela adamianisa Tu eris
winaSe mTeli Tavisi qmedebiT warmosdgeba, raTa cxovrebisa da qadagebis
magaliTiT, saidumloTa gziT da sxva saSualebebiT isini miiyvanos qristes
rwmenamde, Tavisuflebamde da mSvidobamde, raTa maT gaexsnaT Tavisufali
da mtkice gza qristes saidumloebis srul ziarebmade.
radgan es misia grZeldeba da istoriis msvlelobaSi aviTarebs Tavad
qristes misias, romelic moivlina glaxakTaTvis saxarebis uwyebisaTvis,
amitom eklesia, qristes suliT STagonebuli, imave gzas unda gahyves, romelsac qriste mihyveboda, anu siRatakis, morCilebis, msaurebisa da sikvdilamde Tavganwirvis gzas, saidanac is Tavisi aRdgomiT gamarjvebuli gamodis. ase, imediT mimodioda yvela mociquli, romlebmac mravali tanjviTa da
vnebebiT Seavses is, rac daaklda qristes vnebebs guamisaTs misisa, romel
ars eklesia (kol. 1, 24). xSirad Tavad qristianTa sisxli iqceva Teslad.15
6. es funqcia episkoposTa xarisxma, romelsac saTaveSi petres memkvidre
udgas, mTeli eklesiis locviTa da TanamSromlobiT unda Seasrulos. funqcia ki mudam igivea, miuxedavad garemoebisa, Tumca viTarebaTa Sesabamisad
is sxvadasxvagvarad xorcieldeba. amitom gansxvavebebi, romlebic eklesiis
am moRvaweobaSi unda davinaxoT, Cndeba ara Tavad misiis Sinagani bunebidan,
aramed im garemoebaTagan, romelTa viTarebaSic es misia sruldeba.
Tavad es garemoebani an eklesiazea damokidebuli, an xalxze, an jgufebsa da im adamianebze, romlebzec aris misia mimarTuli. Tumca eklesia moicavs gamoxsnis saSualebaTa erTobliobasa da sisavses, is mainc yovelTvis
da ucbad ar moqmedebs mTlianad da arc SeuZlia ase moqmedeba. mis moqmedebaSi, romliTac is saRmrTo gangebulebis (propositum) ganxorcielebas cdilobs, aris dasabami da safexurebi. metic: warmatebiT wamowyebuli winsvlis
Semdeg mas ukan daxeva uwevs, an is erTgvar naxevrad savse da daukmayofileblebis mdgomareobaSi imyofeba. rac Seexeba adamianebs, jgufebsa da erebs,
15

268

TERTULLIANUS, Apologeticum 50, 13: PL 1, 534; CChr. 1, 171.

AD GENTES DIVINITUS

eklesia maT TandaTanobiT aRwevs da msWvalavs, da ase iRebs maT kaTolikur


sisavseSi. nebismier mdgomareobas an statuss unda pasuxobdes Sesabamisi
moqmedebebi an saTanado saSualebebi.
sagangebo wamowyebebi, romelTa saSualebiTac eklesiidan movlenili
mqadagebelni (praecones) mTels samyaroSi dadian, saxarebas qadageben da im
xalxebsa da jgufebSi eklesias amkvidreben, sadac qristesi jer ara swamT,
zogadad misiebad iwodeba. isini misioneruli moRvaweobis safuZvelze
sruldeba da, umetes SemTxvevaSi, garkveul teritoriaze xorcieldeba,
romlebsac wmida saydari scnobs. am misiuri moRvaweobis mizani sakuTriv
aris eklesiis evangelizacia da damkvidreba erebsa Tu jgufebSi, sadac mas
jer fesvi ar gaudgams.16 ase, RmrTis sityvis Teslidan unda aRmocendes
adgilobrivi calkeuli eklesiebi, romlebic mTels samyaroSi sakmarisi
odenobiT iqneba. maT sakuTari Zalebi da simwife unda unda gaaCndeT. maT
eqnebaT sakuTari ierarqia, erTgul erTan erTiani, da sakmarisi damxmare
saSualebebi, romlebic WeSmaritad qristianulad cxovrebis SesaZleblobas iZleva. maT mTeli eklesiis sasargeblod saerTo saqmeSi Tavisi wvlili
unda Seitanon. aseTi danergvis saSualeba aris ieso qristes saxarebis qadageba, romlis mauwyeblad ufalma Tavisi mowafeebi mTels samyaroSi waravlina, raTa adamianebi, RmrTis sityviT meored Sobilni (Sdr. 1petr. 1,
23), naTlobiT eklesias SeuerTdnen, romelic, rogorc ganxorcielebuli
sxeulis sityva, RmrTis sityviTa da evqaristuli puriT sazrdoobs da cxovrobs (Sdr. saqme 2, 42).
eklesiis am misiur moRvaweobaSi Tavs iCens sxvadasxva urTierTgadajaWvuli viTareba: jer wamowyeba da danergva, Semdeg siaxle da axalgazrdoba. magram amiT ar sruldeba eklesiis misiuri moRvaweoba: ukve daarsebul calkeul eklesiebs evaleba am movaleobis gagrZeleba da saxarebis
qadageba calkeuli pirebisTvis, romlebic jer kidev gareT arian.
garda amisa, jgufebi, romelTa SigniTac eklesia trialebs, sxvadasxva
mizezTa gamo xSirad savsebiT icvleba, ise, rom SeiZleba sruliad axali pirobebi warmoiqmnes. eklesiam unda ganixilos, xom ar moiTxovs es viTarebebi misi misioneruli moRvaweobis ganaxlebas. garda amisa, viTareba zogjer
iseTia, rom droebiT SeuZlebelia saxarebis uSualod da maSinaTve qadageba.
aseT SemTxvevaSi misionerebma moTminebiT, keTilgonivrulad da amave dros
didi simtkiciT unda daamowmon qristes siyvaruli da sikeTe. uflisTvis
gza maT ase unda moamzadon da erTgvarad misi Tandaswreba uzrunvelyon.
cxadia, rom misioneruli moRvaweoba Tavad eklesiis bunebidan momdinareobs. is vrceldeba gamomxsnel sarwmunoebaze, afarToebs da srulyofs
mis kaTolikur erTianobas. am moRvaweobas xels uwyobs misive mociquloba,
is asazrdoebs ierarqiis kolegialur grZnobas, mowmobs mis siwmides, avrcelebs da aviTarebs mas. misioneruli moRvaweoba xalxebSi gansxvavdeba
rogorc samRvdlo moRvaweobisagan erTgulTa wreSi, aseve im wamowyebebisgan, romlebic qristianTa erTobis aRdgenisken aris mimarTuli. es ori ram
16
ukve wm. Toma laparakobs samociqulo funqciis Sesaxeb, romelic eklesiis damkvidrebaSi mdgomareobs, Sdr. Sent., lib. 1, dist. 16, q. 1, a. 2 ad 2 et ad 4; a. 3 sol. ID., Summa theol. I,
q. 43, a. 7 ad 6: I-II, q. 106, a. 4 ad 4. Cf. BENEDICTUS XV, Maximum illud, 30 nov. 1919: AAS 11 (1919),
pp. 445 et 453. PIUS XI, Rerum Ecclesiae, 28 febr. 1926: AAS 18 (1926), p. 74. PIUS XII, 30 apr. 1939, ad
Directores OO. PP. MM.; ID., 24 iun. 1944, ad Directores OO. PP. MM.: AAS 38 (1944), p. 210, rursus in AAS
42 (190), p. 727, et 43 (1951), p. 508. ID., 29 iun. 1951 ad clerum indigenum: AAS 40 (1948), p. 374. ID.,
Evangelii Praecones, 2 iun. 1951: AAS 43 (1951), p. 507. ID., Fidei donum, 15 ian. 1957: AAS 49 (1957),
p. 236. IOANNES XXIII, Princeps pasorum, 28 nov. 1959: AAS 51 (1951), p. 835. PAULUS VI, hom. 18
oct. 1964: AAS 56 (1964), p. 911. wm. pontifeqsebi, iseve rogorc mamebi da sqolastikosebi,
xSirad saubroben eklesiis gavrcelebis (dilatatione) Sesaxeb: S. THOMAS, Comm. in Matth. 16,
28. LEO XIII, encycl. Sancta Dei Civitas: ASS (1880), p. 241. BENEDICTUS XV, encycl. Maximum illud:
AAS 11 (1919), p. 442. PIUS XI, encycl. Rerum Ecclesiae: AAS 18 (192), p. 65.

269

vatikanis II kreba

umWidroesad aris dakavSirebuli eklesiis misionerul moRvaweobasTan.17


qristianTa ganyofa xom saxarebis qadagebis uwmidesi miznisTvis sazianoa
da bevrs sarwmunoebisken gzasac uRobavs. amgvarad, misiis aucileblobidan
gamomdinare, yvela monaTluli mowodebulia imisaTvis, rom erT samwysod
Seikribos da saSualeba hqondes erTsulovnad mowmobdes xalxTa winaSe
qristes, Tavisi uflis Sesaxeb. Tu maT jer ar SeuZliaT mowmobdnen erTi
sarwmunoebis Sesaxeb, maSin isini urTierTpativiscemiTa da siyvaruliT
mainc unda iyvnen STagonebulni.
7. am misioneruli moRvaweobis arsi RmrTis nebidan momdinareobs,
romelsa yovelTa kacTa hnebavs cxoreba da mecnierebasa WeSmaritebisasa moslva. rameTu erT ars RmerTi da erT ars Sua-mdgomel RmrTisa
da kacTa, kaci ieso qriste, romelman misca Tavi Tsi sasrad yovelTa
sawamebelad JamTa TsTa (1tim. 2, 4-5), da aravina ars sxT cxoreba
(saqme 4, 12). amitom saWiroa, rom yvelam mas mimarTos. xolo misi Secnoba
eklesiis qadagebiT xdeba. mas da eklesias, romelic misi sxeulia, naTlobiT unda daukvSirdnen. Tavad qristem xazi gausva rwmenisa da naTlisRebis aucileblobas (Sdr. mark. 16, 16; ioan. 3, 5). amiT man daadastura eklesiis aucilebloba, romelSic adamianebi naTlisRebiT, rogorc kariT,
Sedian. amitom ver iqnebian gamoxsnilni is adamianebi, romlebmac ician,
rom RmerTma, ieso qristes meSveobiT, daarsa kaTolike eklesia rogorc
aucilebeli ram, magram masSi Sesvla an masSi darCena ara surT.18 RmerTs SeuZlia is adamianebi, romlebmac saxareba Zalauneburad ar ician,
misTvis cnobili gzebiT miiyvanos sarwmunoebasTan, romlis gareSec
SeuZlebelia misi saTno yofa (Sdr. ebr. 11, 6). da mainc, eklesias akisria
evangelizaciis movaleoba (Sdr. I kor. 9, 16), rac, amave dros, misi wmida
uflebac aris. amitom misioneruli moRvaweoba dResac da yovelTvis
inarCnebs Tavis mniSvnelobasa da aucileblobas.
misi meSveobiT qristes mistikuri sxeuli ganuxrelad ikrebs Zalebs
da maT sakuTari zrdisaTvis moixmars (Sdr. efes. 4, 11-16). am moRvaweobis gansaxorcieleblad eklesiis wevrebs is siyvaruli ubiZgebs, romliTac maT RmerTi uyvarT da romliTac yvela adamianebTan urTierToba surT rogorc awmyo, aseve momavali cxovrebis sulier RirebulebaTa
sferoSi.
dabolos, am misioneruli moRvaweobis meSveobiT RmerTi srulad aris
gandidebuli, radganac adamianebi Segnebulad da srulad iReben mis gamomxsnel saqmes, romelic man qristeSi aRasrula. am moRvaweobis meSveobiT sruldeba saRmrTo ganzraxva (propositum), romelsac qriste morCilad
da siyvaruliT emsaxura sadideblad mamisa, romelmac moavlina igi,19 raTa
mTelma kacobriobam RmrTis erTi eri Seadginos, Seirwyas qristes erT
sxeulad da aigos suli wmidis erT taZrad. cxadia, rom es yvelaferi Zmur
Tanxmobas mogvagonebs, pasuxobs yvela adamianis Sinagan miswrafebas. ase
aRsruldeba, WeSmaritad, Semoqmedis ganzraxva, romelmac adamiani Tavis
xatad da msgavsad Seqmna, rodesac yvela, vinc adamianur bunebas aris nazia17
misioneruli moRvaweobis es cneba realurad moicavs laTinuri amerikis is nawilebsac, romlebSic ar arsebobs saTanado ierarqia da romlebic ar xasiaTTdeba qristianul cxovrebis simwifiT an saxarebis sakmarisi qadagebiT. scnobs Tu ara wmida saydari
am teritoeriebs misionerul teritoriebad, krebaze damokidebuli ar aris. amitom iq,
sadac laparakia kavSirze misioneruli moRvaweobis cnebasa da garkveul teritorias Soris, sagangebod iTqmis, rom aseTi moRvaweoba xorcieldeba ZiriTadad garkveul teritoriebze, romlebsac wmida saydari scnobs.
18
CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 14.
19
Sdr. ioan. 7, 18; 8, 30 da 44; 8, 50; 17, 1.

270

AD GENTES DIVINITUS

rebi, suli wmidis mier qristeSi aRorZinebuli, RmrTis didebis erTsulovnad mWvreteli, SeZlebs Tqvas: mamao Cveno.20
8. misionerulis moRvaweoba Tavad adamianur bunebasTanac da mis miswrafebebTan mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli. qristes gamovleniT eklesia adamianebs gamoucxadebs namdvil WeSmaritebas maTi mdgomareobisa da mTeli
mowodebis Sesaxeb, radgan qriste aris dasabami da nimuSi im ganaxlebuli
kacobriobisa, romelic gamsWvalulia Zmuri siyvaruliT, gulrwfelobiTa da mSvidobis suliT, romliskenac yvela miisrafvis. qriste, da eklesia,
romelic mis Sesaxeb evangeluri qadagebiT mowmobs, yovelgvar rasobriv da
erovnul niSanze maRla dgas, ise, rom veravin da versad miiCnevs maT ucxoebad.21 Tavad qriste aris WeSmariteba da gza, romlebsac evangeluri qadageba yvelas gamoucxadebs, roca yvelas yuramde qristes es sityvebi miaqvs:
SeinaneT da grwmenin saxarebisa (mark. 1, 15). xolo radganac romelsa
ara hrwmenes, awve dasjil ars (ioan. 3, 18), amitom qristes sityvebi aris
erTdroulad sityvebi gansjisa da wyalobisa, sikvdilisa da sicocxlisa.
radgan mxolod Zvelis mokvdinebiT SegviZlia cxovrebis ganaxlebamde mivideT. es exeba, upirveles yovlisa, adamianebs, magram agreTve ama qveynis
sxvadasxva Rirebulebebs, romlebac rogorc adamianis codvis, aseve saRmrTo kurTxevis daRi adevT: rameTu yovelTa Sescodes da daklebul arian
didebisagan RmrTisa (rom. 3, 23). TavisTavad aravin ar Tavisufldeba codvisagan da ar amaRldeba Tavis Tavze maRla, aravin Tavisufldeba srulad
Tavisi uZlurebisgan, martoobisgan an monobisgan;22 yvelas sWirdeba qriste
rogorc nimuSi, moZRvari, ganmaTavisuflebeli, gamomxsneli, cxovelmyofeli. kacobriobis istoriaSi, Tundac warmavalSi, saxareba WeSmaritad iyo
Tavisuflebisa da winsvli safuari. is ganuwyvetliv warmogvidgeba Zmobis,
erTobisa da mSvidobis safuarad. tyuilad ar aris, rom erTgulebi qristes
pativiT moixsenieben rogorc erTa molodins da maT gamomsxnels.23
9. maSasadame, misioneruli moRvaweobis dro aris uflis pirvel da meore
moslvas Soris, rodesac eklesia, oTx qarTagan RmrTis sasufevelSi mosa20
am sinTezuri azrisTvis ix. wm. ireneosi, de Recapitulatio. Sdr. agreTve HYPPOLYTUS,
De Antichriste 3: mas yvela surs, yvelas gamoxsna nebavs da, unda, yvela RmrTis Svilebad
gaxados. igi mouwodebs yvela wmidans, erTi srulyofili adamiani Seadginon: PG 10, 732;
GCS Hippolyt. I, 2, p. 6. ID., Benedictiones Iacob, 7: TU, 38-1, p. lin. 4 ss. ORIGENES, In Ioann., I, n. 16:
RmrTis Semecneba iqneba erTaderTi saqme maTi, vinc RmerTTan miva im sityvis winamZRolobiT, romelic aris RmerTTan, raTa yvela Svili safuZvlianad aRizardos mamis Sesacnobad, ise, rogorc exla mxolod Zem icis mama: PG 14, 49; GCS Orig. IV, 20. S. AUGUSTINUS,
De serm. Domini in monte, I, 41: gviyvardes is, ramac SeiZleba migviyvanos im samefobde, sadac
aravin ityvis: mamao Cemo, aramed sadac yvela etyvis erT RmerTs: mamao Cveno: PL 34, 1250.
S. CYRILLUS ALEX., In Ioann. I: yvelani varT qristeSi da saerTo adamianuri pirovneba
masSi xelaxla cocxldeba. amitom iwodeba is axal adamad... Cvens Soris mkvidrobda igi,
romelic bunebiT aris Zed da RmerTi; amitom mis sulSi SevZaxebT: abba, mamao! xolo sityva
mkvidrobs yvelas Soris erT taZarSi, romelic man CvenTvis da Cvengan miiRo, raTa yvela
Tavis TavSi hyavdes da yvela erT sxeulSi, rogorc pavle ambobs, mamasTan Searigos: PG 73,
161-164.
21
BENEDICTUS XV, encycl. Maximum illud: AAS 11 (1919), p. 445: rogorc RmrTis eklesia aris sayovelTao (kaTolikuri) da ar aris ucxo arcerTi xalxisa Tu eris mimarT...
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Mater etMagistra: saRmrTo samarTliT eklesia yvela xalxs
swvdeba... is TiTqos Tavis Zalas STaasxams ama Tu im eris venebSi, amitom arc aris da arc
miaCnia Tavis Tavi am erisaTvis garedan moxveul raRac instituciad... amitom isini adgenen da srulyofen yvelafers, rac miaCniT, rom aris kargi da patiosani: AAS 53 (1961), p.
444.
22
Sdr. S. IRENAEUS, Adv. Haer., III, 15, 3: PG 7, 919: isini WeSmaritebis mqadageblebi da
Tavisuflebis mociqulebi iyvnen.
23
Ant. O, 23 dekemberi.

271

vatikanis II kreba

vlad Seikribeba.24 xolo uflis moslvamde yvela erebSi saxarebis qadageba


aris saWiro (Sdr. mark. 13, 10).
misioneruli moRvaweoba arc meti, arc naklebi aris saRmrTo
ganzraxvis gamocxadeba anu epifania da ganxorcieleba samyarosa da mis
istoriaSi, romelSic RmerTi misiis meSveobiT cxadad aRasrulebs gamoxsnis istorias. qadagebis sityviTa da saidumloTa aRsrulebiT, romelTa centri da mwvervali uwmidesi evqaristia aris, es moRvaweoba qristes,
rogorc gamoxsnis Semoqmeds, Tandamswred xdis. yovelive WeSmaritsa da
madliers (rasac erebi uwinac ukve ganicdidnen rogorc RmrTis erTgvari dafarul Tandaswrebas), es moRvaweoba aTavisuflebs mavne gavlenebigan da ubrunebs qristes Tavis Semqmnels, romelic amarcxebs eSmakis
batonobas da danaSaulTa mravalferovnebis borotebas Seakavebs. amgvarad, yvelafero keTili, adamianTa gulsa da gonebaSi, xalxTa wes-CveulebebSi daTesili, ara marto ar iRupeba, aramed ganikurneba, amaRldeba
da sruldeba RmrTis sadideblad, eSmakis Sesarcxvenad da adamianis sakiTildReod.25 amgvarad, misi meSveobiT misioneruli moRvaweoba esqatologiuri sisrulisaken:26 im zomamde da dromde miiswrafvis, romelniigi mamaman dasxna TsiTa elmwifebiTa (saqme 1, 7). ase vrceldeba RmrTis
eri, romlis mimarTac iyo winaswarmetyvelurad naTqvami: gaafarTove
Seni karvis adgili da gadaWime Seni Cardaxebis gadasaxuravni. nu dainaneb! (es. 54, 2);27 izrdeba mistikuri sxeuli qristes asakis savsebis zomamde (Sdr. efes. 4, 139), da izrdeba sulieri taZari, sadac RmerTs Tayvans
scemen sulsa da WeSmaritebaSi (Sdr. ioan. 4, 23), aRSenebul safuZvelsa
zeda mociqulTasa da winawarmetyueTasa, romlisa Tav sakidurTa misTa
ars qriste ieso (efes. 2, 20).
Tavi II
Tavad samisionero saqme
10. eklesia qristem moavlina, raTa man RmrTis siyvaruli yvela adamiansa
da ers gamoucxados da gauziaros. eklesias esmis, rom mas jer kidev win aqvs
udidesi misioneruli saqme. or miliard adamians (maTi ricxvi sul ufro
izrdeba), romlebic stabiluri kulturuli kavSirebiT, Zveli religiuri
tradiciebiT da socialuri urTierTobebis mtkice jaWvebiT did da mtkice
jgufebad arian gaerTinebulni, jer ar smenia saxarebiseuli uwyeba an sul
exlaxan gaigones. zogierTi maTgani erTerT did religias misdevs, sxvebisTvis Tavad RmrTis cnebac ucxoa, zogi sulac aSkarad uaryofs mis arsebobas, metic: zogjer ewinaaRmdegeba kidec mas. eklesiam rom yvelas gamoxsnis
saidumlo da RmrTisgan boZebuli cxovreba moutanos, is yvela jgufSi imave motiviT unda Sevides, romliTac Tavad qriste Tavisi ganxorcielebiT
im adamianTa socialur da kulturul garemos daukavSirda, romlebTanac
Tavad cxovrobda.

24
Sdr. maT. 24, 31. Didach, 10, 5: FUNK I, 32.
25
CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 17. S. AUGUSTINUS, De Civ. Dei, 19, 17: PL 41,
646. S. C. DE PROPAGANDA FIDE, Istructio: Collectanea I, n. 135, p. 42.
26
origenes Tanaxmad, saxarebis qadageba saWiroa am samyaros dasasrulamde: Hom. in
Lc. XXI: GCS Orig. IX, 136, 21 ss. ID., In Matth. comm. ser. 39: ibid. XI, 75, 25 ss.; 76, 4 ss. ID., Hom. in
Ierem. III, 2: ibid. VIII, 308, 29 ss. S. THOMAS, Summa theol. I-II, q. 106, a. 4 ad 4.
27
S. HILARIUS PICT., In Ps. 14: PL 9, 301. - CAES., In Isaiam, 54, 2-3: PG 24: 462-463. S. CYRILLUS ALEX., In Isaiam V, cap. 54, 1-3: PG 70, 1193.

272

AD GENTES DIVINITUS

I. qristianuli mowmoba
11. adamianTa eklesia aseT jgufebSi Tavisi Svilebis meSveobiT unda
monawileobdes, romlebic amave jgufebebSi cxovroben an maTTan arian movlinebulni. yvela qristes erTguli, sadac ar unda cxovrobdes is, Tavisi
cxovrebis magaliTiTa da sityvis mowmobiT ise unda warmoadgendes axal
adamians, romelic naTlobiTa da suli wmidiT Semoses (am ukanasknelma isini mironcxebiT ganamtkica), rom sxvebma maTi saqmeebis xilviT mama adidon
(Sdr. maT. 5, 16) da ufro srulyofilad Caswvdnen adamianuri cxovrebis WeSmarit arssa da adamianTa urTierTobis sayovelTao kavSirebs.
qristes Sesaxeb nayofieri mowmobisaTvis isini unda gaerTiandnen am
adamianebTan pativiscemasa da siyvarulSi, sakuTari Tavi gaacnobieron
adamianTa im jgufis wevrebad, sadac isini cxovroben, monawileoba miiRon kulturul da socialur cxovrebaSi sxvadasxva, adamianisaTvis Cveuli, kavSiriTa da saqmianobiT. isini ufro axlo unda gaecnon maT erovnul
da religiur tradiciebs, sixaruliTa da pativiscemiT gamoavlinon maTSi
dafaruli sityvis fesvebi. amasTanave maT yuradReba unda miaqcion Rrma
cvlilebebs, romlebic xalxSi xdeba, da izrunon imisaTvis, rom Cveni Tanamedroveni, amJamindeli samyaros mecnierebiTa da teqnikiT metismetad
dakavebulni, ki ar ganudgnen saRmrTo saqmeebs, aramed piriqiT, ufro didi
surviliT aRiZran RmrTivgamocxadebuli WeSmaritebisa da siyvarulis mimarT. Tavad qristem gamoscada adamianTa guli da WeSmaritad adamianuri
saubris gziT isini saRmrTo naTelTan miiyvana; aseve misma mowafeebma, qristes suliT Rrmad gamsWvalulebma, is adamianebi unda Seicnon, romelTa
Sorisac Tavad cxovroben, da maTTan isaubron, raTa gulrwfeli da momTmeni dialogiT Seicnon, ra simdidreebi uboZa xalxebs mowyale RmerTma. amave
dros, isini unda Seecadon, es simdidreebi saxarebiseuli naTliT gaanaTon,
gaaaTavisuflon da RmrTis macxovris sasufevelSi miitanon.
12. qristes erTgulTa Tandaswreba adamianTa gaerTianebebSi im siyvaruliT
unda suldgmulobdes, romliTac RmerTma Cven Segviyvara. mas xom surs, rom
Cvenc erTmaneTi imave siyvaruliT gviyvardes (Sdr. 1ioan. 4, 11). qristianuli
siyvaruli marTlac yvelaze vrceldeba, rasis, socialuri Tu religiuri mdgomareobis ganurCevlad. is ar elis arc mogebas, arc madlierebas. rogorc
RmerTma Segviyvara uangaro siyvaruliT, aseve erTgulebma Tavisi siyvaruliT
unda izrunon adamianisaTvis da is imave mizanswrafviT uyvardeT, romliTac
RmerTma moiZia adamiani. qriste xom yvela qalaqsa da dabas Semoivlida, kurnavda yovelgvar uZlurebasa da sneulebas RmrTis sasufevlis mosvlis niSnad
(Sdr. maT. 9, 35; saqme 10, 38), raTa eklesiac Tavisi Svilebis saSualebiT nebismieri mdgomareobis adamianebTan gaerTianebuliyo, gansakuTrebiT Ratakebebsa da
tanjulebTan, da siamovnebiT maTTvis Tavi gaeRo (Sdr. 2kor. 12, 15). is iziarebs
maT sixarulsa da tkivilebs, icis maTi cxovrebis miswrafebebi da gamocanebi,
da TanaugrZnobs maT sikvdilis SiSSi. mas surs, mSvidobis maZieblebs Zmuri dialogiT upasuxos, saxarebidan mSvidoba da naTeli moutanos.
qristes erTgulebma ZalRone ar unda daiSuron da yvelasTan iTanamSromlon, raTa ekonomikuri da socialuri saqmeebi sworad warmarTon. maT
gansakuTrebuli mzrunveloba unda gamoiCinon bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis
aRzrdis mimarT sxvadasxva skolebSi, romlebic unda ganvixiloT ara marto
qristinuli axalgazrdobis momzadebisa da winsvlis saSualebad, aramed
adamianebisTvis gaweul Zalze Rirebul samsaxurad, gansakuTrebiT ganviTarebad qveynebSi, rac emsaxureba adamianuri Rirsebis amaRlebas da adamianisaTvis ufro Sesaferisi pirobebis Seqmnas. garda amisa, maT monawileo-

273

vatikanis II kreba

ba unda miiRon im erTa mcdelobaSi, romlebic ebrZvian SiSs, umecrebasa


da avadmyofobebs, cdiloben cxovrebis pirobebis gaumjobesebasa da samyaroSi mSvidobis ganmtkicebas. am moRvaweobaSi erTgulebs Zalze surT
gonivruli daxmarebis gaweva kerZo, sajaro, samTavrobo da saerTaSoriso
instituciebis, agreTve qristianuli da araqrsitianuli religiuri sazogadoebebis wamowyebebSi.
eklesias araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar surs Caerios miwieri qalaqis marTvaSi.
is TavisTvis sxva araviTar Zalauflebas ar moiTxovs, garda imisa, rom RmrTis SewevniT, siyvaruliTa da erTguli msaxurebiT adamianebs emsaxuros
(Sdr. maT. 20, 26; 23, 11).28
Tavisi cxovrebiTa da moRvaweobiT qristes mowafeebi mWidrod arian
adamianebTan dakavSirebuli. maT imedi aqvT, rom adamianebs moutanen
WeSmarit mowmobas qristes Sesaxeb, da iRvaweben maTi gamoxsnisaTvis,
iqac ki, sadac ver SeZleben qristes srulyofilad uwyebas. isini mxolod adamianTa materialul progressa da keTildReobas ki ar misdeven,
aramed xels uwyoben maT Rirsebasa da Zmur erTobas, aswavlian religiuri da moraluri WeSmaritebebis Sesaxeb, romlebic qristem Tavisi
naTliT gaabrwina, da ase, TandaTanobiT, ufro metad xsnian RmrTisaken
mimaval gzas. ase iReben adamianebi daxmarebas, raTa RmrTisa da moyvasisadmi siyvarulis meSveobiT gamoxsnas miaRwion. ase iwyebs naTebas qristes saidumloeba, romelSic axali adamiani Cndeba, romelic RmrTis
mixedviT aris Seqmnili (Sdr. efes. 4, 24), da romelSic RmrTis siyvaruli cxaddeba.

II. saxarebis qadageba da RmrTis eris Sekreba


13. yvelgan, sadac RmerTi sityvis kars aRebs qristes saidumloebis saTqmelad (Sdr. kol. 4, 3), yvela adamians (Sdr. mark. 16, 15) gabedulad da dabejiTebiT (Sdr. saqme 4, 13. 29. 31; 9, 27. 28; 13, 46; 14, 3; 19, 8; 26, 26; 28, 31; 1Tes.
2, 2; 2kor. 3, 12; 7, 4; fil. 1, 20; efes. 3, 12; 6, 19, 20) unda euwyos RmerTi cxoveli da is, vinc man yvelas gamosaxsnelad moavlina, ieso qriste (Sdr. 1Tes. 1,
9-10; 1kor. 1, 18-21; gal. 1, 31; saqme 14, 15-17; 17, 22-31), raTa araqristianebma,
romlebsac suli wmida Tavis guls ganuRebs (Sdr. saqme 16, 14), irwmunon da
nebiT moiqcnen uflisken da gulrwfelad Seudgnen mas, radgan is aris gza,
WeSmariteba da cxovreba (ioan. 14, 6) da Seasrulebs maT yovelgvar sulier
molodins, metic: maT usazRvrod gadaaWarbebs.
es moqceva, ra Tqma unda, unda ganvixiloT rogorc dawyebiTi. amasTanave,
is sakmarisia, rom adamianma codvas zurgi aqcios da Sevides saRmrTo siyvarulis saidumloebaSi. xolo RmerTi mas mouwodebs, piradi urTierToba hqondes
masTan qristeSi. marTlac, RmrTis madlis moqmedebiT, axladmoqceuli (neoconversus) Seudgeba sulier gzas, romliTac is ukve rwmeniT urTierTobs sikvdilisa da aRdgomis saidumloebasTan da gadadis Zveli adamianidan axali adamianisken, romelic srulyofilia qristeSi (Sdr. kol. 3, 5-10; efes. 4, 20-24). es gadasvla, romelsac mohyveba azrTa da zne-CveulebaTa TandaTaobiTi cvlileba,
unda gamovlindes Tavis socialur SedegebSi da nelnela ganviTardes kaTakmevlobis (catechumenatis) dros. ufali, romlisac swamT, aris niSani dapirispirebisa (contradictionis) (Sdr. luk. 2, 34; maT. 10, 34-39), amitom moqceuli adamiani
xSirad ganicdis ganxeTqilebebsa da ganSorebebs, magram man is sixarulic icis,
romelsac mas RmerTi usazRvrod aniWebs (Sdr. 1Tes. 1, 6).
eklesia mkacrad krZalavs vinmes sarwmunoebasTan miyvanas iZulebiTa Tu
moxiblviT, uRirsi saSualebebis gamoyenebis safuZvelze. meores mxriv, is
28

274

Sdr. PAULUS VI, allocutio die 21 nov. 1964 in Concilio habita: AAS 56 (1964), p. 1013.

AD GENTES DIVINITUS

dabejiTebiT icavs yoveli adamianis uflebas, ar iqnas moridebuli sarwmunoebas usamarTlo devniT.29
uZvelesi saeklesio wesis Tanaxmad, unda ganxilul iqnas moqcevis motivebi da, Tu aucilebelia, maTi ganwmeda moxdes.
14. vinc qristes rwmena RrTisagan eklesiis meSveobiT miiRo,30 kaTakmevlobaSi liturgiuli ceremoniebiT daiSveba. is gulisxmobs ara marto dogmatebisa da miTiTebebis gadmocemas, aramed mTeli qristianuli cxovrebis swavlebas da saTanado xangrZlivobis mosamzadebel periods, riTac mowafeebi
moZRvar qristesTan arian erTobaSi. kaTakmevelni saTanadod unda vaziaroT
gamoxsnis saidumloebas da saxarebiseuli zne-Cveulebebisa da wmida wesebis
praqtikiT, romlebic droSi erTmaneTis miyolebiT sruldeba,31 SeviyvanoT
RmrTis eris sarwmunoebis, liturgiisa da siyvarulis cxovrebaSi.
Semdgom, qristianuli ziarebis saidumloTa meSveobiT wyvdiadis ZalTagan gaTavisuflebulni (Sdr. kol. 1, 13),32 qristesTan erTad mkvdarni, masTan erTad damarxulni da aRmdgarni (Sdr. rom. 6, 4-11; kol. 2, 12-13; 1petre
3, 21-22; mark. 16, 16), isini iReben Svilobis suls (Sdr. 1Tes. 3, 5-7; saqme 8,
14-17) da mTlianobaSi RmrTis erTan erTad aRniSnaven uflis sikvdilisa da
aRdgomis xsovnas.
sasurvelia, rom liturgia didi marxvis da aRdgomis dros ise Seicvalos, rom man kaTakmevlebis suli mimarTos saaRdgomo saidumloebis aRsaniSnavad. maTi sazeimo Sesrulebisas isini naTlobis meSveobiT qristeSi
aRorZindebian.
magram am qristianuli ziarebisTvis kaTakmevlebs Soris ara marto katexistebi an mRvdlebi unda zrunavdnen, aramed erTgulTa mTeli sakrebulo, gansakuTrebiT naTliebi (patrinis), raTa kaTakmevlebi imTaviTve grZnobdnen, rom isini RmrTis ers ekuTvnian. eklesiis cxovreba aris samociqulo,
amitom evangelizaciisa da eklesiis Senebis mizniT kaTakmevlebma unda iswavlon aqtiuri TanamSromloba, rac maTi cxovrebis mowmobiTa da sarwmunoebis aRsarebiT xorcieldeba.
dabolos, naTlad unda ganisazRvros kaTakmevlebis iuridiuli statusi axal kodeqsSi. isini xom ukve dakavSirebulni arian eklesiasTan,33, ukve
qristes saxlisani arian34 da xSirad ukve ewevian sarwmunoebiT, imediTa da
siyvaruliT savse cxovrebas.

III. qristianuli sakrebulos Seqmna


15. suli wmida, romelic yvela adamians sityvis Teslebisa da saxarebis qadagebis meSveobiT qristesken mouwodebs da gulebSi sarwmunoebis
morCilebas aRZravs, naTlobis wyaros wiaRSi axali cxovrebisTvis Sobs
maT, visac qristesi swams, da maT krebs RmrTis erTian erad, romelic
aris naTesavi rCeuli, sameufo samRvdelo, Tesli wmida, eri mogebuli (1petre 2, 9).35
29
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Declar. de libertate religiosa, n. 2, 4, 10. ID., Const. past. de Ecclesia in
mundo huius temporis, n. 21.
30
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 17.
31
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. de Sacra Liturgia, n. 64-65.
32
eSmakisa da wyvdidis monobisagan gaTavisuflebisTvis saxarebaSi Sdr. maT. 12,
28; ioan. 8, 44; 12, 31 (Sdr. 1ioan. 3, 8; efes. 2, 1-2). naTlobis liturgiaSi Sdr. romauli
rituali.
33
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 9.
34
Sdr. S. AUGUSTINUS, Tract. in Ioann. 11, 4: PL 35, 1476
35
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 9.

275

vatikanis II kreba

amitom misionerebma, RmrTis TanaSemweebma (Sdr. 1kor. 3, 9), unda daarson


erTgulTa sakrebuloebi, Rirsni im mowodebisa, romliTac arian mowodebulni (Sdr. efes. 4, 1), romlebic aRasruleben maTTvis mindobil samRvdelmsaxuro, winaswarmetyvelur da sameufo funqciebs. ase iqceva qristianuli
sakrebulo samyaroSi RmrTis Tandaswrebis niSnad: evqaristuli msxverpliT is qristesTan erTad ganuwyvetliv mamasTan gadadis,36 gulmodgined
sazrdoobs saRmrTo sityviT37 da qristes mowmobs;38 da bolos, mas siyvaruli amoZravebs da samociqulo suli aRagznebs.39
qristianuli sakrebulo imTaviTve ise unda Camoyalibdes, rom Tavisi
moTxovnilebebis dakmayofileba TviTonve SeZlos.
erTgulTa am sakrebulos, Tavisi xalxis kulturuli memkvidreobiT
mdidars, Rrmad aqvs erSi fesvebi gamdgari: dae, ayvavdnen saxarebiseuli
suliT gamsWvaluli ojaxebi40 da maT Sesaferisi skolebi daexmaron. unda
daarsdes asociaciebi da jgufebi, romelTa meSveobiT saeroTa mociquloba SeZlebda, mTeli sazogadoeba evangeluri suliT ganemsWvala. dae, sxvadasxva wesis kaTolikeebs Soris siyvaruli brwinavdes.41
ekumenuri suli unda sufevdes neofitebs Sorisac, romlebic darwmunebulni unda iyvnen, rom Zmebi, romlebsac qriste swamT, qristes mowafeebi
arian, naTlobiT aRorZinebulni, romlebic RmrTis eris uricxv sikeTeebs
eziarebian. ramdenadac amis saSualebas religiuri garemo iZleva, imdenad
unda ganviTardes ekumenuri moRvaweoba, ise, rom kaTolikeebma Tavidan
airidon yovelgvari indeferentuloba da ganurCeveli aRreva, agreTve
arajansaRi Sejibri, da SeZlebisdagvarad ganaxorcielon RmrTisa da ieso
qristesadmi rwmenis saerTo aRsareba xalxTa winaSe. maT unda SeZlon Zmuri
TanamSromloba maTgan gamijnul ZmebTad socialur, teqnikur, kulturul
da religiur saqmeebSi, ekumenizmis Sesaxeb dekretis normaTa Sesabamisad.
maT, upirveles yovlisa, qristes gamo is maTi saerToO ufalia unda iTanamSromlon: dae, misma saxelma isini gaaerTianos! es TanamSromloba ar unda
damyardes mxolod kerZo pirTa Soris, aramed, adgilobrivi ordinariusis
gansjis Tanaxmad, agreTve eklesiebsa Tu saeklesio sakrebuloebsa da maT
saqmeebs Sorisac.
qristes erTgulni, xalxTagan Sekrebilni da eklesiaSi gaerTianebulni,
sxva adamianebisgan ar gansxvavdebian arc mmarTvelobiT, arc sityviT, arc
cxovrebis politikuri instituciebiT.42 amitom maT unda icxovron RmrTisa da qristesTvis, sakuTari xalxis Rirseuli wes-Cveulebebis mixedviT.
rogorc keTil moqalaqeebs, maT WeSmaritad da qmediTad unda uyvardeT
samSoblo. amave dros, maTTvis sruliad ucxo unda iyos sxva rasebisadmi
siZulvili da gadaWarbebuli nacionalizmi. maT xeli unda Seuwyon adamianTa Soris sayovelTao siyvaruls.
yovelive amis misaRwevad mniSvnelovanni arian da gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxureben saero pirebi, anu qristes erTgulni, romlebic qristesTan naTlobiT arian Serwymulni (incorporati) da samyaroSi cxovroben. es maTi
amocanaa: qristes suliT gamsaWvalulebma, warmavali saqmeebi safuariviT
Signidan unda ganasulieron da moawesrigon, raTa isini mudam qristes Tanaxmad xorcieldebodes.43
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

276

Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 10, 11, 34.
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de divina Revelatione, n. 21.
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 12; 35.
Sdr. iqve, 23, 26.
Sdr. iqve, 11, 35, 41.
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de Ecclesiis orientalibus, n. 30.
Sdr. Epist. ad Diognetum, 5: PG 2, 1173. Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 38.
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 32. ID., Decr. de Apostolatu laicorum.

AD GENTES DIVINITUS

amasTanave, ara kmara, rom qristiani xalxi imyofebodes da ganmtkicebuli iyos romelime erSi. arc is kmara, rom man mociquloba magaliTiT ganaxorcielos. is imisTvis mtkicdeba da imis gamo imyofeba ama Tu im adgilas,
rom sityviTa da saqmiT auwyos qriste Tavis ara-qristian Tanamoqalaqeebs
da maT qristes srulad miRebis saqmeSi Seewios.
amasTanave, eklesiis damkvidrebisa da qristianuli sakrebulos zrdisaTvis aucilebelia sxvadasxva msaxureba, romlebic saRmrTo mowodebiT
Tavad erTgulTa erTobidan warmoiqmna. isini gulmodgine mzrunvelobas,
mxardaWerasa da xelSewyobas saWiroeben. maT ganekuTvneba mRvdelmsaxurTa, diakonTa da katexistTa msaxureba, agreTve kaTolikuri moRvaweoba.
mowese kacebi da qalebi locviT Tu qmediTi saqmiT garkveul movaleobas
asruleben. is imisTvis aris aucilebeli, rom qristes meufeba sulebSi
damkvidrdes, ganmtkicdes da ufro farTod gavrceldes.
16. eklesia didi sixaruliT madlobas ambobs samRvdelmsaxuro mowodebis im aRuracxeli niWisTvis, romelic RmerTma qristesken axladmoqceul
xalxTa Soris amden axalgazrdas arguna. eklesia xom ufro mtkice fesvebs
gaidgams adamianTa nebismier jgufSi, Tu erTgulTa sxvadasxva sakrebulos
Tavisi wevrebidan eyolebaT gamoxsnis msaxurebi episkoposTa, mRvdelTa
da diakonTa xarisxSi. isini Tavis Zmebs unda emsaxurebodnen, ise, rom axalma eklesiebma Tavis samRvdeloebasTan erTad TandaTanobiT diocezuri
struqtura SeiZinon.
is, rac mocemulma krebam samRvdelmsaxuro mowodebisa da momzadebis
Sesaxeb daadgina, wmidad unda iyos daculi iq, sadac eklesia pirvelad mkvidrdeba, da iq, sadac axali eklesiebi iqmneba. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba
unda mieqces sulier momzadebas: is mWidrod unda iyos dakavSirebuli samoZRvro da samRvdlo momzadebasTan. is saxarebis Tanaxmad cxovrebasac
unda gulisxmobdes, sakuTari pirovnuli Tu ojaxuri interesebisgan damoukideblad, agreTve imas, rac eklesiis saidumloebis Sinagani grZnobis
ganviTarebas niSnavs. maSasadame, isini SesaniSnavad iswavlian, rogor miuZRvnan mTlianad Tavi qristes sxeulis msaxurebasa da saxarebis saqmes, gahyvnen Tavis episkoposs rogorc misi erTguli TanaSemweni da Tavis TanamoZmeebTan erTad saerTo saqme akeTon.44
am saerTo miznis misaRwevad aRsazrdelTa mTeli momzadeba gamoxsnis
Suqze unda mimdinareobdes, ise, rogorc es wmida werilSia mocemuli. qristesa da adamianTa gamoxsnis saidumloeba maT liturgiaSi unda hpovon da
amiT icxovron.45
samRvdelmsaxuro (maT Soris samRvdlo da praqtikuli) momzadebis
es saerTo moTxovnilebebi, krebis normebis Tanaxmad,46 unda Sesabamebodes mocemuli xalxis miswrafebas garkveuli tipis azrovnebisa da
moqmedebisken. aRsazrdelTa goneba ise unda gaixsnas da daixvewos, rom
maT SeZlon Tavisi xalxis kulturis ukeTesad Secnoba da Sefaseba. filosofiur da Teologiur disciplinebSi isini unda Caswvdnen im principebs, romlebic aris safuZveli gansxvavebisa, erTis mxriv, maT sakuTar
tradiciebsa da religias, meores mxriv ki qristianul religias Soris.47
amasTanave, samRvdelmsaxuro momzadeba unda iTvaliswinebdes mocemuli regionis samRvdlo moTxovnilebebs: aRsazrdelebma unda iswavlon
istoria, eklesiis misioneruli moRvaweobis mizani da meTodi, da saku44
45
46
47

Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de Institutione sacerdotali, n. 4, 8, 9.


Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de sacra Liturgia, n. 17.
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de Institutione sacerdotali, n. 1.
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Princeps Pastorum: AAS 51(1959), pp. 843-844.

277

vatikanis II kreba

Tari xalxis garkveuli socialuri, ekonomikuri da kulturuli viTarebebi. maTi ganaTleba ekumenuri suliskveTebiT unda moxdes. isini araqristian ZmebTan dialogisTvis unda moemzadon.48 yovelive es moiTxovs,
rom aRsazrdelebma samRvdelmsaxuro momzadebisas SeZlebisdagvarad
SeinarCunon mWidro kavSiri Tavis erTan da mis CveulebebTan.49 da bolos,
saWiroa yuradReba mieqces maT momzadebas saTanado saeklesio mmarTvelobisTvis, maT Soris ekonomikis sferoSi.
garda amisa, saWiroa Sesaferisi mRvdelmsaxurebis SerCeva, romlebic,
garkveuli samRvdlo praqtikis Semdeg, daasruleben umaRles sauniversiteto swavlas, gansakuTrebiT romSi, agreTve sxva samecnier institutebSi,
raTa axal eklesiebs Tavis gankargulebaSi hyavdes adgilobrivi samRvdeloeba, romelsac gansakuTrebiT rTuli saeklesio funqciebis SesrulebisTvis saTanado codna da gamocdileba eqneba.
iq, sadac episkoposTa konferencia amas mizanSewonilad miiCnvs, unda
aRdges diakonobis xarisxi, rogorc cxovrebis mudmivi statusi, eklesiis Sesaxeb konstituciis normis Tanaxmad.50 sasurvelia, rom kacebi, romlebic WeSmaritad diakonur msaxurebas asruleben, an saRmrTo
sityvas rogorc katexistebi qadageben, sakrebulos winamZRvrisa da
episkoposis saxeliT marTaven, an socialur Tu saqvelmoqmedo saqmeebSi
qvelmoqmedebas ewevian, xeldasxmiT ganmtkicdnen, rac maT mociqulebisgan gadmoecaT, da ufro mWidrod gaerTiandnen sakurTxevelTan, raTa
ufro warmatebiT Seasrulon Tavisi msaxureba diakonobis saidumlo madlis meSveobiT.
17. qebis Rirsia katexistebis krebuli, romelmac araqristianTa mimarT
misiis saqmeSi didi damsaxureba moipova. masSi Sedian kacebica da qalebic,
romlebic gamsWvaluli arian samociqulo suliT da romlebic Tavisi gansakuTrebuli da sruliad aucilebeli SromiT xels uwyoben sarwmunoebisa
da eklesiis gavrcelebas.
Cvens droSi, rodesac aseTi mavalricxovani xalxis evangelizaciisa da
samRvdlo msaxurebis ganxorcielebisTvis samRvdeloeba Zalze mcirericxovania, katexistebis funqcia gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens. maTi
momzadeba ise unda ganxorcieldes da ise unda Seesabamos kulturul progress, rom maT, rogorc samRvdelmsaxuro xarisxis efeqturma TanamSromlebma, rac SeiZleba ukeTesad SeZlon Tavisi funqciis Sesruleba, romelic
sul ufro rTuli xdeba axali da ufro farTo movaleobaTa gamo.
amitom unda gaizardos diocezuri da regionaluri skolebis ricxvi,
romlebSic momavali katexistebi Seiswavlian kaTolikur moZRvrebas (upirveles yovlisa, bibliuri da liturgiuli sagnebis saxiT) da, amasTanave,
katexetur meTodsa da samRvdlo praqtikas. isini SeiTviseben qristianul
zneobas51 da ganuxrelad Seecdebian daicvan mowiweba da cxovrebis siwmide. garda amisa, saWiroa Sekrebebis an kursebis mowyoba, romlebzec katexistebs saSualeba eqnebaT, garkveul droSi ganaaxlon codna da daxelovneba,
romelic maT msaxurebisTvis sWirebaT, agreTve asazrdoon da ganamtkicon
Tavisi sulieri cxovreba. xolo isini, vinc mTlianad Tavs uZRvnis am saqmes, samarTliani anazRaurebis safuZvelze, uzrunvelyofilni unda iyvnen
Rirseuli cxovrebiTa da socialuri uzrunvelyofiT.52
48
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de Oecumenismo, n. 4.
49
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Princeps Pastorum: AAS 51 (1959), p. 842.
50
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 29.
51
Sdr, IOANNES XXIII,, encycl. Princeps Pastorum: AAS 51 (1959), p. 855. aq laparakia mudmiv katexistebze.
52
aq laparakia mudmiv katexistebze.

278

AD GENTES DIVINITUS

sasurvelia, rom katexistebis momzadebisa da SenaxvisaTvis saTanadod


iyos gaTvaliswinebuli sarwmunoebis propagandis wm. dikasteriumis sagangebo subsidiebi. saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, unda daarsdes fondi (Opus) katexistebisTvis.
eklesiam madlierebiT unda miiRos katexistebis keTilSobiluri Sroma,
romelTa daxmarebac mas dasWirdeba. Tavis sakrebuloebSi isini locvebs
uZRvebian da moZRvrebas gadmoscemen. saWiroa saTanadod zrunva maTi samoZRvro da sulieri momzadebisTvis. amasTanave sasurvelia, rom iq, sadac
es miznaSewonili iqneba, katexistebs miendos kanonikuri misia liturgiul
qmedebaSi misi sajarod aRsrulebisTvis, raTa isini xalxis winaSe sarwmunoebas meti avtoritetiT emsaxuron.
18. eklesiis damkvidrebisTanave samoweseo cxovrebisTvis gulmodgined
xelSewyoba aris saWiro. aseTi cxovreba ara marto Rirebul da sruliad
aucilebel daxmarebas gauwevs misionerul moRvaweobas, aramed naTlad
cxadyofs da aRniSnavs qristianuli mowodebis Rrma bunebas eklesiaSi RmrTisadmi miZRvnis meSveobiT.53
samoweseo instituciebma, romlebic eklesiis damkvidrebisTvis iRwvian,
mistikuri simdidriT gamsWvalulebma, romliTac ganTqmulia eklesiis samoweseo tradicia, unda Seecadon gamoxaton da gadascen isini TToeuli
eris niWisa da xasiaTis Sesabamisad. maT yuradRebiT unda ganixilon, Tu rogor SeiZleba SeiTvisos qristianulma samoweseo cxovrebam is asketikuri
da mWvretelobiTi tradiciebi, romelTa Teslebi RmerTma Zvel kulturebSi jer kidev saxarebis qadagebamde Cado.
axal eklesiebSi xeli unda Seewyos samoweseo cxovrebis sxvadasxva formebs, raTa maT gamoavlinon qristes misiisa da saeklesio cxovrebis sxvadasxva aspeqtebi, Tavi miuZRvnan sxvadasxva samwyso saqmeebs da Tavisi wevrebi saTanadod moamzadon maTi aRsrulebisTvis. xolo episkoposebma konferenciebSi yuradReba unda miaqcion imas, rom im kongregaciebis ricxvi,
romlebic erTsa da imave samociqulo mizans isaxaven, ar gaizardos samoweseo cxovrebisa da mociqulobis sazianod.
gansakuTrebuli aRniSnvis Rirsia is mravalgvari wamowyeba, romelTa
mizani mWvretelobiTi cxovrebis damkvidrebaa. maTi meSveobiT zogi cdilobs Tavisi ordenis umdidresi tradiciis damkvidrebas (amave dros, isini inarCuneben samonazvno instituciis ZiriTad elementebs), xolo sxvebi
Zveli monazvnobis ufro martiv formas ubrundeba. dae, yvela Seecados,
rac SeiZloeba ukeTesad miesadagos adgilobriv viTarebas. mWvretelobiTi
cxovreba eklesiis awmyoobis sisrulisTvis aris mniSvnelovani, amitom is
yvelgan unda iyos aRdgenili.
Tavi III
calkeuli eklesiebi
19. eklesiis damkvidrebis saqme adamianTa gansazRvrul garemoSi
garkveul wertils aRwevs, rodesac erTgulTa erToba, romelsac ukve
gamdgari aqvs fesvebi socialur cxovrebaSi da romelic ase Tu ise adgilobriv kulturas Seesabameba, erTgvar stabilurobasa da simyares aRwevs. es
imas niSnavs, rom mas hyavs sakuTari, Tundac arasakmarisi, raodenobis mRvdelmsaxurebi, moweseebi da saeroni, agreTve msaxurebani da instituciebi,
romlebic aucilebelia imisaTvis, rom RmrTis eri Tavisi episkoposis xelmZRvanelobiT cxovrobdes da winsvlas ganicdides.
53

Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 31, 44.

279

vatikanis II kreba

aseT axalgazrda eklesiebSi RmrTis eris cxovreba qristianuli cxovrebis yvela sferoSi unda momwifdes da am krebis normebis Tanaxmad ganaxldes. erTgulTa erTobebi, romlebic sul ufro metad acnobiereben yvelafers, sarwmunoebis, liturgiisa da siyvarulis cocxal sakrebuloebad
iqcevian. saeroni Tavisi samoqalaqo da samociqulo moRvaweobiT qalaqSi
siyvarulisa da samarTlianobis damyarebas cdiloben. sazogadoebrivi urTierTobis saSualebebi mizanSewonilad da gonivrulad gamoiyeneba. ojaxebi, romlebic WeSmarit qristianul cxovrebas ewevian, saeroTa mociqulobis, agreTve samRvdelmsaxuro da samoweseo mowodebis nergebad iqcevian.
da bolos, sarwmunoeba saTanado katexizaciis meSveobiT iswavleba da misi
aRsruleba xdeba liturgiaSi, romelic eris bunebas Seesabameba, xolo kanonikuri legalizebis gziT is sapatio instituciebSi da adgilobriv CveulebebSi Semodis.
episkoposebi, Tavis samRvdeloebasTan erTad, qristesa da eklesiis suliT sul ufro metad gamsWvalulebi, sayovelTao eklesiasTan erTobaSi
unda fiqrobdnen da cxovrobdnen. axal eklesiebsa da mTel eklesias Soris
mWidro kavSiri unda damyardes. misi tradiciuli elementebi maT sakuTar
kulturas unda daukavSiron da ZalTa urTierTSerwyma mistikuri sxeulis
zrdas moaxmaron.54 amitom unda ganviTardes is Teologiuri, fsiqologiuri da adamianuri elementebs, romlebmac SeiZleba xeli Seuwyos sayovelTao eklesiasTan erTobis grZnobas.
es eklesiebi Zalze xSirad samyaros uRaribes kuTxeebSi iyofebian. isini
jer kidev ganicdian mRvdelmsaxurTa did naklebobas da materialur saxsarTa simwires. amitom maT eklesiis mxridan Zalze sWirdebaT ganuwyveteli misioneruli moRvaweobis saxiT daxmareba. es daxmareba pirvel rigSi
unda emsaxurebodes adgilobrivi eklesiis ganviTarebas da qristianuli
cxovrebis momwifebas. aseTi misioneruli moRvaweoba im eklesiebsac unda
daexmaros, romlebic didi xnis win daarsda da romlebic amJamad ukusvlis
an sisustis stadiaSi arian.
am eklesiebma unda gamoavlinon erToblivi samRvdlo Zalisxmeva da wamoiwyon Sesabamisi saqmeebi, romelTa saSualebiT diocezur samRvdeloebaSi da samoweseo instituciebSi mowodeba ricxobrivad unda gaizardos,
ufro myarad iyos gansazRvruli da warmatebiT ganviTarebuli,55 raTa am
eklesiebma TandaTanobiT SeZlon sakuTari Tavis uzrunvelyofa da sxvebisTvisac daxmarebis gaweva.
20. calkeuli eklesia maqsimalurad srulyofilad unda warmoadgendes
sayovelTao eklesias. amitom man kargad unda icodes, rom is im adamianebTanac aris movlenili, visac qristesi ara swams, magram am eklesiasTan erTad
imave teritoriaze cxovrobs. TiToeuli erTgulisa da mTeli sakrebulos
cxovrebis mowmobiT eklesia unda gaxdes niSani, romelic maT qristeze miuTiTebs.
garda amisa, saWiroa sityvis msaxureba, raTa saxareba yvelas miswvdes.
episkoposi, upirveles yovlisa, sarwmunoebis mqadagebeli unda iyos, romelsac axali mowafeebi qristesTan mihyavs.56 am maRali funqciis saTanado doneze SesrulebisTvis is jargad unda icnobdes pirobebs, romelSic misi samwyso
cxovrobs, agreTve icodes Tavisi Tanamoqalaqeebis gulis siRrmeSi fesvgamdgari Sexedulebebi RmrTis Sesaxeb, angariSi gauwios im cvlilebebs, romlebic
54
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Princeps Pastorum: AAS 51 (1959), p. 838.
55
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de Presbyterorum ministerio et vita, n. 11. Id., Decr. de Institutione
sacerdotali, n. 2.
56
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 25.

280

AD GENTES DIVINITUS

moaqvs urbanizacias, migraciebsa da religiur indiferentulobas.


adgilobrivi mRvdlebi axal eklesiebSi gulmodgined unda Seudgnen
evangelizaciis saqmes, saerTo saqme awarmoon ucxoel misionerebTan, romelTan erTadac isini erTian samRvdeloebas qmnian, episkoposis uflebamosilebis qveS gaerTianebuls. amis mizani ara marto erTgulTa mwysoba
da saRmrTo kultis aRsrulebaa, aramed saxarebis qadagebac aris maTTvis,
vinc gareT aris. isini mzad unda iyvnen xolo saWiroebis SemTvxevaSi sixaruliT SesTavazon daxmareba Tavis episkoposs wamoiwyon misioneruli
saqmianoba Tavisi diocezis moSorebul an mitovebul regionebSi, an sxva
diocezebSi.
aseTive mondomebiT unda zrunavdnen Tavisi moqalaqeebisTvis, gansakuTrebiT RatakebisTvis, mowese qalebi da kacebi, agreTve saeronic.
konferenciis episkoposebma yuradReba unda miaqcion imas, rom dadgenil vadebSi Catardes kursebi, romlebic miznad isaxavs bibliuri, Teologiuri, sasuliero da samRvdlo codnis gaxsenebas, raTa mRelvare da cvalebad garemoSi samRvdeloebam ufro srulyofili codna SeiZinos saRmrTismetyvelo mecnierebasa da samRvdlo meTodebSi.
sxvamxriv wmindad unda iyos daculi is, rac am krebam daadgina, gansakuTrebiT dekretSi mRvdelTa msaxurebisa da cxovrebis Sesaxeb.
calkeuli eklesiis es misioneruli saqme rom ganxorcieldes, saWiroa
saTanado msaxurebi, romlebic droulad unda iqnen momzadebulni TiToeuli eklesiisTvis Sesaferisi gzebiT. adamianebi sul ufro metad erTiandebian jgufebad. amitom mizanSewonilia, rom episkoposTa konferenciebi
erTmaneTs eTaTbirebodnen am jgufebTan dialogis Taobaze. magram Tu
zogierT regionSi aris adamianTa jgufebi, romlebsac kaTolikuri sarwmunoebis miRebisagan akavebs is, rom maT ar SeuZliaT Seewyon im konkretul
formas, romelic iqaur eklesias gaaCnia, maSin sasurvelia, asset viTarebas
sagangebo yuradReba daeTmosa,57 sanam yvela qristiani erT sakrebuloSi ar
Seikribeba. xolo Tu samociqulo saydars am miznisaTvis misionerebi hyavs,
maSin episkoposebma maT Tavis diocezebSi unda mouwodon, sixaruliT miiRon isini da qmediTad mxari dauWiron maT wamowyebebs.
amgvari misioneruli mizanswrafva samSoblos mkvidrTa Soris rom gaRvivdes, sasurvelia, rom axalma eklesiebma SeZlebidagvarad male monawileoba miiRon sayovelTao eklesiis saqmeSi. maT misionerebic unda gagzavnon
(Tundac Tavad samRvdeloebis naklebobas ganicdidnen), romlebic dedamiwis zurgze yvelgan auwyeben saxarebas. sayoevlTao eklesiasTan urTierToba erTgvarad dasrulebuli maSin iqneba, rodesac Tavad isinic aqtiur
monawileobas miiReben sxva xalxTa mimarT ganxorcielebul misionerul
moRvaweobaSi.
21. eklesia ar aris WeSmaritad dafuZnebuli, is ar cxovrobs sruli cxovrebiT da ar aris qristes srulyofili niSani adamianTa Soris, Tu ierarqiasTan erTad ar arsebobs da ar moRvaweobs namdvili saero sazogadoeba.
saero pirTa aqtiuri monawileobis (praesentia) gareSe saxareba ama Tu im eris
sulSi, cxovrebasa da samuSaoSi Rrmad ver damkvidrdeba. Sesabamisad, ukve
eklesiis daarsebisas didi yuradReba unda mieqces qristianul saero sazogadoebas, romelmac simwifes unda miaRwios.
erTguli saeroni mTlianad miekuTvnebian RmrTis ersac da samoqalaqo
57
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de Presbytererom ministerio et vita, n. 10, sadac sxvadasxva socialuri jgufisTvis sagangebo samRvdlo muSaobis gaadvilebis mizniT gaTvaliswinebulia
personaluri prelaturebis Camoyalibeba, imdenad, ramdenadac amas moiTxovs mociqulobis swori ganxorcieleba.

281

vatikanis II kreba

sazogadoebasac. isini ekuTvnian im xalxs, romelTa Sorisac daibadnen da


romlis kulturuli memkvidreobis gaziareba ganaTlebis miRebiT daiwyes.
mis cxovrebasTan isini mravalgvari socialuri kavSiriT urTierToben, mis
progress isini sakuTari profesiuli ZalisxmeviT uwyoben xels, mis problemebs isini rogorc sakuTars ganicidan da maT gadaWras cdiloben. isini qristesac ekuTvnian, imitom rom isini aRorZinebulni arian eklesiaSi
sarwmunoebisa da naTlobis meSveobiT, raTa cxovrebisa da saqmis siaxliT,
qristesni iyvnen (Sdr. I kor. 15, 23), rom qristeSi yvelaferi RmerTs daemorCilos, raTa iyos RmerTi yovlad yovelsa Sina (1kor. 15, 28).
maTi upirvelesi movaleoba, kacebisac da qalebisac, aris qristes mowmoba, rasac isini unda akeTebdnen cxovrebiTa da saqmiT ojaxSi, Tavis socialur jgufsa da profesiul garemoSi. maTSi unda warmoCndes axali adamiani, romelic RmrTis mixedviT aris Seqmnili simarTliTa da siwmidiTa
WeSmaritebisaTa (efes. 4, 24). cxovrebis es siaxle maT unda gamoxaton
samSoblos socialur da kulturul garemoSi, Tavisi eris tradiciaTa Sesabamisad. maT unda icodnen es kultura, isini unda ganwmendnen mas da inaxavdnen, ganaviTarebdnen mas uaxlesi viTarebis mixedviT, da bolos, unda
srulyofdnen mas qristeSi, raTa qristes rwmena da eklesiis cxovreba ucxo
aRar iyos im sazogadoebisTvis, romelSic isini cxovroben, da maT maT misi
gamsWvalva da gardaqmna daiwyon. isini unda gaerTiandnen Tavis TanamoqalaqeebTan gulrwfeli siyvaruliT da maT urTierTobaSi unda gamovlindes
qristes saidumloebidan SeZenili sayovelTao erTobisa da solidarobis
axali kavSiri. maT qristes rwmena imaT Sorisac unda gaavrcelon, visTanac
maT cxovreba da profesia akavSirebs. es valdebuleba imitom aris gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani, rom bevr adamians saxarebis mosmena da qristes Secnoba mxolod axlobel saero pirTa daxmarebiT SeuZlia. iq, sadac es SeiZleba, saero pirebi unda mzad iyvnen, ierarqiasTan uSualo urTierTobiT Seasrulon sagangebo misia saxarebis sauwyeblad da qristianuli moZRvrebis
gadasacemad, raTa axladaRorZinebul eklesias meti Zala Sehmaton.
eklesiis msaxurni didad unda afasebdnen saero pirTa mociqulobas. maT
unda aRzardon saero pirebi ise, rom maT, rogorc qristes asoebma, gaacnobieron Tavisi pasuxismgebloba sxva adamianTa winaSe. maT safuZvlianad
unda aswavlon qristes saidumloeba, gaacnon praqtikuli meTodebi da daexmaron maT sirTuleebSi, Tanaxmad konstituciisa Lumen Gentium da dekretisa
Apostolicam Actuositatem.
mRvdelTa da saeroTa funqciebisa da pasuxismgeblobis dacvis pirobebSi, mTeli axali eklesia unda warmoadgendes qristes erTian mowmobas,
cocxalsa da myars, raTa iyos gamoxsnis naTeli niSani, romelic CvenTan
qristeSi movida.
22. Tesli, romelic aris RmrTis sityva, keTil niadagze aRmocenebuli
da saRmrTo cvariT danamuli, nests sisveles, gardaqmnis da iTavisebs mas,
raTa bolos didi nayofi gamoiRos. marTlac, ganxorcielebis gangebulebis
msgavsad (ad instar oeconomiae Incarnationis), axali eklesiebi, qristeSi damkvidrebulni da mociqulTa saZirkvelze aSenebulni,, sakvirveli urTierTobis saxiT iTviseben erTa yvela simdidres, romlebic qristes memkvidreobiT ergo (Sdr. fs. 2, 8). Tavis erTa zne-Cveulebebidan da tradiciebidan,
sibrZnidan da moZRvrebidan, xelovnebaTagan da disciplinebidan maT unda
aiRon yvelaferi, rac emsaxureba Semoqmedis didebas, cxadyofs macxovris
madls da xels uwyobs qristianuli cxovrebis sworad mowyobas.58
am Sedegis misaRwevad aucilebelia, rom ase vTqvaT, yovel did socio58

282

Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 13.

AD GENTES DIVINITUS

kulturul teritoriaze iseTi Teologiuri azris ganviTarebas Seewyos


xeli, romelic sayovelTao eklesiis tradiciis naTelSi axali kvlevis sagnad gaxdis RmrTis mier gamocxadebul saqmeebsa da sityvebs, wmida werilSi aRbeWdilsa da eklesiis mamebisa da moZRvrobis mier ganmartebuls. ase
ufro naTeli gaxdeba, Tu ra gzebiT SeiZleba sarwmunoeba, filosofiisa da
saxalxo sibrZnis gaTvaliswinebiT, Seesabamebodes gonebas, da rogor SeiZleba wes-Cveulebebi, cxovrebisadmi damokidebuleba da socialuri wesi
Seesabamebodes zneobas, romelsac saRmrTo gamocxadeba gvamcnobs. ase qristianuli cxovrebis mTels sivrceSi gaixsneba gzebi, romlebic ufro meti
adaptaciis SesaZleblobas mogvcems. aseTi qmedebis Sedegad gamoiricxeba
sinkretizmisa da tyuili partikularizmis yovelgvari saxeoba, qristianuli cxovreba Seesabameba TiTouli kulturis bunebasa da Taviseburebas,59
xolo calkeuli tradiciebi xalxTa Sesabamisi ojaxis TaviseburebebTan
erTad, saxarebis SuqiT gasxivosnebulni, kaTolikur erTianobaSi iqnebian miRebulni. da bolos, axali calkeuli eklesiebi, Tavisi tradiciebiT
Semkulni, Tavis adgils daikaveben saeklesio urTierTobSi. amasTanave
xeluxlebeli darCeba petres kaTedris pirveloba, romelic siyvarulis
sayovelTao erTobas uZRveba.60
amgvarad, sasurvelia, metic: mizanSewonilia, rom saepiskoposo konferenciebi calkeuli didi socio-kulturuli teritoriis sazRvrebSi ise
gaerTiandnen, rom adaptaciis am mizans erTsulovnad da SeTanxmebulad
misdion.
Tavi IV
misionerebi
23. Tumca sarwmunoebis gavrceleba qristes yvela mowafes ekisreba,61
ufali qriste mowafeTa ricxvidan yovelTvis mouwodebs maT, vinc Tavad
surs, raTa isini iyvnen masTan erTad da raTa waravlinos isini xalxebTan
qadagebisTvis (Sdr. mark. 3, 13). suli wmidis meSveobiT, romelic qarizmebs
sargeblobisTvis anawilebs, viTarca hnebavs (1kor. 12, 11), is misionerul
mowodebas calkeul gulSi STaagonebs da, amasTanave, aaRorZinebs eklesiaSi institutebs.62 isini Tavis movaleobad aRiqvamen evangelizaciis funqcias, romelic mTeli eklesiis saqmea.
gansakuTrebuli mowodebiT isini arian aRbeWdilni, vinc dajildovebulia Sesabamisi bunebrivi TaviseburebiT, da Tavisi niWebiTa da gonierebiT
mzad aris, ikisros misioneruli saqme,63 iqnebian isini adgilobrivi mkvidrni
Tu ucxoelebi: mRvdelmsaxurni, moweseni, saeroni. kanonieri xelisuflebis mier mivlenilni, isini rwmeniTa da morCilebiT midian maTTan, vinc Sors
aris qristesgan, gamijnulni saqmisaTvis, romlisTvisac arian rCeulni
(Sdr. saqme 13, 2), rogorc msaxurni saxarebisa, raTa iyos msxuerpli igi
warmarTTa Sewirul da ganwmedil suliTa wmidiTa (rom. 15, 16).
24. xolo RmrTis mowodebas adamiani marTlac ise unda pasuxobdes, rom
xorcisa da sisxlis daukiTxavad (Sdr. gal. 1, 16) Tavi mTlianad saxarebis
saqmes miuZRvnas. xolo aseTi pasuxis gacema SeuZlebelia suli wmidis STa59
Sdr. PAULUS VI, allocutio in canonisatione SS: Mart. Ugandens: AAS 56 (1964), p. 908.
60
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 13.
61
CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. deEcclesi, n. 17.
62
institituciebad iwodeba is ordenebi, kongregaciebi, instituciebi da asociaciebi, romlebic misiebSi muSaoben.
63
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Rerum Ecclesiae: AAS 18 (1926), pp. 69-71. PIUS XII, encycl. Saeculo
exeunte: AAS 32 (1940), p. 256. ID., encycl. Evangelii praecones: AAS 43 (1951), p. 506.

283

vatikanis II kreba

gonebisa da simtkicis gareSe. igi, movlinebuli, xom mis cxovrebasa da misiaSi Semodis, romelmac Tavi Tsi daimdabla da xati monisa miiRo (fil. 2, 7).
amitom is unda mzad iyos mTeli cxovreba Tavisi mowodebis simaRleze idges, uaryos sakuTari Tavi da yvelaferi, rac aqamde hqonda, da yvelasTvis
yovelived Seiqmnes (Sdr. 1kor. 9, 22).
xalxTa Soris saxarebis qadagebisas man mgznebared unda auwyos qristes saidumloeba, romlisTvisac is macnes movaleobas asrulebs. amasTanave, mas unda hqondes qristesmieri gambedaoba (ita ut in Ipso audeat),
raTa ilaparakos ise, rogorc saWiroa (Sdr. efes. 6, 19; saqme 4, 31) da ar
Sercxves jvris xiblisa (scandalum). igi unda misdevdes Tavisi moZRvris,
guliT keTilisa da mdablis, kvals, da daamtkicos, rom misi uReli tkbilia, xolo tvirTi msubuqia (maT. 11, 29-30). WeSmaritad evangeluri
cxovrebiT,64 didi moTminebiT, sulgrZelebiT, sitkboTi, arapirferuli
siyvaruliT (Sdr. 2kor. 6, 4) is unda mowmobdes Tavisi uflisTvis, da, Tu
aucilebelia, misTvis sisxlic daRvaros. is gamoiTxovs RmrTisagan Zalasa da simtkices, raTa mravali gansacdelisa da udidesi siRatakis mZafr
gamocdaSi sixarulis siuxve Seicnos (Sdr. 2kor. 8, 2). is darwmunebuli
unda iyos, rom morCileba qristes msaxuris gansakuTrebuli saTnoebaa.
qristem xom morCilebiT gamoisyida kacobrioba.
saxarebis mqadageblebma, raTa ar ugulebelyon madli, romelic maTSia,
dRiTi dRe Tavisi gonebis suliT unda ganaxldnen (Sdr. 1tim. 4, 14; efes. 4,
23; 2 kor. 4, 16). ordinariusebma da zemdgomebma (Superiores) dadgenil dros
unda Sekribon misionerebi, raTa isini ganmtkicdnen mowodebis imediTa da
ganaxldnen samociqulo msaxurebaSi. amisaTvis specialuri saxlebic SeiZleba dafuZnes.
25. aseTi SesaniSnavi saqmisTvis momavali misioneri sulierad da zneobrivad unda moemzados.65 is unda mzad iyos iniciativisTvis, medgrad miiyvanos
saqme bolomde, iyos mtkice gasaWirSi. mas moTminebiT da sulis simtkiciT
unda SeeZlos martoobis, daRlilobis, unayofo Sromis atana. adamianebs is
gaxsnili gonebiTa da gaSlili guliT unda dauxvdes. misTvis mindobili movaleoba man siamovnebiT unda itvirTos. is keTilSobilurad unda Seewyos
ucxo xalxebis wes-Cveulebebs da sxvadasxvagvar pirobebs. erTsulovani
TanxmobiTa da urTierTsiyvarulis safuZvelze man saerTo saqme unda akeTos Tavis ZmebTan da yvelasTan erTad, vinc imave saqmes miuZRvna Tavi, raTa
samociqulo sakrebulos msgavsad, is suliTa da guliT erTgulebTan erTad iyos (Sdr. saqme 2, 42; 4, 32).
sulis aseTi ganwyoba momzadebis periodSive gulmodgined unda iwrTobodes da viTardebodes. mas sulieri cxovreba unda aRamaRlebdes da
asazrdoebdes. cocxali rwmeniTa da uryevi imediT gamsWvaluli, misioneri locvis kaci unda iyos. is unda aRgznebuli iyos Zlierebis, siyvarulisa
da siwmidis suliT (Sdr. 2 tim. 1, 7). man unda iswavlos imiT dakmayofileba,
rac aqvs (Sdr. fil. 4, 11). msxverplis sulis meSveobiT man Tavis TavSi unda
ataros iesos sikvdili, raTa iesos cxovreba moqmedebdes maTSi, visTanac is
iqna mivlenili (Sdr. 2kor. 4, 10-12). sulebisTvis zrunvaSi is mzad unda iyos,
yvelaferi gaiRos da sakuTari Tavic gaiRos sulebisaTvis (Sdr. 2kor. 12,
15), iqamde, rom Tavisi msaxurebis yoveldRiuri aRsrulebiT is RmrTisa da

64
Sdr. BENEDICTUS XV, encycl. Maximum illud: AAS 11 (1919), pp. 449-450.
65
Sdr. BENEDICTUS XV, encycl. Maximum illud: AAS 11 (1919), pp. 448-449. PIUS XII, encycl.
Evangelii praecones: AAS 43 (1951), p. 507. mRvdelmsaxur misionerTa momzadebisas isic gasaTvalisiwnebelia, rac dadginda dekretSi de Institutione sacerdotali Conc. Vat. II.

284

AD GENTES DIVINITUS

moyvasis siyvarulSi unda gadaizardos66. ase, qristesTan erTad mamis nebis


morCili, is mis misias eklesiis ierarqriuli xelisuflebis xelmZRvanelobiT ganagrZobs da xels Seuwyobs gamoxsnis saidumloebas.
26. isini, vinc sxvadasxva xalxebTan iqneba mivlinebuli, rogorc qristes
keTili msaxuri, unda sazrdoobdnen sityTa sarwmunoebisaTa da keTiliTa moZRurebiTa (1tim. 4, 6). mas, upirveles yovlisa, wmida werilidan aiReben da gamoikvleven qristes saidumloebas, romlis mqadageblebi da mowmeebic iqnebian.
amitom yvela misionerma mRvdelmsaxurebma, Zmebma, debma, saero pirebma unda iseTi momzadeba da aRzrda gaiaros, romelic TiToeuli maTganis
mdgomareobas Seesabameba, raTa Seuferebelni ar aRmoCndnen im moTxovnebisTvis, romelsac maT momavali saqme waruyenebs.67 Tavidanve maTi samoZRvro ganaTleba ise unda warimarTos, rom is eklesiis sayovelTaobasac da
xalxTa mravalferovnebasac iTvaliswinebdes. es exeba yvela disciplinas,
romelTa meSveobiT isini msaxurebisTvis emzadebian, agreTve sxva mecnierebebs, romelTa Seswavla maTTvis sasargeblo iqneba, raTa zogadi warmodgena hqondeT erebis, kulturebis, religiaTa Sesaxeb, ara marto warsulis,
aramed awmyosic. is, vinc sxva erTan unda mivides, didad pativi unda sces
mis samSoblos, enebsa da zne-Cveulebebs. momavali misioneri, upirveles yovlisa, unda CauRrmavdes misiologiis Seswavlas, anu Caswvdes eklesiis im
moZRvrebasa da normebs, romlebic misionerul aqtiurobas Seexeba, icodes
gzebi, romlebsac saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi mihyvebodnen saxarebis macneebi,
agreTve icodes misiaTa awmyo mdgomareoba da meTodebi, romlebic amJamad
yvelaze ufro efeqturad miiCneva.68
es yovelmxrivi ganaTleba unda gamsWvaluli iyos samRvdlo mzrunvelobiT. amave dros, saWiroa sagangebo da mizandasaxuli samociqulo momzadeba, romelic moicavs rogorc samoZRvro, aseve praqtikul wvrTnas.69
maqsimalurad bevr Zmasa da das unda mivceT ganaTleba katexizaciis xelovnebaSi, da ise movamzadoT isini, rom maT ukeTesad SeZlon TanamSromloba mociqulobaSi.
maTac ki, vinc droebiT iRebs monawileobas misionerul saqmeSi, Tavisi
mdgomareobis Sesaferisi ganaTleba unda miiRon.
ganaTlebis es formebi ise unda Seivsos im qveynebSi, sadac maTi mivlineba xdeba, rom misionerebi ufro farTod gaecnon istorias, socialur
struqurasa da xalxTa Cveulebebs, Caswvdnen zneobriv da religiur wesebs,
agreTve im dafarul azrebs, romlebic maT Tavisi wmida tradiciebis Sesabamisad RmrTis, samyarosa da adamianis Sesaxeb SeimuSaves.70 maT enebi im donemde unda Seiswavlon, rom SeeZloT maTi Tavisuflad da sworad gamoyeneba, da ase ufro advilad miudgnen adamianTa gonebasa da guls.71 garda amisa,
isini saTanadod unda gaecnon adgilobrivi samRvdlo moTxovnilebebis Taviseburebebs.
66
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 41.
67
Sdr. BENEDICTUS XV, encycl. Maximum illud: AAS 11 (1919), p. 440. PIUS XII, encycl. Evangelii praecones: AAS 43 (1951), p. 507.
68
BENEDICTUS XV, encycl. Maximum illud: AAS 11 (1919), p. 448. S.C. DE PROPAGANDA
FIDE, decr. 20 maii 1923: AAS 15 (1923), pp. 369-370. PIUS XII, encycl. Saeculo exeunte: AAS 32 (1940), p.
256. ID., encycl. Evangelii praecones: AAS 43 (1951), p. 507. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Princeps pastorum:
AAS 51 (1959), pp. 843-844.
69
CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de Institutione sacerdotali, n. 19-21. Const. apost. Sedes Sapientiae cum
Statutibus generalibus.
70
PIUS XII, encycl. Evangelii praecones: AAS 43 (1951), pp. 523-424.
71
BENEDICTUS XV, encycl. Maximum illud: AAS 11 (1919), p. 448. PIUS, encycl. Evangelii praecones: AAS 43 (1951), p. 507.

285

vatikanis II kreba

zogierTi maTgani ufro Rrmad unda moemzados misiologiur institutebsa da sxva fakultetebsa Tu universitetebSi, raTa ufro warmatebiT
Seasrulos specialuri movaleobebi72 da Tavisi erudiciiT sxva misionerebs daexmaros misioneruli saqmis aRsrulebaSi, romelic gansakuTrebiT Cvens droSi amdeni sirTule da upiratesoba axasiaTebs. garda amisa,
Zalze sasurvelia, rom episkoposTa regionalur konferenciebs sakmarisi
odenobiT gamocdili specialisti hyavdes da maT SeeZloT maTi codnisa
da gamocdilebis nayofierad gamoyeneba Tavisi funqciis moTxovnilebaTa
Seabamisad. ar unda ganvicdideT im xalxis naklebobac, visac srulyofilad
SeuZlia teqnikisa da masiuri komunikaciis saSualebaTa gamoyeneba, romelTa mniSvneloba yvelam unda gaiTvaliswinos.
27. yovelive es sruliad aucilebelia TiToeuli adamianisaTvis, romelic ama Tu im xalxTan aris mivlinebuli. magram calkeuli individi amas ver
ganaxorcielebs. Tavad misionerul saqmes, rogorc gamocdileba aCvenebs,
calkeuli piri ver Seasrulebs. amitom saerTo mowodebam calkeuli pirebi
gaaerTiana instituciebSi, sadac SeerTebuli ZalebiT isini Sesabamis ganaTlebas miiReben da am saqmes eklesiis saxeliT da ierarqiuli xelisuflebis nebiT aRasruleben. ukve mravali saukunis ganmavlobaSi es instituciebi
itandnen klimatur sirTuleebs. isini misionerul saqmes Tavs mTlianad an
nawilobriv uZRvnidnen. xSirad wmida saydari maT evangelizaciisTvis did
teritoriebs abarebda, sadac isini RmrTisaTvis axal ers krebdnen, - adgilobriv eklesias, romelic Tavis mRvdlebs mihyveba. eklesiebi, romlebic
maT Tavisi ofliT, metic: sisxliT daafuZnes, mondomebiTa da gamocdilebiT moemsaxurebian Zmuri TaamSromlobis safuZvelze, an sulTaTvis zrunviT, an saerTo keTildReobisaTvis gankuTvnili specialuri funqciis SesrulebiT.
zogjer isini Tavis Tavze aiReben regionisTvis yvelaze ufro gadaudebel samuSaos, magaliTad, im jgufebisa Tu erebis evangelizacias, romlebsac ama Tu im mizezis gamo evangeluri uwyeba jer ar miuRiaT an mas jer kidev ewinaaRmdegebian.73
saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi isini mzad unda iyvnen, Tavisi gamocdilebiT aRzardon da daexmaron maT, vinc misionerul moRvaweobas droebiT Tavs uZRvnis.
am mizezTa gamo, agreTve imitom, rom aqamde arsebobs mravali xalxebi,
romlebic qristesTan unda miviyvanoT, es institutebi sruliad aucilebelia.
Tavi V
misioneruli moRvaweobis
organizacia
28. qristes erTgulebs sxvadasxva niWebi aqvT (Sdr. rom. 12, 6). maT Tavisi
SesaZleblobis, saSualebis, qarizmisa da msaxurebis Sesabamisad (Sdr. 1kor.
3, 10) saxarebaSi unda iTanamSromlon. amitom yvelani, vinc Tesavs da vinc
imkis (Sdr. ioan. 4, 37), vinc rgavs da vinc rwyavs, erianni unda iyvnen (Sdr.
1kor. 3, 8), raTa nebayoflobiTA da wesisamebr erTi miznisken miiswrafvodnen74 da erTsulovnad iRvawon eklesiis mSeneblobisTvis.
72
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Fidei donum: AAS 49 (1957), p. 234.
73
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de Presbyterorum ministerio et vita, n. 10, sadac laparakia diocezebis, personaluri prelaturebisa da sxva amgvaris Sesaxeb.
74
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 18.

286

AD GENTES DIVINITUS

amitom saxarebis mqadageblebis Sroma da qristes sxva erTgulebis daxmareba ise unda warimarTos da gaerTiandes, rom misioneruli moRvaweobisa
da TanamSromlobis yvela sferoSi yovelive Sueniereba da wesierad iqmneboden.
29. mTels dedamiwaze saxarebis uwyebisaTvis zrunva, upirveles yovlisa, episkoposTa mTels korpuss ekisreba.75 amitom episkoposTaAsinodi anu
episkoposTa mudmivi sabWo sayovelTao eklesiisTvis,76 sazogadod mniSvnelovan saqmeebTan erTad,77 gansakuTrebul yuradRebas unda uTmobdes
misionerul moRvaweobas, romelic eklesiis udides da uwmides funqcias
warmoadgens.78
yvela misiisa da mTeli misioneruli moRvaweobisaTvis unda arsebobdes
mxolod erTi uflebamosili _ kerZod, sarwmunoebis propagandis dikasteriumi, romelmac mTels msoflioSi unda uxelmZRvanelos da koordinacia gauwios Tavad misionerul saqmes da misionerul TanamSromlobas, aRmosavluri eklesiebis uflebis dacviT.79
Tumca suli wmida mravalgvarad aRZravs misionerul suls RmrTis eklesiaSi da xSirad winaswar Wvrets maT moqmedebas, vinc eklesiis cxovreba unda marTos, mainc am dikasteriummac, Tavis mxriv, xeli unda Seuwyos
misionerul mowodebasa da sulierobas, swrafvas misioneruli moRvaweobisken da misTvis locvas, agreTve warmoadginos maT Sesaxeb WeSmariti da
adekvaturi cnobebi. man unda miavlinos da regionTa saWirboroto moTxovnilebebis Sesabamisad gaanawilos misionerebi. man unda SeimuSavos moqmedebis mwyobri gegma, gamosces saxelmZRvanelo normebi da evangelizaciasTan
Sexamebuli principebi; impulsebi misgan unda modiodes. man unda wamoiwyos
da Tavi mouyaros sxvadasxva saxis daxmarebas, romelic unda ganawildes
saWiroebisa da moxmarebis Sesabamisad, agreTve teritoriis sididis Tanaxmad, erTgulTa da araerTgulTa ricxvis mixedviT saqmeTa da instituciaTa
mixedviT, agreTve msaxurebisa da misionerebis Sesabamisad.
qristianTa erTianobis xelSewyobisTvis arsebul sekretariatTan erTad man unda moZebnos gzebi da saSualebebi, romlebic xels Seuwyobs da
moawesrigebs Zmur TanamSromlobas, agreTve keTil urTierTobas sxva qristianuli misiur wamowyebebTan, raTa SeZlebisdagvaradA Tavidan iqnas acilebuli ganyofis safrTxe.
amgvarad, aucilebelia, rom es dikasteriumi iyos rogorc administraciuli saSualeba, aseve dinamiuri marTvis organo, romelic sargeblobs
samecniero meTodebiTa da Tanamedrove viTarebisadmi misadagebuli saSualebebiT, iTvaliswinebs dRevandel Teologiur, meTodologiur da samRvdlo-misionerul kvlevebs.
am dikasteriumis marTvaSi aqtiur monawileoba, gadamwyveti xmis uflebiT, unda miiRon im warmomadgenlebma, romlebic arCeulni iqnebian yvela im
pirTa Soris, vinc misionerul saqmeSi TanamSromlobs: episkoposebi mTeli
msofliodan, saepiskoposo konferenciebis gaTvaliswinebiT, agreTve institutebisa da papis saqmeebis xelmZRvanelebi, romis pontifeqsis mier dadgenili meTodebiTa da kriteriumebis Tanaxmad. isini yvelani unda Seikri75
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 23.
76
Sdr. Motu proprio Apostolica Sollicitudo, 15 sept. 1965.
77
Sdr. PAULUS VI, allocutio die 21 nov. 1964 in Concilio habita: AAS 56 (1964).
78
Sdr. BENEDICTUS XV, encycl. Maximum illud: AAS 11 (1919), pp. 39-40.
79
Tu sxvadasxva mizezebis gamo zogierTi misia jer kidev droebiT emorCileba sxva
dikasteriumebs, amitom mizanSewonilia, rom am dikasteriumebs kavSiri hqondes propagandis wm. kongregaciasTan, raTa yvela misiis organizaciasa da marTvaSi SegveZlos davicvaT sruliad mudmivi da erTgvarovani meTodi.

287

vatikanis II kreba

bon dadgenil dros da uzenaesi pontifeqsis xelmZRvanelobiT aRasrulon


mTeli misioneruli saqmis umTavresi organizacia.
am dikasteriums mudam saTaveSi unda edgas gamocdil konsultantTa
jgufi, romelTa codna da gamocdileba udaoa. sxvaTa da sxvaTa Soris, maTi
movaleoba iqneba sxvadasxva lokalur regionSi garemoebebisa da adamianTa
ama Tu im jgufSi arsebuli Sexedulebebis, agreTve evangelizaciis meTodebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb cnobebis Segroveba. garda amisa, maT unda warmoadginon mecnierulad dasabuTebuli daskvnebi misioneruli saqmisa da TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb.
agreTve saTanadod unda iyos warmodgenili mowese qalTa institutebi,
regionaluri saqmeebi misiebisa da saero pirTa organizaciebi, upirveles
yovlisa, saerTaSoriso.
30. imisaTvis, raTa misionerul saqmeSi mizani da Sedegi miRweuli iyos,
yvelasTvis, vinc misioneruli moRvaweobis sferoSoi muSaobs, guli da goneba erT unda hqondes (saqme 4, 32).
episkoposis (igi aris reqtori da diocezur samociquloSi erTianobis
centri) saqmea, xeli Seuwyos, warmarTos da koordinacia gauwios misionerul moRvaweobas, ise, rom maTi uSualo wamowyebebi, vinc saqmeSi monawileobs, daculi iyos da viTardebodes. yvela misioneri, maT Soris moweseebi (exemptis), eqvemdebarebian mis Zalauflebas sxvadasxva saqmeebSi, romlebic wmida mociqulobis ganxorcielebas exeba.80 ukeTesi koordinaciisTvis, episkoposebma SeZlebisdagvarad unda daaweson samRvdlo sabWo, romelSic samRvdeloeba, moweseebi da saeroni rCeuli delegatebis meSveobiT
miiReben monawileobas. garda amisa, episkoposma yuradReba unda miaqcios
imas, rom samociqulo moRvaweoba ar amoiwuros mxolod moqceulebiT: TanamSromelTa da saSualebaTa aseTive odenoba araqristianTa evangelizaciisTvis unda iyos gankuTvnili.
31. saepiskoposo konferenciebis amocanas warmoadgens saerTo Tanxmobis safuZvelze umTavresi problemebisa da gansakuTrebiT aucilebeli
problemebis mimoxilva, da, amasTanave, adgilobrivi gansxvavebebis gaTvaliswinebac.81 imisaTvis, rom ar gaifantos adamianTa da saxsarTa arasakmarisi odenoba, raTa ar moxdes Tu es aucilebeli ar aris wamowyebaTa
ricxvis zrda, sasurvelia, erToblivi ZalebiT iseTi saqmeebis gakeTeba,
romlebic sayovelTao keTildReobas emsaxureba, rogoric aris, magaliTad, seminariebi, umaRlesi da teqnikuri skolebi, samRvdlo, katexeturi,
liturgiuli da agreTve socialuri urTierTobis saSualebebi.
aseTi saxis TanamSromloba saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi sxvadasxva saxis
saepiskoposo konferenciebs Sorisac unda Camoyalibdes.
32. sasrgebloa agreTve im moRvaweobis koordinacia, romelic saeklesio
institutebisa Tu asociaciebis mier sruldeba. isini yvela, rogori saxisac ar unda iyvnen, yvelaferSi, rac misionerul moRvaweobas exeba, unda
daeqvemdebaron adgilobriv ordinariuss. amitom didad sasargeblo iqneba
aqreTve calkeuli SeTanxmebebis ganxorcieleba, romelTa meSveobiT ganisazRvreba mimarTebebi adgilobriv ordinariussa da isntitutis xelmZRvanels Soris.
rodesac isntituts garkveuli teritoria aqvs mindobili, maSin saeklesio zedamxedvelsa (Superiori) da institutes survili eqnebaT, yvelaferi ise
80
81

288

Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de pastorali Episcoporum munere in Ecclesia, n. 35, 4.
Sdr. iqve, 36-38.

AD GENTES DIVINITUS

warmarTon, rom axali qristianuli sakrebulo adgilobriv eklesiad gadaizardos, romelsac saTanado dros warmarTavs misi mRvdeli Tavis samRvdeloebasTan erTad.
rodesac amoiwureba periodi, romlis ganmavlobaSic institutes mocemuli teritoria hqonda mindobili, axali viTareba Seiqmneba. aseT dros
episkoposTa konferenciebma da institutebma erToblivi SeTanxmebiT unda
daawesos normebi, romlebic awesrigeben kavSirebs adgilobriv ordinariusebsa da institutebs Soris.82 wmida saydris movaleoba iqneba zogadi principebis SemuSaveba, romelTa Sesabamisad regionaluri da agreTve kerZo
SeTanxmebebi ganxorcieldeba.
institutebi mzad iqnebian, gaagrZelon dawyebuli saqme da iTanamSromlon ordinariul msaxurebasTan (Ministerio) sulTaTvis zrunvis saqmeSi. da
mainc, adgilobrivi samRvdleoebis matebasTan erTad, saWiroa yuradRebis
miqceva imisaTvis, rom institutebi, ramdenadac es maT mizans Seefereba,
diocezis erTgulebi darCnen da Tavis Tavze aiRon gansakuTrebuli saqmeebisaTvis an romelime regionisTvis zrunva.
33. institutebma, romlebic erTsa da imave teritoriaze misioneruli
saqmeebiT arian dakavebulni, unda moZebnon gzebi da saSualebebi, romlebiTac Tavis Sromas warmarTaven. Aamitom gansakuTrebiT saWiroa mowese kacebis konferenciebi da mowese qalebis kavSirebi, romlebSic monawileobas
iRebs erTi da imave qveynisa Tu regionis yvela instituti. am konferenciebma unda gamoikvlion, Tu ra SeiZleba gakeTdes erToblivi ZalebiT. maTve
unda daamyaron mWidro urTierToba saepiskoposo konferenciebTan.
aA mave mizeziT yovelive es unda gavrceldes misioneruli institutebis
TanamSromlobaze maT mSobliur qveynebSi, raTa ufro advilad da naklebad
problemurad mogvardes saerTo sakiTxebi da wamowyebebi, rogoricaa momavli
misionerebis samoZRvro (Doctrinalis) momzadeba, agreTve kursebi misionerebisaTvis, kavSirebi sajaro xelisufalTan an saerTaSoriso organoebTan.
34. misioneruli moRvaweobis swori da gegmazomieri SesrulebisTvis
saWiroa, rom evangeluri muSakebi mecnierulad iyvnen momzadebulni Tavisi
funqciebisTvis, upirveles yovlisa, dialogisTvis qristianul religiebsa da kulturebTan. Aam funqciis Sesrulebisas maT qmediTi daxmareba unda
gaewios. Aamitom sasurvelia, rom misiaTa sasikeTod Zmurad da megobrulad
TanamSromlobdnen nebismieri institutebi, romlebic misiologiiT da sxva
misiebisTvis sasargeblo - disciplinebiT an xelovnebebiT arian dakavebulni. aseTia eTnologia da lingvistika, istoria da religiaTmcodneoba,
sociologia, samRvdlo xelovnebani da sxva amgvari.
Tavi VI
TanamSromloba
35. mTeli eklesia misionerulia da evangelizaciis saqme RmrTis eris
ZiriTadi movaleobaa. amitom wmida sinodi mouwodebs yvelas Sinagani Rrma
ganaxlebisken, raTa maT cocxlad gaacnobieron Tavisi pasuxismgebloba saxarebis gavrcelebis saqmeSi da misionerul moRvaweobaSi erTa winaSe Tavisi wili saqme ikisron.
36. rogorc qristes cocxali asoebi, romlebic misi sxeulis nawilebad
iqcnen naTlobiT, mironcxebiT da evqaristiiT, yvela erTguli misi sxeu82

Sdr. iqve, 35, 5-6.

289

vatikanis II kreba

lis gavrcelebisa da ganviTarebisaTvis unda TanamSromlobdes, raTa rac


SeiZleba swrafad miiyvanos is sisrulemde (efes. 4, 13).
eklesiis yvela Svilma cocxlad unda gaacnobieros Tavisi pasuxismgebloba samyaros winaSe, aRzardos Tavis TavSi WeSmaritad kaTolikuri suli
da Tavisi Zalebi moaxmaros evangelizaciis saqmes. amasTanave, yvelam unda
icodes, rom maTi pirveli da yvelaze mTavari amocana, romelic sarwmunoebis gavrcelebas emsaxureba, aris Rrmad qristianuli cxovrebiT cxovreba.
RmrTisadmi maTi mgznebare msaxureba da moyvasis siyvaruli mTels eklesias axal sunTqvas moutans, romelic warmoCndeba rogorc niSani, erTaTvis
aRmarTuli (Sdr. es. 11, 12), naTeli soflisa (maT. 5, 14) da marili queyanisa (maT. 5, 13). cxovrebis es mowmoba ufro advilad gamoiRebs Sedegs, Tu
is mocemuli iqneba sxva qristianul jgufebTan erTad, ekumenizmis Sesaxeb
dekretis Tanaxmad.83
am ganaxlebuli sulidan erTgulebi Tavisi nebiT, locviTa da monaniebis
saqmeebiT mivlen RmerTTan, raTa man misionerTa saqme Tavisi madliT nayofieri gaxados. garda amisa, aRmocendeba misioneruli mowodebebi da Semova
saxsrebi, romlebic misiebisTvis aris saWiro.
qristes erTgulebma yvelam erTad da TiToeulma calcalke zustad
unda icodnen eklesiis dRevandeli mdgomareoba samyaroSi da isminon mravalTa SeZaxili: Semewie Cuen (saqme 16, 9). amisTvis saWiroa, komunikaciis
Tanamedrove saSualebaTa gamoyenebiTac, iseTi misioneruli informaciis
mowodeba, rom maT gaiTavison misioneruli moRvaweoba da gulRia iyvnen
adamianTa Zalze didi da Rrma moTxovnilebebis mimarT da maTTvis daxmarebis gaweva SeZlon.
aucilebelia agreTve informaciis koordinacia da erovnul da saerTaSoriso organizaciebTan TanamSromloba.
37. RmrTis eri cxovrobs sakrebuloebSi, upirveles yovlisa, diocezursa da samrevloSi, da garkveulwilad maTi saxiT xdeba xiluli. amitom isinic unda mowmobdnen qristes xalxTa winaSe.
ganaxlebis madli sakrebuloebSi mxolod maSin gaizrdeba, Tu TiToeuli
maTgani Tavisi siyvarulis sazRvrebs mTels dedamiwaze ganhfens da iseve
izrunebs maTTvis, vinc misgan Sors aris, rogorc is maTTvis zrunavs, vinc
misi wevria.
ase loculobs mTeli sakrebulo, TanamSromlobs da xalxTa Soris moRvaweobs Tavisi Svilebis meSveobiT, romlebsac RmerTi am SesaniSnavi saqmisaTvis irCevs.
Zalze sasargeblo iqneba (Tu amasTanave ar ugulebelvyofT sayovelTao misionerul saqmes) kavSiris SenarCuneba im misionerebTan, romlebic
Tavad sakrebulodan arian gamosulni, an misiebis ama Tu im sakrebulosa Tu
diocezTan, raTa sakrebuloebs Soris kavSiri TvalnaTliv Candes da urTierTSenebas Seewyos xeli.
38. yvela episkoposi aris aso episkoposTa sxeulisa, romelic, Tavis
mxriv, mociqulTa kolegiis monacvlea. episkoposTa xeldasxma xdeba ara
ama Tu im diocezisTvis, aramed mTeli qveynis gamoxsnisaTvis. qristes mcneba, romelic yvela qmnilebisaTvis saxarebis qadagebas gulisxmobs (mark.
16, 15), upirveles yovlisa da uSualod maT exeba, petresTan erTad da petres meTaurobiT. amis safuZvelze Cndeba eklesiaTa is urTierToba da
TanamSromloba, romelic dRes ase aucilebelia evangelizaciis saqmis gagrZelebisTvis. am urTierTobis wyalobiT TiToeuli eklesia zrunavs yve83

290

Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de Oecumenismo, n. 12.

AD GENTES DIVINITUS

la danarCenisTvis, eklesiebi erTmaneTs Tavis problemebs umJRavneben da


erTmaneTs Tavis simdidres uziareben, radgan qristes sxeulis gavrceleba
episkoposTa mTeli kolegiis funqcia aris.84
Tavis diocezSi, romelTan erTadac is erT mTels warmoadgens, episkoposi xels uwyobs misionerul saqmes, ganaviTarebs mas da xelmZRvanelobs. is
RmrTis eris misionerul sulsa da gulmxurvalebas aqtualursa (praesentem)
da erTgvarad xiluls xdis, ise, rom mTeli diocezi misioneruli xdeba.
episkoposma Tavis erSi, gansakuTrebiT sxneulebsa da tanjulebSi, iseTi sulebi (animas) unda aRZras, romlebic locvebsa da monaniebis saqmeebs
RmerTs samyaros gamoxsnisaTvis Ria guliT miutanen. isini siamovnebiT
xels Seuwyoben axalgazrdebisa da samRvdelobis mowodebas misionerul
institutebSi, madlierni iqnebian, Tu RmerTi airCevs vinmes eklesiis misionerul saqmeSi monawileobisTvis, Sekreben diocezur kongregaciebs da
daexmarebian maT, raTa monawileoba miiRon misiebSi, xels Seuwyoben misionerul institutebs Tavis erTgulTa Soris, gansakuTrebiT misionerul
pontifeqsur saqmeebs. am saqmeebs samarTlianad ekuTvnis pirveloba. isini
saSualebas warmoadgens imisaTvis, rom kaTolikeebi bavSvobidan ganimsWvalon sayovelTao da misioneruli suliT, agreTve imisaTvis, rom moxdes
saSualebaTa efeqturi Tavmoyra yvela misiaTa sakeTildReod, TiToeuli
maTganis moTxovnilebaTa Sesabamisad.85
yoveldRiurad sul ufro metad saWironi xdebian uflis venaxis muSakebi, da diocezur mRvdelmsaxurebs surT, Tavadac aqtiuri monawileoba miiRon samyaros evangelizaciaSi. amitom wmida sinods imedi aqvs, rom
episkoposebi gaacnobiereben mRvdelmsaxurTa did naklebobas, romelic
didad xels uSlis mravali regionis evangelizacias da saTanado momzadebis Semdeg miavlenen zogierT Tavis saukeTeso mRvdelmsaxurs, romlebic
Tavs misionerul saqmes uZRvnian, im diocezebSi, sadac samRvdeloebis naklebobaa, raTa maT Tundac droebiT msaxurebis (servitii) suliT aRasrulon
misioneruli msaxureba (ministerium).86
imisaTvis, rom episkoposTa misioneruli moRvaweoba mTeli eklesiis
sakeTildReod ukeTesad ganxorcieldes, mizanSewonilia, rom saepiskoposo konferenciebma moawesrigon saqmeebi, romlebic sakuTari regionis gegmazomier TanamSromlobas gulisxmobs.
Tavis konferenciebze episkoposebma unda ganixilon diocezuri samRvdeloebis im mRvdelmsaxurTa sakiTxebi, vinc Tavs xalxTa evangelizacias
uZRvnis. maT unda imsjelon gansazRvruli Tanxis Sesaxeb, romelic TiToeulma Tavisi Semosavlis Sesabamisad yovelwliurad unda Seitans misioneruli saqmisTvis,87 agreTve imaze, Tu ra gzebiTa da meTodebiT moxdes im saSualebebis warmarTva da organizacia, romlebic uSualod misiaTa dasaxmareblad aris mimarTuli. maT unda gansazRvron, rogor daexmaron diocezuri samRvdeloebis misionerul instituciebsa da seminariebs, da saWiroebis
SemTxvevaSi, maTi daarsebis Sesaxeb. maT unda imsjelon am institutebsa da
diocezebs Soris ufro mWidro urTierTobebis ganviTarebis Sesaxebac.
saepiskoposo konferenciebma safuZveli unda Cauyaron da xeli Seuwyon
saqmeebs, romelTa meSveobiTac Zmurad miiReben da samRvdlo mzrunvelobiT daexmarebian maT, vinc muSaobisa da swavlis gamo misioneruli qveynidan emigrirebs. maTi wyalobiT xom erTmaneTisgan dacilebuli adamianebi
84
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 23-24.
85
Sdr. BENEDICTUS XV, encycl. Maximum illud: AAS 11 (1919), pp. 453-454. PIUS XI, encycl.
Rerum Ecclesiae: AAS 18 (1926), pp. 71-73. PIUS XII, encycl. Evangelii praecones: AAS 43 (1951), pp. 525526. ID., encycl. Fidei donum: AAS 49 (197), p. 241.
86
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. fidei donum: AAS 49 (1957), pp. 245-246.
87
CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de Pastorali Episcoporum munere, n. 6.

291

vatikanis II kreba

garkveulwilad erTmaneTis axloblebi xdebian, xolo uZvelesi droidan


arsebul qristianul sakrebuloebs SesaniSnavi saSualeba eZleva dialogSi Sevidnen erebTan, romlebsac saxareba jer ar miuRiaT, da maT sakuTari
siyvarulis msaxurebiTa da daxmarebiT qristes WeSmariti saxe aCvenon.88
39. mRvdlebi ganasaxarieben qristes da saepiskoposo xarisxis TanamSromlebi arian mis sammag wmida msaxurebaSi, romelic Tavisi bunebiT eklesiis misias ganekuTvneba.89 amitom maT Rrmad unda gaacnobieron, rom maTi cxovreba
misiaTa msaxurebasac (servitium) aris miZRvnili. Tavisi sakuTari msaxurebiT
(ministerium) rac, upirveles yovlisa, evqaristiaSi mdgomareobs, romelic eklesias srulyofs isini urTierToben qristesTan meTavesTan da sxvebic
am urTierTobasTan mihyavT. SeuZlebelia, isini ar grZnobdnen, ramdeni aklia
sxeulis sisrules da amis gamo ramdenia kidev gasakeTebeli, rom is dRiTi dRe
gaizardos. amitom Tavisi samRvdlo mzrunveloba maT ise unda warmarTon, rom
man xeli Seuwyos araqristianTa Soris saxarebis gavrcelebas.
samRvdlo mzrunvelobaSi mRvdlebi erTgulTa Soris aRZraven da daicaven miswrafebas samyaros evangelizaciisken. katexizmosa da qadagebis
gziT isini daarigeben maT eklesiis funqciis ASesaxeb, romelic xalxTaTvis
qristes uwyebaSi mdgomarebs. maT unda aswavlon qristianul ojaxebs Tavis SvilebSi misioneruli mowodebebis aRzrdis aucileblobisa da pativis
Sesaxeb. kaTolikuri skolebisa da asociaciebis axalgazrdaTa Soris unda
ganviTardes misioneruli suliskveTeba, ise, rom maTgan saxarebis momavali
mqadageblebi miviRoT. dae, ergulebma iswavlon misiebisTvis locva da ar
SercxveT maT Sesawiravi sTxovon: isini xom erTgvarad maTxovarni xdebian
qristesa da sulTa gamoxsnisaTvis.
seminariebisa da universitetebis maswavleblebi studentebs samyarosa
da eklesiis WeSmarit mdgomareobas auxsnian, raTa araqristianTa evangelizaciis mzardi aucilebloba maTTvis naTeli gaxdes da maTi miswrafeba
asazrdoos. dogmaturi, bibliuri, zneobrivi da istoriuli disciplinebis
gadmocemisas maT Suqi unda mohfinon maTSi mocemul misionerul Sinaarss,
da ase Camoayalibon misioneruli cnobiereba momaval mRvdelmsaxurebSi.
40. rogorc mWvretelobiTi, aseve qmediTi cxovrebis moweseTaA institutebi dRemde udides monawileobas iRebdnen da iReben samyaros evangelizaciaSi. wmida sinodi sixaruliT aRiarebs maT damsaxurebas da RmerTs madlobas eubneba amdeni msxverplisTvis, romlebic RmrTis didebisa da sulTa msaxurebisTvis iqna motanili, da maT mouwodebs, ganuxrelad ganagrZon
dawyebuli saqme, radgan maT ician siyvarulis Zala, romelic Tavisi mowodebis Sesabamisad sul ufro metad unda srulyon da romelic maT WeSmaritad kaTolikuri sulisken ubiZgebs da aseT cxovrebas avaldebulebs.90
mWvretelobiTi cxovrebis institutebi Tavisi locvebiT, monaniebis
saqmeebiTa da gancdili gaWirvebiT Zalze mniSvnelovani aris sulTa moqcevis saqmeSi, radgan es Tavad RmerTi is, vinc sapasuxod mialens muSakebs
Tavis samkalSi (Sdr. maT. 9, 38), ganaRebs araqristianTa sulebs saxarebis
mosasmenad (Sdr. saqme 16, 14) da maT gulebSi asazrdoebs gamoxsnis sityvas
(Sdr. 1kor. 3, 7). metic: am institutebs sTxoven, saxlebi daafuZnon misiebis
adgilas, rac mravalma ukve gaakeTa kidec, raTa iq adgilobrivi xalxis tradiciis Sesabamisad icxovron da RmrTis didebisa da siyvarulis, agreTve
qristeSi erTobis mowmeni iyvnen araqristianTa Soris.
88
89
90

292

Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Fidei donum: AAS 49 (1957), p. 245.


Sdr. CONC. VAT. II; Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 28.
Sdr. CONC: VAT. II; Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 44.

AD GENTES DIVINITUS

xolo qmediTi cxovrebis institutebi, imisda miuxedavad, isaxaven isini


miznad mkacrad misionerul mizans Tu ara, gulrwfeli guliT ekiTxebian
RmerTs: SeuZliaT Tu ara maT gaSalon Tavisi moRvaweoba RmrTis sasufevlis
gasavrceleblad xalxTa Soris? SeuZliaT Tu ara sxvebs gadaabaron zogierTi Tavisi msaxureba, raTa sakuTari Zalebi misiebs moaxmaron? SeuZliaT Tu
ara daiwyon Tavisi moRvaweoba misiebSi da, aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi, Tavis konstituciebSi cvlilebebi Seitanon, magram ise, rom es maTi damfuZneblis principebs Seesabamebodes? SeuZliaT Tu ara maT wevrebs SesaZleblobis farglebSi monawileoba miiRon misionerul moRvaweobaSi? aris Tu ara
maTi Cveuli cxovrebis wesi saxarebis mowmoba, romelic eris Taviseburebasa da mdgomareobas upasuxebs?
suli wmidis STagonebiT eklesiaSi yoveldRiurad matulobs saero (saecualaria) institutebis ricxvi. amitom maTi saqmeebi, episkoposis uflebamosilebiT ganxoriclebuli, SeiZleba nayofieri iyos misiebSi, rogorc samyaros evangelizaciisadmi sruli miZRvnis niSani.
41. saeroni evangelizaciis saqmeSi eklesiasTan TanamSromloben. isini
monawileoben masSi rogorc mowmeni da rogorc cocxali iaraRebi mis gamomxsnel misiaSi,91 gansakuTrebiT Tu RmrTisagan arian mowodebulni da am
saqmisTvis maT episkoposebi mouwodeben.
qveynebSi, romlebic ukve qristianulni arian, saeroni TanamSromloben
evangelizaciis saqmeSi, xels uwyoben Tavis TavSi da sxvebSi misiebis codnasa da siyvaruls, aRZraven mowodebebs Tavis ojaxebSi, kaTolikur asociaciebsa da skolebSi, da sTavazoben nebismieri saxis daxmarebas, raTa sarwmunoebis niWi, romelic saCuqrad miiRes, sxvebsac gadaeces.
misiaTa qveynebSi saero pirni, rogorc mosulni, aseve adgilobrivni,
skolebSi unda aswavlidnen, warmaval saqmeebs xelmZRvanelobdnen, sakrebulos da diocezur saqmianobaSi TanamSromlobdnen, saeroTa mociqulobis sxvadasxva formebs awesebdnen da ganaviTarebdnen, raTa axal eklesiaTa
erTgulebma rac SeiZleba swrafad SeZlon Tavadac monawileoba miiRon eklesiis cxovrebaSi.92
saero pirebma siamovnebiT unda gauwion ekonomikur-socialur TanamSromloba erebs, romlebic evoluciis gzaze imyofebian. es TanamSromloba
miT ufro metad aris qebis Rirsi, rac ufro metad exeba isini institutebis daarsebas, romlebic socialuri cxovrebis fundamentur struqturebs
moicavs, an gamiznulia maT mosamzadeblad, visac saxelmwifoSi pasuxismgebloba akisria.
sagangebo qebis Rirsni is saero pirebi arian, vinc universitetebsa Tu
samecniero institutebSi Tavisi istoriuli Tu samecniero-religiuri kvlevebiT xels uwyobs erTa da religiaTa Sesaxeb codnis gamdidrebas, exmareba saxarebis mqadageblebsa da amzadebs dialogs ara-qristianebTan.
dae, maT Zmurad iTanamSrmlon qristianebTan da ara-qristianebTan, gansakuTrebiT saerTaSoriso asociaiaTa wevrebTan, da mudam iTvaliswinebdnen imas, rom miwieri qalaqis mSenebloba mudam ufals efuZnebodes da
misken miemarTebodes.93
imisaTvis, rom es yvela movaleoba asruldes, saeroni unda moemzadon
teqnikurad da sulierad, rac unda moxdes am miznisaTvis Seqmnil institutebSi, raTa maTi cxovreba iyos mowmoba ara-qristianTa Soris qriste91
Sdr. iqve, 33, 35.
92
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Evangelii praecones: AAS 43 (1951), pp. 510-514. IOANNES XXIII,
encycl. Princeps Pastorum: AAS 51 (1959), pp. 851-852.
93
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 46.

293

vatikanis II kreba

sTvis, Tanaxmad uflis sityvisa: daubrkolebel iyveniT huriaTa mimarT


da warmarTTa da eklesiaTa RmrTisaTa, viTarca me yovelTave yovelTa saTno-veyofvi, rameTu ara veZieb Tavisa Cemisa umjobssa, aramed mravalTasa,
raTa cxonden (1kor. 10, 32-33).
daskvna
eklesiis mamebi, romis pontifeqsTan erTad, Rrmad grZnoben movaleobas,
romelic uflis sasufevlis yvelgan gavrcelebas gulisxmobs. amitom isini siyvaruliT esalmebian saxarebis yvela mqadagebels, upirveles yovlisa
maT, vinc qristesTvis devnas ganicdis, da maT vnebebs iziareben.94
isini imave siyvaruliT arian aRgznebulni, romliTac qriste iyo adamianTa mimarT anTebuli. maT gacnobierebuli aqvT, rom es RmerTma qmna, rom
misi sasufeveli miwaze modis, da sxva qristes erTgulebTan erTad locvebs
aRavlenen, raTa qalwuli mariamis, mociqulTa dedoflis SuamdgomlobiT,
xalxebi rac SeiZleba swrafad mividnen WeSmaritebis codnamde (1tim. 2, 4),
da RmrTis dideba, romelic brwyinavs ieso qristes saxeze, suli wmidis meSveobiT yvelasTvis ganaTdes (2kor. 4, 6).
yovelive erTad da cal-calke, rac am dekretSi gamocxadda,
wmida krebis mamebma moiwones. da Cvenc, im samociqulo uflebamosilebiT, romelic qristesgan gadmogveca, amas pativdebul mamebTan erTad suli wmidaSi veTanxmebiT, vadgenT da
vawesebT, da vbrZanebT, rom is, rac krebaze dadginda, gamoqveyndes sadideblad RmrTisa.

romi, wm. petresTan, 1965 wlis 7 dekemberi


me, pavle, kaTolike eklesiis episkoposi
(mohyveba mamaTa xelmowerebi)

94
Sdr. PIUS XII, encycl. Evangelii praecones: AAS 43 (1951), p. 527. IOANNES XXIII, enycl.
Princeps pastorum: AAS 51 (1959), p. 864.

294

dekreti
mRvdelTa msaxurebisa da cxovrebis
Sesaxeb
PRESBYTERORUM ORDINIS

pavle episkoposi,
RmrTis msaxurTa msaxuri,
wmida krebis mamebTan erTad,
samudamo saxsovrad

dekreti mRvdelTa
msaxurebisa da cxovrebis
Sesaxeb
Sesavali
1. mocemulma wmida krebam ukve mravaljer Segvaxsena im udidesi Rirebulebis Sesaxeb, romelic eklesiaSi mRvdelTa xarisxs aqvs.1 am xarisxs qristes
eklesiis ganaxlebaSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs da urTulesi roli
akisria. amitom Zalze sasargeblod migvaCnia, ufro dawvrilebiT da Rrmad
vimsjeloT mRvdelTa Sesaxeb. rac aq iTqmis, yvela mRvdels exeba, gansakuTrebiT ki maT, vinc sulTaTvis zrunvas emsaxureba. rac Seexeba mowese mRvdlebs, maTTan dakavSirebiT saTanado modifikaciebi aris saWiro. episkoposebisgan miRebuli xeldasxmiTa da misiiT mRvdelni emsaxurebian qristes
moZRvars, mRvdelmsaxursa da mefes, monawileoben mis msaxurebaSi, romlis
saSualebiT eklesia amqveynad ganuwyvetliv Sendeba rogorc RmrTis eri,
qristes sxeuli da suli wmidis taZari. imisaTvis, raTa arsebul samRvdlo
da adamianur garemoSi (xSir SemTxvevaSi Zalze saxecvlilSi) ufro advili
iyos maTi msaxurebisTvis xelSewyoba da maTi cxovrebis mowyoba, mocemuli
wmida sinodi acxadebs da adgens Semdegs.
Tavi I
mRvdloba eklesiis misiaSi
2. ufali ieso, romeli-igi mamam wmida-yo da moavlina soflad (ioan. 10,
36), mTels Tavis mistikur sxeuls sulis im cxebis moziared xdis, romliTac
Tavad aris cxebuli.2 masSi yvela erTguli asrulebs wmida da sameufo mRvdlobas (sacerdotium). ieso qristes meSveobiT maT sulieri msxverpli miaqvT
RmerTTan da naTels hfenen imis saTnoebebs, vinc maT wyvdiadidan Tavis
gansacvifrebel naTelSi mouwoda.3 amgvarad, yvela aso monawileobs mTeli sxeulis misiaSi: yvelam unda wmida yos ieso Tavis gulSi4 da mis Sesaxeb
winaswarmetyveluri suliT mowmobdes.5
imisaTvis, raTa erTgulebi erT sxeulad gaerTiandnen, romelSic asoebsa
mas yovelsa ara igive saqme aqus (rom. 12, 4), Tavad ufalma daayena msaxurebi,
romlebsac erTgulTa sakrebuloSi xeldasxmis wmida ZaliT SeeZlebaT msxverplis mitana da codvebis miteveba,6 agreTve adamianebisTvis qristes saxeliT
samRvdelmsaxuro movaleobis sajarod Sesruleba. amgvarad, qristem moavlina
1
CONC. VAT. II, Const. de Sacra Liturgia. Const. dogm. de Ecclesia. Decr. de pastorali Epsicoporum munere in Ecclesia. Decr. de institutione sacerdotali.
2
Sdr. maT. 3, 16; luk. 4, 18; saqme 4, 27; 10, 38.
3
Sdr. 1petre 2, 5 da 9.
4
Sdr. 1petre 3, 15.
5
Sdr. gamocx. 19, 10. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 35.
6
CONC. TRID., Sess. 23, cap. 1 et can. 1: DENZ. 957 et 961 (1764 et 1771).

297

vatikanis II kreba

mociqulebi, rogorc Tavad iyo movlenili mamis mier.7 Tavisi xeldasxmisa da


misiis monawileebad qristem mociqulTa memkvidreebi, episkoposebi daayena,8
romelTa msaxurebis funqcia subordinaciuli wesiT mRvdlebs (Presbyteris) gadaeca,9 raTa maT, mRvdlobis xarisxSi damtkicebulebma (constituti), samociqulo
misiis saTanadod Sesrulebisas saepiskoposo xarisxTan iTanamSromlon.10
mRvdelTa funqcia episkoposTa xarisxTan aris dakavSirebuli. is im Zalauflebis monawilea, romliTac Tavad qriste Tavis sxeuls agebs, wmida yofs da
marTavs. mRvdelTa msaxureba (sacerdotium r
P esbyterorum), romelic qristianuli xeldasxmis (initiationis) saidumloebs gulisxmobs, im saidumloTi
gadaicema, romliTac mRvdlebi, suli wmidis cxebiT, gansakuTrebuli niSniT
aRibeWdebian da imdenad emsgavsebian qriste-mRvdelmsaxurs, rom Zala SeswevT meTavis qristes piriT imoqmedon.11
mRvdlebi mociqulTa funqcias iziareben. maT RmerTma madliT daakisra,
iyvnen ieso qristes msaxurni xalxSi da aRasrulon saxarebis wmida movaleoba, raTa xalxis Semosawiruleba (oblatio) miRebul iqnas da suli wmidaSi ganiwmidos.12 mociqulTa mier saxarebis uwyeba mouwodebs da krebs RmrTis ers, raTa
yvelam, vinc am xalxs ekuTvnis, suli wmidiT ganwmendilma, miitanos sakuTari
Tavi msxverplad cxovelad, wmidad, saTnod RmrTisa (rom. 12, 1). mRvdelTa
msaxurebis meSveobiT erTgulTa es sulieri msxverpli sruldeba qristes
erTaderTi Suamavlis - msxverplTan erTobaSi. misi mitana xdeba mRvdelTa
xeliT, mTeli eklesiis saxeliT, usisxlod da saidumlod (sacramentaliter), vidre
mova Tavad ufali.13 amisken miiswrafvis mRvdelTa msaxureba da aq sruldeba
is. xolo maTi msaxureba, romelic saxarebiseuli uwyebiT iwyeba, Tavis Zalasa da mniSvnelobas qristes msxverplSi iZens. is imisken aris mimarTuli, rom
didma mRvdelmsaxurma RmerTs sayovelTao msxverplad miutanos mTeli gamosyiduli qalaqi, anu wmidaTa sazogadoeba da erToba. am mRvdelmsaxurma xom
vnebiT Tavi msxverplad Seswira CvenTvis, raTa Cven aseTi mniSvnelovani Tavis
sxeulad SeviqmneT.14
maSasadame, mizani, romliskenac mRvdelni Tavisi msaxurebiTa da cxovrebiT miiswrafvian, aris qristeSi mama-RmerTis didebis ganxorcieleba. es
imas niSnavs, rom adamianebma Segnebulad, Tavisuflad da madlierebiT miiRon qristeSi aRsrulebuli RmrTis saqme da is mTeli Tavisi cxovrebiT gamoxaton. mRvdlebi xels uwyoben RmrTis didebis zrdasa da saRmrTo cxovrebaSi adamianTa winsvlas, iqneba es locviTa Tu TayvaniscemiT, sityvis
qadagebiTa Tu evqaristuli msxverplis SewirviT an danarCen saidumloTa
ganwesebiTa da adamianebisTvis sxva msaxurebaTa aRsrulebiT. yovelive es
qristes paseqidan momdinareobs da uflis didebiT mosvlaSi dasruldeba,
rodesac igi mefobas RmerTsa da mamas gadascems.15
3. mRvdlebs adamianTagan irCeven da adamianebisTvis niSnaven, saRmrTo saqmeTa aRsrulebis mizniT, raTa ZRveni da msxverpli miitanon codvebisaTvis.16
7
Sdr. ioan. 20, 21. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 18.
8
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 28.
9
Sdr. iqve.
10
Sdr. Pont. Rom., De Ordinatione Presbyteri, Praefatio. es sityvebi gvxvdeba agreTve
teqstSi Sacramentario veronensi (MOHLBERG, Romae 1956, p. 122); ix. agreTve Missali Francorum
(MOHLBERG, Romae 1957, p. 9), Libro Sacramentorum Romanae Ecclesiae (MOHLBERG, Romae 1960, p.
25); Pontificali Romano-Germanico (Vogel-Eltze, Citt del Vaticano 1963, vol. I, p. 34).
11
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 10.
12
Sdr. rom. 15, 16.
13
Sdr. 1kor. 11, 26.
14
S. AUGUSTINUS, De civitate Dei, 10, 6: PL 41, 284.
15
Sdr. 1 kor. 15, 24.
16
Sdr. ebr. 5, 1.

298

PRESBYTERORUM ORDINIS

mRvdlebi sxva adamianebTan erTad, rogorc ZmebTan, cxovroben. ufali iesoc,


Ze RmrTisa, mamam adamianebTan adamianad moavlina. man Cvens Soris icxovra da
ineba, yvelaferSi, garda codvisa, ZmaTa msgavsi yofiliyo,.17 mas ukve mibaZes
wmida mociqulebma: netari pavle, xalxTa moZRvari (Doctor gentium), rCeuli
saxarebasa mas RmrTisasa, Tavadac mowmobs: yovelTa veqmen yovlad, raTa
yovelni vacxovnne.18 axali aRTqmis mRvdlebi, Tavisi mowodebiTa da xeldasxmiT erTgvarad RmrTis eris wiaRidan SeirCevian, oRond ara imisTvis, rom mas
an nebismier adamians gaemijnon, aramed imisTvis, rom srulad miuZRvnan Tavi
saqmes, romlisTvisac maT ufalma mouwoda.19 isini ver SeZlebdnen qristes msaxurebas, rom ar yofiliyvnen sxva aramiwieri cxovrebis mowmeni da ganmgebelni (dispensatores). isini verc adamianebs moemsaxurebodnen, maTi cxovrebisa
da garemoebebis mimarT gaucxovebulni rom yofiliyvnen.20 Tavad maTi msaxureba sagangebod moiTxovs maTgan, amqveyniurobas ar miemsgavson.21 amave dros,
is moiTxovs, rom maT amqveynad icxovron adamianTa Soris, da rogorc keTili
mwyemsebi, Tavis cxvrebs icnobdnen. isini unda Seecadon, is cxvrebic moiyvanon, romlebic am samwysosi ar arian, raTa maTac qristes xma isminon da iyvnen
erT samwyso da erT mwyems.22 am miznis miRwevas Zalze Seuwyobs xels is Rirebulebebi, romlebsac adamianTa sazogadoeba didad afasebs. aseTebia sikeTe,
gulrwfeloba, sulis simtkice da simdgrade, riskenac mogviwodebs mociquli pavle, romelic ambobs: raodeni ars WeSmarit, raodeni patiosan, raodeni
marTal, raodeni wmida, raodeni sayuarel, raodeni saqebel, raodeni saTno da
raodeni qebul, mas zraxevdiT (fil. 4, 8).23

17
Sdr. ebr. 2, 17; 4, 15.
18
Sdr. 1kor. 9, 22.
19
Sdr. saqme 13, 2.
20
es mcdeloba, mimarTuli religiuri da zneobrivi srulyofisaken, sul ufro
metad aris ganpirobebuli im garegani viTarebiTac, romelSic eklesia cxovrobs. is ver
darCeba ucvleli da gulgrili adamianTa im mdgomareobis mimarT, romelic mas gars
axvevia, aTasgvar gavlenas axdens mis moRvaweobaze da mas garkveul wessa da garemoebebs
uqvemdebarebs. cxadia, eklesia ar aris gamijnuli adamianTa sazogadoebisgan. piriqiT,
is mis wiaRSi arsebobs. maSasadame, eklesiis Svilebi sazogadoebis gavlenas ganicdian,
mis kulturas iTviseben, kanonebs emorCilebian da mis zne-Cveulebebs iziareben. eklesiis es mWidro kavSiri adamianur sazogadoebasTan ganuwyvetliv badebs rTul kiTxvebs,
romlebic dRes gansakuTrebiT saWirboroto aris...(...) warmarTTa (xalxTa) mociquli ase
mouwodebs Tavisi drois qristianebs: nu iqmnebiT Tana-meuRle urwmunoTa, rameTu ra
moyuseba ars simarTlisa da uSjuloebisa? anu ra ziareba ars naTlisa da bnelisa? ... anu
ra nawil uc morwmunesa urwmunosa Tana? (2 kor. 6, 14-15). amitom vinc axla eklesiaSi aRmzrdelTa da damrigebelTa rols asrulebs, maT unda Seaxsenon kaTolike axalgazrdobas
misi gansakuTrebuli mdgomareobisa da aqedan gamomdinare movaleobis Sesaxeb, rac imas
niSnavs, rom unda vicxovroT am samyaroSi, magram ara amqveyniurad, Tanaxmad uflisa, romelmac uTxra Tavis mowafeebs: ara vity, raTa aRixune igini soflisagan, aramed raTa
daicvne igini borotisagan. soflisaganni ara arian, viTarca me ara soflisagani var.
(ioan. 17, 15-16). es survili eklesiamac gaiTavisa. miuxedavad amisa, amgvari gansxvaveba ar
niSnavs gamijnvas. es ar aris gulgrloba, SiSi an ugulebelyofa. da Tumca eklesia sakuTar Tavs adamianTa modgmisgan ganasxvavebs, is mas ki ar upirispirdeba, aramed piriqiT, mas
ukavSirdeba. (PAULUS VI, encycl. Ecclesiam suam, 6 aug. 1964: AAS 56 (1964), pp. 627 et 638.
21
Sdr. rom. 12, 2.
22
ioan. 10, 14-16.
23
Sdr. S. POLYCARPUS, Epist. ad Philippenses, VI, 1: da mRvdlebmac unda icodnen TanagrZnoba, isini unda iyvnen gulmowyaleni yvelas mimarT. maT unda moabrunon Secdenilni,
moinaxulon yvela sneuli, uyuradRebod ar datovon qvrivi, bavSvi Tu Rataki. isini mudam
unda zrunavdnen sikeTisaTvis RmrTisa da adamianTa winaSe, ganudgnen yovelgvar risxvas,
pirovnul mikerZoebas, usamarTlo gansjas. isini Sors unda iyvnen yovelgvari sixarbisagan, ar irwmunon swrafad sxvisi danaSauli da ar gansajon metismetad mkacrad. maT unda
icodnen, rom Cven yvelani codvis movaleni varT. (FUNK I, 303).

299

vatikanis II kreba

Tavi II
mRvdelTa msaxureba

I. mRvdelTa funqciebi
4. RmrTis eri, upirveles yovlisa, cxoveli RmrTis sityviT ikribeba,24
romelsac mRvdlelTa bageTagan moveliT.25 xolo radgan veravin iqneba gamoxsnili sanam ar irwmunebs,26 mRvdlebis, rogorc episkoposTa TanamSromlebis, pirveli movaleoba aris RmrTis saxarebis yvelasTavis xareba.27 ase
unda aRasrulon maT uflis mcneba: warvediT yovelsa sofelsa da uqadageT saxareba ese yovelsa dabadebulsa (mark. 16, 15),28 Seqmnan da gazardon
RmrTis eri. gamomxsneli sityva xom sarwmunoebas urwmunoTa gulSi aRviZebs, xolo morwmuneTa gulSi mas asazrdoebs. sarwmunoebiT iwyeba da izrdeba erTgulTa sakrebulo, Tanaxmad mociqulisa: sarwmunoeba smenisagan
aris, xolo smena qristes sityviT (Sdr. rom. 10, 17). amgvarad, mRvdlebi
yvelas winaSe arian valdebulni: maT yvelas unda auwyon saxarebis WeSmariteba,29 romliTac Tavad isini uflis mier (in Domino) xaroben. rasac ar unda
akeTebdnen mRvdlebi: eweodnen qvel cxovrebas warmarTTa Soris, raTa miiyvanon isini RmrTis sadideblad,30 Riad iqadagon da urwmunoebs auwyon
qristes saidumloeba, gadmoscen qristianuli swavleba (catechesim) an ganmarton eklesiis moZRvreba, ecadon, qristes Suqze ganixilon Tanamedrove
problemebi, - nebismier SemTxvevaSi maT sakuTari sibrZne ki ar unda aswavlon, aramed RmrTis sityva, da yvelas mouwodon moqcevisa da siwmidisaken.31
samRvdelmsaxuro qadagebam (dRevandel viTarebaSi misi ganxorcieleba xSirad Zalze rTuldeba) msmenelTa gonebaze ukeTesad rom imoqmedos, RmrTis
sityva ara marto zogadad da abstraqtulad unda gamoixatos, aramed saxarebis maradiuli WeSmariteba cxovrebis konkretul viTarebebs unda miesadagos.
sityvis msaxureba mravalgvarad xorcieldeba, msmenelTa moTxovnilebaTa Taviseburebisa da mqadagebelTa qarizmaTa Sesabamisad. araqristianul
regionebsa Tu garemoSi evangeluri uwyeba adamianebs gamoxsnis saidumloe-

24
Sdr. 1 petre 1, 23; saqme 6, 7; 12, 24. mociqulebma iqadages WeSmaritebis sityva da
warmoSves eklesiebi (S. AUGUSTINUS, In Ps., 44, 23: PL 36, 508).
25
Sdr. mal. 2,7; 1 tim. 4, 11-13; 2 tim. 4, 5; tit. 1, 9.
26
Sdr. mark. 16, 16.
27
Sdr. 2 kor. 11, 7. mRvdlebi episkoposTa TanamSromlebi arian da maT mimarT ZalaSia isic, rac episkoposTa Sesaxeb iTqmis. Sdr. Statuta Ecclesiae Antiqua, c. 3, (CH. MUNIER, Paris
1960, p. 79). Decretum Gratiani, C. 6, D. 88 (FRIEDBERG, I, 307). CONC. TRID., Decr. de reform., Sess.
5, c. 2, n. 9 (Conc. Oec. Decreta, ed. Herder, Romae 1963, p. 645); Sess. 24, c. 4 (p. 739). Conc. Vat. II, Const.
dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 25.
28
Sdr. Constitutiones Apostolorum, II, 26, 7: dae, (mRvdlebi) iyvnen saRmrTo mecnierebis
maswavleblebi, rogorc es Tavad ufalma dagvavala: wadiT, aswavleT, da a.S. (FUNK, Didascalia et Constitutiones Apostolorum, I, Padeborn 1905, p. 105). Sacramentarium Leonianum da sxva sakramentariumebi vidre Pontificale Romanum, mRvelTa xeldasxmis Sesavali: am winagangebiT,
ufalo, Sen daudgine Seni Svilis mociqulebs Tanamgzavrebad sarwmunoebis moZRvarni,
romlebiTac maT, rogorc meore mqadageblebiT (an: qadagebebiT), mTeli msoflio aavses.
Liber Ordinum Liturgiae Mozarabicae, Sesavali mRvdelTa xeldasxmisaTvis: dae, xalxTa maswavlebelma da damorCilebulTa mmarTvelma wesisamebr Seinaxos kaTolikuri sarwmunoeba, da WeSmariti gamoxsna yvelas auwyos (M. FROTIN, Paris 1904, col. 55).
29
Sdr. gal. 2, 5.
30
Sdr. I petr. 2, 12.
31
Sdr. mRvdlis xeldasxmis wesi iakobitebis aleqsandriul eklesiaSi: ...Semoikribe Seni eri moZRvrebis sityvasTan, rogorc dedam, romelic Tavis bavSvebs kvebavs (H.
DENZIGER, Ritus Orientalium, II, Wrzburg 1863, p. 14).

300

PRESBYTERORUM ORDINIS

biskan miuZRveba.32 Tavad qristianul sakrebuloSi, gansakuTrebiT maTTvis,


visac SeiZleba arasakmarisad swamdes an esmodes is, rasac praqtikulad ganaxorcielebs, sityvis qadageba saWiroa Tavad saidumloTa msaxurebisTvis,
radgan swored isini warmoadgenen sarwmunoebis saidumloebs, romlebic
sityvisgan ibadeba da misgan sazrdoobs.33 es gansakuTrebiT sworia sityvis
liturgiisTvis wirvis aRsrulebisas (celebratione), sadac ganuyoflad erTiandeba uflis sikvdilisa da aRdgomis uwyeba, pasuxi erisa, romelic ismens
da Tavad msxverpli (oblatio), romliTac qristem Tavis sisxlSi axali aRTqma
daamtkica. am msxverpls (oblationi) erTgulebi aRTqmebiTa (votis) da saidumlos miRebiT ukavSirdebian.34
5. RmerTma, romelic erTaderTi wmidani da wmidamyofeli aris, ineba, adamianebi Tavis TanamSromleblad da TanaSemweebad mieRo, raTa isini morCilad
emsaxuron wmidayofis saqmes. amgvarad, mRvdlebis xeldasxma xdeba RmrTis
mier, episkoposis meSveobiT, raTa isini qristes mRvdelmsaxurebis sagangebo
monawileni gaxdnen da saRmrTo samsaxuri aRasrulon (in Sacris celebrandis ... agant).
mRvlebi xom imis msaxurni arian, vinc liturgiaSi Tavis samRvdlo funqcias
Tavisi sulis meSveobiT CvenTvis gamudmebiT asrulebs.35 naTlobiT maT adamianebi RmrTis erSi SehyavT; sinanulis saidumloTi isini codvilebs RmerTsa
da eklesiasTan Searigeben, xolo sneulTaTvis zeTis kurTxeviT maT tanjvas
umsubuqeben; upirveles yovlisa ki, wirvis aRsrulebiT (celebratione praesertim
Missae) isini sakramentulad msxverpls swiraven qristes. yvela saidumloTa
aRsrulebisas (rasac eklesiis uZveles droSic mowmobda egnate martvili),36
mRvdlebi sxvadasxva saxiT ierarqiulad ukavSirdebian episkoposs, rac mas
erTgulTa TiToeul sakrebuloSi erTgvar mowmed aqcevs.37
danarCeni saidumloni, iseve rogorc yvela saeklesio msaxurebebi da
samociqulo saqmeebi, dakavSirebulia wmida evqaristiasTan da misken aris
mimarTuli.38 uwmides evqaristiaSi xom eklesiis mTeli sulieri simdidre
aris mocemuli,39 anu Tavad qriste, Cveni paseqi da puri cxoveli. Tavisi
xorcis meSveobiT, romelic aris suli wmidiT cxovelyofili da cxovelmyofeli, igi cxovrebas aniWebs adamianebs. es mouwodebs maT da ubiZgebs,
masTan erTobaSi msxverplad miitanon sakuTari Tavi, Tavisi Sroma da mTeli
qmnileba. amitom evqaristia warmoadgens CvenTvis mTeli evangelizaciis wyarosa da kulminacias: maSin rodesac kaTakmevlebs TandaTanobiT amzadeben
evqaristiaSi monawileobis misaRebad, is erTgulebi, romlebic ukve aRbeWdilni arian wmida naTlobiTa da xeldasxmiT, evqaristiis miRebiT srulad
CaerTvebian qristes sxeulSi.
32
Sdr. maT. 28, 19; mark. 16, 16. TERTULLIANUS, De baptismo, 14, 2 (Corpus Christianorum,
Series latina, I, p. 289, 11-13). S. ATHANASIUS, Adv. Arianos, 2, 42 (PG 26, 237). S. HIERONIMUS; In
Mat., 28, 19 (PL 26, 218 BC): isini jer aswavlian yvela xalxebs, Semdeg ki ukve ganswavlulebs
wyals apkureben. radgan SeuZlebelia, sxeulma miiRos naTlobis saidumlo, sanam suli
sarwmunoebis WeSmaritebas ar miiRebs. S. THOMAS, Expositio primae Decretalis, 1: Cvenma
macxovarma, romelic mowafeebs qadagebisTvis agzavnis, maT sami davaleba misca. pirveli:
aswavlon sarwmunoeba; meore: morwmuneni saidumoebiT gamsWvalon (ed. Marietti, Opuscula
Theologica, Taurini, Romae 1954, 1138).
33
Sdr. CONC VAT. II, Const. de Sacra Liturgia, n. 35, 2.
34
Sdr. iqve, nn. 33, 35, 48, 52.
35
Sdr. iqve, n. 7. PIUS XII, encycl. Mystici Corporis, 29 iun. 1943: AAS 35 (1943), p. 230.
36
S. IGNATIUS M., Smyrn., 8, 1-2 (FUNK, p. 282, 6-15). Constutiones Apostolorum, VIII, 12, 3
(FUNK, p. 496); VIII, 29, 2 (p. 532).
37
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 28.
38
evqaristia aris erTgvarad sulieri cxovrebis dasruleba da yvela saidumloTa
mizani (S. THOMAS, Summa Theol. . III, q. 73, a. 3 c); Sdr. III, q. 65, a. 3.
39
Sdr. S THOMAS, Summa Theol. III, q. 65, a. 3, ad 1; q. 79, a. 1, c, et ad 1.

301

vatikanis II kreba

amgvarad, evqaristuli msxverplSewirva aris erTgulTa sakrebulos


centri, romelsac mRvdeli uZRveba. mRvdlebi erTgulebs aswavlian, mamas miarTvan saRmrTo msxverpli (victimam) mesaze (Sacrificio Misae) da masTan
erTad Tavisi cxovrebac Seswiron (oblationem vitae suae facere). qriste-mRvdlis
suliT gamsWvalulni (in Spiritu Pastoris), isini erTgulebs aswavlian, Tavisi
codvebi morCili guliT monaniebis saidumlos dauqvemdebaron, raTa ufro
metad moiqcnen uflisken da misi sityvebi daimaxsovron: SeinaneT, rameTu
moaxlebul ars sasufeveli caTa (maT. 4, 17). amasTanave, isini arigeben erTgulebs, ise miiRon monawileoba wmida liturgiis aRsrulebaSi (celebrationes),
rom masSic rogorme gulrwfel locvamde mividnen. isini erTgulebs miuZRvebian, raTa maT mTeli Tavisi cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi locvis suli sul
ufro da ufro srulyon, TiToeulis madlisa da moTxovnilebis mixedviT.
isini yvelas aRuZraven survils, Seasrulon Tavisi statusis Sesabamisi movaleobebi, xolo ufro warCinebulebs mouwodeben, daicvan saxarebis mcnebebi maTTvis Sesaferisi formiT. isini aswavlian erTgulebs, Tavis gulebSi
umReron ufals galobani da qebani, da hmadlobdnen yovelTaTs saxeliTa
uflisa Cuenisa ieso qristesiTa RmerTsa da mamasa.40
qebasa da madlierebas, romlebsac mRvdlebi evqaristiis aRsrulebisas
gamoxataven, Jamnis Sesrulebisas dRis sxvadasxva saaTze ganavrcoben. eklesiis saxeliT, isini RmerTs evedrebian maTTvis mindobili mTeli erisTvis da metic: mTeli msofliosaTvis.
locvis saxlSi, sadac erTgulebi ikribebian, sruldeba da inaxeba uwmidesi evqaristia. aq, erTgulTa dasaxmareblad da sanugeSeblad, Tayvans
scemen RmrTis Svilis, Cveni macxovris Tandaswrebas, romelic samsxverploze CvenTvis iqna mitanili. es saxli unda iyos lamazi, locvisa da RmrTismsaxurebisTvis Sesaferisi.41 masSi mowveulni arian mRvdlebi da erTgulebi,
raTa madlierebiT upasuxon imis niWs (dono), vinc Tavisi adamianobiT ganuwyvetliv avrcelebs saRmrTo cxovrebas Tavisi sxeulis asoebSi.42 mRvdlebma
unda izrunon liturgiuli mecnierebisa da xelovnebis saTanadod ganviTarebisTvis, raTa Tavisi liturgiuli msaxurebiT maTTvis mindobili qristianuli sakrebuloebi sul ufro metad srulyofilad aqebdnen RmerTs,
mamasa da Zes da suli wmidas.
6. mRvdlebi, romlebic qristes meTavisa da mRvdlis funqcias Tavisi uflebamosilebis farglebSi asruleben, episkoposis saxeliT kreben
RmrTis ojaxs rogorc erTsulovan saZmos, da mihyavT isini qristes meSveobiT sulSi (in Spiritu) mama RmerTTan.43 am msaxurebis, iseve rogorc mRvdlebis
sxva funqciebis aRsasruleblad, maT eniWeba sulieri Zalaufleba, romelic aRsaSenebelad eZleva.44 eklesiis aRSenebaSi mRvdlebi, uflis msgavsad,
yvelas udidesi adamianobiT unda moeqcnen. isini maT ar unda epyrobodnen
40
efes. 5, 19-20.
41
Sdr. S. HIERONYMUS, Epist., 114, 2: wmida barZimi, wmida saburvelebsa (velamina)
da sxva yvelafers, rac uflis vnebaTa kults exeba, uflis sxeulsa da sisxlTan kavSiris
gamo, iseTive mowiwebiT unda vceT Tayvani, rogorc mis sxeulsa da mis sisxls. (PL 22,
934). Vid. CONC. VAT. II, Const. de Sacra Liturgia, nn. 122-127.
42
garda amisa, erTgulebs ar unda daaviwydeT, rom dRis ganmavlobaSi mividnen
(visitationem) uwmindes saidumlosTan (Sacramenti). liturgiuli kanonebis Tanaxmad, is unda
daculi iyos eklesiebSi yvelaze Rirseul da sapatio adgilas. aseTi misvla aris madlierebis niSani aq myofi qristes Cveni uflis mimarT. amave dros, es aris siyvarulis sabuTi
da saTanado Tayvaniscemis movaleoba. (PAULUS VI, encycl. Mysterium Fidei, 3 sept. 1965: AAS 57
(1965), p. 771).
43
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 28.
44
Sdr. 2kor. 10, 8; 13, 10.

302

PRESBYTERORUM ORDINIS

ise, rogorc es adamianebs moswonT,45 aramed ise, rogorc amas moZRvreba da


qristianuli cxovreba moiTxovs. maT unda aRzardon adamianebi da maT rogorc usayvarles Svilebs aswavlon,46 Tanaxmad mociqulisa: zeda-adeg JamiTi-uJamod, amxile, Sehrisxen da nugeSinis-ec yovliTa sulgrZelebiTa da
moZRurebiTa (2 tim. 4, 2).47
amitom mRvdelmsaxurebi, rogorc sarwmunoebaSi ganmanaTlebelni, an
TviTon an sxvebis meSveobiT, unda zrunavdnen imisaTvis, rom TiToeulma
erTgulma suli wmidaSi SeZlos, Tavisi mowodeba saxarebis Sesabamisad ganaviTaros, miaRwios gulrwfel, qmediT siyvarulsa da Tavisuflebas, romliTac qristem gagvaTavisufla.48 usargebloa ceremoniebi (Tundac mSvenieri)
da gaerTianebebi (Tundac warmatebuli), Tu maTi mizani adamianTa aRzra da
qristianuli simwifis miRweva ar aris.49 amisaTvis mRvdlebi unda daexmaron
adamianebs, amoicnon Tavad movlenebSi, didsa Tu pataraSi, is, rasac saqme
moiTxovs, is, rac aris RmrTis neba. qristianebi ise unda aRizardon, rom
ara marto TavisTvis icxovron, aramed, siyvarulis axali kanonis moTxovniT, TiToeuli sxvebs unda emsaxuros im niWiT, romelic Tavad miiRo,50 raTa
qristianul sazogadoebaSi yvelam qristianulad aRasrulos Tavisi movaleoba.
mRvdlebi yvelas movaleni arian, Tumca gansakuTrebul pasuxismgeblobas isini Ratakebisa da sustebis mimarT unda grZnobdnen: Tavad
ufalic xom maTTan iyo dakavSirebuli,51 xolo maTi eveangelizacia mesianuri saqmis niSans warmoadgens.52 gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda
mieqces axalgazrdebs, agreTve meuRleebsa da mSoblebs. sasurvelia,
isini urTierTdaxmarebis mizniT megobrul jgufebad gaerTiandnen,
raTa Tavisi cxovreba, xSirad sakmaod rTuli, ufro advilad da meti
srulyofilebiT qristianulad gaataron. mRvdlebs unda axsovdeT, rom
yvela mowese, kaci Tu qali, uflis saxlis yvelaze brwyinvale nawils
warmoadgens. amitom maTi sulieri srulyofa gansakuTrebuli mzrunvelobis Rirsia da is mTeli eklesisiis keTildReobas emsaxureba. sagangebo yuradReba mRvdlebs marTebT sneulTa da momakvdavTa mimarT. maT
isini unda moinaxulon da ufalSi ganamtkicon.53
MmRvdlebis funqcia ar amoiwureba calkeul erTgulTaTvis zrunviT:
is WeSmaritad qristianuli sakrebulos Camoyalibebasac gulisxmobs.
xolo imisTvis, rom sakrebulos suli saTanadod ganviTardes, man ara
marto adgilobrivi eklesia unda moicvas, aramed sayovelTao eklesiac.
xolo adgilobrivi sakrebulo mxolod Tavisi erTgulebisTvis ki ar
unda zrunavdes, aramed, misioneruli suliT gamsWvalulma, manN yvela
adamians unda gauxsnas gza qristesken. pirvel rigSi, mas evaleba zrunva kaTakmevelTa da neofitebisaTvis, romlebic TandaTanobiT unda
aRvzardoT imisaTvis, rom maT qristianuli cxovreba Seicnon da mas misdion.
45
Sdr. gal. 1, 10.
46
Sdr. 1kor. 4, 14.
47
Sdr. Didascalia, II, 34, 3; II, 46, 6; II, 47, 1; Constitutiones Apostolorum, II, 47, 1: FUNK, Didascalia et Constitutiones, I, 116, 142, 143.
48
Sdr. gal. 4, 3; 5, 1, 13.
49
Sdr. S. HIERONYMUS, Epist., 58, 7: ra azri aqvs, roca kedlebi brwyinavs Zvirfasi
qvebiT, Tu qriste Ratakad mokvda? (PL 22, 584).
50
Sdr. 1petre 4, 10.
51
Sdr. maT. 25, 34-45.
52
Sdr. luk. 4, 18.
53
SeiZleba vaxsenoT sxva kategoriis xalxic, magaliTad, migrantebi, momTabareni
da sxva. maT Sesaxeb laparakia dekretSi eklesiaSi episkoposTa samRvdlo funqciis Sesaxeb, 18.

303

vatikanis II kreba

magram vercerTi qristianuli sakrebulo ver aSendeba, Tu misi fesvi


da guli uwmidesi evqaristiis aRsrulebaSi ara Zevs. is aris yovelgvari aRzrdis sawyisi, mimarTuli sakrebulos sulis mopovebisken.54 evqaristiis aRsruleba gulrwfeli da sruli rom iyos, mas Sedegad unda
mohyves sxvadasxva saqvelmoqmedo saqme da urTierTdaxmareba, agreTve
misioneruli moRvaweoba da qristianuli mowmobis sxvadasxva forma.
garda amisa, siyvaruliT, locviT, magaliTiTa da monaniebis saqmeebiT saeklesio sakrebulo WeSmrit dedobas aRmouCens sulebs, raTa
isini qristesTan miiyvanos. is aris qmediTi iaraRi, romelic qristesa
da misi eklesiisken gzas uCvenebs an ganuxsnis maT, visac jer ara swams,
xolo morwmuneebs sulieri brZolisTvis aRviZebs, asazrdoebs da ganamtkicebs.
qristianuli sakrebulos mowyobisas mRvdlebi arasdros emsaxurebian
romelime erT ideologias an adamianTa partias, aramed, rogorc saxarebis
mqadageblebi da eklesiis mwyemsebi, Tavis Zalebs qristes sxeulis sulier
zrdas axmaren.

II. mRvdelTa urTierToba sxvebTan


7. yvela mRvdeli episkoposebTan erTad qristes erTsa da imave mRvdlobasa da msaxurebaSi (sacerdotium et ministerium) monawileobs, ise, rom
Tavad xeldsxmisa (consecrationis) da misiis es erTianoba moiTxovs mRvdlebis ierarqiul urTierTobas (communionem) episkoposTa xarisxTan,55
rasac isini Cveulebriv liturgiis erTobliv aRsrulebaSi saukeTesod
amJRavneben: isini xom episkoposebTan erTad aRasruleben evqaristul
msxverpls.56 amitom suli wmidas niWiT, romelic mRvdlebs wmida xeldasxmaSi miecaT, episkoposebs isini hyavT rogorc damxmareni da mrCevelebi msaxurebasa da movaleobis aRsrulebisas, romelic RmrTis
xalxis swavlebas, wmida yofasa da mwyemsobas gulisxmobs.57 amas eklesiis
adreul periodSive dabejiTebiT mowmobdnen liturgiuli dokumentebi, rodesac sazeimod iTxovdnen RmrTisagan, xeldasasxmel mRvdelze
gadmodinebuliyo madlisa da gansjis (consilii) suli, raTa igi wmida guliT daexmaros ers da marTos is,58 rogorc udabnoSi moses suli gadavi54
Sdr. Didascalia, II, 59, 1-3: swavlebisas mouwode xalxs da moiTxove, xSirad movidnen eklesiaSi da araviTar SemTxveaSi ar daakldnen mas; dae, yovelTvis Seikribon da eklesia ar daamciron Tavisi gandgomiTa da qristes sxeulisTvis asoTa moklebiT... Tqven
Tavadac qristes asoebi xarT. amitom nu ganudgebiT eklesias masSi Sekrebaze uaris TqmiT.
qriste Tqveni Tavia, romelic, Tanaxmad misi dapirebisa, mudam TqvenTan aris da urTierTobs TqvenTan. amitom nu ugulebelyofT sakuTar Tavs, nu gaaucxoebT macxovars misive
asoebisgan, nu dayofT da daaqucmacebT mis sxeuls...: FUNK I, 170. PAULUS VI., mimarTva di
aggiornamento pastorale italiuri samRvdeloebis mimarT XIII kongresze urbinoSi 1963 wlis 6
seqtembers: AAS 55 (1963), pp. 750 ss.
55
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 28.
56
Sdr. e.w. Constitutio Ecclesiastica Apostolorum, XVIII: mRvdlebi arian saidumloTa sinmistebi da sinepimaqebi (TH. SCHERMANN, Die allgemeine Kirchenordnung, I, Padeborn 1914, p. 26;
A. HARNACK, T. u. U., II, 4, p. 13, n. 18 et 19). PSEUDO-HIERONYMUS, De Septem Ordinibus Ecclesia:
... kurTxevaSi (in benedictione) isini episkoposebTan erTad saidumloTa monawileni (consortes)
arian (A. W. KALFF, Wrzburg 1937, p. 45). S. ISIDORUS HISPALENSIS, De Ecclesiasticis Officiis, c.
VII: isini qristes eklesias uZRvebian da, episkoposebTan erTad, sxeulisa da sisxlis SeqmnaSi (confectione) monawileoben, iseve rogoc xalxis damoZRvrasa da qadagebis saqmeSi (PL
83, 787).
57
Sdr. Didascalia, II, 28, 4: FUNK, 108. Constitutiones Apostolorum, II, 28, 4; II, 34, 3: ibid., pp.
109 et 117.
58
Const. Apost. VIII, 16, 4: FUNK I, 522, 13. Sdr. Epitome Const. Aposz., VI, ibid., II, p. 80, 3-4.
Testamentum Domini: mieci mas madlis, gansjisa (consilii) da didsulovnebis suli, suli

304

PRESBYTERORUM ORDINIS

da samocdaaT brZen kacze,59 raTa maTi meSveobiT advilad marTos eris


uricxvi simravle..60 mRvdlobasa da msaxurebaSi am urTierTobis gamo
episkoposebs mRvdlebi Zmebad da megobrebad unda miaCndeT.61 isini, SeZlebisdagvarad, mRvdelTa materialuri da, upirveles yovlisa, sulieri
keTildReobisaTvis unda iRwvodnen. swored episkoposebs akisria mZime
pasuxismgebloba Tavisi mRvdelmsaxurebis siwmidisaTvis.62 amitom maT
gansakuTrebiT unda izrunon mRvdlebis mudmivi ganaTlebisTvis.63 isini
mzad unda iyvnen mRvdlebis mosasmenad, Tavadac rCeva hkiTxon da imsjelon maTTan imis Sesaxeb, rac samRvdlo saqmesa da diocezis sikeTes
exeba. xolo imisaTvis, rom am saqmem Sedegi gamoiRos, amJamindeli viTarebisa da moTxovnilebebis Sesabamisad,64 samarTliT dadgenili formiTa da normebiT, daarsdeba samRvdeloebis (Presbyterium) warmomadgenel
mRvdelmsaxurTa jgufi an senati,65 romelsac SeeZleba, Tavisi rCevebiT
qmediTad daexmaros episkoposs diocezis marTvaSi.
xolo mRvdlebs unda axsovdeT xarisxis saidumlos sisrule, romelic
episkoposebs gaaCniaT da misi saxiT Tayvani scen qristes uzenaesi mwyemsis uflebamosilebas. amitom isini episkoposs gulrwfeli siyvaruliTa da morCilebiT unda Seudgnen.66 es samRvdelmsaxuro morCileba, TamRvdlobisa, raTa daexmaros Sens ers da marTos is saqmiT, moSiSebiT, wmida guliT (B.
BOTTE, La Tradition apostolique, Muenster i. W. 1963, p. 20).
59
Sdr. ricxvTa 11, 16-25.
60
Pont. Rom., De Ordinatione Presbyteri, Sesavali: es sityvebi ukve aris Sacramentarium
Leonianum, Sacramentarium Gelasianum da Sacramentarium Gregorianum-Si. msgavsi ram gvaqvs aRmosavleTis liturgiebSic, Sdr. Trad. Apost.: Sexede Sens am monas da aRWurve is madlisa da
gansjis suliT, raTa daexmaros mRvdlebs da marTos eri Seni wmida guliT, ise, rogorc
Sens mier rCeul ers Sexede da moses ubrZane, mRvdlebi amoerCia. Sen isini Seni suliT aRavse, romelic Sens msaxurs mieci (veronis Zveli laTinuri versiidan, gamomc. B. BOTTE,
La Tradition apostolique de S. Hippolyte. Essai de reconstruction, Muenster i. W. 1963, p. 20). Const. Apost.
VIII, 16, 4: FUNK I, 522, 16-17. Epist. Const. Apost. 6: FUNK II, 20, 5-7. Testamentum Domini: trad. I.E.
RAHMANI, Moguntiae 1899, p. 69. Euchologium Serapionis, XXVII: FUNK, Didascalia et Constitutiones, II,
p. 190, lin. 1-7. Ritus Ordinationis in ritu Maronitarum: trad. H. DENZIGER, Ritus Prientalium, II, Wrzburg
1863, p. 161. mamaTa Soris SeiZleba davasaxeloT: THEODORUS MOPS., In 1 Tim. 3, 8: SWETE, II,
119-121. THEODORETUS, Quaest. in Numeros, XVIII: PG 80, 372 b.
61
Sdr. CONC. VAT: II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 28. Decr. de pastorali Episcoporum munere in
Ecclesia, nn. 15 et 16.
62
Sdr. IOANNES XXIII, encycl. Sacerdotii Nostri primordia, 1 aug. 1959: AAS 51 (1959), p. 576.
S. PIUS X, exhort. ad clerum Haerent animo, 4 aug. 1908: S. PII X Acta, vol. IV (1908), pp. 237 ss.
63
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de pastorali Episcoporum munere in Ecclesia, nn. 15 et 16.
64
samarTlaSi ukve arsebobs sakaTedro Tavi, episkoposis erTgvari senati da sabWo (CIC, c. 391), an, misi ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi, diocezuri konsultantebis jgufi (Sdr.
CIC, cc. 423-428). sasurvelia am instituciebis gadasinjva, raTa maT ukeTesad upasuxos Tanamedrove viTarebasa da moTxovnilebebs. cxadia, mRvdelTa amgvari jgufi gansxvavdeba
samRvdlo sabWosagan, romlis Sesaxebac aris laparaki dekretSi de pastorali Epsicoporum munere in Ecclesia, n. 27. am ukanasknelSi saero pirebis Sedian da misi amocana mxolod samRvdlo
moRvaweobasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis ganxilvaSi mdgomareobs. mRvdlebis rogorc
episkoposTa mrCevelebis Sesaxeb ix. Didascalia, II, 28, 4: FUNK I, 108. Const. Apost., II, 28, 4: FUNK
I, 109. S. IGNATIUS M., Magn., 6, 1. FUNK 234, 10-16; Trall., 3, 1: FUNK 244, 10-12. ORIGENES, Adv.
Celsum, 3, 30: mRvdlebi mrCevelni arian (buleutai): PG 11, 957 d 960 a.
65
S. IGNATIUS M., Magn., 6, 1. mogiwodebT, SeecadoT, yvelaferi aRasruloT saRmrTo
TanxmobaSi, rom episkoposi iyos Tavmjdomared RmrTis adgilas, mRvdlebi mociqulTa senatis adgilas, xolo CemTvis uZvirfases diakonebs daekisros ieso qristes msaxureba, romelic
saukuneTa uwin mamasTan iyo da bolos moegvevlina (FUNK, 234, 10-13). S. IGNATIUS M., Trall., 3, 1:
masgavsad amisa, yvelam Tayvani sces diakonebs rogorc ieso qristes, da episkoposs, romelic mamis saxea (typus), xolo mRvdlebs rogorc saRmrTo senatsa da mociqulTa sabWos: maT
gareSe eklesia ar Seikribeba (non vocatur) (FUNK, p. 244. 10-12). S. HIERONYMUS, In Isaiam, II, 3 (PL
24, 61 A): Cvenc gvaqvs eklesiaSi Cveni senati: mRvdelTa Sekreba.
66
Sdr. PAULUS VI, allocutio ad Urbis curiones et quadragenarii temporis oratores in Aede Sixtina
habita, die 1 martii 1965: AAS 57 (1965), p. 326.

305

vatikanis II kreba

namSromlobis suliT gamsWvaluli, efuZneba saepiskoposo msaxurebaSi


im monawileobas, romelic mRvdlebs xarisxis saidumlosa da kanonikuri
misiis meSveobiT gadaecema.67
Cvens droSi mRvdlebis episkoposebTan kavSiri gansakuTrebiT aucilebelia. sxvadasxva garemoebaTa gamo, samociqulo wamowyebebi ara marto mravalferovani SeiZleba gaxdes, aramed SeiZleba gavides kidec erTi sakrebulos Tu diocezis sazRvrebs gareT. amitom vercerTi mRvdeli ver Seasrulebs Tavis misias TviTon an marto, Tu ar gaaerTiana Tavisi Zalebi sxva
mRvdlebTan maTi winamZRolobiT, vinc eklesias udgas saTaveSi.
8. mRvdlebi, xeldasxmiT mRvdlobis xarisxSi ayvanilni, erTmaneTTan
mWidrod arian dakavSirebulni saidumlo ZmobiT. amasTanave, isini warmoadgenen erTian samRvdeloebas diocezSi, romelsac eZRvneba maTi msaxureba
maTive episkoposis meTaurobiT. sxvadasxva msaxurebis Sesrulebis miuxedavad, isini adamianebisTvis erTian samRvdlo msaxurebas ewevian. yvela mRvdeli movlenilia am saqmeSi TanamSromlobisaTvis, sulerTia, asruleben
isini msaxurebas sakrebuloSi Tu mis gareT, awarmoeben samecniero kvlevas
Tu ewevian pedagogiur samuSaos, an sulac xeliT muSaoben da iq, sadac amas
uflebamosili xelisufleba mizanSewonilad miiCnevs, muSaTa cxovrebas
iziareben, an sulac sxva samociqulo an mociqulobisTvis gankuTvnil saqmeebs asruleben. sabolood xom yvela erTi miznisken miiswrafvis: qristes sxeulis aSenebisken, romelic, gansakuTrebiT Cvens droSi, moiTxovs
mravalgvar samsaxursa da axlebur midgomas. amitom Zalian mniSvnelovania,
rom yvela mRvdeli, rogorc diocezuri aseve mowese, erTmaneTs daexmaros,
raTa isini yovelTvis WeSmaritebis TanaSemweni iyvnen.68 TiToeuli mRvdeli dakavSirebulia am samRvdeloebis sxva wevrebTan sagangebo samociqulo
siyvarulis, msaxurebisa da Zmobis kavSirebiT. es uZvelesi droidan aRiniSneboda liturgiaSi: is xom damswre mRvdlebs iwvevs xeldamsxmel episkoposTan erTad, raTa man daasxas xeli axladarCeuls, da wmida evqaristiac
xom erTsulovnad sruldeba. amgvarad, yoveli mRvdeli TanamoZmeebTan erTobaSia siyvarulis, locvisa da yovelgvari TanamSromlobis kavSiriT. ase
vlindeba is erTianoba, romlis daarseba qristem ineba TavisianTa Soris,
raTa samyaros Seecno, rom mamam Ze moavlina69
amitom ufrosebi umcrosebs rogorc WerSmarit Zmebs unda epyrobodnen,
daexmaron maT pirvel wamowyebebsa da msaxurebis dasawyisSi. isini unda Seecadon gaigon maTi goneba-ganwyoba, Tundac is maTTgan gansxvavdebodes, da
keTilganwyobiT Tvali adevnon maT iniciativebs. amasTanave, axalgazrdebic pativs unda scemdnen ufrosebis asaksa da gamocdilebas, maTTan erTad
unda ganixilon sasuliero sakiTxebi da xalisiT iTanamSromlon maTTan.
dae, Zmuri sulis winamZRolobiT, mRvdlebma ar daiviwyon stumarTmoyvareoba,70 misdion qvelmoqmedebasa da qonebis gaziarebas,71 gansakuTrebuli mzrunveloba gamoiCinon maT mimarT, vinc avad aris, sasowarkveTilia,
SromiT qancgawyvetilia, martosulia, samSoblodan gaZevebulia, an devnilia.72 dae, isini xalisiTa da sixaruliT Seikribon, sulierad daisvenon da
gaixsenon, rogor miipatiJa Tavad ufalma daRlili mociqulebi: movediT
67
Sdr. Const. Apost., VIII, 47, 39: mRvdlebi...episkoposis Tanxmobis gareSe nurafers
gaakeTeben, radgan swored mas hyavs mindobili uflis eri da is agebs pasuxs maTi sulebisTvis
(FUNK, 577).
68
Sdr. 3 ioan. 8.
69
Sdr. ioan. 17, 23.
70
Sdr. ebr. 13, 1-3.
71
Sdr. ebr. 13, 16.
72
Sdr. maT. 5, 10

306

PRESBYTERORUM ORDINIS

Tquen Tsagan udabnosa adgilsa da ganisueneT mcired (mark. 6, 31). sulieri


da inteleqtualuri cxovrebis daxvewaSi mRvdlebi erTmaneTs rom daexmaron, msaxurebaSi erTmaneTTan ukeTesad iTanamSromlon da Tavidan aicilon
safrTxe, romelic SeiZleba martoobam ganapirobos, saWiroa damkvidrdes
erToblivi (communis) cxovreba, an misi raime saxeoba, romelmac, bunebrivia,
SeiZleba sxvadasxva forma miiRos, pirovnul Tu samRvdlo TaviseburebaTa Sesabamisad. aseTia, magaliTad, Tanacxovreba, romelic amis saSualebas
iZleva, agreTve erToblivi Wama, xSiri an regularuli Sexvedrebi. aseTi
gaerTianebebi didad dasafasebelia da maT xeli unda Seewyos. uflebamosili saeklesio xelisuflebis mier aRiarebuli dadgenilebebis safuZvelze, isini warmoadgenen saTanado wesiT mowyobili cxovrebisa da Zmuri
urTierTdaxmarebis safuZvels, rac xels uwyobs mRvdlebs, wmidad aRasrulon msaxureba. xolo yovelive es, rasakvirvelia, mRvdelTa mTel xarisxs
emsaxureba.
dabolos, mRvdelmsaxurebaSi aseTi urTierTobis gamo, mRvdlebma unda
icodnen, rom maT gansakuTrebuli movaleoba akisriaT maT mimarT, vinc sirTuleebs ganicdis. mRvdlebi maT saswrafod unda daexmaron da, Tu saWiroa,
TavSekavebulad gafrTxilebasac mimarTon. xolo maT, vinc raRac Secdoma
dauSva, isini yovelTvis Zmuri siyvaruliT da keTilad unda moepyran, gamudmebiT evedron maTTvis RmerTs da maT mimarT WeSmariti Zmoba da megobroba gamoavlinon.
9. xarisxis saidumlos ZaliT, axali aRTqmis mvdelmsaxurebi RmrTis
erSi da erisTvis mamisa da moZRvris funqcias asruleben, magram amave dros,
yvela qristes erTgulTan erTad, isinic uflis mowafeebi arian, romlebic,
saRmrTo madlis mowodebiT, misi mefobis moziareni gaxdnen.73 naTlobaSi yvela aRorZinebulisaTvis mRvdlebi arian Zmani ZmaTa Soris,74 rogorc
asoni qristes erTi sxeulisa, romlis aSeneba yvelas daekisra.75
amitom mRvdlebi ise unda winamZRolobdnen, rom Tavisi ki ara, aramed
ieso qristesi eZion.76 maT erTgul saero pirebTan unda iTanamSromlon da,
moZRvris darad, maT Soris iqceodnen, romelic ara movida, raTamca imsaxura, aramed msaxurebad da micemad suli Tsi sasrad mravalTaTs (maT.
20, 28). mRvdlebi gulrweflad unda scnobdnen da xels uwyobdnen saeroTa
Rirsebasa da sakuTriv maT wvlils eklesiis misiaSi. isini jerovnad pativs
unda scemdnen samarTlian Tavisuflebas, romlis uflebac yvelas aqvs miwier qalaqSi. maT xalisiT unda usminon saero pirebs, Zmurad gaiTvaliswinon maTi survilebi, aRiaron maTi gamocdileba da kompetencia adamianuri
moRvaweobis sxvadasxva sferoSi, raTa maTTan erTad Seecadon, amoikiTxon
drois niSnebi. sulTa gamocdiT, ukueTu RmrTisagan iyvnen,77 mRvdlebma
rwmeniT unda amoicnon saero pirTa mravalferovani qarismebi sruliad
mokrZalebulica da amaRlebulic. maT sixaruliT unda scnon isini da gulmodgined xeli Seuwyon maT. RmrTis sxvadasxva niWTa Soris, romlebic uxvad moipoveba erTgulebSi, gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis Rirsi is aris, rac
mraval adamians ufro maRali sulieri cxovrebisken miizidavs. mRvdlebs
73
Sdr. 1 Tes. 2, 12; kol. 1, 13.
74
Sdr. maT. 23, 8. Zmurad unda moveqceT adamianebs swored imitom, rom gvinda
viyoT maTi mRvdlebi, mamebi, moZRvarni (PAULUS VI, encycl. Ecclesiam suam, 6 aug. 1964: AAS 58
(1964), p. 647).
75
Sdr. efes. 4, 7 da 16. Const. Apost., VIII, 1, 10: arc episkoposi unda aRzevdes diakonebze da mRvdlebze (presbyteros) maRla, arc mRvdlebi xalxze, radgan erToba orivesgan
Sedgeba (FUNK I, 467).
76
Sdr. fil. 2, 21.
77
1 ioan. 4, 1.

307

vatikanis II kreba

unda gaaCndeT erTgulTa ndoba da maT eklesiis msaxurebisTvis gankuTvnili movaleobebi daakisron, miscen maT Tavisuflad moqmedebis SesaZlebloba da asparezi, metic: SesTavazon, SeZlebisdagvarad sakuTari iniciativiT
imoqmedon.78
saboloo jamSi xom mRvdlebs saero pirTa Soris aqvT adgili gankuTvnili, raTa yvelas siyvarulis erTobisken gauZRvnen, rac niSnavs: ZmaT moyuarebiTa urTierTas mowled mosurne iyveniT; pativis-cemasa urTierTsa uswrobdiT (rom. 12, 10). maT sxvadasxva mentaliteti ise unda SeaTanxmon, rom
erTgulTa sakrebuloSi Tavi ucxod aravin igrZnos. isini xom, episkoposTa
saxeliT, sazogado keTildReobisTvis iRwvian. amasTanave, isini medgrad
icaven WeSmaritebas, raTa erTgulni ar viyoT mimotacebul yovelsa mas
qarsa moZRurebisasa.79 maT sagangebo mzrunvelobas isinic arian mindobilni, vinc ganudga saidumloTa aRsrulebasa da TviT sarwmunoebasac ki. mRvdlebma, rogorc keTilma mwyemsebma, isini ar unda daiviwyon.
ekumenizmis miTiTebebis Tanaxmad,80 mRvdlebma arc is Zmebi unda daiviwyon, romlebic CvenTan srul saeklesio urTierTobas moklebulni arian.
da bolos, isini pasuxismgebelni unda iyvnen yvelasTvis, vinc qristes
Tavis macxovrad ara scnobs.
xolo Tavad qristes erTgulebs gacnobierebuli unda hqondeT valdebuleba Tavis mRvdlebis winaSe da Svilobrivi siyvaruliT epyrobodnen
maT, rogorc Tavis mwyemsebsa da mamebs. maT unda gaiziaron mRvdelTa sazrunavi da SeZlebisdagvarad maT locviTa da saqmiT Seewion, raTa mRvdlebma warmatebiT SeZlon sirTuleebis gadalaxva da Tavisi movaleobis ufro
nayofierad Sesruleba.81

III. mRvdlebis danawileba da samRvdelmsaxuro mowodebebi


10. sulieri niWi, romelsac mRvdlebi xeldasxmisas iReben, maT SezRuduli da kerZo misiisTvis ki ar amzadebs, aramed gamoxsnis ufarToesi da saovelTao misiisaTvis, vidre dasasruladmde queyanisa (saqme 1, 8), radgan nebismieri samRvdlo msaxureba moziarea misiis im sayovelTao gavrcelebisa,
romelic qristem mociqulebs miando. qristes mRvdlemsaxureba, romlis
monawilenic mRvdlebi namdvilad gaxdnen, aucileblad yvela erisa da yvela droisTvis aris gankuTvnili. is ar aris SezRuduli naTesauri, erovnuli Tu asakobrivi sazRvrebiT. melqisedeqi amis idumali miniSneba iyo.82 dae,
axsovdeT mRvdlebs, rom maT yvela eklesiis mimarT zrunva marTebT. amitom
im diocezebis mRvdlebi, sadac MEmowodeba metia, mzad unda iyvnen, sakuTari
ordinariusis nebarTvisa Tu mowvevis safuZvelze, Tavisi msaxureba samRvdeloebas moklebul regionebSi, misiebsa Tu saqmeebSi aRarsulon.
garda amisa, inkardinaciisa da eqskardinaciis normebi ise unda gadaisinjos, rom am uZvelesma instituciam, erTis mxriv, mtkiced ganagrZos arseboba, meores mxriv ki, ukeTesad upasuxos dRevandel samRvdlo moTxovnilebebs. iq, sadac mociquloba amas moiTxovs, xeli unda Seewyos ara
marto mRvdlebis saTanado ganawilebas, aramed gansakuTrebuli samRvdlo saqmeebis aRsrulebasac, romlebic sxvadasxva socialuri jgufisTvis
aris gankuTvnili garkveuli regionis, qveynisa Tu kontinentis farglebSi. amisTvis SeiZleba didad sasargeblo iyos saerTaSoriso seminariebis,
78
79
80
81
82

308

Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 37.


efes. 4, 14.
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de oecumenismo.
Sdr CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 37.
Sdr. ebr. 7, 3.

PRESBYTERORUM ORDINIS

sagangebo diocezebisa Tu personaluri prelaturebisa da sxva amgvari


instituciebis daarseba, romlebsac mRvdlebi SeiZleba mieCinon an inkardinirebul iqnen mTeli eklesiis sakeTildReod, calkeuli wamowyebisTvis
gamomuSavebuli normebis mixedviT, adgilobriv ordinariusTa uflebebis
ganuxrelad dacvis pirobebSi.
meores mxriv, SeZlebisdagvarad unda SevecadoT, mRvdlebi TiTo-TiTod
ar mivavlinoT axal regionSi, gansakuTrebiT iq, sadac isini enasa da zneCveulebebs kargad ar icnoben. qristes mowafeTa magaliTis Tanaxmad,83 umjobesia, aseT adgilebSi orni an samni gaemgzavron, raTa SeeZloT, erTmaneTs daexmaron. aucilebelia maTi sulieri cxovrebisTvis zrunva, agreTve
maTi fsiqiuri da fizikuri sijansaRis uzrunvelyofa. SeZlebisdagvarad
saWiroa maTTvis iseTi adgilisa da samuSao viTarebis momzadeba, romelic
TiToeuli maTganis individualur Taviseburebebs Seesabameba. Zalze mniSvnelovania, rom axal qveyanaSi vinc miemgzavreba, ara marto adgilobrivi
ena Seiswavlos, aramed im xalxis fsiqoloiuri da socialuri Taviseburebebsac gaecnos, romlebsac mokrZalebiT unda emsaxuros. mRvdlebs maTTan maqsimalurad srulyofili kontaqti unda hqondeT, raTa misdion mociquli pavles magaliTs, romelsac sakuTari Tavis Sesaxeb SeeZlo, eTqva:
rameTu Tavisufal viyav yovelTagan da yovelTa Tavi Cemi davamone, raTa
umravlesni SeviZinne. viqmen huriaTa Tana viTarca huria, raTa huriani SeviZine... (1kor. 9, 19-20).
11. mwyemsma da Cveni sulebis moRvawem (episkoposma)84 ise daafuZna Tavisi eklesia, rom ers, romelic man amoirCia da Tavisi sisxliT moigo,85 mudam
da saukuneTa aRsasrulamde Tavisi mRvdelmsaxurni unda hyavdes, raTa
qristianebi arasdros iyvnen viTarca cxovarni, romelTa ara aqun mwyemsi.86
mociqulebma icodnen qristes nebis Sesaxeb. suli wmidis STagonebiT, maT
gansajes, rom maTi movaleoba aris msaxurTa amorCeva, romelni SemZlebel
iyvnen sxuaTaca swavlad (2 tim. 2). es movaleoba Tavad samRvdelmsaxuro
misias ganekuTvneba. misi meSveobiT mRvdeli mTeli eklesiis sazrunavis
monawilea, romlis mizanic is aris, rom RmrTis ers aq, dedamiwaze, muSakni
ar mohklebodes. xolo radganac gemis kapitansa da mgzavrebs...saerTo mizani aqvT,87 amitom mTels qristian ers Segnebuli unda hqondes, rom misi
movaleoba aris gulmodgine locviTa da sxva arsebuli saSualebebiT88 yovelmxriv xeli Seuwyos imas, rom eklesias mudam hyavdes is mRvdelmsaxurebi,
romlebic aucilebelni arian misi saRmrTo misiis aRsasruleblad. amgvarad, mRvdlebis umTavresi mizania, sityvis msaxurebiTa da sakuTari cxovrebis mowmobiT, romelic cxadayofs msaxurebis sulsa da WeSmarit saaRdgomo
sixaruls, erTgulebs TvalnaTliv aCvenos mRvdelmsaxurebis mniSvneloba
da aucilebloba. ZalTa dauzogavad da sirTuleTa miuxedavad, isini unda
daexmaron maT, visac dafiqrebis Sedegad aseTi msaxurebisTvis Sesaferisad
miiCneven, sulerTia, iqnebian isini axalgazrdebi Tu zrdasrulebi, raTa
isini saTanadod moemzadon im dRisaTvis, rodesac maTi garegani da Sinagani
Tavisuflebis sruli dacvis pirobebSi, maT SeiZleba episkoposma mouwodos. am miznis misaRwevad Zalze sasargebloa yuradRebiani da gonivruli
sulieri xelmZRvaneloba. mSoblebma, moZRvrebma da yvelam, vinc ama Tu im
saxiT dakavSirebulia bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis aRzrdasTan, ise unda
83
84
85
86
87
88

Sdr. luk. 10, 1.


Sdr. 1petre 2, 25.
Sdr. saqme 20, 28.
maT. 9, 36.
Pont. Rom., De Ordinatione Presbyteri.
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de Institutione sacerdotali, n. 2.

309

vatikanis II kreba

aRzardos isini, rom maT SeigrZnon uflis zrunva Tavisi samwysosaTvis,


gaacnobieron eklesiis moTxovnilebani da mzad iyvnen, winaswarmetyvelTan
erTad didsulovnad upasuxon uflis mowodebas: aha, mimavline (es. 6, 8).
magram ar unda movelodeT, rom uflis mowodebis es xma raRac saocari gziT
miaRwevs momavali mRvdlis smenamde. umjobesia, is im niSnebidan amovicnoT
da gavarCioT, romlebiTac keTilgonieri qristianebi yoveldRiurad igeben RmrTis nebas. mRvdlebma es niSnebi yuradRebiT unda ganixilon.89
amitom mRvdlebs didad vurCevT, monawileoba miiRon mowodebis
saqmeebSi, rogorc diocezurSi, aseve erovnulSi.90 qadagebaSi, katexizaciaSic, presaSic saWiroa eklesiis (rogorc adgilobrivis, aseve sayovelTaos) moTxovnilebebis warmoCena, samRvdlo msaxurebis arsisa da
mniSvnelobis naTelyofa. saWiroa vaCvenoT, rom masSi udidesi Sroma
udides sixaruls erwymis, da, rogorc mamebi gvaswavlian, upirveles yovlisa swored misi saSualebiT aris SesaZlebeli, qristes mivarTvaT siyvarulis udidesi mowmoba.91
Tavi III
mRvdelTa cxovreba
I. mRvdelTa mowodeba srulyofisaken
12. xarisxis saidumloTi mRvdlebi qriste-mRvdels emsgavsebian (configuratur). rogorc Tavis msaxurebma da saepiskoposo xarisxis TanamSromlebma, maT unda moawyon da aaSenon misi mTeli sxeuli, romelic aris
eklesia. ra Tqma unda, ukve naTlobis xeldasxmaSi (consecratione), rogorc
yvela qristianma, maT ukve miiRes am didi mowodebisa da madlis niSani
da niWi, raTa adamianur uZlurebaSic92 SeZlon sisrulisken miswrafeba, Tanaxmad uflis sityvisa: iyveniT Tquen srul, viTarca mama Tqueni
zecaTa srul ars (maT. 5 48). am sisrulis miRweva gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania mRvdelmsaxurebisTvis. isini xom RmerTs xarisxis miRebis Sedegad axleburad iqnen RmrTisadmi miZRvnilni (consecrati). isini qristes
saukuno mRvdelmsaxuris cocxal instrumentebad iqcnen, raTa droTa
msvlelobaSi ganagrZon misi sakvirveli saqme, romlis udidesi ZaliT man
mTeli kacobrioba aRadgina.93 yvela mRvdelmsaxuri Taviseburad qristes ganasaxierebs (ipsius Christi personam great). amitom mas gansakuTrebuli madli eniWeba, raTa misadmi mindobil xalxsa da RmrTis mTels ers
emsaxuros da meti warmatebiT SeZlos imis sisrulisaken swrafva, visac
Tavad ganasaxierebs. amave madliT adamianis xorcis uZlureba imis siwmidiT unda ganikurnos, vinc CvenTvis gaxda pontifeqsi, wmida, umanko,
Seuginebeli, ganSorebuli codvaTagan (ebr. 7, 26).
qristem, romelic mamam wmidayo da moavlina soflad,94 misca Tavi Tsi
CuenTs, raTa misnnes Cuen yovlisagan urCulebisa da ganwmidnes Tavisa
Tsisa erad mogebulad, mobaZavad keTilTa saqmeTa (tit. 2, 14) da ase vnebiT
Sevida Tavis didebaSi.95 aseve mRvdelni, suli wmidis cxebiT xeldasxmulni
da qristesgan movlinebulni, xorciels klaven Tavis saqmeebSi da mTlianad
89
PAULUS VI, allocutio habita die 5 maii 1965: LOsservatore Romano, 6-V-65, p. 1.
90
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Decr. de institutione sacerotali, n. 2.
91
amas aswavlian mamebi, rodesac ganmartaven qristes sityvebs petres mimarT:
guyuar mea?... damswysen cxovarni Cemni. asea wm. ioane oqropirTan, De sacerdotio, II, 1-2: PG
47-48; 633. S. GREGORIUS M., Reg. Past. Liber, P. I. c. 5: PL 77, 19 a.
92
Sdr. 2 kor. 12, 9.
93
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Ad catholici sacerdotii, 20 dec. 1935: AAS 28 (1936), p. 10.
94
ioan. 10, 36.
95
Sdr luk. 24, 26.

310

PRESBYTERORUM ORDINIS

adamianTa msaxurebas eZlevian. amgvarad, siwmidiT, romelic qristeSi miecaT, maT SeuZliaT srulyofil mamakacs miuaxlovdnen.96
masasadame, sulisa da simarTlis msaxurebis97 aRsrulebiT, isini sulier cxovrebaSi mtkicdebian, Tuki emorCilebian qristes suls, romelic
maT cxovelyofs da uZRveba. mRvdlebi xom cxovrebis sisrulisaken yoveldRiuri wmida qmedebebiT miiswrafvian, anu mTeli Tavisi msaxurebiT,
romelsac episkopossa da sxva mRvdlebTan erTad aRasruleben. mRvdlebis
siwmide didad uwyobs xels maTi msaxurebis nayofierad Sesrulebas: marTalia, RmrTis madlma gamoxsnis saqme uRirsi msaxurebis meSveobiTac SeiZleba aRasrulos, magram mainc RmerTi Tavis saocar saqmeTa gamovlinebas
maTi meSveobiT amjobinebs, vinc suli wmidis mowodebasa da winamZRolobas
(impulsui et ductui) emorCileba da visac qristesTan Sinagani erTobisa da cxovrebis siwmidis safuZvelze SeuZlia Tqvas: xolo cxovel me arRara var,
aramed cxovel ars Cem Tana qriste (gal. 2, 20).
amitom, Tavisi samwyso miznebis ganxorcielebisTvis, eklesiis Sinagani
ganaxlebisa da mTels msoflioSi saxarebis gavrcelebisTvis, wmida sinodi
dabejiTebiT mouwodebs yvela mRvdelmsaxurs, eklesiis mier SemoTavazebuli saTanado saSualebaTa gamoyenebiT,98 ganuxrelad miiswrafodnen sul
ufro meti siwmidisaken. amiT isini kidev ufro Sesaferis instrumentebad
iqcevian RmrTis mTeli eris samsaxurSi.
13. mRvdlebi siwmides miaRweven, Tu Tavis funqciebs suli wmidaSi
gulrwfelad da ganuxrelad Seasruleben.
saRmrTo sityvis msaxurni, isini yoveldRiurad kiTxuloben da ismenen
RmrTis sityvas, romelic sxvebs unda aswavlon. dae, Seecadon, is amave dros
Tavadac miiRon. maSin isini uflis ufro srulyofil mowafeebad iqcevian,
rogorc pavle mociqulma uTxra timoTes: amas iwurTid da amas Sina iyav,
raTa warmatebuleba ege Seni cxad iyos yovelsa Sina. ekrZale Tavsa Sensa
da moZRurebiTa miT daadger maT zeda, rameTu amas ra hyofde, Tavica Seni
acxovno da morCilnica Senni (I tim. 4, 15-16). Ziebisas, Tu rogor ukeTesad
gadascen sxvebs is, rac Tavad ganWvrites,99 maT ufro Rrmad ecodinebaT gamoukuleveli igi simdidre qristesi (efes. 3, 8) da mravalferi igi sibrZne
RmrTisa.100 maT unda axsovdeT, rom ufali is aris, vinc gulebs ganaRebs,101
xolo upiratesoba ara maTgan momdinareobs, aramed RmrTis Zlierebisgan.102
maSin sityvis gadacemisas isini ufro mWidrod daukavSirdebian qristes
moZRvars da mis suls gahyvebian. qristesTan aseTi urTierTobis Sedegad
isini RmrTis siyvaruls eziarebin, romlis saidumlo, saukuniTgan dafaruli,103 qristeSi gancxadda.
rogorc liturgiis (Sacrorum) msaxurni, mRvdlebi, upirveles yovlisa
mesis msxverplSi, sagangebo saxiT qristes ganasaxiereben, romelmac Tavisi Tavi msxverplad misca adamianTa wmidayofisTvis. amitom maT unda mibaZon imas, rasac akeTeben: uflis sikvdilis aRsrulebisas (celebrantes) maT
Tavisi asoebis mokvdinebisTvis unda izrunon da Tavi daicvan codvaTa da
96
Sdr. efes. 4, 13.
97
Sdr. 2kor. 3, 8-9.
98
Sdr. sxvaTa Soris, S. PIUS X, exhortatio ad clerum Harent animo, 4 aug. 1908: S. PII X Acta,
vol. IV (1908), pp. 237 ss. PIUS XI, encycl. Ad catholici sacerdotii, 20 dec. 1935: AAS 28 (1936), pp. 5 ss.
PIUS XII, encycl. Sacerdotii Nostri primordia, 1 aug. 1959: AAS 51 (1959), pp. 545 ss.
99
Sdr. S. THOMAS, Summa Theol., II-II, q. 188, a. 7.
100 efes. 3, 9-10.
101 Sdr. saqme 16, 14.
102 Sdr. 2 kor. 4, 7.
103 Sdr. efes. 3, 9.

311

vatikanis II kreba

ltolvaTagan.104 evqaristiuli saidumlos msxveprlSi, romelSic mRvdelmsaxurebi Tavis funqcias asruleben, ganuwyvetliv xdeba Cveni gamosyidva.105 amitom sasurvelia misi yoveldRiuri aRsruleba, rac aris qristesa
da eklesiis qmedeba (actus), Tundac erTgulebi mas ver daeswron.106 amgvarad,
MmRvdlebi uerTdebian qristes mRvdelmsaxuris qmedebas, yoveldRiurad isini mTlianad RmerTs eZlevian (offert), qristes sxeuliT sazrdooben
da mTeli suliTa da guliT eziarebien imis siyvaruls, vinc Tavi sazrdod
misca erTgulebs. msgavsad amisa, saidumloTa aRsrulebisas isini zraxviTa da siyvaruliT qristes uerTdebian. es gansakuTrebiT xdeba maSin, roca
isini aCveneben, rom mudam mzad arian, gadascen monaniebis saidumlo, roca
erTgulebi amis Sesaxeb keTilgonivrulad sTxoven. saRmrTo msaxurebis
aRsrulebisas isini xmas eklesias aZleven, romelic mTeli kacobriobis saxeliT ganuwyvetliv loculobs qristesTan erTad, xolo igi samaradisod
cxovel ars meoxad maTTvis (ebr. 7, 25).
RmrTis eris mmarTvelni da mwyemsebi, keTili mwyemsis siyvaruliT
arian STagonebulni, raTa Tavisi suli dadon Tavisi cxvrebisTvis.107 isini mzad arian umaRlesi msxverplisTvisac, radgan misdeven im mRvdelmsaxurTa magaliTs, romlebmac Cvens droSic Tavi uyoymanod gawires. aRmzrdelebs sarwmunoebaSi, maT aqvT kadniereba Sesvlad siwmideTa maT
sisxliTa qristesi (ebr. 10, 19). isini RmerTs mieaxlebian WeSmaritiTa
guliTa, gul-savsebiTa sarwmunoebisaTa (ebr. 10, 22). maT aqvT mtkice
imedi Tavisi erTgulebisa,108 raTa SeeZloT nugeSinis-cemad yovelTa
maT WirveulTa nugeSinis-cemiTs miT, romliTa nugeSinis-cemul arian
Tavad RmrTisa mier.109 sakrebulos ufrosni, isini sulTa mwyemsebisTvis
Cveul askezas misdeven, uars amboben sakuTar upiratesobebze, eZieben
ara imas, rac maTTvis aris umjobesi, aramed imas, rac umjobesia mravalTaTvis, raTa cxonden.110 isini ganuxrelad win miiweven samRvdlo saqmis
ufro srulyofilad aRsrulebisTvis, raTa saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi mzad
iyvnen, daadgnen axal samRvdlo gzebs siyvarulis sulis winamZRolobiT,
romelic iq qris, sadac surs.111
14. dRevandel samyaroSi, sadac adamianebs amdeni ram aqvT gasakeTebeli,
da sadac maT bevri - xSirad gadaudeblad gadasaWreli - problema awuxebT,
advilia am mravalferovnebis winaSe dabneva. mRvdlebi Tavisi funqciis
uamravi valdebulebiT arian dakavebulni da gatacebulni. amitom maT SeiZleba SiSiT ikiTxon, rogor SeiZleba SeaTanxmon garegan qmedebasTan Tavisi
Sinagani cxovreba. cxovrebis aseT erTianobas ver ganapirobebs arc samRvdlo msaxurebis garegani saqmeebi, arc mxolod RmrTismosaobis wvrTna
104 Sdr. Pont. Rom., De Ordinatione Presbyteri.
105 Sdr. Missale Romanum, Oratio super oblata dominicae IX post Pentecosten.
106 nebismieri mesa, Tundac mas mRvdelmsaxuri kerZod asrulebdes, aris ara kerZo
saqme, aramed qristesa da eklesiis qmedeba. eklesia swavlobs, msxverplSi, romelic mas
moaqvs, Tavisi Tavi miitanos sayovelTao msxverplad. is iyenebs jvris msxverplis erTaderT da usasrulo gamosyidviT Zalas mTeli msoflios gamosaxsnelad. yvela mesa xom
mxolod calkeul adamianTa gamoxsnisTvis ar sruldeba, aramed mTeli msoflios gamoxsnisaTvisac (...). amitom Cven mamobrvad da dabejiTebiT vurCevT mRvdelmsaxurebs, romlebic Cvens gansakuTrebul sixarulsa da ufalSi Cvbens gvirgvins warmoadgenen, mesa yoveldRiurad da mowiwebiT aRasrulon. (PAULUS VI, encycl. Mysterium Fidei, 3 sept. 1965: AAS 57
(1965), pp. 761-762). Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. de Sacra Liturgia, nn. 26, 27.
107 Sdr. ioan. 10, 11.
108 Sdr. 2kor. 1, 7.
109 Sdr. 2kor. 1, 4.
110 Sdr. 1kor. 10, 33.
111 Sdr. ioan. 3, 8.

312

PRESBYTERORUM ORDINIS

(praxis), ramdenadac ar unda uwyobdes is mas xels. magram mRvdlebs namdvilad SeuZliaT am erTianobis aSeneba, Tu msaxurebis aRsrulebaSi gahyvebian
ufali qristes magaliTs, romlis sakvebi iyo imis nebis qmna, vinc igi misi
saqmis aRsasruleblad moavlina.112
marTlac, eklesiis meSveobiT samyaroSi mamis nebis ganuxrelad aRsrulebisTvis qriste Tavis msaxurTa meSveobiT moqmedebs. igi mudam rCeba maTi
cxovrebis erTianobis sawyisad da wyarod. amitom mRvdlebma es erTianoba
qristesTan maTi erTobis safuZvelze unda ganaxorcielon, Seicnon mamis
neba da dadon Tavisi Tavi maTTvis mindobili samwysosTvis.113 ase, keTili
mwyemsis gansaxierebiT, samRvdlo siyvarulis ganxorcielebaSi, isini samRvdelmsaxuro srulyofilebis kavSirs hpoveben, romelic maT cxovrebasa
da moqmedebas kravs. es samRvdlo siyvaruli114 gamomdinareobs, upirveles
yovlisa, evqaristuli msxverplidan, romelic xdeba mRvdlis mTeli cxovrebis Suaguli da fesvi. samRvdelmsaxuro sulma unda gaiTavisos is, rac
samsxverplo sakurTxevelze xdeba. es mxolod maSin aris SesaZlebeli, Tu
mRvdlebi locviT sul ufro da ufro Rrmad SeiWrebian qristes saidumloebaSi.
Tavisi cxovrebis erTianobis konkretuli ganxorcielebisTvis maT
yvela Tavis wamowyebasTan dakavSirebiT unda gamoscadon, ra aris RmrTis
neba,115 anu ramdenad Seesabameba es wamowyebebi eklesiis evangeluri misiis
normebs. qristesadmi erTguleba xom eklesiisadmi erTgulebisgan ganuyofelia. amitom samRvdlo siyvaruli moiTxovs, rom mRvdlebi sicarieleSi ki
ar darbodnen,116 aramed mudam muSaobdnen mWidro urTierTobaSi episkoposebTan da mRvdlobaSi sxva ZmebTan. amgvari qmedebiT mRvdlebi moipoveben
sakuTari cxovrebis erTianobas Tavad eklesiis misiis erTianobaSi. amgvarad, isini Tavis ufals SeuerTdebian, xolo misi saSualebiT, suli wmidaSi,
- mamas, raTa SeZlon, iyvnen savseni nugeSiTa da sixarulis siuxviT.117

II. gansakuTrebuli sulieri moTxovnilebebi mRvdelTa cxovrebaSi


15. im siqveleTa Soris, romelsac mRvdelTa msaxureba sagangebod moiTxovs, aRsaniSnavia sulieri ganwyoba, romelic maT mudam ubiZgebs iyon mzad,
eZion ara Tavisi, aramed maTi momavlinebelis neba.118 saRmrTo saqme, romlis Sesasruleblad maT suli wmidam mouwoda,119 yvela adamianur Zalasa da
adamianur sibrZnes aRemateba, radgan uZlurni igi soflisani gamoirCina
RmerTman, raTa arcxnos ZlierTa (I kor. 1, 27). qristes WeSmariti msaxuri
acnobierebs Tavis uZlurebas da simdableSi muSaobs. igi gamoscdis, raigi ars saTno uflisa,120 da, TiTqos kruli suliTa,121 igi yvelaferSi imis
nebiT xelmZRvanelobs, visac yvela adamianis gamoxsna surs. mas SeuZlia, es
neba amoxsnas da mas yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi misdios, simdabliT emsaxurs
yvelas, vinc RmerTma mas miando misadmi dakisrebul samsaxursa da misi
cxovrebis mravalgvar movlenebSi.
112 Sdr. ioan. 4, 34.
113 Sdr. 1ioan. 3, 16.
114 siyvarulis movaleoba uflis cxvrebis mwysoba unda iyos (S. AUGUSTINUS, Tract.
in Io., 123, 5: PL 35, 1967).
115 Sdr. rom. 12, 2.
116 Sdr. gal. 2, 2.
117 Sdr. 2 kor. 7, 4.
118 Sdr. ioan. 4, 34; 5, 30; 6, 38.
119 Sdr. saqme 13, 2.
120 efes. 5, 10.
121 Sdr. saqme 20, 22.

313

vatikanis II kreba

samRvdlo msaxureba Tavad eklesiis msaxurebaa, amitom is SeiZleba mxolod mTeli sxeulis ierarqiul urTierTobaSi Sesruldes. samRvdlo siyvaruli mRvdlebs aiZulebs, am urTierTobaSi muSaobisas morCilebis gziT
Tavisi neba RmrTisa da ZmaTa msaxurebas miuZRvnan, rwmenis sulSi miiRon
da Seasrulon uzenaesi pontifeqsis, maTi episkoposis an sxva winamZRvrebis
miTiTebebi da rCevebi. isini siamovnebiT gascemen yvelafers, maT Soris sakuTar Tavsac122 nebismieri maTTvis dakisrebuli movaleobis Sesrulebisas,
rogori mdabali da arasaxarbieloc ar unda iyos is. amiT isini inaxaven da
ganamtkiceben aucilebel erTobas Tavis ZmebTan msaxurebaSi, gansakuTrebiT maTTan, vinc ufalma Tavisi eklesiis xilul mmarTvelebad (rectores)
daayena, da xels uwyoben qristes sxeulis Senebas, romelic izrdeba yovliTa SeaxlebiTa uxuebisaTa.123 es morCileba, romelsac RmrTis Svilebi
ufro momwifebuli Tavisuflebisken mihyavs, bunebrivad moiTxovs, rom
mRvdlebi, Tavisi funqciis aRsrulebisas, siyvaruliT STagonebulni, gonivrulad eZiebdnen axal gzebs eklesiis sakeTildReod, ndobiT iuwyebodnen Tavisi wamowyebebis Sesaxeb da Tamamad ganacxadebdnen maTTvis mindobili samwysos saWiroebaTa Sesaxeb. amasTanave, isini mudam mzad unda iyvnen,
daemorCilon maT gansjas, vinc RmrTis eklesiis marTvaSi uzenaes funqcias
asrulebs.
am simdabliT, agreTve pasuxismgeblobiT aRsavse da nebayoflobiTi
morCilebiT mRvdlebi qristes emsgavsebian. isini imasve grZnoben, rasac
ieso qriste, romelmac Tavis Tsi daimdabla da xati monisa miiRo... da iqmna igi morCil vidre sikudildmde (fil. 2, 7-9). am morCilebiT man daamarcxa
da gamoisyida adamis urCoba, rogorc amas mociquli mowmobs: viTarca-igi
erTisa mis kacisa urCebiTa codvilni Semodes mravalni, egreca erTisa mis
kacisa morCilebiTa marTalni Semoviden mravalni (rom. 5, 19).
16. mravali qristes erTguli saukuneTa manZilze da Cvens droSic ki siamovnebiT iziarebs da sanaqebod icavs srulyofil da mudmiv TavSekavebas
caTa sasufevlisTvis, romelsac ufali qriste gvTavazobs,124. eklesias is
yovelTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovnad miaCnda samRvdelmsaxuro cxovrebisaTvis. is aris samRvdlo siyvarulis niSani da, amave dros, misi stimulic,
agreTve samyaroSi sulieri nayofierebis gansakuTrebuli wyaro.125 ra Tqma
unda, mas ar moiTxovs Tavad samRvdelmsaxuro buneba, rasac adreuli eklesiis praqtika126 da aRmosavluri eklesiebis tradicia cxadyofs: iq, garda
maTi, vinc Tavis episkoposebTan erTad madlis niWiT celibatobis Senaxva
irCia, didad damsaxurebuli daqorwinebuli mRvdlebic arian. amitom, wmida sinodis mier saeklesio celibatobis SemoTavazeba srulebiT ar gulisxmobs im gansxvavebuli disciplinis Secvlas, romelic kanonierad moqmedebs
aRmosavlur eklesiebSi. kreba siyvaruliT mouwodebs yvelas, vinc ukve
daqorwinebulma miiRo mRvdloba, SeinarCunos wmida mowodeba da Tavisi
cxovreba srulad da uxvad miuZRvnas misadmi midnobil samwysos.127
Tumca, celibatoba mRvdelmsaxurebas mravalmxriv Seefereba. mRvdelmsaxuris misia xom mTlianad axali kacobriobis msaxurebas eZRvneba, romelsac qriste, sikvdilis mZleveli, Tavisi sulis meSveobiT samyaroSi aRadgens
(suscitat). mas dasabami aqvs ara sisxlTagan, arca nebiTa mamakacTaTa, aramed
RmrTisagan (ioan. 1, 13). caTa sasufevlisTvis qalwulobis an celibatobis
122
123
124
125
126
127

314

Sdr. 2 kor. 12, 15.


Sdr. efes. 4, 11-16.
Sdr. efes. 4, 11-16.
Sdr. CONC. VAT. II, Const. dogm. de Ecclesia, n. 42.
Sdr. 1 tim. 3, 2-5; tit. 1, 6.
Sdr. PIUS XI, encycl. Ad catholici sacerdotii, 20 dec. 1935: AAS 28 (1936), p. 28.

PRESBYTERORUM ORDINIS

dacviT128 mRvdlebi axleburad da gansakuTrebuli saxiT SeZleben, Tavi qristes miuZRvnan, ufro advilad Seudgnen mas ganuyofeli guliT,129 masSi da
misi meSveobiT ufro Tavisuflad miuZRvnan Tavi RmrTis msaxurebas, ufro
warmatebiT emsaxuron mis meufebasa da uzenaesi ganaxlebis saqmes. amgvarad,
isini ukeTesad SeZleben qristeSi mamobis ufro farTod miRebas. ase mowmoben isini adamianTa winaSe Tavis survils, Tavi uklebliv maTTvis mindobil
funqcias miuZRvnan, rac niSnavs: miaTxovon erTgulebi erTsa mamakacsa
qalwulad wmidad wardginebad qristesa.130 ase moagoneben isini saidumlo
qorwinebis Sesaxeb, romelic RmerTma daamkvidra da romelic momavalSi
srulad gamomJRavndeba. igi gulisxmobs, rom eklesias erTi saqmro (Sponsum) hyavs: qriste.131 garda amisa, isini iqcevian momavali samyaros cocxal
niSnad, romelic sarwmunoebisa da siyvarulis meSveobiT ukve arsebobs da
romelSic aRdgomis Svilebi ar gaTxovdebian da ar daqorwi