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Detoxification Protocols

Printer Friendlier Version 'Assisted Detoxification' Categories Stimulating Your Lymphatic and Cardiovascular Circulation Balancing Liver Function and Energy Levels during a Detoxification Programme How detoxification fits into your overall programme Detoxification Supplements and Techniques to Assist Cellular Detoxification Absorbants Overview Chlorella Bentonite Clay - Internal and External Use Diatomaceous Earth (D.E.) Charcoal Fibre Bacteria Chelation Introduction Mechanism Method of Administration: Intravenous, Anal and Oral Categorisation - Chelation vs Mobilisation - What to Take and When Low Frequent Dose Chelation - The Cutler Protocol Toxicity of Certain Synthetic Chelating Agents Comparative Studies and Reviews of Chelating Agents Targetted Chelation by Heavy Metal Use of Absorbants in Parallel Balancing Chelation Critics of Chelation Therapy Proper Hydration Demineralisation and Mineral Supplementation Dosage Over-Detoxification Side Effects Frequency of Administration Supporting Liver Function Measuring the Progress of your Chelation Programme Chelating Agent Reviews Activated Zeolites - Natural Cellular Defense (NCD) Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP) / Modified Alginate

Complex (MAC) Detoxamin (EDTA Suppositories) OSR#1 - Oxidative Stress Relief IP6 Mobilising/Chelating Combination Product Reviews Fermented Peptides & Micronised Chlorella PCA-Rx Metal-Free NDF nd NDF Plus Heavy Metal Nano Detox Zeotrex Mobilising Agent Reviews Lipoic Acid Thiamine TetrahydroFurfuryl Disulfide (TTFD) Fulvic Acid and Humic Acid Cilantro (Coriander Leaf) General Other Chelating/Mobilising Herbs Mobilising Products containing Cilantro (Chelorex) Phospholipid Therapy Role of Phospholipids Soy Lecithin Oral Phosphatidyl Choline Supplementation Phospholipid Exchange (PLX) - IV Phosphatidyl Choline Infusions Combining PLX with FIR Saunas Light (EMR) Therapies Introduction Far Infrared (FIR) Saunas What is FIR and how does it work? Types of FIR Sauna Considerations for FIR Sauna Usage Combining FIR Saunas with other Detoxification Protocols Experimentation Light Beam Generator (LBG) aka OAPD LymphStar Pro Lustre - Electro Lymphatic Drainage/Therapy (ELT) Laser Energetic Detoxification (LED) Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) Other Electromagnetic Stimulation Foot Detox Patches and Tourmaline

Foot Detox Patches Tourmaline Jewelry Example of a Liver and Gallbladder Cleanse Kidney Stone Elimination Skin Cleansing Bentonite Clay Bath 'Mud' Pack Skin Exfoliation Skin Brushing Himalayan Crystal Salt Bath MSM Bath Other Detoxification Methods Detoxification Diets Homeopathic Remedies

'Assisted Detoxification' Categories: So who do we believe about detoxification? Alternative health proponents will tell you that everyone needs to go on a detoxification programme, which vary between being useless, harmful, rather severe to the gentle. Experts from the medical establishment will tell you that all you need to detoxify your body is to drink plenty of tap water and to make sure you are getting enough sleep. Is detoxification a big con? Who is right? To answer this question we

need to understand how detoxification processes work in the body. The term detoxification means different things to different people. Below are some examples of different types of 'detoxification'. Cellular detoxification:

Removal of toxins such as heavy metals can be achieved by taking a supplement (called a Chelating Agent) to actively leach heavy metals and some other toxins from the cells and proteins of the body. Heavy metals are highly polar molecules (positively charged in ionic form) and tend to accumulate in the matrix and cells of the liver, kidney etc. as well as in other protein structures in the body. A small proportion of heavy metals in the body enter the adipose tissue (see Wikipedia's definition of fat cells) and perhaps also to the mitochondrial membranes and interfering with mitochondrial function. Certain heavy metals that mimmick Calcium, for example Lead, will also accumulate in bone, which is also a polar segment of the body. A chelating agent binds with these heavy metals to form a large molecule which travels in the bloodstream until it is removed from the body by the eliminative organs such as the liver, the kidney, the lungs, the mucus membranes and the skin. This is examined below in the absorbants, chelation, cilantro, clathration and activated zeolites sections on this page. Heavy metal levels can be determined through a hair mineral analysis test, various laboratory tests and kinesiological testing. Please see the identification page for more information.

Removal of organic chemical toxins from the body's fatty tissues and cell membranes and mitochondrial membranes (a condition known as Neurotoxic Membrane Syndrome or NMS) can be achieved by ingesting constituents of these membranes in order to assist the body in naturally rebuilding and replacing them, thus flushing out the attached toxins, (i.e. heavy metals and organic toxins). Such toxins tend to accumulate in the less polar and lipid-rich parts of the

body, having little polarity and a strong affinity for other non-polar organic compounds, especially lipids. Removing toxins (and also 'rogue' protein complexes - see the mitochondrial page for more information) from the inter- and intra-cellular membranes may be achieved by taking a cominbation of Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids and large amounts of Phosphatidyl Choline or other phospholipids (either orally or orally and via injection). This is described in the Phospholipid Therapy section below. The removal of toxins from both the cell membranes and fatty tissues can be achieved by electromagnetically stimulating the body's organs and tissues to release toxins attached to cell membranes and mitochondrial membranes and to drain toxins present in the lymphatic fluid by using far infrared radiation methods (and also phospholipid therapy to a lesser extent). This is discussed in the Light (EMR) Therapies (inc. FIR Saunas and OAPD/LBG) paragraph below. Organic toxins tend not to show up in hair, urine or blood tests for chemical elements (mass spectrometry or otherwise), and are harder to detect kinesiologically (depending on practitioner), and so can be detected through white cell microscopy (ATP Translocator Protein test) or indirectly through a urinary metabolic profile. Please see the identification page for more information. Whichever method or combination of methods of cellular detoxification you choose, bear in mind that the additional work load on the liver involved may create excess heat energy in the body and may lower the energy and thus efficiency and health of the liver, which may unbalance your energetic system somewhat during a heavy detoxification programme.

Cleaning the Organs of Elimination: When undertaking a detoxification programme, it is often not enough to just assist the body's cellular detoxification, although cellular detoxification is probably the most important element. It often helpful to clear out and cleanse the body's eliminative organs and tissues, as described below, to allow the body to effectively expel toxins from the

body, that you may be releasing in your cellular detoxification programme. The body is continually producing and taking on new toxins from the environment, which the organs of elimination have to remove to prevent excessive build up in the tissues. However, during a detoxification programme, we are effectively lightly 'poisoning' the body by releasing additional toxins from the tissues into the blood stream, and these additional toxins also have to be removed. This is why it is important to be able to properly expel all these toxins from the body. Whilst the exact method of cellular detoxification and dietary recommendations may vary, these basic principles are generally accepted by many specialists in the detoxification field, of a variety of disciplines, diets and methodologies, e.g. Dr Richard Schultze (please see the Detoxification Diets section below.
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Cleansing the colon of excessive mucoid plaque and hardened/built up stool. This is described in the psyllium section below. Mucoid plaque is examined in detail on the Mucoid Plaque page. The liver and gallbladder eliminate the vast majority of the body's toxins, and excrete these combined/semi-neutralised toxins into the small intestine. If there is excessive congestion in the small and large intestines, a significant amount of reabsorption may occur of toxins in the stool back into the blood stream, which may then retoxify the tissues and the brain. This may be greatly exacerbated if the patient is undergoing a chelation programme as the mucoid plaque may absorb a large amount of the heavy metals excreted into the GI tract! If a patient has very few bowel movements (i.e. less than one a day), then clearing and cleansing the colon is of the utmost importance (including a corresponding change in diet), as the majority of toxins are supposed to be eliminated through the digestive tract and out from the bowels, and if the bowels are extremely congested, then any additional cellular detoxification that is occurring will result in even more of a build up of toxins in the colon. It makes little sense chelating mg's of heavy metals from the tissues when there are kilos of putrifying mucoid plaque and stool in the small and large intestines, full of toxic matter and heavy metals which can more quickly be removed. Clearly before trying to remove toxins from the body through the liver, the pathway from the liver to the toilet has to be clear!

Some specialists regard a colon cleanse as being the highest priority in cancer patients who do not have very long to live, as part of their treatment programme.

Cleansing the liver of toxins that have built up in it. Improving liver functioning and expelling of its accumulated toxins through additional bile release from the gallbladder can be achieved by taking herbs such as Cilantro or Silymarin Milk Thistle tinctures/supplements. Of course taking any herb long term has an energetic impact on the body, as a practitioner of oriental medicine will tell you, and is not advisable. For short term usage, it may be beneficial. Taking Phosphatidyl Choline or Lecithin may also assist in bile production. In addition, Butyric acid or Calcium/Magnesium Butyrate may also assist in cleansing the liver an protecting the intestinal membranes. Please see the Liver Function page for more information about herbs and supplements to support the liver.

Cleansing the liver and gallbladder of mineral deposits that have built up in it. Mineral deposits (i.e. crystalised bile salts, or gallbladder 'stones', aka gallstones) tend to build up in the gallbladder, which take up too much space in the gallbladder (e.g. up to a heaped teaspoon of gallstones), and they tend to absorb a variety of toxins over time. Their presence toxifies the gallbladder and can prevent the gallbladder filling up with enough bile, therefore limiting the amout of bile that can be secreted into the intestines, thereby preventing effective digestion and detoxification. To remove gallstones, a variety of different liver and gallbladder cleanses are available. These work by softening the mineral deposits over a period of a week typically, by eating a large number of apples or drinking litres of apple juice each day (or taking malic acid supplements instead for those that have candida/parasite/bad bacteria issues). This also helps to dissolve old bile in gallbladder which can be subsequently released. On the day of the cleanse,

one takes an amount of epsom salts to dilate the bile secretion tubes (biliary tubing) in the gallbladder, followed by an amount of olive oil and lemon juice to empty the gallbladder of bile and actively force out the mineral deposits, which take the form of small green balls, which are then expelled in the faeces. There is an associated risk of blocking your biliary tubing with such a process with especially large gallstones, which would require emergency surgery to unblock them, so advice from a qualified health practitioner is always advisable. Pictures of of gallbladder full of mineral deposits and pictures of gallstones excreted during a liver cleanse can be seen at the link below. www.angelhealingcenter.com/GallstonePictures.html

Clearing the liver of fatty deposits. It is important when treating CFS in general, but also when engaging in any detoxification programme, to ensure that one's diet is conducive to a healthy liver. This means not only avoiding trans fats, but also ensuring one has a healthy oil intake, rich in the correct proportion of Omega 3 and 6 Essential Fatty Acids. Please see the section Factors that may contribute to Inefficient Liver Functioning above, Nutritional Deficiencies page and Digestive Disorders page for more information. A fatty liver will not function correctly and is likely not able to deal with your current (and historical) requirements let alone those of a heavy detoxification programme. Below left is an example of a fatty human liver. Below right is an example of an extremely fatty human liver. Your liver should not look like either of these, but these examples are quite common in the average 'healthy' individual.

Cleansing the lymphatic system of accumulated waste and clumped cells to remove blockages and ensure healthy immune system and detoxification function. This involves light therapies, such as Oxygen Assisted Photon Detoxification (OAPD), described in the Light Therapies section below, and to a lesser extent Detox Foot Patches, described in the Detox Patches section below. It can also involve exercise, massage, hydrotherapy and other methods.

Cleansing the kidneys of toxins and mineral deposits that have built up in them. This involves proper hydration (i.e. drinking enough mineral or filtered water to wash out the toxins and mineral deposits from the kidneys). This also means avoiding drinking

anything other than water, juiced fruit or vegetables and herbal teas (preferably those rich in antioxidants or herbs to support the liver and digestive function), especially alcohol, sugary/soft drinks and coffee. Certain herbs may also assist in 'flushing' the kidneys. A sign of weak kidneys (or adrenal function - the adrenal glands being attached to the kidneys), or low kidney qi (according to TCM), is a stiff lower back or lower back pain. Kidney stones are one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. Most kidney stones pass out of the body with any intervention. However some do not and require treatment. Some individuals may be more prone to developing/forming kidney stones for genetic reasons, but on the whole it is dependent on diet and a high 'oxalate' intake (e.g. chocolate, rhubarb, spinach, wheat germ etc.) www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov/Kudiseases/pubs/stonesad ults/index.htm ...or a high cystine intake (as opposed to the cysteine form which does not contribute to bladder/kidney stone formation. www.vitaminstuff.com/amino-acid-cystine.html There are of course medical procedures for removing kidney stones, but what we are proposing here is to remove them naturally, using highly effective herbs, as a first point of call, before cutting up the body unnecessarily.
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Urination when the bladder fills up and passing stools when they enter the rectum, and not holding them in longer than need be, to avoid reabsorbing any toxins.

Cleansing the skin of external and internal sources of toxins. This can be achieved by the use of clays and exfoliating scrubs, as described in the Skin Cleansing section below.

Clearing (and not ingesting) mucus from the throat, nasal passages and lungs (especially first thing in the morning).

Cleaning the tongue (by brushing with toothpaste or with tongue scraper) and gums by brushing with toothpaste to remove bacterial build up. Disclaimer Don't brush too high up on the tongue or you may damage your taste buds.

Proper, diaphragm breathing to expel toxic carbon dioxide gas (CO2 is a toxic gas!) and to properly oxygenate the blood - this involves maximum belly movement to initiate the breath in before lifting the rib cage.

Killing off harmful micro-organisms: Another type of 'detoxification' is the killing off of harmful micro-organism such as candida, single cell parasites and bad bacteria. BlackSpy would not categorise living microorganisms as toxins, but as invaders or unwanted guests. They do however continually produce exotoxins, which they excrete, and also endotoxins, which are released when these organisms are killed off. They also put a constant strain on the immune system. Procedures for killing these are described in the Digestive Disorders section, although such micro-organisms are not necessary restricted to the digestive tract and are often systematic (i.e. present throughout the body), putting a constant strain on the immune system and excreting toxins continually. back to top Stimulating your Lymphatic and Blood Circulation: Remember to try to keep up your rate of metabolism and cardiovascular circulation whilst engaging in a detoxification

programme. You will be carrying a large amount of toxins in your lymphatic system, so it is important to keep the lymphatic system moving and flowing. Some information pertaining to the lymphatic system can be found on the Immune System Impairment page. It is also important to maintain a good blood supply and circulation to the liver and other parts of the body, so that released toxins from the tissues can be carried away, and brought to the liver. It is therefore important to take regular exercise, even if just light, to breathe properly, keep well hydrated, and to lightly massage the organs or particularly afflicted areas to maintain that circulation (by any means know to you). Alternative hot and cold showers each morning may also help (a.k.a. hydrotherapy - please see the Energetic Therapies page for more information); and also anything that makes you sweat (e.g. steam saunas or FIR saunas). Foot detox patches may also help increase the rate of draining of your lympathic system and stimulate the lymphatic circulation. Dry skin brushing and scrubbing will also help to stimulate the lympathic circulation. Lymphatic Drainage Massage or Manual Lymphatic Drainage (MLD) is a type of gentle massage of the lymph nodes of the body that is designed to assist in the body's drainage of excess lymph, and thus in aiding the removal of toxins carried in the lymphatic fluid from the body. MLD can either be provided by a skilled practitioner or you can perform a simplified version yourself on your own body. A link below from the Cancer Backup web site describes MLD. www.cancerbackup.org.uk/Resourcessupport/Symptomssideeffects/L ymphoedema/Manuallymphaticdrainage Energetic therapies such as acupuncture, bio energy healing, quantum touch etc. can also help to assist in lymphatic drainage as well as stimulating the organs of elimination. Even massaging an affected body part can increase blood flow and lymph flow to that area, as can gentle exercise, sweating, and hydrotherapy (alternate hot and cold showers/immersion). It is clear that assisting lymphatic drainage alone will help detoxification to an extent, but it is something that should be done as part of a detoxification programme rather than a single means of assisting detoxification. Any way we can increase blood flow and lymphatic flow is going to help your detoxification programme, recovery and general health. It should not be ignored! There is a Tai Chi exercise that involves stimulating the body's meridians. This involves drums one's fists lightly over the body, arms

and legs. It starts on above the groin and one moves up the central axis of the torso until one reaches the chest. One then drums the chest, each fist covering each 'pec', drumming the whole area left and right and up to just below the collar bone. This particular part of the exercise stimulates the lymph glands in the chest, and the overall lymphatic system in general. One then drums the central axis of the forehead, the top of the head, all the way to the back of the head and the neck. One then drums down one's back, either side of the spine, until one reaches the buttocks. One then drums the whole area of the buttocks, with one fist on each buttock. Then one drums down each arm (one at a time, using the opposite fist to do the drumming), down the outside of the arm onto the back of the hand, then up the inside of the arm until one reaches the armpit. One then performs a similar routine on the legs, down the outside of the leg and up the inside of the leg. One can perform this any time, but it is usually performed first thing in the morning to stimulate the body. back to top Balancing Liver Function and Energy Levels during a Detoxification Programme: Sometimes by increasing/strengthening the body's energy levels and electromagnetic field, and also supporting the liver and kidney with the relevant chemicals and nutrients (in the right quantities) in order to function optimally, it is enough to energise the liver enough to perform its detoxification duties in full. In heavily toxified patients, the clogging up of the eliminative organs (primarily the liver) and thus their lower function and energy is partly why their bodies cannot naturally detoxify themselves. When undertaking a cellular detoxification programme, it is wise to cleanse the body's eliminative organs on a periodic basis. One must however strike a balance between gently assisting the body's natural detoxification mechanisms, and forcing the body the intensively undergo detoxification in an aggressive manner which can overload the liver and kidneys and deplete the body's energy levels in general. Cellular detoxification, or in effect, actively releasing toxins from the tissues and organs of the body into the blood stream, is equivalent on some level to continuously poisoning the body over long periods of time. In the case of Heavy Metals, they are usually in places where they are already causing a large number of problems biochemically, so chelation does not poison the body so much but more taxes the organs of elimination, which are probably already quite stretched. It is therefore important not to 'overdo it' and in such cases, if one greatly

exceeds one's detoxification capacity, one is significantly poisoning oneself (to some degree) and this is why the symptoms of overdetoxing are headaches, fatigue etc. Detoxing solidly for several years could be considered equivalent to heavy drinking for several years in terms of the effect it will have on one's liver! As you are putting an additional burden on your liver, you have to physically ensure that your intake of supportive nutrients is sufficient for the additional work your liver is being asked to carry out. Probably the most important of these is Glutathione and Glucuronic acid. Glutathione production and availability is a bottleneck for detoxification and liver function for many CFS patients, whose Glutathione levels are already too low to start with, which is partly why they got into difficulties in the first place. Increasing detoxification requirements will increase the requirement for Glutathione. It is therefore of critical importance to decrease the amount of cellular detoxification or chelation to match the available Glutathione levels, or to boost those Glutathione levels by taking Glutathione precursors (e.g. L-Cysteine) or to directly supplement Glutathione, either orally or by injection. The less Glutathione is available, the longer a cellular detoxification programme will take; and equally if one proceeds at an aggressive pace regardless of Glutathione levels, sooner or later the body will run very low, opening up the possibilities of liver stress or damage, and indeed severe oxidative damage around the body and impaired respiration functions on account of the lack of antioxidant protection offered by Glutathione. A Functional Liver Detoxification Profile (FLDP) is a useful tool to ascertain the extent of one's current liver health and efficiency, and which pathways may possibly be impaired. This test is discussed on the Identification page. It is equally if not more important to ensure that the energetic levels and general function of organs such as your liver and kidneys are sufficiently high to accommodate for your current level of detoxification. Whether the chelating agents you are using are mainly excreted via the kidneys or liver or both will also have an effect on which organs are put under the most strain. Over time, cellular detoxification will tend to deplete the energy and also nutrient reserves of these organs. This is why regular breaks and pacing oneself in one's detoxification regime are very important. Every 6 or 9 months, for a few weeks, or so, you may want to establish a baseline, cease your detoxification programme, and to see how you feel with your new level of cleanliness of toxins without burdening the body with detoxification - whilst continuing to support your liver and kidneys etc; and also to give these organs of elimination a rest. For more information on nutrients for liver and kidney support, and the

enzymatic processes involved, please see the Inefficient Liver Function page. For more information about energetic treatments, please see the energetic therapies page. For more information on electromagnetic stimulation, please see the Electromagnetic Deficiencies page and also the FIR section on this page. You may wish to also consider the Liver Function tests on the Tests page to establish which liver pathways if any are impaired and require supporting. If you are lucky enough to have a lower level of toxicity or very healthy liver and kidneys, you may well be able to complete your detoxification programme in one continuous programme, with no intervals. However, you wouldn't run consecutive marathons in one day - you might consider a little rest and recuperation in between each one! In most cases doing so is a recipe for disaster and burn out (i.e. shifting your metabolism to a lower level of Chronic Fatigue and cellular inefficiency that is hard to recover from). Your doctor or consultant should be able to advise you of the best and optimal regime for you as you go along. It is sometimes hard to identify a tired liver, but your regime should give you a guide to how hard you are working it. The liver is a large organ, and protrudes from the bottom of the right rib cage. Sometimes liver discomfort can be confused with a discomfort or pain in the colon, specifically the top of the ascending colon. If you are taking aggressive amounts of fibre and/or preforming too aggressive a colonic abdominal massage (to increase stool movement in the colon), then you may aggravate the lining of the colon. The ascending colon is particularly prone to abuse in this manner as it tends to clog up with stool quite easily. So if you are experiencing discomfort in this area (in the right side of the middle of your abdomen), then you can probably figure out what it causing it. If you are not sure then, it is best to take a break from detoxification for at least a couple of weeks in any case! The sensation should then disappear. Sometimes the exact place of the sensation may vary slightly, sometimes feeling as if it is coming from the top of the ascending colon, and at other times from the bottom of the liver. Please note that in addition to eliminating toxins from the body, the liver is also responsible for breaking down and digesting oils. Large amounts of oil in the diet and the consumption alcohol, caffeine,

nicotene or other drugs will put a heavy burden on the liver and gallbladder. Glucuronic acid is the main nutrient involved in supporting the breakdown of fatty substances and toxins in the liver. If you are intending to embark on a detoxification programme, it would be highly advisable to cut out fried foods and to avoid eating excessive amounts of additional vegetable oil, nut oils, ground flaxseed, olive oil, coconut oil or dessicated coconut in/with your food as well as any drugs or any kind. You don't want to be burdening your liver with your regular lifestyle and diet and then add additional heavy detoxification work on top of this. If you do this, you are likely to tire your liver out rather quickly. Please do remember though that you want to maintain your correct omega 3 to 6 ratio in your diet, and to consume as many good unsaturated fats as you are comfortable consuming, both in terms of your digestive system and your liver - but clearly no more or it will be detrimental to your live function and digestive function. One should also note that chelation and detoxifying the tissues may require energy in general (more ATP), i.e. to release or move toxins around the body, as well as processing them by the liver, as well as the potential retoxification issues that may in general poison you or adversely affect your adrenal and mitochondrial function (causing increased fatigue). Please bear in mind that as you leach heavy metals out of the bone and tissues of the body in sequence that their levels may be temporarily elevated in the blood (and hence hair folicles). In this manner, levels of specific heavy metals may appear artificially elevated or even increase from one hair analysis to another. This is not something to be alarmed about, but to note which metals the body is selectively detoxifying at the time of the 'snap shot' of the hair mineral analysis (which tends to show the mineral state of the tissues a month ago or two prior to the time of collection of the hair sample). This may not necessarily be the case however, and may vary according to the individual. This is far from being widely accepted as fact however. One learns to listen to the body and to feel when one is in the optimum/maximum comfortable detoxification 'zone' (given the limitations of the protocol one is using), and one can learn when one is overdoing it or when the liver is being overburdened. One should also be aware of the potential risks and pitfalls with higher dosages or durations and use one's common sense. Tests are a more effective method of gauging what progress you have made rather than a macho desire to be able to take larger and larger amounts of a given chelating agent etc. This may sound complicated, but it normally

becomes intuitive after a few months or so of detoxification. back to top How Detoxification fits into your Overall Programme: As a general rule (if there is such a thing), BlackSpy advocates that invading organisms should be largely eradicated first, such as fungus, yeasts, bad bacteria, mycoplasmas, candida, parasites etc. Once these invaders have been largely killed off, then the next part of the treatment should focus on detoxification, the removal of poisons from the body (the poisons that are continually having a negative energetic impact on your body 24 hours a day). After this, then the process of building the body back up again will be more effective as any poisons present will interfere with bio-chemical processes and act like brakes on your recovery. As an individual approach is required, BlackSpy recommends that you discuss this with your consultant. There is evidence to suggest that heavy metals in the intestine will be absorbed by candida, but that the presence of the heavy metals does not actually encourage their growth. It just means that if you kill off the candida too quickly, you may well absorb all the heavy metals that they were carrying, and have an intense 'die off' reaction. Assuming that you have a significant level of toxicity in your body (the definition of significant varies from individual to individual, as each person varies in their ability to cope with toxic elements and compounds), you have a number of choices available to you. Let's say for example that you choose to use PCA-Rx and consume a small amount of Chlorella and MSM daily as part of your detoxification programme, in addition to taking phospholipids and having FIR Saunas. When should you do this? There is no easy answer. In some cases, the level of toxicity is so severe, that the programme should be started immediately, prior to treating any other conditions the individual has. It depends on the type of toxicity present in the body, which will to a large extent govern the exact detoxification protocol(s) employed. In other cases, it may be best to try to build up the adrenal function prior to beginning a detoxification programme. However, in the latter case, elevated levels of mercury will target the adrenal glands and kidneys and weaken their energy. Heavy metal toxicity if over a threshold amount for a given person and his biochemical tolerance at that given point in time, will tend have a negative impact on the metabolic (mitochondrial) function, hormonal (endocrine) function and immune function, unless the toxins are physically removed from the body (if present), these systems are

unlikely to be coaxed into full working order by simply supporting adrenal function etc, but herbal methods (e.g. TCM or otherwise). One has to remove the active cause of the energetic problem and provide the body with enough of the deficient nutrients before you can really achieve success in tackling the energetic effects the problems have had on the body. CFS patients and sufferers of related conditions often confuse energetic practitioners and many herbalists, as they cannot understand what is going on. If you have just had a mercury amalgam filling(s) removed, it is critical that you begin a detoxification programme immediately, regardless of where you are with your treatment, with the emphasis being on taking absorbants as soon as possible. If you are considering having your mercury amalgam fillings removed, then it may be wise to plan and schedule this into your overall treatment programme. Please see the section below for more information. Sometimes detoxification will be the highest priority. At other times, the patient would be best waiting before commencing a detoxification programme. There is a difference between being ready to detox and needing to detox. If one can significantly improve without detoxing, then one should wait and focus on nutritional and biochemical (etc.) support. If the patient is in bad shape and will make little progress with any supportive protocol, i.e. heavy metals or other toxins are the bottle neck, then detoxification should commence immediately, even if the patient is not really in the ideal state for it - albeit very gently (but using proven and effective methods). Immediate improvement should be seen in such cases. back to top Detoxification Supplements to Assist Cellular Detoxification: The rest of this page will examine cellular detoxification and associated supplements, techniques and issues. Absorbants Overview:

Absorbants or binding agents are in general terms inert substances that are consumed orally and not digested, but pass through the digestive tract and bind with any heavy metals present in the GI tract, usually in the colon. They are in essence chelating agents which cannot be absorbed into the bloodstream. Heavy metals are excreted into the colon from the gallbladder in the bile, and usually attached to Glutathione. Glutathione is not a very good chelating agent however, and heavy metals can be readily absorbed back into the digestive tract. This is why absorbants are useful as they bind/absorb these heavy metals and prevent their reabsorption. Absorbants are necessary when using mobilising agents to minimise reabsorption, and perhaps slightly less critical when using chelating agents that are either strong binders or which are excreted via the urinary tract. However, even when using such chelating agents, there will still be a percentage of toxins excreted into the gut bound to Glutathione, so occasional use of an absorbant is really a must in a detoxification programme at the very least. We can assist the natural detoxification processes of the body by taking an absorbant such as Chlorella or Bentonite clay. These are intestinal detoxification agents. Heavy metals tend to accumulate in the GI tract, as well as the blood, lymph, fatty acids (brain!) and bones of our body. Consuming an absorbant will absorb/bind with many types of toxins present in the GI tract and assist in their removal in the faeces. Once the GI tract is free of toxins, and the patient continues to consume the absorbant, the absorbant will draw toxins from the blood that passes by the capillaries around the intestinal wall. Gradually, over a period of months, the blood will be cleaned of toxins, and heavy metals will begin to be drawn from the tissues (into the blood, then into the GI tract). The benefit of this approach is that it is very gentle and does not add any addition detoxification load on the liver and kidneys. An absorbant can be taken as your main detoxification supplement, in which case detoxification is very slow and gentle and may take anything from 9 months to maybe thirty years to fully detoxify your system (of heavy metals), depending on the level of toxicity present in your intestine, your tissues and individual cells. Or an absorbant can be used to 'mop up' toxins that are actively released from your tissues and cells by a chelation or clathration agent. Such agents are discussed further down on this toxification page. Please note that an absorbant's ability to bind with complex organic chemicals is somewhat limited, and are not really effective in releasing and absorbing toxins such as organic-based drugs or

sulphur-based anti-biotics. These are released by methods described elsewhere on this page (i.e. FIR Saunas, Phospholipid Therapy etc.) and once eliminated into the small intestine, have to pass out of the body without 'assistance' from an absorbant. That is not to say that there is ever any harm in taking an absorbant under such circumstances anyway. Clearly the number and type of toxins in the body of a CFS sufferer can often be very large and diverse, and it is difficult to make hard-sticking generalisations about the exact capability and limitations of absorbants. back to top Chlorella

Chlorella is a green algae and has the added benefit of being a source of fibre (it is the indigestible outer wall that binds with heavy metals so effectively) and a good source of nutrients. Approximately 75% of each cell is digestible. Chlorella is one of the oldest food sources on the planet. Chlorella pyridosia is more nutritious and probably a better

absorbant than chlorella vulgaris, which is the most common type of chlorella. If you purchase chlorella, make sure you know which species you are buying. Chlorella, as with all other types of algae, has a cold energy (c/f Traditional Chinese Medicine theory) and consuming large amounts may make the person unwell (this depends very much of course on the energetic state of the individual). Algae is also alkaline in nature, and it is helpful to take additional betaine HCl tablets with your chlorella so that your (probably very low levels of) stomach acid is not neutralised (generally 500700mg of Betaine HCl per heaped teaspoon of Chlorella). If you do take large amounts of Chlorella without any Betaine HCl, you may notice that you produce more pungent wind than usual (which is a sign of poor protein digestion, which is in turn a side effect of less/neutralised stomach acid).

It is the indigestible, fibrous outer cell wall that toxic metals attach themselves to, and are thereby passed out of the digestive tract with the stool. The outer cell wall stays in the digestive tract and does not pass into the blood stream. BlackSpy has found that certain types of toxic element may not be as readily absorbed by orally consumed Chlorella as other toxic elements. It may depend on what phase of your

detoxification programme you are in and what mixture of toxic metals and elements you are chelating from your tissues and thus releasing into your digestive tract. BlackSpy has not found Chlorella particularly effective as an intestinal absorbant compared with Bentonite Clay or Charcoal, but it does have the benefit of not depleting mineral elements or interfering with general digestion of food (i.e. can be taken with food or on an empty stomach). It's effectiveness may be related to the relative smaller quantities taken compared with Bentonite or Charcoal which are generally taken in one tablespoon doses. However, BlackSpy believes that it is probably somewhat overrated as an intestinal detoxifying agent. 0.5 to 1.5g is probably more than enough as a daily dosage. Chlorella, as other algae supplements, is best taken on an empty stomach, 30 minutes before each meal. This allows the chlorella to mix with the bile in the intestines and remove some of the toxins from it. There is no reason why you cannot of course eat chlorella any time of day, as it is a food source. The amount you take depends on what is right for you. Pay attention to your body. Please note that Chlorella can also be a bonafide bloodstream chelating agent, but only if it is highly processed and the cell walls are chopped up into tiny fragments, that can pass through the GI wall into the bloodstream. There it can bind with heavy metals and act like any other chelating agent, to be removed by the kidneys. Examples of products that contain micronised or nano-ised Chlorella included PCA-Rx, Metal Free and NDF. back to top Bentonite Clay - Internal and External Use

'Bentonite clay' is the name given to a clay first identified in cretaceous rocks in Fort Benton, Wyoming in the USA. Although bentonite clay deposits can be found throughout the world, many of the highest concentrations of the clay are located in the Great Plains of the USA. Bentonite is a commercially used name for 'montmorillonite', the actual active mineral in many medicinal clays. The name 'montmorillonite' originates from the French city Montmorillon, where the medicinal clay was first identified. Of course medicinal clay has been consumed by people and animals for thousands of years. The chemical formula for Bentonite is Al2O34SiO2H2O, with varying amounts of Na2O, K2O and CaO. The chemical name for bentonite is naturally occurring hydrated aluminum silicate, e.g. naturally occurring sodium bentonite, naturally occurring calcium bentonite etc. Sodium activated bentonite is produced by chemical means, by adding a calcium salt to naturally occurring sodium bentonite, and is not typically used for internal use. Bentonite clay is from BlackSpy's experiences much more powerful an absorbant than Chlorella. It is inert, it is not digested and does not chemically react with the body. It merely passes through the intestinal tract and absorbs toxins, and is excreted in the faeces. It is not painful to consume and has no significant taste. When bentonite clay absorbs water, it expands and swells up, and is stretched open like a highly porous sponge. Toxins and heavy metals are drawn into these spaces through electrical attraction and bound into the clay particles. According to the Canadian Journal of Microbiology, bentonite clay has been used to absorb pathogenic viruses, as well as pesticides and

herbicides. The bentonite is eliminated from the body in the faeces with the toxins bound to its multiple surfaces. Bentonite clay is however limited in its ability to absorb toxins by their electrical charge. BlackSpy has found that certain types of toxic element may not be as readily absorbed by orally consumed Bentonite as other toxic elements. It may depend on what phase of your detoxification programme you are in and what mixture of toxic metals and elements you are chelating from your tissues and thus releasing into your digestive tract. Bentonite clay is so effective that it can actually absorb nutritional minetals minerals from the GI tract (basically any positive ions on account of its negative electrical charge), so it is recommended to take your 'psyllium and bentonite shake' (P & B Shake) between meals, preferably at least 1-2 hours after your last meal (or supplements) and at least 1-2 hours before your next meal (or supplements). On account of this demineralisation effect, it is wise not to use Bentonite clay for extended periods and to ensure one is taking in a diet rich in nutritional metals/minerals and/or supplementation with chelated nutritional metal elements, to safeguard against demineralisation and nutritional deficiencies, which can have serious knock on effects in biochemical terms. Most CFS sufferers are deficient in certain mineral elements already, so one does not want to exaccerbate this problem even further. It is recommended to buy as pure bentonite clay as you can find, preferably at least 99.75% purity. Clearly there is no such thing as organic bentonite clay as it is not grown. Liquid bentonite can be purchased in bottles (e.g. Sonne's #7), but it is much better and cheaper to make your own. Bottled liquid bentonite is however useful to have if you have having dental surgery (removing amalgam fillings) for drinking immediately prior and after the procedure(s). Below are some pictures of pre-bottled liquid bentonite.

To make your own liquid bentonite (from dry bentonite clay), you need to buy a jar of bentonite clay powder, and each day, for example, you take a clean glass bowl and pour 4 cups of mineral/filtered (cold/room temperature) water into it. Then empty one heaped tablespoon of bentonite clay on top of the water. Literally tip the contents of the spoon above the surface of the water. Do NOT stir. Place it in the fridge overnight. The clay particles will gradually sink to the bottom. If you attempt to stir it, then the clay will stick to the spoon and the bowl and it will be impossible to mix it properly.

The next day, remove from the fridge and use in four drinks. Before use, stir with a non-metallic spoon (e.g. ceramic or wooden spoon).

If you only use one bentonite drink a day, then reduce the quantities of water and clay accordingly. Make a new batch each day (it only takes a minute), but do not keep it longer than a day. An alternative to this procedure is to fill a pint glass with filtered water (i.e. half a litre or half a quart) i.e. enough for one drink and sprinkle a quarter to half a tablespoon of bentonite onto the surface and place in the fridge. Remove from fridge the next day and stir just prior to drinking. You may prepare one pint glass for each bentonite drink you will consume the next day. It is helpful to remove the bentonite mixture from the fridge a few hours before drinking, so that it is near to room temperature and not so very cold when consuming.

You may find that if you take too much liquid bentonite at once, you may begin to feel slightly thirsty after a hour or two, and remain thirsty for perhaps 18 hours. So if you have taken too much bentonite in the afternoon or evening, you may be up urinating all night as you will no doubt be drinking large amounts of water in the evening! Bentonite is very absorbant, so more is not necessarily better, and may have little added benefit over a moderate dosage. Please note that although bentonite is often taken together with psyllium husks (see below), one does not necessarily have to do so. If one is having problems with psyllium (e.g. excessive bloating), then one could either use less psyllium or just take bentonite on its own. For information pertaining to external use of bentonite and other clays, please see the Skin Cleansing section below. Bentonite Clay is often consumed together with rehydrated Psyllium Husks, in the form of a liquid, often referred to as 'Psyllium and Bentonite Shakes' or 'P&B Shakes'. These are used to detoxify the colon and to help remove mucoid plaque in the colon, absorbing any toxins that are released from the mucoid plaque when it is being scraped off the intestinal walls. This is examined in more detail on the Mucoid Plaque page. back to top Charcoal

Charcoal is another absorbant that can be used. It is commonly used after dental surgery involving Mercury amalgams. Charcoal has also traditionally been used in water filtration and to remove microbes and their toxins from water sources. It can also absorb organic toxic compounds. There are 150 types of carbon-activated charcoal that can be purchased, made from wood or vegetables. The most commonly used is vegetable charcoal. The general dosage depends on application, but for an adult, perhaps around a tablespoon or less can be consumed, thoroughly mixed with water, as far away from meals or supplements as possible, i.e. on an empty stomach. For emergency use, the maximum dosage is 1g of charcoal per 1kg of body weight. It is probably best to use a ceramic spoon whilst stirring it and for spooning it into a cup or glass. It may darken your stools, as it is not digested and being carbon is of course black! http://www.buyactivatedcharcoal.com/faq back to top Diatomaceous Earth (D.E.)

Diatomaceous Earth is a type of fossilised algae called Diatoms. In the fossilised form are 85% amorphous silica approximately, and their fossilised shells are extremely hard and extremely sharp edged. When ingested with water, they help to scrape mucoid plaque from the small and large intestines as well as slice up any tape worms if present. Diatomaceous Earth (D.E.) also has a high mineral content and can be used in remineralisation. The DE is not digested as such, although a small amount of silica and other minerals may be absorbed. The insoluble fraction sipmly passes through the digestive tract, rather like a P&B shake. The outside of the fossilised diatoms are negatively charged and attract heavy metal ions in the digestive tract. Many sources state that the hard, cylindrical Diatom shells can catch and trap all kinds of harmful microbes including yeasts, protozoa and bad bacteria, although this effect may be secondary and less exaggerated compared with the other properties mentioned above. DE has advantages over P&B shakes in that it requires the minimum of preparation and will likely not cause bloating like P&B shakes can if too much is taken at once or too many are consumed in one day. A tablespoon of DE is simply placed into a glass of water and stirred. That's it. It is probably best consumed on an empty stomach, although in farming applications it is simply sprinkled on animal feed. BlackSpy has tried D.E. for a couple of months, and has found that it seems to work best when mixed in with a thick medium, which can give the D.E. some leverage from which to actually scrape the most effectively in the GI tract. When mixed in on its own in water, it does not appear to be so effective as the equivalent amount of fibre mixed in with water. BlackSpy therefore believes that D.E. is best

consumed either in a glass of water taken with food, or mixed in with a glass of water/fibre mixture, with or without an absorbant like bentonite or charcoal. If using the latter absorbants with D.E.,it is best consumed on an empty stomach. D.E. does not appear to be as efficient an absorbant or binder of heavy metals as either Bentonite Clay or Charcoal. This is probably because of the scale, D.E. working on a fossilised cellular level to trap heavy metals rather than a molecular level. Please see the Diatomaceous Earth section of the Bacterial, Yeast and Parasite Overgrowth page for more information. back to top Fibre Fibre (fiber in USA) is useful as part of a heavy metal detoxification programme for a number of reasons. Firstly, it increases the transit time of food/chyme/stool in the GI tract, reducing the time that the bile (containing various toxins and heavy metals) has to be reabsorbed into the bloodstream (either directly or via liberation by pathogenic organisms in the GI tract). It also helps to bind the heavy metals and absorb the toxin-laden bile. Some forms of fibre are recommended to be consumed 15-20 minutes before meals for that reason, to ensure maximum contact with the bile which is excreted when a meal is eaten. A number of soluble fibre sources are available to supplement your diet, as well as fibre rich foods. Some of these are examined on the Mucoid Plaque page. Additional soluble fibre, preferably prebiotic in nature, can be mixed with any of the absorbants above and consumed in between meals. Bentonite and charcoal are best consumed well away from meals of course, but Diatomateous Earth can be consumed with or immediately before meals if desired (whilst being less effective). One source of fibre is examined in the Zeolites section below. It is a modified Seaweed extract molecule, Alginate, called Modified Alginate or 'Algimate'. This remains in the GI tract and is very proficient at binding with heavy metals. back to top

Bacteria Bacteria tend to absorb heavy metals in the GI tract and are passed out of the body in the stool, thus helping to eliminate heavy metals (assuming bowel movements are healthy). Bacteria of course multiply and repopulate the stool as new stool or chyme moves into the intestines. A healthy GI tract with a good flora balance is important for not only movement of matter through the GI tract but also in helping to absorb heavy metals. A clogged up bowel will tend to absorb and retain heavy metals, and even if there is a significant amount of (probiotic) bacteria present, it may be trapped inside the mucoid plaque and faeces congestion, absorbing heavy metals and effectively retaining an ever more toxic colon. Probiotic bacteria supplementation is generally a good idea when detoxifying the body, and otherwise. This is why the use of antibiotics can greatly decrease the rate of excretion of heavy metals from the digestive tract, as there are less bacteria to absorb the heavy metals and carry them out of the GI tract. When killing off pathogenic bacteria and yeast infections such as Candida, protein-based endotoxins are released which can contribute to adverse 'die off' symptoms. One part of this may be a release of the heavy metals they have absorbed directly into the GI tract, where it may be reabsorbed into the bloodstream unless a good absorbant or binding agent is present. Please see the Bacterial page for more information. back to top

Chelation: back to top Introduction Chelating agents are compounds that actively bind with polar toxic compounds, chiefly heavy metals but also some biotoxins, that they come across or that they electrically/chemically attract/actively out from the tissues. They vary in their properties, ease of absorption from the digestive tract, ease of penetration of various tissue types,

effectiveness (with individual heavy metals), and how inert they render the heavy metal prior to removal and excretion. Some cross the blood-brain barrier more effectively than others. Chelating agents are derived from natural compounds, of plant or soil origin, or are chemically synthesised amino acids. Chelation is pronounced 'Key-Lation' and not 'Chell-Ation', which BlackSpy didn't grasp for over 18 months and still has problems remembering the correct pronounciation! Chelation and chelation therapy are defined at Wikipedia below. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chelation_therapy Chelation products first came after World War One, as a treatment for the effects of chemical warfare, specifically arsenic. EDTA was created during World War Two in response to Lead poisoning by naval personnel from paints used to repaint the hulls of ships. DMSA was created in the 1960s as a variant of the WW1 chelating agent BAL. The Soviet Union created DMPS and also ALA. The Soviets experimented with Citrus Pectin in the 1980s, and it was not really until the late 1990s that a number of other more natural chelating agents appeared on the market. Chelation has historically been used for both heavy metal detoxification (including radioactive isotopes) and also for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, specifically the removal of atherosclerotic plaque (an alternative treatment to a heart bypass operation). back to top Mechanism If a chelating agent is taken, then large amounts of heavy metals and toxins are drawn out of the tissues, into the blood, and eventually into the liver and kidneys. The principle of chelation is for the chelant molecule to hit a toxic ion, to create a larger and preferably more inert molecule, which is large enough for the liver to recognise/deal with and remove from the blood and to excrete into the digestive tract for removal from the body (via one's stool). Chelants are carried around the body in the blood stream and float

around until they hit something that they can bind to, or attract (locally or from a tissue compartment) with their electrical charge. In the case of synthetic chelation agents, and mostly likely many natural chelating agents as well but to a slightly lesser extent, this may well be nutritional elements and as well heavy metals. Chelants will go wherever the blood goes, so they will be absorbed into the tissues to some degree. The more chelant molecules you take into the body, the more likely they are to hit/attract a toxic element and bind to it. And conversely, the more toxic elements/molecules you have in the body, floating around in the blood stream or attached to (inter/intra) cellular membranes, then the more likely a chelant molecule floating around is to hit/attract one of them. This is why chelant dosages should be low at first, and built up slowly, as toxins are drawn out of the body, and only increased when the toxin concentration (that the chelants can reach) in the body decreases. You will be chelating the same amount of toxins from the body at the start compared with in the middle of your chelation programme, if you balance it correctly, it is just that the dosages of chelant required increase slowly as you go along. It is all about probability (of attraction/collision). Some chelants are better able to penetrate the tissues, blood/brain barrier and bones than others. Some render the toxic elements more inert than others. Please note that although chelation products are effective at removing heavy metals from the body's fatty tissues and cell and mitochondrial membranes (i.e. positive ions, cations, of heavy metal atoms), they do not (in general) bind with organic toxins, compounds, antibiotics and drugs which may be clogging up the mitochondrial membranes. Other methods are required for this, for example light therapies and phospholipid exchange as described further down on this page. Do not necessarily assume that chelation is the answer to all your toxicity issues. Certain chelating agents can leach mercury from one's amalagam fillings if present. Protocols for safely removing Mercury Amalgam Fillings is found on the Toxins page. Where a chelating agent is known to leach mercury from amalgam fillings, it is stated in the description of each chelating agent listed further down on this page. It should be noted that surgical grade 316L stainless steel is not known to be susceptible to chelating agents. BlackSpy is uncertain about titanium roots (for tool implants), but would be rather cautious in this respect. back to top Method of Administration: Intravenous, Anal and Oral

There are three main methods of administering a chelating agent into the body. Intravenous (I.V.) Chelation This is direct administration into the bloodstream via intravenous injection (usually a drip for slower release and less likelihood of adverse reactions through spiked dosages. This is the most effective method of administration but requires reguar injections and can be costly.

Oral Chelation This is the most common method of administration. It is an effective method of targetting heavy metals in the digestive tract, mainly the colon, where they tend to accumulate. The amount of chelating agent that gets into the blood stream is mainly dependent the rate of absorption from the digestive tract and how well absorbed that particular molecule is. Chelating agents taken orally on an empty stomach, away from meals.

Anal/Rectal Chelation Certain types of chelating agent, e.g. EDTA, are not absorbed very well orally, typically in the region of 5%. They

can of course be administered intravenously, but otherwise a reputedly effective method of delivery into the blood stream is via rectal suppository. Anal suppositories are usually administered before retiring for the night, and after the last excretion of the day to maximise absorption. As discussed on the Mucoid Plaque page, whilst the rest of the GI tract (with the exception of the mouth) is connected to the liver, the blood supply in the rectum and under the tongue bypassing the liver and joining the rest of the blood circulation to the lungs, brain and other organs. This is what makes you feel nauseous as you are excreting your stools on the toilet momentarily as some toxins are reabsorbed. This is why sublingual and rectal absorption is more effective than swallowing something. For example, EDTA suppositories utilise this rectal absorption pathway and 95% of the EDTA is said to be absorbed in this manner, as opposed to 5% if an EDTA capsule or tablet is taken orally. According to Dr Elena Koles, 3 nights of rectal EDTA suppositories is equivalent to one IV injection of EDTA. http://www.u-ok.net/chelation_chicago.html BlackSpy recommends that IV Chelation is probably not to be considered unless there is a very good reason for doing so. IV Chelation normally uses artificially synthesised amino acids (i.e. do not occur in nature) such as EDTA, DMPS, or DMSA. back to top Categorisation - Chelation vs Mobilisation - What to Take and When As a general rule, one can classify Chelating Agents into two broad categories, chelators of heavy metals and mobilisers of heavy metals, although there is clearly overlap between the two in several cases. Chelators bind with a heavy metal and allow its excretion from the body either via the kidneys or liver, or both. Mobilisers tend to draw out heavy metals from inside the cells, from the bones and from the brain (across the blood brain barrier) that most chelating agents are not able to access). Mobilisers are however not particularly effective at maintaining the bond with the heavy metals or at protecting the body from the adverse effects of the heavy metals they bind with and tend to redistribute the

heavy metals around the body (if taken in a relatively too high dosage), and are not generally excreted very efficiently. Mobilising agents rely on the Glutathione in the body to bind with the heavy metals and carry them out of the body via the liver and digestive tract. Although some of the heavy metals mobilised are excreted from the body, the excretion rate is much lower in comparison to actual effective chelating agents. Mobilisers that cross the blood-brain barrier tend to remove heavy metals from the brain when there the concentration of heavy metals is higher in the brain than in the rest of the body, but also carry heavy metals into the brain if the concentration is higher outside the brain. This is why it is important not to take a mobilising agent at the start of a detoxification programme, and focus on chelation to start with, to ensure that the concentration of heavy metals in the body is much lower than it is in the brain, so that when you start using a mobilising agent, you are drawing heavy metals out of the brain and tissues at a controlled rate and not building up toxicity in an already toxified body nor carrying heavy metals into the brain (rather than out of it). It makes sense when using a mobilising agent to also use a chelating agent at the same time that is effective at chelating the metals released by the mobilising agent, i.e. Mercury and Arsenic usually. Otherwise heavy metals can build up from being mobilised without being well chelated out of the body. Whilst it is not strictly necessary to use a chelating agent to help 'mop up' the heavy metals released with mobilising agents, it is highly recommended to avoid adverse symptoms and effects. Lead is not generally mobilised using mobilising agents, and this is why a slightly different chelation strategy is required for Lead, as it will take much longer to remove from the body and after the initial 'mop up' period with EDTA or other chelating agents, it may be best to pace oneself and take the chelating agent less frequently, relying on the body to naturally liberate more lead over time (or assisting the process of displacing it from the bones out with a mineral such Calcium or Strontium). Glutathione is a weak chelating agent and there may be some reabsorption of heavy metals in the digestive tract, which is why it is recommended to take an absorbant when using a mobilising agent, and also in general, as even with bonafide chelating agents, the Glutathione pathway will still be removing heavy metals from the body via the gut. Mobilisers are best taken in conjunction with bonafide chelating agents (rather than relying on the Glutathione pathway alone), so that anything they mobilise can be more effectively bonded with an removed from the body (with the minimum of reabsorption). It is probably best to avoid the most powerful mobilisers until one has

chelated for a number of months first. Mobilisers are mainly used for Mercury, which is fat-soluble (in the Methyl-form) and tends to accumulate in the cells, tissues and organs of the body. Mobilisers are generally not necessary for heavy metals such as Lead which tends to remain in the bloodstream and readily accessible compartments of the body. A third category is a combination of the two categories of chelating agent and mobilising agent, and BlackSpy has labelled it 'Mobilsing/Chelating Combination Products'. This is essentially a product that contains both chelating agent(s) and mobilising agent(s), to draw out heavy metals from the tissues and to help chelate them out of the body. This is essentially the same as taking a chelating agent with a mobilising agent. As stated above, it is probably advisable to use a chelating agent for a period of time before using a powerful mobilising agent or mobilising/chelating combination product, or unnecessariliy adverse symptoms may be experienced. Examples of each of the three categories are listed below. Chelating Agents: EDTA** DMSA** DMPS** OSR** Pectasol - Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP) Natural Cellular Defense (NCD) - activated Zeolite Inositol 6-Phosphate (IP6)* Mobilising Agents: Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA), a.k.a. Lipoic Acid Thiamine TetrahydroFufuryl Disulfide (TTFD)* Humic Acid Fulvic Acid Cilantro (a.k.a. Coriander Leaf) Hawthorn Leaf and Berries Chelorex (containing mobilisers Cilantro and ALA*) ThioDox (containing mobilisers ALA* as well as TTFD*) Homeopathic Detoxification Remedies, e.g. Homeopathic Mercury^ Allithiamines in crushed garlic (Electromagnetic stimulating treatments/devices)^ (Phosphatidyl Choline)^^ Mobilising/Chelating Combination Products:

PCA-Rx (containing mobilisers Fulvic acid, Lipoic acid and chelators micronised Chlorella and Peptides) Metal Free (same as above) NDF (contains mobiliser Cilantro and chelator nano-ized Chlorella NDF Plus (same as NDF but also containing Fulvic Acid) Zeotrex (contains mobilser Cilantro and chelator micronised Zeolite Zeolite-AV (contains mobiliser Humic acid and chelator micronised Zeolite * = Synthetic equivalents of natural compounds. ** = Synthetic amino acids, not naturally occurring. ^ = Treatments that tend to increase lymphatic circulation and break down waste deposits in the lymphatic system, with actual 'mobilisation' from the cells being a secondary characteristic (most probably). EM treatments tend to mobilise organic toxins more than heavy metals, but it depends which one one is referring to of course specifically. ^^ = Phosphatidyl Choline is strictly speaking not a mobilising agent for heavy metals, but it can help to clear toxins from mitochondrial membranes, usually of an organic nature, but may include small amounts of heavy metals. PC tends to increase levels of organic toxins in the blood (if there are any to be released). Of the above chelating agents and combination products, all are excreted mainly by the kidneys apart from OSR, PCA-Rx and Metal Free which are excreted mainly by the liver and gallbladder into the digestive tract. Of the mobilising agents, Lipoic Acid is the most powerful, with TTFD coming a close second - most probably. One could potentially classify the amino acids N-Acetyl-Cystein (NAC), L-Cysteine, MSM and LGlutathione as weak mobilising agents, but they are also and probably more significantly weak chelating agents. Vitamin C is also a weak chelating agent, and high dosage Vitamin C infusions have proven useful immediately following amalgam filling removal BlackSpy has therefore not included them in the above arbitrary classification, but they are still significant. Please find below a PDF table of most of the above Chelating, Mobilising and Combination Products, including additional technical information, created by BlackSpy (May 2010). Chelation and Moblising Agent PDF Table

Some may argue that chelating agents that are primarily excreted by the kidneys (i.e. urine) are preferable to those that are primarily excreted by the liver (into the GI tract and in the faeces), as there is less reabsorption of toxins in the bladder compared with the digestive tract. The passage of stool in the digestive tract takes much longer than the urine route, and also it is easier for toxins to become trapped in mucoid plaque etc. in the bowel, resulting in an elevated concentration of heavy metals in the colon. This is mitigated to some extent by the protective characteristics of the chelating agent that are bound to the heavy metals in question. This is why good bowel movement is encouraged before and during a chelation programme so this issue can be kept to a minimum. At the end of the day, deciding on a chelation agent or agents for use in a chelation programme should consider the efficiency of the chelating agent in question and its relative toxicity. Whilst one may criticise certain synthetic chelating agents for their toxicity, there is also the toxicity of the actual toxins you are trying to remove to consider. If your chelating agent is in itself relatively non-toxic, that is all very well, but if it is not very effective in removing the particular heavy metals that are most contributing to your toxic burden, then you are in effect leaving those metals in your system much longer than you need to and continually suffering the cumulative effect of their toxicity. One should also consider where one believes the heavy metals are at the start of a detoxification programme; and adapt one's approach as one goes along, as the distribution will change over time. Heavy metals will tend to accumulate in the colon and one will need to use some manner of intestinal absorbant. What are the relative concentrations of heavy metals in the brain and tissues, and the blood and readily accessible parts of the body? Which kinds of heavy metals? This will determine which chelating agent to use, for how long, and when to introduce a mobilising agent. If one is experiencing adverse symptoms with a mobilising agent, then either the dosage is too high, one is not taking enough breaks or one is introducing it too soon in one's chelation programme. Which heavy metals you have in what approximate ratios you can ascertain using laboratory tests, but the other information one must figure out intuitively by oneself and with the help of one's practitioner. How your body responds will provide you with a large amount of valuable feedback. Pay attention and try to be aware of what is going on. When choosing a chelating agent, one should try to do one's own research and seek professional advice, rather than rely solely on the

manufacturer's claims, which are often little more than a sales pitch; or on the opinion of enthusiastic amateurs. Most manufacturers do not highlight the difference between mobilisation and chelation, so you may end up inadvertently taking a mobilising agent at the start of your detox programme rather than later on as you might need to (depending on your level of circulating heavy metals and those in readily accessible parts of the body) etc. One might want to try bringing a few chelation products along to your practitioner and have him test them using kinesiological/muscle testing. A chelator should really be chosen by the particular heavy metal that it can most effectively target that is causing the most problems in the body and needs removing as the highest priority. Whilst all chelating agents will work to some degree regardless of what works best with the body, as they are not 'nutrients' or 'supplements' in the traditional sense, some may be better utilised by the body than others at a particular moment in time, perhaps dependent on the metal most in need of being removed and also what types of tissues most of this/these metal(s) are located. BlackSpy has brought a large number of chelation products to his practitioner, including the majority of the products listed on this page, and of those, only Detoxamin for Kids (EDTA) and OSR of the chelation and combination products have tested positively kinesiologically (muscle testing). Of the mobilising agents, only ALAMax CR (slow release ALA) and Thiodox (containing ALA and TTFD) tested positively. WhiteSpy has reported that Cilantro tested positively on him at one point during his treatment. There are many good chelating and mobilising agents, but they may not be right for you at any one particular time. The body can be quite fussy in this respect. It should be noted that just because a chelator is of a natural mineral or plantbased source, does not mean it will work well with your body at any particular point in time - it may well cause more problems that it solves. In the same respect, a specific synthethic chelator may well work better with your body than a variety of natural chelators; and of course, the wrong synthetic chelator may well work even worse with your body than the wrong natural chelator. There are many variables. Applied Kinesiological/Muscle Testing, whilst often quite accurate with many other areas, does sometimes make errors in dosage or frequency, in particular with reference to mobilising agents. One may need to override the AK testing information to work the mobilising agent into one's regime in a sensible manner (with sufficient breaks etc.) or more complex manner than AK testing is able to provide. Whilst BlackSpy found that AK testing provided sensible information about chelating agent dosing and frequency, it did not with mobilising agents. Please see the Treatment Approach page for more information.

The body will likely react differently to different chelating agents as the size and properties of the chelating agent will differ, and how it binds to the heavy metal will differ also. Thus the combination of the heavy metal and the chelating agent in the bloodstream will present a different type of molecule according to which one uses. The immune system will likely react differently to each of these. Excessive immune system response (i.e. attack by white blood cells) can result in excessive levels of inflammation (i.e. free radical damage). BlackSpy does NOT personally recommend the synthetic chelating agents, nor use of mobilising agents, as a first port of call for chelation, although they have been proven to be successful in application in many cases. Perhaps synthetic chelators can be used when more natural methods have been tried first. But of course, it ultimately depends on the severity of your toxicity issue and what chelating agent works best with your body at any one time. EDTA for example, is probably the most effective chelating agent for Lead of all chelating agents, natural and synthetic. If they are to be taken, then BlackSpy would suggest that one takes them orally rather than IV if uncertain. It is of course not strictly possible to compare chelating agents in this way, as each works slightly differently, and also each seem to have an short term equilibrium, i.e. when one takes a chelating agent for the first, time, smaller amounts are required, targetting the 'easiest' compartments or structures, with this particularly chemical approach, but once those compartments are cleared out, then the medium term equilibrium is reached, which is harder to increase from and requires time to keep working it. This medium term equilibrium is clearly different for each type of chelating agent, and in the case of Fulvic and Humic Acid, BlackSpy was able to relatively quickly double the dosage tolerated over a period of a couple of weeks, until he hit that equilibrium. With Cilantro, the short term and medium term equilibrium is not quite so obvious, and increases take a long time and are gradual. Depending on the stage in your detoxification programme, one may 'max out' on a particular chelating agent in a period of months, and to continue to take it would be financially disasterous or ridiculous in terms of quantities required, and unwise to your health, so then it is usually time to move onto another chelating agent. This time period is clearly shorter for some chelating agents than others, depending on exactly how they work, and is likely to be shorter in the latter stages of one's detoxification programme and longer in the earlier stages. It is perhaps not so important, depending on your exact case, which

particular cellular detoxification (chelation) product you start with in your programme, be it PCA-Rx, NCD or PectaSol, for example, as likely your detox programme may last some considerable time, allowing you to cycle through and try various products during this time, perhaps changing product every few months or so - this may allow you time to do your research and consider how to change/tweak your detox regime at the next stage - which you should also discuss with your practitioner. As the various techniques and products work in slightly different ways, it is probably sensible to do this in any case, to make your programme as varied as possible. Please note that depending on your personal choice and the advice from your practitioner, you may choose to use one, two or three of the above products together (e.g. Cilantro with absorbant, Pectasol and/or NCD, etc.) BlackSpy would recommend that if you did, you should perhaps start with either NCD or Pectasol etc. only for the first month or so, at least, before adding any mobilising agents. To take Cilantro at the peak of your toxicity levels may be slightly rougher than taking the PCA-Rx or NCD. If you use multiple products, you may choose to take each one for a month or two, before moving on to the next one. You may then return back to your original product again after this. Or you may choose to take all at once, but at lower dosages. However, if you do take more than one product at once, you need to be aware of the relative dosages to each other, which is something that is not that hard to figure out if you listen to your body's response. Only increase the dosage of one product at a time, and increase it by a small increment, and remain on that dosage for at least a week before experimenting with a higher dosage again. If you feel any of the above side effects, then simply reduce the dosage again by an increment. You may want to stay on a low dosage of Cilantro as a 'background' detoxification supplement throughout most of the latter stages of your detoxification programme, on account of its beneficial qualities, and and perhaps only reach the maximum dosage of Cilantro after 6 to 9 months of your detoxification programme. Of course, the exact levels of any product or combination of products depends on your level of toxicity to start with, how long you have been detoxing for, how long you have been on the previous dosage level for, and how energetic/clean your liver and kidneys are. A practitioner may be able to advise you in this area, but ultimately much of the fine tuning is up to yourself and is something you must be self-disciplined about and take full responsibility for. BlackSpy believes that OSR and EDTA are some of the most effective chelating agents there are for cellular detoxification, with Lipoic Acid also playing an important role at the right time. Cellular detoxification in its entirety may take anything up to 3 or 4 years,

depending on how efficiently it is performed, but the most benefit is often felt in the first couple of months. The sooner you start, the sooner you finish! After you have completed your first ever full cellular detoxification programme, you may well need to repeat (on a small scale) it every 6 months, every year or every few years, but these will likely be much shorter in duration compared to your first detox. There is no fixed duration that works for everyone, and any product or programme that makes claims about fully detoxing you in a few days or a week probably has a disclaimer somewhere (in the small print)! Whilst the effectiveness of the various natural chelants BlackSpy used over 3 years is hard to measure, on account of changing methods of measurement employed and their various respective drawbacks, and the uncertainty as to how much there was in absolute terms at the start of the chelation proramme, in BlackSpy's most recent tests, Lead did appear to be highest of all his remaining heavy metals, so that one could deduce that the natural chelating agents he used over this period were less effective with Lead that with other heavy metals. So one should perhaps not discount chelating agents such as EDTA. They have a time and a place. back to top Low Frequent Dose Chelation - The 'Cutler Protocol' Aside from taking a chelation agent 2-3 times a day, in between meals, on an empty stomach, one can choose a slightly different approach. This is known as Low Frequent Dose Chelation. This works on the basis that certain chelation agents have a half-life in the body, after which time, if they have bound with a heavy metal but not yet reached the liver, then the may 'dump' the heavy metal back into the blood or tissues, retoxifying the body. This is particularly emphasised for mobilising agents, which are not so readily cleared from the body than chelating agents. Thus, some proponents of Low Frequent Dose Chelation (LFDC) postulate that chelating agents should be taken at regular intervals, 24 hours a day, at low doses, for the duration that they are taken; and for multiple consecutive days at a time; followed by the same number of days again taking no chelating agents. The standard two or three times a day schedule with higher doses, and indeed schedules that suggest alternate days for taking chelating agents, should be avoided in their opinion. rather than at regular intervals during the day, then a long break at

night; or indeed on alternate days. Of course, some manufacturers state that some elements of this approach may be useful, e.g. Waiora, who suggest that mixing NCD (Zeolite) into a bottle of water and sipping on it throughout the day is better than simply taking one's daily allowance on two or three distinct occasions. The most well known proponent of Low Frequent Dose Chelation (who coined the term, as BlackSpy understands it) is Andrew Hall Cutler PhD, sometimes referred to as just Andy Cutler. His version of LFDC has been called the 'Cutler Protocol', although it is not really a protocol as such as so many parameters within it as fluid and flexible. Cutler has written a book on his chelation regime called 'Amalgam Illness: Diagnosis and Treatment' (1999). He sells it direct on amazon.com, and also from his website noamalgam.com, shipping internationally. BlackSpy summarises the main points from the 'Cutler Protocol' below, adding his own comments and opinions also. Whilst BlackSpy does not agree with all of it and there are a number of errors in the book, BlackSpy would still recommend anyone who is about to embark on a chelation programme to read it. Cutler has written another book, 'Hair Test Interpretation: Finding Hidden Toxicities' (2004) - this focusses mainly on the significance of the presence of heavy metals, nutritional elements and trace elements, but also delves a little into his own view on treatment protocols, which overlaps slightly with his other book. BlackSpy also recommends this book, with its imperfections and all. He sells it direct on amazon.com, and also from his publishing website noamalgam.com, shipping internationally. The Cutler Protocol is essentially a Mercury Detoxification protocol. Cutler recommends the use of tried and tested synthetic chelating agents that are designed for use with Mercury chelation, and hence recommends either DMPS or DMSA. Cutler states that DMPS is the more efficient chelating agent for Mercury (Hg) than DMSA, which it is, but that it may be slightly more expensive, and chelation with DMSA is often less pleasant with more adverse symptoms. DMPS is more targetted to Mercury than anything else and results in less demineralisation. DMSA is however useful for removing Lead. However the Cutler Protocol's focus is Mercury detoxification, in conjunction with Amalgam filling removal, and is not really focussed on Lead detoxification. Cutler does not recommend EDTA, because it is primarily a chelating agent for Lead. Cutler prefers DMSA because it chelates both Lead and Mercury, although it is not particularly brilliant at either. He states that DMSA has superceded EDTA now, which is a matter of interpretation, but it is widely believed that EDTA

is a far better chelating agent than DMSA for Lead. Many practitioners totally disagree that EDTA has been superceded by DMSA for Lead detoxification, and believe that EDTA is the best chelator of Lead there is. Cutler perhaps does not like EDTA because it has to be taken anally or injected and thus is harder to dose around the clock compared with DMPS or DMSA that can be effectively taken orally. However, as stated elsewhere, EDTA is a rather poor chelator of Mercury compared with DMPS. Another possible reason is that Lipoic Acid is a large part of Cutler's suggested regime, and it is mainly Mercury and Arsenic that is mobilised by this, and not Lead, so a chelating agent that is able to more effectively 'mop up' the Mercury and Arsenic is preferred (although he does state that taking a chelating agent with Lipoic acid is not strictly necessary). EDTA is also probably the least discriminate chelating agent, bonding with mineral elements and causing demineralisation if preventative mineral supplementation is not used. Cutler recommends the use of Alpha Lipoic Acid (a.k.a. Lipoic Acid or ALA) as part of an overall Mercury detoxification programme. Lipoic Acid is a mobilising agent and helps to draw them out of the body's cells and from the brain (across the Blood-Brain Barrier). Neither of the above chelating agents used can do this, as they simply 'mop up' the heavy metals that are in the bloodstream and on the outside of cell membranes (and not from the inside of the cells or indeed the internal organs). However, whilst Lipoic acid is highly effective at mobilising heavy metals, it is not particularly effective as a chelating agent. It also has a very short half-life in the body, and the levels drop off rather quickly. This is why Cutler recommends frequent dosing of Lipoic Acid to maintain Lipoic Acid levels. Lipoic Acid can transport heavy metals both in and out of the brain, depending on the relative concentrations inside the brain and in the rest of the body. It is therefore critically important not to take Lipoic Acid immediately after an amalgam filling removal, and not until one has been using a chelating agent for some months, in order to 'mop' up any Mercury in readily accessible places in the body, before releasing any more from the tissues and into the bloodstream. Cutler also recommends taking low dosages of ALA because higher dosages may both result in too much Mercury being released from the tissues at once (making one feel very ill) and also the possibility of redistributing it back into the brain again. Cutler recommends Lipoic acid over any natural mobilising agents such as Cilantro, because there is too little information and few if any studies on its consistency or performance. He also does not recommend TTFD. BlackSpy knows that it is a reasonably good mobilising agent but not as potent as Lipoic Acid. Cutler does not mention Humic or Fulvic Acid.

Whilst Cutler is against the use of natural chelating and mobilising agents, as he does not believe they are effective, he does not totally dismiss the use of herbs and natural products as one might think. He suggests a number of herbs, as well as nutritional elements, vitamins and prohormones in his book to support various other biochemical pathways, including mitochondrial, endocrine, nervous system function, not all strictly related to detoxification. Cutler presents on a high level a complete treatment outline, discussing what supplements to take and not to take, from his perspective. One example, he suggests that one may want to take Manganese, but if so, only in RDA doses in Mercury toxic individuals, as it may cause problems he suggests of which he is non-specific. BlackSpy has taken higher than RDA doses of Mn to support adrenal and mitochondrial function on and off for a number of years, on recommendation from his practitioner, with no specific problems relating to the Mn as far as he is aware. Cutler strongly advises against using any Cysteine, Methionine and MSM. This is because he believes that they redistribute Mercury and do not significantly increase excretion of heavy metals from the body, and should never be supplemented (in a Mercury detoxification programme). He states that some Mercury toxified patients have elevated Cysteine levels anyway (who should not supplement either Cysteine or Methionine, but this is not the case in BlackSpy's experience. Cutler suggests using SAMe (the methyl-group donor) instead of Methionine, so as to not raise Cysteine or Homocysteine levels. Cutler instead suggests that N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) is the preferred amino acid for those who have low blood or live Glutathione levels, as it is the best method for raising them. He cites a dosage of between 500-4000mg, the latter which is quite a large amount, even for those who are deficient! Dr Kinghardt, for example, recommends against using large amounts of NAC early on in a detoxification programme as it can migrate Mercury into the brain. Those with elevated blood plasma Cysteine levels and normal Glutathione (GSH) levels may find it harmful to raise their GSH levels (he states). Any GSH supplemented orally should be broken down in the digestive tract into its constituent amino acids. William Rasmussen suggests that GSH supplementation can however raise excretion levels of Mercury, via the biliary tract (i.e. via the gut), but that an intestinal absorbant is necessary to prevent the heavy metals reabsorption into the bloodstream. BlackSpy is not entirely convinced that GSH supplementation is inadvisable, as he has found it to be useful as part of his heavy metal detoxification programme (using stabilised forms such as Tyler's Recancostat, in low dosages). It is BlackSpy's understanding that it is useful to maintain one's levels of GSH at a healthy and normal level, but that the emphasis on chelation should

be on a chelating agent, as it is the more efficient method of removing heavy metals from the system than GSH conjugates, which can allow heavy metals to be reabsorbed into the digestive tract if one is not taking an intestinal absorbant. It is possible that higher dosages of GSH and NAC may be detrimental, but usually only when the levels of circulating or readily accessible Mercury are very high, or possibly when one is at the limit of detoxification capability with other chelating/mobilising agents. BlackSpy has at varying times taken large amounts of Glutathione, NAC and particularly MSM (a couple of grams per day), and not experienced any negative side effects at all. However, when BlackSpy's circulating levels of Mercury were very high indeed, then only small dosages of these could be taken, and too much would result in severe headaches, losses of energy and liver spots on the head. One example of a supplement containing all three of these Amino Acids is Thorne Research's MediClear, which in the latter example, taken at the recommended dosage was perfectly satisfactory but over that, the overdetoxification effects would build up over a period of days and disappear over a few days when the dosage was reduced back to normal. On a final note, it should be noted that the use of ALA will effectively increase Glutathione levels anyway because it is a precursor to GSH and also a powerful antioxidant that helps to recycle GSH from its oxidised form. Cutler goes to great length in his book to explain the background about Mercury toxicity, the danger of amalgams etc. but presumably if you are buying the book, you already know you want to eliminate Mercury from the body. He examines a number of common supplements and weighs up their pros and cons as far as Mercury detoxification is concerned - this is very useful (although subject to his personal opinion in places). Unfortunately he provides no explanation of why it is actually important to use frequent dosing and to maintain constant levels of chelating and mobilising agents whilst they are being used (on the 'on' days). He does state briefly that the reason low dosages are preferred is that the amount of harm from cytotoxicity from the chelating agents (the synthetic chelating agents he suggests being toxic themselves), and also from the chelated heavy metals that are in transit and being processed for removal from the body by the kidneys, is at least proportional to the concentration ingested, and possibly even more. In other words, taking double the dosage of DMPS may be more than twice as toxic as taking half that dosage. Further down in this section, some of Cutler's yahoo group posts are discussed. It is only here that he discusses why frequent dosing is important, and here it is only briefly (and somewhat flippantly) mentioned with little explanation. He states that dosage levels are to be kept constant in the body because otherwise mercury can be transported into the brain. This point should really have been

elaborated on, and explained at length in his book. Perhaps something for a re-edition? Cutler makes the following suggestions in his book, post-amalgam removal, which vary slightly from place to place. He suggests that symptom exacerbation should be expected regardless of precautions taken. If you are chelating for the first time, it would be advisable to follow a similar regime (if you are following this protocol, or otherwise to not take any ALA at the start of your detoxification programme). Ultimately he suggests there are no absolutes regarding days on and days off, and actual amounts of chelating and mobilising agents taken, that is something you (and your practitioner) need to figure out yourselves. 1. Use oral DMPS - every 8 hours - on a 7 day on/7 day off basis or a 10 day on 4 day off basis, starting no earlier than 4 days after last amalgam removal. Same schedule for oral DMSA if that is used instead, but take it every 3-4 hours. Start at dosages of 25 to 50mg and slowly increase to 50-300mg [BlackSpy comment: the dosages for DMPS and DMSA are vastly different as DMPS is hugely more powerful, perhaps 20x so.] Follow this regime for 2-6 months. 2. After the above mopping up phase, it is time to start mobilising mercury from the tissues and to start removing it from the brain. (P.75) Take Lipoic acid every 3-4 hours, starting at 25-50mg and working one's way to up 100-200mg per dosage (doubling up for every increase), as side effects diminish or are tolerated [BlackSpy comment: this is an awfully high maximum target dosage and awfully rapid rate of increase for some people]. On-days recommendation is a few days to a few weeks, with a break after each 'campaign' or cycle. Elsewhere (P.203), he suggests 3-14 days on/4-7 days off. ALA may inhibit Copper and Zinc excretion which is why regular breaks are needed so levels of these metals do not become elevated. Whilst this may be an issue, BlackSpy strongly believes that the danger of cumulative levels of circulating heavy metals and possible increase in inflammation is probably the most important reason for requiring breaks with ALA (and indeed any other mobilising agent). Also, take either DMPS (every 8 hours) or DMSA (every 3-4 hours), with a 7 day on/7day off cycle or 10 day on/4 day off cycle. Elsewhere (p.90) he states to start off with 3 days on/4 days off for both DMPS/DMSA (whichever you use) AND Lipoic Acid. Continue this for between 4 and 30 months. We shall now examine some of the sources of information on the Cutler Protocol on the internet.

A Cutler adherent, Moria Merriweather, has created the following site with explanations of various parts of the Cutler protocol, in order to make more sense of it or to refine it further. It seems to differ slightly from the recommendations in Cutler's book. Perhaps it is time Cutler updated his book and rereleased it. For example, Merriweather states to take ALA every 3 hours (or 4 at a stretch during the night to get more sleep!) whereas Andy says to take ALA every 4 hours as it is used up after that. The idea is to keep the chelating agent and ALA levels continuous during the chelating on days. However, according to Xymogen, ALA is normally used up in 2-3 hours, whereas their slow release formula ALAmax CR releases ALA for 4-6 hours. Cutler in a yahoo group post excerpt states that he sceptical of slow release ALA supplements as their delivery may not be consistent and continuous. However it should be noted that taking immediately releasing ALA supplements every 4 hours is no guarantee of continuous levels of plasma ALA, as it is likely to spike levels just as much, if not more, given how rapidly it is absorbed into the body. http://home.earthlink.net/~moriam/Andy_dose_sched.html Word Document of Cutler Protocol according to Moira Merriweather (an ex-patient) www.livingnetwork.co.za/healingnetwork/general_guidelines.html Moria makes the following suggestion for her version of the Cutler Protocol: ALA/LA (orally, very 3 hours for a few days, take a break, repeat) for mercury and arsenic.

DMSA (orally, every 4 hours, on its own or with LA) for lead or mercury. Cutler claims it will not remove mercury from internal organs unless taken with LA.

DMPS (orally, eery 8 hours or for convenience with every other LA dose if used together) for arsenic or mercury. Cutler claims it will not remove mercury from internal organs unless taken with LA.

SAMe (S-adenosylmethionine) for antimony. Cutler believes that using the precursors to SAMe, namely vitamins B6, B12, TMG (see Homocysteine Metabolism article on the Nutritional page) and Calcium will also work (more cheaply).

Zinc (3-4 times a day) for elevated Copper levels. The length of the cycles is said to vary according to the individual, but in general terms, 3 days on followed by at least 3 days off is the norm; or alternatively 3 days on 11 days off. A minimum of 3 nights and 2 days on (2.6 days on) is recommended. A maximum of 2 weeks on is said to be the upper limit. http://home.earthlink.net/~moriam/ANDY_INDEX.html http://home.earthlink.net/~moriam The Yahoo group 'frequent-dose-chelation' is dedicated to discussion of Cutler Low Frequent Dose Chelation. The files section contains a number of reference sources and one is sent a number of files by TK and Linda J, the group administrators, regarding their interpretation of the Cutler protocol. They suggest 3 days on and 3 days off for initial rounds, and suggest a dosage schedule for subsequent rounds. http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/frequent-dose-chelation/ The link below contains a number of interesting articles on the half life of organic mercury, the movement of mercury and the action of different chelating agents (i.e. ALA/LA compared with DMSA and DMPS). Where Cutler refers to 'Chlorella' he in fact means NDF; as Chlorella is an absorbant, not a chelating agent, as it remains in the gut. NDF is 'nanoised' meaning each cell wall is chopped up into small fragments and can be absorbed into the bloodstream. http://onibasu.com/wiki/Cutler_protocol Cutler's protocol is said to work on the basis that organic mercury is converted by the body to inorganic mercury, and the half life of organic mercury in the body is 44 days. The liver and gallbladder excrete mercury in the form of inorganic mercury, into the digestive tract, where approximately 10% is reabsorbed back into the body (being relatively difficult for it to pass back into the blood from the digestive tract). He postulates also that DMSA and DMPS do not allow Mercury to cross the blood brain barrer, nor do they themselves

cross it to remove mercury from the brain, but that ALA does both of these things. This is why he recommends using ALA in conjunction with synthetic chelators, to assist in removal of mercury from the brain. He also suggests this is why ALA should not be used at least 4 months prior to a mercury amalgam filling removal. ALA is regarded as a much faster chelator, which is why it is dosed more frequently that the other chelators. Cutler asserts that there are two things to consider with a chelating agent, firstly the strength of the bond between the chelator and the heavy metal atom (called equilibrium) and the frequency with which the chelating agents drops the heavy metal and picks it up again (called kinetics) - a strong bond not necessary meaning that the chelator does not 'drop' its chelant regularly. Cutler devised his chelation schedule to avoid excessive damage caused by higher doses and less frequently dosing of chelating agents, which he believes contribute to redistribution of mercury around the body rather than it's elimination. Proponents of the Cutler Protocol believe that one should not take any chelating agents or any glutathione precursors prior to doing extensive reading on the Cutler Protocol, as failure to follow the correct protocol may result in inefficient chelation, redistribution of mercury around the body and especially concentrating it in the brain, and excessive damage to the body (free radical damage and poisoning in general). However, as stated above, not everyone is in agreement with the Cutler Protocol. Some critics argue that the protocol, in chelation terms may be reasonably logical, in terms of one's overall health and energy levels, and biochemical efficiency in terms of liver function and mitochondrial function etc, then interrupting one's sleep to take ALA doses is counterintuitive, as the body is desperately short of proper delta sleep as it is, so any regime that further disrupts one's sleep cycle, even if not every night, is an extremely bad idea. BlackSpy believes it may have some valid advice to offer, but is not completely convinced about using DMSA or DMPS rather than more natural chelating agents as a hard and fast rule. BlackSpy can also see no direct connection between the concept of half-life of organic mercury, and the concepts of the half-life of chelating agents and their 'kinetic' qualities (ability to drop heavy metals and pick them up again). In addition, there are few actual scientific trials of the natural chelating agents discussed on this page, and indeed their 'kinetic' qualities or ability to drop and redistribute mercury. Indeed, the natural chelating products mentioned are not generally subjected to different regimes, like frequent low dosing. Manufacturers and indeed many doctors and specialists recommend using them in a 2-3 times a

day manner. Who is right, BlackSpy is not entirely sure, but it can do no harm studying as widely as possible and experimenting with a few different approaches, and making up your own mind. BlackSpy tried an adapted version of stage 1 the above protocol, using EDTA instead of DMSA, at lower dosages, and found that more than 2 consecutive days was very tiring on the kidneys, and 6 consecutive days resulted in severe kidney pain a few days later and excessive fatigue for a week. One may want to consider a more gentle regime with fewer consecutive days if one is intent on applying the Cutler Protocol. However, BlackSpy tried such a regime with one week of DMPS and one week of DMSA, dosing 3 times a day, and afterwards, he was unable to take ALA for a month or so, on account of either the redistribution of Mercury or otherwise, as there was so much Mercury in his system, in the blood/outside of the cells. In short it was disasterous. It is hard to say whether it was the DMPS or DMSA as he took them on subsequent weeks, but the DMSA felt much 'rougher'. If BlackSpy had taken them 3 days on, 4 days off, around the clock, it might perhaps have been different. Or perhaps it was a sign of the properties of DMSA. Another possible explanation is months of high ALA and other mobilisation agent usage prior, which likely had a cumulative effect of building up heavy metal levels in the bloodstream and tissues, and moving more Mercury into the brain. It is hard to say for sure. Recommendations vary regarding the frequency, schedule and dosage of EDTA suppositories. T. Michael Culp recommended BlackSpy take 3 Detoxamin for Kids suppositories (375mg) three times a week (on alternate days, i.e. every other day for 6 days then an extra day off), on the basis of muscle testing. This worked out quite well - with sufficient additional mineral intake. Jean Munro of Breakspear Medical recommended an 800mg EDTA suppository, taken on 3 consecutive nights, then 11 days break (which is more or less the same dosage over 2 weeks as Culp's recommendation but taken in a different way). BlackSpy tried taking a whole such 800mg suppository and did feel tired for a couple of days afterwards, so would imagine that 3 consecutive days would be very draining indeed. BlackSpy found that on his 3 x Detoxamin for Kids suppositories, he was not able to take any other chelating agents, as they strained his kidneys. In addition, when BlackSpy had taken too much ALA, and after ceasing the ALA, took Detoxamin for Kids, 6 nights in a row, as an emergency measure to remove the built up heavy metals, he found it far too much and felt exhausted the following week and had a pain in his left kidney for a couple of days. The regime felt good for the first 2 nights, then after that it felt rather exhausting even when he was taking the EDTA. He would not recommend such a regime even

in an emergency. Whilst Andrew Hall Cutler does not recommend EDTA, he does make several suggestions for other chelating agents such as DMPS and DMSA. These include 3 days on and 3 days off; and even 7 days on and 7 days off. The latter schedule would presumably be far too much for most people to handle. As EDTA is generally regarded as being more efficient at Lead removal than DMSA, there is really no need to take DMSA anyway. A new chelating agent called OSR (Oxidative Stress Relief) by NeuroScience, is reputed to be far more effective a chelator of Mercury than DMPS, and so it could perhaps replace DMPS in terms of Mercury removal, displacing the need for either DMPS or DMSA in Cutler's Protocol entirely. Whether OSR should be dosed around the clock like DMPS, for best effect and least problems, BlackSpy is unsure. OSR comes in either capsule or powder form. The recommended dosage is 1 capsule per day, so it would be hard to break it up into smaller dosages. The half-life is 6-7 hours, so perhaps a Cutler-esque protocl would involved taking it 4 times a day or so. Although Boyd Haley believes it stays in the system for days, he does not believe that the product accumulates in the body over time. OSR does come in powder form also, 2 scoops providing the same dosage as 1 capsule. So perhaps the dosage could be broken up in some manner if desired using the powder form. Please see the OSR section for more information. Perhaps Cutler's recommendations are a theoretical model that may well apply and be useful for most people, but not all, the body being a quirky thing and chelation not being an exact science. One could make the following comparison. If you wanted to get in shape, you might go to the gym 3 times a week for heavy aerobic sessions. Other people might prefer to go to the gym 6-7 times a week, but doing slightly less intensive workouts. However, who would exercise at a low intensity 24 hours a day? For 7 or more days at a time? It might be easier for the first few hours but after a while the body would keel over through lack of sleep. Clearly this is not a completely valid comparison, but there are certain parallels. The liver may require more breaks than Cutler proposes, perhaps a rest day after every on day, or perhaps rest periods during each day. The dosage and frequency may well depend primarily on your liver health, and it's ability to be worked more than normal for short or medium periods, and not just on the capability of your liver to remove toxins or on your toxic load. As stated above, perhaps the Cutler Protocol should be revised in the light of more cutting edge supplements, such as slow or controlled release forms of chelating agents, such as ALAmax CR by Xymogen,

launched in 2008, or perhaps Jarrow Formulas' Alpha Lipoic Acid Sustain 300, which can assist in maintaining continuous levels of ALA in the blood for longer periods, rather than spikes every 3-4 hours, prolonging the intervals between the repeat dosing, meaning less sleep interruption. ALAmax CR provides ALA for up to 4-6 hours. Cutler advises against using R-LA instead of ALA, as he believes it is experimental in nature, will not work for chelation and causes very bad side effects (turning some patients into 'vegetables'), and at best just will not work. This view is not substantiated with any specific facts by Cutler (as usual), in his archived forum post and also on curezone.com. However, BlackSpy has used R-LA without any major issues, and some even prefer it to ALA as they have had less side effects. To say that R-LA will not chelate is nonsense. ALA is 50% RLA and 50% S-LA, the S-LA component not serving a chelation function. Some have reported that the S-LA component of ALA is problematic and causes side effects of ALA! Please see the Lipoic Acid section for more information. Some may make the mistake of taking a dosing recommendation for ALA and applying it to Na-RLA which is in effect twice as strong a chelator. BlackSpy has himself experienced severe problems with ALA when dosed daily, around the clock, with few rest days over 6 months. This was on account of too few rest days and too high a dosage. Ultimately it comes down to how you use Lipoic Acid that determines whether it is useful or poisoning you with increasing amounts of mobilised Mercury. It is possible that the cases Cutler is refering to who used Na-RLA had been dosing it incorrectly and hence had experienced the severe side effects. Cutler does not mention intestinal absorbants or binding agents in his book. Whilst they are not strictly necessary for use with DMPS or DMSA, as these chelating agents are removed by the kidneys, the body will always be removing some heavy metals with its own Glutathione via the digestive tract, especially so when mobilising more heavy metals with ALA, so that the use of an intestinal absorbant is really highly recommended if not essential on a regular or semi-regular basis. There is no point mopping up metals in the bloodstream efficiently if your gut is full of heavy metals, where they are being reabsorbed and making you feel ill. However, more importantly, Cutler's book is geared towards removal of Mercury Amalgam fillings and subsequent treatment. During Mercury amalgam filling removal, even with all the precautions in place, you will likely ingest some significant amount of Mercury (i.e. swallow). A large part of this Mercury can be absorbed and removed from the digestive tract by the use of absorbants like Charcoal or Bentonite Clay, so much less ends up in the bloodstream. There is little to gain and much to lose by simply letting it pass through the digestive tract as per normal

food transit, absorbing more into the body, and having to remove it with synthetic chelating agents later on. One will likely end up much more ill than one needs to be. Of course it depends to some extent on the body's sensitivity to Mercury, but still. Not to stress the importance of absorbants in this application is borderline criminal in BlackSpy's opinion. Cutler is not too bothered in his book about exact dosage suggestions for DMPS, DMSA or ALA, which is understandable, unlike the internet writers and groups that discuss his protocol and refine it. However, it should be noted that if you get the dosage wrong (i.e. too high), then Cutler's suggestion of 24 hour regular consumption of chelating and mobilising agents can become round the clock poisoning. Unlike other chelation schedules that allow for rest time each day. The latter type of schedules however may not rely on so many 'rest' days or 'off' days as Cutler's LFCA. Cutler makes the highly dubious statement in his book that it does not matter per se what the exact dosage is of the chelating agent or ALA, as long as you are taking it in the right schedule and at the right time. Whilst this may be true up to an optimal dosage, if you go over that dosage, then you will likely experience severe side effects, cause excessive inflammation, deplete your energy levels and put unnecessary strain on your liver and kidneys. Cutler also mentions that it does not matter if you cannot find a doctor initially who subscribes to the protocol. BlackSpy would care to differ here also, as a rigorous detoxification programme requires careful balancing and also monitoring, and a second pair of eyes; and regular testing. There are a number of minor errors in Cutler's Amalgam Illness book. In many cases, Cutler is half right but also half wrong. For example, on P.159 regarding 'methylating donors and compounds', he cites SAMe, Choline, TMG, Folate and B12 as examples of methyl donors and compounds as 'all having similar effects via methyl metabolism. This is rather misleading to compare SAMe with these other compounds. SAMe is a methylating agent and is used to create Cysteine, Glutathione and numerous other methylated compounds. Choline and Phosphatidyl Choline (PC) are product of methylation, not a methylation donor, and are manufactured from Cysteine (at some point). PC is created by the methylation of Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine (PE). Cysteine is manufactured by methylation, using SAMe. TMG, Folate and B12 are all cofactors in the remethylation of Homocysteine back into Methionine. Strictly speaking, Folate (5MTHF) and Methyl-B12 combine to form the MTR enzyme, which is the actual methylating agent that remethylates Homocysteine back into Methionine. MTR cannot be formed in sufficient quantities if one or the other of these ingredient vitamins is deficient (therefore usually

supplemented together). Neither vitamin serves any other biological purpose (in this form - Adenosyl-B12 is involved in metabolism). TMG is an alternative pathway to remethylating homocysteine back into methionine. Folate, B12 and TMG are not interchangeable to SAMe in their biological functions in any way. For more information on methylation, please see the Nutritional page. It seems that Cutler rushed some parts of his book, or wrote it from memory in places. Part of it reads rather conversationally with double exclamation marks etc. The above however is particularly ironic as Cutler himself criticises others for their lack of understanding of chemistry in the section on Cysteine on P.149: 'some physicians who squeaked by in chemistry class many years ago don't understand biochemistry well enough to realize that this will redistribute mercury in teh body rather than cause its excretion'. Such inappropriate remarks are really out of place in a book that seeks professional recognition and attempts to be serious in its remit. William Rasmussen, author of Lead Detoxification Naturally and Natural Mercury Detoxification, subscribes to some of Cutler's concepts regarding low frequent dose chelation, but chooses to use Cilantro instead of Lipoic Acid, and NDF instead of either DMPS or DMSA. NDF does contain Cilantro anyway, but it is possible that one requires more mobilising agent than is in NDF as one progresses through one's chelation programme. Rasmussen says that he disagrees with Cutler in that he absolutely insists that a chelating agent is used with ALA, to actual excrete the mobilised heavy metals from the body. Cutler states that it is not strictly necessary, but states in his recommended schedule to use a chelating agent with ALA. He discusses this regime in his review of his own book on amazon.com. Dr Thomas Janossy (www.oradix.com) writes in his PDF document Recommended Detoxamin Protocol about taking Detoxamin (EDTA) 3 times a week, on alternate days, and also ALA (3 times a day) and MSM. Criticisms aside, there are many positive aspects to Cutler's LFDC, and if BlackSpy was going to take DMPS or DMSA again, he would follow Cutler's suggestions. Taking less more often is clearly gentler on the body than higher dosages less often. Assuming one gets the dosages right in LFCA. BlackSpy agrees with Cutler's suggestions regarding ALA dosing, and when to dose ALA, albeit with the use of slow release ALA supplements; and the importance of taking regular breaks. BlackSpy would also adapt the approach to more natural chelating agents which Cutler does not believe are effective, if appropriate (depending on how practical this is considering the format of the chelating agent and also the estimated optimal interval - based

on less data than for DMPS or DMSA of course); and include intestinal cleansing and absorbants as part of the regime. Whilst BlackSpy believes the dosing schedule is beneficial, or rather a gentler way of dosing than less often, he does not believe that one should wake oneself up during the night to take one's scheduled dosage. Patients are likely to have too little Delta wave/deep sleep as it is, without disturbing the sleep they do have. However, patients are likely to wake up frequently during the night anyway, and if so, if a waking moment or bathroom visit coincides with the time to dose the chelating agent or mobilising agent, then it may be a good time to do so then. If one takes supplements during the night to help with sleep, be they Melatonin, 5-HTP and/or L-Theanine, or perhaps even Mitochondrial support supplements, then one could also take one's ALA then etc. One caveat to the ALA dosage however is that BlackSpy found that taking any more than 150mg of ALA during the night made him wake up and feel euphoric, and make it very difficult to get back to sleep again. Everyone is different and it depends also on whether there is a mitochondrial requirement for ALA or not that might generate such a sensation. back to top Toxicity of Certain Synthetic Chelating Agents Chelation agents vary greatly. They include natural compounds such Cilantro (Chinese Parsley / Coriander Leaf) etc. And also include artificially synthesized amino acids (that do not occur naturally), such as EDTA (EthyleneDiamine TetraAcetic Acid), DMSA (DiMercaptoSuccinic Acid) and DMPS (DiMercapto-Propane Sulphonate - not yet FDA approved).The chelating agents reviewed on this page mainly consist of natural plant and soil extracts, with less emphasis on synthetic chelating agents. EDTA exhibits low acute toxicity in laboratory rats, and has been found to be both cytotoxic (toxic to cells) and weakly genotoxic (toxic to genetic material) in laboratory animals. No such data exists for humans as far as BlackSpy is aware. It is classed as a persistent organic pollutant. EDTA is a powerful antioxidant. EDTA is found in a variety of skin and bathroom products, and is also used in various medicine applications e.g. as a blood anti-coagulant in blood samples, and to prevent cell clumping on account of Calcium deposits. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edta

DMSA is known to cross the blood-brain barrier in humans, however to what extent this actually occurs is debatable. It has a relatively low level of toxicity, reputedly 3 times less than that of DMPS, which is less adept at crossing the blood-brain barrier, but arguably a better chelator of Mercury. The dosage of DMSA compared with DMPS is however usually around 10-20 times higher. This may perhaps be why DMPS is 'smoother' to use than DMSA as it does not cross the blood brain barrier and the effective toxicity from the chelating agent at that given dosage is lower than it is for DMSA. . DMSA is used mainly for chelating Mercury and Lead. EDTA, DMPS and DMSA are all excreted via the kidneys. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DMSA www.dmsa-chelation.info www.chelationtherapyonline.com/articles/bloodbrain.htm A web site examining the application of DMSA and other protocols for targeting specific heavy metals can be seen at the link below. http://www.lef.org/protocols/prtcl-156c.shtml D-Penicillamine (e.g. trade names Cuprimine and Depen) is a metabolite of the Pencillium fungi. It is another pharmaceutical chelating agent, mainly for mercury poisoning, but it is less commonly used, on account of a variety of potential side effects. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penicillamine back to top Comparative Studies and Reviews of Chelating Agents: The pdf document 'Treatment Options for Mercury/Metal Toxicity in Autism and Related Developmental Disabilities: Consensus Position Paper February 2005' by the Autism Research Institute can be read by clicking here. This document examines chelation in general and the effects of heavy metal toxicity. The protocols reflect many of the concepts on this page, although they rely on synthetic chelation agents. The document also reviews the pros and cons of the usage of DMSA, DMPS and TTFD. Dr Mercola stipulates that DMPS is a much more effective chelator

than DMSA. A web site that examines the pros and cons of DMSA and DMPS is shown below. This web site postulates that DMSA is preferable to DPMS, reaching the opposite conclusion to Dr Mercola! Perhaps this is based on the strength/effectiveness of DMPS compared with DMSA with respect to its ability to chelate mercury - i.e. it is easier to make a mistake in the dosage. The web site however postulates that DMSA is less preferable than natural methods like Cilantro. www.dmpsbackfire.com/default.shtml A comparison of IV and oral chelation methods by James C. Roberts MD FACC can be found at the link below. www.zimbio.com/Zeolite/articles/15/Chelation+therapy+EDTA+DMPS +DMSA+Zeolite+Let Synthetic chelating agents, and some mineral-based chelating agents, are charge specific, and are known to bind with nutritional minerals as well as heavy metals. If not used sensibly and in accordance with a mineral supplementation programme, this can result in demineralisation, which in extreme cases can be lifethreatening. This is explored more in the Demineralisation section below. The chelating agents considered for use on this page, and described below, are in the context of oral usage (and anal in the case of EDTA). Cilantro has been proven to be effective at safely removing close to 100% of heavy metals and toxins from the body. Whilst some of the artificial drugs have proven to reasonably effective, it could be argued that a natural approach should be at least tried first. Cilantro and other natural chelating and mobilising agents are examined in more detail further below on this page. back to top Targetted Chelation by Heavy Metal Some chelating agents are better at binding with some heavy metals than others. So if you are trying to remove a particular heavy metal that the chelating agent is not best suited to, then you may be taking high dosages and be under the impression you have finished

chelating, when in fact you haven't, you are just using the wrong chelating agent. Examples of such synthetic chelating agents are: - EDTA, which is most effective at chelating out Lead from the tissues, but not as effective for Mercury. EDTA is most effective taken anally rather than orally as it is not effectively absorbed in the GI tract. EDTA will also remove minerals such as Iron, Nickel and Copper. http://purebulk.com/edta-calcium-disodium - DMSA is reasonably effective at chelating lead. DMPS and DMSA are most effective at chelating Mercury from the tissues, although DMPS is by far the most powerful of the two (meaning you should not take it if you still have mercury amalgam fillings). - Lipoic Acid and other mobilisers are mainly used for mobilising Mercury and Arsenic (as stated above in the Categorisation section), rather than metals such as Lead, which generally speaking does not require such mobilisation to be reached by chelating agents. - IP6 is the chelating agent of choice for Iron. EDTA will also work for Iron. - Citric acid in high doses may also help in the excretion of Aluminium. EDTA will also chelate Aluminium, probably more effectively. back to top Use of Absorbants in Parallel It is also extremely important to also consume an absorbant in conjunction with a chelation programme, such as chlorella or bentonite clay, so that any toxic substances that are deposited into the GI tract by the liver are binded with and rendered less harmful and unlikely to be reabsorbed back into the body. Food and waste takes a long time to pass through the GI tract and colon, and if heavy metals do build up in the colon, they may be reabsorbed and retoxify the patient. If no absorbant is taken, most neurotoxins are reabsorbed on the way down the small intestine by the multitude of nerve endings of the enteric nervous system. One can't really take too much absorbant (although it is physically possible). Some absorbants absorb nutrition mineral elements so one has to be careful to take them apart from mineral supplements and

not take such absorbants too often. back to top Balancing Chelation Chelation in general is a fine art, a balancing of releasing chelated toxin molecules into the blood stream, over and above what you liver normally has to deal with (in terms of digestive functions and breaking down toxins), and not releasing too many 'new' toxins into the blood in one go that the liver is not able to process comfortably in one go. Chelation, depending on how well the chelation agent 'masks' the toxin, is akin to a form of very mild but controlled poisoning, occurring over a prolonged period. When one takes too much chelant, then one is effectively 'poisoning' the whole body and it certainly feels like this. It is not the same effect as ingesting a large relative quantity of that same heavy metal, as the metals released are chelated or bound to a chelating agent and are thus slightly less reactive or poisonous. There is almost always a worsening or sensitisation of the body to its 'normal' symptoms when the heavy metals are released from their previous locations in the body. This may include other sensitivities including (food) allergies or immune-mediated intolerances, or sensitivies to Electromagnetic Fields (e.g. promoximity to light bulbs or TV sets when in use, headphone usage, computer usage etc.) This release of metals results in an increase in circulating levels of (chelated) heavy metals which mimicks the effects of the toxicity of the singular heavy metals themselves. This is why it is advisable to let the body work at the rate it is comfortable with and not to increase the level of circulating toxins to more than it can handle. Arbitrary dosage recommendations are to be taken with a pinch of salt, as they are usually just guess work, and ultimately one has to detox by the 'seat of one's pants' or rather, listen to the body, and find the best dosage for oneself for a given point in time, and learn to safely adapt this over time without being too impatient or too cautious. This is discussed more in the Balancing Liver Function and Energy Levels during a Detoxification Programme section above. Chelation is a balance of considering the short term and the long term. You want the long term benefits of a decreased toxic burden in the body, but you have to consider the short term - your short term energy levels - and not overdo it too much as to send your energy levels and liver function crashing down, which of course has knock on effects in terms of the medium term and long term outlook. You have

to pick a pace of chelation that is sustainable. The competitor in a 1500m race who starts off running as if he is in a 100m race may think he is clever when he is in the lead, but won't be feeling so clever when he burns himself out too soon and the other competitors overtake him and finish much sooner than he does as he spends half of the race walking as he is too tired to run. It is important to bear in mind that the body is excreting heavy metals all the time, in the urine and faeces, via the liver and kidney pathways, with Glutathione etc., and that any chelation you do is increasing the amount of excretion demanded of these organs. In the case of DMPS, for example, it is likely to increase urinary excretion of Mercury 3-4 times, but in terms of the body's total increase in excreted heavy metals (combined kidney, liver, skin and breath excretion), it may only be an increase of around 40%. However, that is still putting a significant burden on the body. It is critically important to note that chelation can be very detrimental to your health and be very destructive to your treatment programme, and even result in cardiac failure is managed incorrectly (in extreme cases). Certain chelating agents also remove nutritional mineral elements from the blood and tissues as well as toxic mineral elements such as heavy metals, and as such may result in critically low levels of potassium, magnesium or calcium if not managed correctly. This chiefly affects synthetic chelating agents, such as DMPS, DMSA and EDTA, but still applies to a lesser extent to some more natural chelating agents. This page is chiefly concerned with natural chelating agents, but even so, they should be used carefully and sensibly - with sufficient breaks. Whilst in general detoxification is a good thing, one needs to consider one's overall energy levels, and whether it is indeed appropriate to undergo a chelation programme at that point in time. It may for instance be wise to delay it until one is in better shape. It depends if toxicity is on the critical path or not in relative terms. If one does undergo a chelation programme, one must pace it correctly, have sufficient breaks, and be wary of the dosages. There is nothing particularly clever about engaging in an over zealous chelation regime, with few if any breaks, at high dosages, and making oneself extremely ill. Any 'idiot' can make himself extremely ill, this is not a skill! Nor particularly constructive. For example, to pick a rather strange metaphor, it is all well and good having clean shoes, but if you have been shot in the head, it is not really any use to you. Chelation and detoxification in general can be very taxing, and it may be recommended that if you are engaging in this activity, then you do not put your usual stressors on the body or engage in your usual stressful activities or draining activities, if applicable, as the

combination of doing with in conjunction with chelation or cellular detoxification will put a much greater burden on the body than those activities alone, resulting in a gradual decline in your energy levels and your adrenal function, if you are not careful and pace yourself properly. You may wish to consider alternating between chelators that are primarily excreted by the liver and those that are primarily excreted by the kidneys. This may alleviate the strain on one particular organ if taken over a long period of time. However ideally sufficient rest periods and a manageable dosage employed so that this does not occur. It is extremely important to ensure that the energetic levels of organs such as your liver and kidneys are sufficiently high to accommodate for your current level of detoxification at any particular time in your detoxification programme. Over time, cellular detoxification will tend to deplete the energy of these organs. This may perhaps merely be a TCM explanation for levels of liver Phase I and II compounds required for proper liver function. You should be supporting the liver, nutritionally, and by other means, during a detoxification programme. Therapies such as Quantum Touch, Bio-Energy Healing or oriental medicine may be to ascertain the energetic health of your kidneys and liver. These are examined in more detail on the Energetic Therapies page. In addition, a blood microscopy can reveal if the liver has become stressed by too much detoxification. More comprehensively, an LFDP test would probably provide the most information. back to top Critics of Chelation Therapy Many doctors believe that chelation therapy is of little therapeutic use in the treatment of CFS, and conversely is harmful to patients. This is perhaps based on inappropriate chelation regimes. www.quackwatch.com/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/chelation.html http://onibasu.com/archives/am/2239.html Chelation therapy can of course be extremely detrimental to your health if not performed properly, and a large number of people who use this therapy arguably tend to abuse it rather than follow a

sensible regime. The fact that opinions on how to chelate in relative safety vary so considerably does not help. Critics may have a point, but BlackSpy believes this is a rather one sided view as there are many success stories amongst the horror stories. At the end of the day, if you decide to use chelation therapy, then you do so at your own peril and should do your research properly before commencing, to avoid rather unnecessary mistakes. back to top Proper Hydration

Chelation requires the patient to consume very large amounts of water to ensure that the toxins are released from the tissues are not allowed to accumulate in the bloodstream and retoxify the body, but are effectively flushed out of the body as quickly as possible in the urine by the kidneys. back to top Demineralisation and Mineral Supplementation

Synthetic chelating agents, and some mineral-based chelating agents, are charge specific, and are known to bind with nutritional minerals as well as heavy metals. If not used sensibly and in accordance with a mineral supplementation programme, this can result in demineralisation, which in extreme cases can be lifethreatening. EDTA for example, is charge specific, and each molecule has an atomic charge of -2. EDTA molecules will therefore float around the body and bond with anything that has a +2 atomic charge. This includes heavy metal atoms, e.g. Lead, but also nutrient minerals (cations) such as Magnesium, Iron, Chromium, Zinc, Cobalt, Manganese, Copper, Selenium and Calcium ions. So as part of the chelation procedure you need to add more +2 nutrients back into the body, as they are continually being removed by the EDTA. As treatment progresses, the results decrease in effectiveness and reach an equilibrium where most of the heavy metals have been removed from your body (but not all), and additional EDTA just removes nutrients from your body and removes no more heavy metals. http://purebulk.com/edta-calcium-disodium There are however protocols for taking chelating agents such as DMPS and EDTA, which involve basically taking the chelating agent on one day, and taking mineral supplements on the next day, and alternating in this manner. DMPS and EDTA etc. do not bind with vitamins, only minerals and so will not affect any vitamin supplementation you are undergoing (e.g. additional antioxidants or

B-vitamins). It should be remembered that although you may require higher doses of particular chelating agents to achieve the same excretion rate of heavy metals towards the end of your chelation programme, that you will greatly increase the rate of demineralisation, as the chelating agent is much more likely to come into contact with a nutritional mineral element than it is with a toxic metal element. Whilst this is generally more applicable to synthetic chelating agents, it is still applicable to some extent to natural chelating agents (for which few or no studies in this area exist to confirm with certainty to the contrary). This is one reason why regular, cyclical breaks are recommended in a chelation programme, as opposed to continuous chelation for months or years at a time, to allow the body to absorb nutritional mineral elements undisturbed and to give the tissues a chance to get their mineral levels back to normal. The breaks also give the liver a chance to 'rest' or fully recover, and for the body's mitochondrial function to recover from the release of many toxic metals from the tissues during chelation 'on' periods. When we talk about supplementing minerals during a chelation programme, we mean above and beyond what you would normally take for nutritional support. This especially critical for those with some level of existing nutritional deficiencies, as regular chelation may result in dangerously low levels of specific essential minerals very quickly. To simply take your normal nutritional support level of additional Magnesium and Potassium etc. is probably not going to be sufficient, especially if you are using EDTA, DMPS or DMSA (probably less so with natural chelating agents with the exception of zeolite-based chelants and also absorbant clays like Bentonite). Clearly you don't want to take both the supplement and the chelating agent at the same time, as the chelating agent will likely suck most of these straight out without them having been absorbed into the tissues, but to take these additional amounts of mineral supplements (above and beyond your usual amount) on the 'off' or 'rest' days in your chelation programme. If you are experiencing some degree of demineralisation, despite a mineral supplementation programme, you may want to consider either taking additional minerals, taking less chelating agent each time and/or having more 'off' or 'rest' days in your chelation programme relative to 'on' or 'chelating' days. It is important to regularly check one's mineral levels during a chelation programme. BlackSpy embarked on a chelation programme in November 2009 using Ca-Na2-EDTA (Detoxamin) but in low dosages, 3 times a week. This seemed to be removing the heavy metals from his body very well

and he started to feel well. He was taking additional Magnesium (Jarrow Formulas Magnesium Optimiser) as well as an all around detoxification and nutritional support protein product called MediClear Plus by Thorne Research. After 2 months of generally improving a little, he started to experience a worsening of cardiac symptoms. The NADH that usually helping with this did not seem to be doing so much anymore. He had been experiencing muscle twitching (mainly in the eyelids) which is a sign of Potassium depletion and decided to supplement additional Potassium and Calcium. However, whilst the eye twitches disappeared largely, his cardiac symptoms got worse. BlackSpy finally figured out that if K and Ca are depleted, then Mg (Magnesium) must surely also be too, so started taking large amounts of Magnesium in the form of Citrate and Malate, together with Taurine (to enhanced absorption) and the cardiac symptoms of chest pains and palpatations disappeared largely within hours. BlackSpy followed a similar regime of 3 EDTA suppositories a week, but significantly increased his mineral intake, and did not experience such demineralisation effects. BlackSpy has thus included this case study to illustrate the above point, that one needs to supplement minerals above and beyond what one normally does, both essential and trace minerals. The Star Trek 'Salt Vampire' is pictured above to illustrate this point, in an amusing manner. A five year old Autism sufferer died after being given IV Disodium EDTA as it effectively sucked all the Calcium from his bloodstream, thereby stopping his heart. The depletion of calcium would not have occurred if Calcium Disodium (CaNa2) EDTA had been used instead. Calcium Disodium EDTA is the safer form of EDTA salt for use with chelation and is found in the vast majority of EDTA-based chelation supplements. Disodium EDTA is the potentially dangerous type of EDTA (as it readily depletes Calcium from the body). Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of the Lead Poisoning Prevention Branch of the Atlantabased Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, states also that Disodium EDTA should never be used for chelation. And indeed more importantly, if a lower dosage had been administered or the same dosage had been administered in several goes, then the death would likely not have occurred. This is one of the dangers of extreme demineralisation when too high dosages are prescribed or administered through error or oversight. http://abcnews.go.com/Health/Autism/wireStory?id=4798504 This news story is discussed on Dr Mercola's web site. A case study of a child patient that was prescribed DMSA resulting in a total loss of speech for 3+ years is described (slightly erratically) in

a forum archive post below. This appears to have been a result of being administered far too high a dosage of DMSA, resulting in a likely case of severe demineralisation and liver toxicity. http://onibasu.com/archives/am/107359.html Because of the lack of clinical trials of the natural chelating products as opposed to their synthetic pharmaceutical 'relatives', then one has to use one's common sense. Those (published) trials that do exist tend to be those focussing on low to medium dosages over a period of weeks or months, and not high dosages over many years. There are detoxifying agents that we know remove nutritional mineral elements, or rather bind with nutritional mineral elements (e.g. Zeolite, Humic Acid, Fulvic Acid), but if the chelating agent matrix comes into contact with a heavy metal, the heavy metal knocks out the nutritional mineral element back into the blood stream. Whilst this is all very well and not of any great significance when chelating using low dosages, it may become a major issue when using large dosages, when one has removed most of the heavy metals from the body. At this stage in one's programme, clearly the changes of each molecule of chelating agent of actually coming into contact with a heavy metal ion or atom becomes increasingly smaller and so the likelihood of it simply binding with a mineral element and being removed from the body are very high. Demineralisation of specific nutritional elements can thus occur. This is one reason why continuous chelation is never recommended for weeks and months at a time, and off days are recommended or even mandatory, to allow the body to go about it's normal business without potentially having its vital mineral levels tampered with. It is also taxing on the liver and requires energy, and may 'poison' the body, lowing one's energy levels. Those chelating agents that are claimed not to do this may however do this to a small extent, which may become significant when dosages are actually increased. Some detoxification agents work in a different manner, i.e. phospholipids so are only of concern for some of the above reasons, but not because of demineralisation which is highly unlikely. Chelation therefore is not to be taken lightly or in a casual manner, and increasing care should be taken when dosages are increased for the above reasons. Increasing the number of breaks and the duration of breaks, and decreasing the 'on' days may well be a sensible strategy towards the end of one's chelation programme as one continues to increase the dosages of chelating agents, with guidance from one's practitioner of course. As a general rule, if one is taking a chelating or clathration agent, to remove heavy metals from the body, one might want to consider also taking additional minerals to protect the body from the effects of the

temporarily elevated levels of heavy metals, primarily zinc and selenium and other antioxidants (e.g. vitamin A, C and E and/or plantbased antioxidants), but also magnesium, potassium, calcium and iodine which may become depleted/displaced. As stated on the Nutritional Deficiencies page, both Calcium and Strontium may be useful to take during a chelation programme: Calcium (essential mineral) and Strontium (trace element) supplements, if taken, should not be taken at the same time, as they compete with each other for absorption (when taken in high dosages). They should be taken at different times of the day. Natural dietary sources of Calcium tend to include trace amounts of Strontium also. Both minerals are involved in bone structure and Stronium adds strength to the predominantly Calcium structure of the bone, a little like a metal alloy can be stronger than iron. Both minerals tend to be very useful when taking during a chelation programme, especially when using EDTA to remove the heavy metal Lead. Lead (Pb) is a +2 charged element in ionic form. Calcium and Strontium are also +2 ions, but in a different periodic group to Lead. However, they do seem to be useful in displacing lead from proteins, when used in conjunction with a chelating agent such as EDTA. Calcium tends to be the most commonly used for this purpose (a protective mineral) but Strontium may be favoured over Calcium, depending on the proteins in question. I.V. Vitamin C has also been shown by Doctor's Data in preliminary studies to increase faecal lead excretion, besides the obvious choices of chelating agent such as EDTA, DMPA or DMSA. back to top Dosage As a general rule, whether you decide on a chelation or clathration agent to use as part of your detoxification programme, BlackSpy recommends the following guidelines. Always start slowly, with a very low dosage. Build up the dosage over a period of weeks or even months. Do not go for the maximum dosage from day one! Elimination of toxins will be gradual and in a general sense, the lower the levels in your body the higher the dosage of the chelation/clathration agent that can be tolerated. Do not feel that you have to reach the recommended dosage stated by the manufacturer or consultant necessarily. A gentle detox is preferable to an aggressive detox. You need to find the natural balance yourself, using your sense of wellbeing, the hardness of your stools and your skin

condition, liver health and other factors to tell you when you are overdoing it, as well as your own common sense. When beginning a chelation programme for the first time, or the first time you take a particular type of chelating agent product, you should be very conservative and cautious and start with a dosage of 2-5% of the maximum/recommended dosage. You will need to build up to this maximum dosage and will likely not be able to achieve this from the outset. It may take several months, depending on your level of toxicity and your liver function. If you overdo it, you will likely experience fatigue, headaches, rashes/acne and/or liver pains. Start off with a very small amount of chelation agent and build up very slowly, noticing the effects on the body. The danger of chelation is that if too much of the chelating agent is taken over a period of time, the liver and kidneys can easily become overburdened, and patient putting his body under unnecessary strain, depleting his energy, and in extreme cases, permanent liver or kidney damage can occur. Symptoms of over-detoxification include severe constipation, severe skin rashes, boils (perhaps the immune system attacking the partial detoxification products or otherwise being distracted by them, allowing bacteria to wreak more havoc in the interim) and terrible headaches. In addition, if the bowel movements do slow down too much, then retoxification through reabsorption of toxins through the bowel wall increases greatly. If you build up over a long period of time to a point where you are able to take large dosages of a given chelating agent, then it is likely that you have reached the limits of what that particular chelating agent can do, in terms of the types of tissues it can target and which types of heavy metals it most effectively bind with. Simply continuing to take very high dosages may have a detrimental effect on your mineral levels and not necessarily provide so much more benefit in terms of chelating ability. Being able to take large amounts of a chelating agent does not necessarily mean you are 'Heavy Metal' free! It is quite possible that you can remove certain heavy metals from certain tissues, but only moderately reduce the levels of a heavy metal like Lead. Even if you move onto another natural chelating agent, and repeat the same process there, starting with a low dosage and working your way up, it is not necessarily guaranteed that you will be effective in removing that heavy metal either. You will be likely detoxing something, but without effective and measurable and reliable test results, you don't really know for sure. BlackSpy tried using various natural chelating agents heavily for 3 years and still was not able to remove his lead and to a lesser extent mercury. More information on the relative effectiveness of chelating agents shall

follow. If you are able to take large amounts of a chelating agent, it may not necessarily be effective at attracting toxic metal ions or complexed ions and binding with them. What may well be happening is that you have reached the liver's limit of removing the chelating agent from your bloodstream, and only a small proportion of it is actually binding with heavy metals (or perhaps more likely to be nutritional mineral elements). It could likely be that the chelating agent has binded with as much as it can in those places in the body that are accessible to it, and that to remove more heavy metals, one has to either continue to take that chelating agent together with a mobilising agent, such as Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA) or Cilantro, and/or change chelating agent. One cannot make any assumptions about the performance or effectiveness of a course of chelation without actually testing and measuring it. One cannot rely on dosage and liver function alone to determine its effectiveness. Never take a chelation agent (i.e. Cilantro, Lipoic Acid or a synthetic chelating agent such as DMSA or DMPS etc.) whilst you still have mercury amalgam fillings in your mouth as it may actively leach out mercury from your filling into your body. There are however a few exceptions, which are discussed below. back to top Over-Detoxification Side Effects The liver is only able to process so many chelated toxic elements or molecules in one go. The same applies to the kidneys. Therefore if one takes too much chelant for whatever amount of toxicity one has in one's system (either taking too much initially or increasing the dosage too quickly), then the liver will be tasked to process whatever it can cope with, and the rest will simply float around the blood and likely be reaborbed by the tissues or brain, giving one adverse detoxification symptoms. This is effectively a mild form of poisoning. The liver will also be excessively and unnecessarily stressed. Taking aggressive amounts of chelant is not necessarily more effective or efficient or clever, and is harsher and more damaging to the body. Determining the starting dosage is a matter of guesswork and following recommendations from your practitioner and/or the manufacturer, and depends on the amount and type of toxins you have in your body and whether you have taken this particular product before or not. It is better to err on the side of caution and be conservative in your approach, and build up the dosage incrementally, and notice the

changes if any it has on the body and in terms of side effects. The type of over-detoxification headache that you may experience may well vary according to what phase of the detoxification programme you are in and thus what mixture and ratio of different toxic metals are being chelated at that point in time. You may well notice very subtly different types of headache! This is not unusual. Ideally though you won't over-detox at all, but it may happen from time to time. Over-detoxification headaches can be split into two broad categories, although clearly there is room for experiencing both at once. A sharp or stabbing headache is normally associated with excessive release of toxins, especially heavy metals, into the bloodstream and a 'poisoning' effect. A fuzzy, flu-like headache is normally associated with excessive free radical production and inflammation, as a response to elevated toxin levels. Please see the Peroxynitrite page for more information. Liver spots are another potential symptom, in the form of boils, acne or minor red swollen areas, usually on the head or neck. A rash is another symptom. These are the body's inflammatory responses. Toxins are carried out of the lymph into the skin through the sweat pores in very tiny amounts in normal situations, but when the capacity of the liver has been reached, more toxins will tend to work their way out through the skin, which is a back-up detoxification organ. Some of these toxins will create visible inflammatory responses which is what one sees in liver spots or rashes, depending on where exactly the inflammatory response takes place under the skin. It is a sign that one needs to take less chelating and/or mobilising agents so one can detoxify the body within the capabilities of the liver and kidneys. A gentle approach is therefore recommended. It is therefore extremely important that any individual underdoing a complete detoxification programme do so in conjunction with a professional consultant. If you find that you cannot sleep at night, then try to avoid taking your dosage of your clathration/chelation agent so late in the evening. Try taking your last dosage in the mid afternoon or earlier. If your stools do firm up too much, you experience excessive skin rashes or you experience extreme and throbbing headaches, then back off the dosage of the chelation/clathration agent immediately and drink more water during the day. Take some more absorbant. If you have become constipated, to help get your bowel movements

going, you can take additional magnesium (on top of what you may already be taking for magnesium deficiencies, see the nutritional section), perhaps up to 300mg at a time (once or more times per day). You can also take ground psyllium husks or ground flax seed (see above). However, do not use the magnesium regularly to disguise the fact that you are taking too much chelation/clathration agent and that your stools are too firm or that you have constipation. If for example you have taken too high a dose of cilantro, and your gall bladder has released a large amount of bile into your intestines with a correspondingly large amount of heavy metals such that you have a splitting and throbbing headache, then taking additional chlorella to compensate probably won't help. Drinking huge amounts of water probably won't help either. The best way to deal with such an over-release of toxins into the GI tract is to take liquid bentonite if you are not already doing so. This is the most effective absorbant and will most likely cure the re-toxification headache within an hour or two. Otherwise the headache may take a day or two to go away (with correspondingly more cellular retoxification) assuming that you have actually lowered your dosage of cilantro. An example of a bad, throbbing headache:

Improper or overly aggressive or macho detoxification regimes are not clever and to chelate as much as physically possible is not some kind of perverse sport. One must be mindful of instigating inflammation through excessive chelation and always monitor the body for such symptoms. And indeed for symptoms of reduced energy etc. Take more breaks or lower dosages to get back to a stable baseline. Critics of chelation therapy state that chelation is highly dangerous and should not be attempted by anyone bar those with exposure to radioactive material. BlackSpy believes that such critics have a point, as improper chelation is one of the most destructive things you can do to your body, perhaps with the exception of excessive consumption of antimicrobial herbs or

compounds for bacteria/candida/parasite treatment (another form of poisoning). However, when performed properly and relatively safely, it can be extremely useful in removing many causative factors in one's condition. back to top Frequency of Administration Chelation agents are typically taken 2-3 times a day, on an empty stomach. Some prefer to stick to one type of chelation agent at a time, for a few months or so, before switching over to another for a few months. One can of course mix things up, and there is no harm in taking one type of chelating agent first thing in the morning and then another type between lunch and dinner, for example. It depends on the individual and at what stage in one's detoxification programme one is at. Taking more than one at a time is of course more complicated as one has to manage the dosages of two products rather than one. For beginners, it is suggested that one sticks to using one at a time for simplicity's sake. One may consider what the optimum regime is in terms of chelation and how many days break one should have, and have often, in order to prevent demineralisation (nutritional mineral depletion), excessive free radical damage, and a worsening of mitochondrial and liver function. Some practitioners recommend chelating solidly for a few months, then taking a few weeks off. Others recommend rounds of 3 days on, 3 days off. Others may have rounds of 5 days on, 2 days off, etc. You should discuss this with your practitioner and also perhaps experiment a little to find the regime that suits you best. Jean Munro of Breakspear Medical recommends 3 days on and 11 days off, with respect to chelating agents such as DMPS and EDTA. See also the section on monitoring liver health above. Bear in mind that it is better to be proactive than reactive, in the sense that it is better to be prevent problems from happening than reacting to problems that one creates. It is less taxing and more gentle on the body and on one's energy reserves. Chelating agents put an additional burden on the liver and kidneys (depending on how they are excreted). It is not always more efficient to chelate non-stop for 6 to 9 months as the liver becomes increasingly more inefficient and then requires weeks or more to recover. It is always best to think sustainable and limit the amount of damage one does to one's body as much as possible. Think marathon rather than 100m sprint. Do not just slavishly follow the manufacturer's instructions on the packet or

bottle as they usually only discuss 'average' daily dosages and not frequency and round regimes. There is as has been noted above considerable controversy and disagreement over chelation protocols, with respect to which to use and in what manner. Universal agreement is unlikely and your exact chelation regime must be something for you to decide with your practitioner. You may need to include 'breaks' into your detoxification regime to pace yourself. If you are lucky enough to have a lower level of toxicity or very healthy liver and kidneys, you may well be able to complete your detoxification programme in one continuous programme, with no intervals. However this is rarely the case and is a recipe for disaster for most people. If not, then you may need to take breaks in the programme to allow your organs to recover or to not get so depleted in the first place. You wouldn't run consecutive marathons in one day - you might consider a little rest and recuperation in between each one! Your doctor or consultant should be able to advise you of the best and optimal regime for you. BlackSpy strongly believes that the danger of cumulative levels of circulating heavy metals and possible increase in inflammation is probably the most important reason for requiring regular breaks in chelation therapy, especially with mobilsing agents. back to top Supporting Liver and Kidney Function Please note in the section above on Balancing Liver Function and Energy Levels during a Detoxification Programme of the importance of consuming sufficient nutrients to support kidney, liver and gallbladder function, on account on the additional work they have to perform with chelated heavy metals being sent their way for excretion, in addition to their normal duties they have to perform for your health and survival. The main route of excretion of the chelating agent you are using, whether the kidneys or liver, or both, will clearly have a big impact on this. back to top Measuring the Progress of your Chelation Programme

There are a number of different tests to measure toxicity in the body, as described on the Tests page. Whilst there are many methods available including hair mineral analysis, urine tests and blood tests to measure absolute levels of heavy metals, these are generally not particularly reliable. For example, whole blood analyses of lead can only be expected to reflect recent exposures and do not correlate very well with the total body burden of lead. BlackSpy personally recommends the Urinary Porphyrins test, which provides information about the biochemical effects of heavy metal toxicity in the body, which is really what we are interested in, rather than the absolute levels, which can be tolerated better by some people than others. This test aside, the second best test for heavy metal toxicity is probably the Provoked Urinary Metals Profile. One may want to exercise caution with the latter, which involves taking a calculated dosage of a chelating agent to provoke the release of heavy metals into the urine, which for some people may be way too high a dosage. back to top Chelating Agent Reviews: back to top Activated Zeolites (Natural Cellular Defense or NCD)

BlackSpy also has experienced excellent results with another cutting-edge product by Waiora, called Natural Cellular Defense (NCD). NCD is based upon activated zeolites. Zeolites are naturally occurring crystalline minerals produced over millions of years by crystallisation of volcanic ash in the ocean or fresh water lakes. The zeolite used in

NCD is clinoptilolite. It has been used for over 800 years in traditional medicine in its dry form. Waiora's product isolates this zeolite from any naturally occuring toxins in the raw material and provides it in an 'activated' form, in aqueous solution. The zeolite have a 'cage' like structure and are able to absorb and surround a toxin molecule with the cage and render it relatively harmless. It is therefore not necessary to take an absorbant in conjunction with NCD, although it is not necessarily a bad thing to do so anyway, to aid the detoxification process via the gastro-intestinal pathway. The zeolite's chemical formula is 4,5 di-cyclo, disilico, dimagnesium, dialumino, oxyo, trihyrdate. It is technically speaking a chelation agent, but is similar to clathration in its action of enclosing toxin molecules in a matrix (in this case at the centre of the zeolite molecule). NCD is excreted mainly through urinary excretion, i.e. via the kidneys. NCD has several other benefits, besides chelation. These include pH regulation (absorbing high concentrations of H+ ions and depositing them where there is a lesser concentration of H+ ions) and the removal of harmful ammonium ions from the gastro-intestinal tract (produced during the deamination of protein during protein digestion). One possible draw back to NCD is that in heavily toxified individuals, some toxic molecules may be freed from sequestration and may exchange in and out of the cage (e.g. a Cadmium atom may displace a Lead atom from the cage, thereby re-releasing the Lead back into the body). This may produce some temporary detoxification symptoms, however, these will vanish with continued use of the product and continued removal of the more powerfully bonding heavy metals. Heavily toxified users of NCD could perhaps take an absorbant during the early stages of their usage of NCD to help counter these effects. NCD, unlike synthetic chelation agents such as EDTA, is claimed not to absorb any nutrient minerals into its 'cage', but only toxins and heavy metals. However, this is not strictly true, as nutritional metal elements are absorbed into the cage, and are effectively knocked out and replaced by heavy metal elements when the Zeolite matrix comes into contact with a heavy metal. In other words heavy metal ions are preferentially absorbed or trapped. If one is taking very high

dosages or one has very low levels of heavy metals in the body, then there may be some possibility of demineralisation of nutritional metals from the body. It is generally more effective to take a lower dosage for a longer time than a high dosage for a short time in chelation terms in any case. One may want to consider taking additional nutritional minerals to compensate for this potential effect (as one woudl do with synthetic chelating agents such as EDTA and DMSA etc.), which one is likely doing in any case. NCD is slightly cheaper than PCA-Rx and may even be more powerful. However it is difficult to comment as packaging sizes and concentrations may vary, which may not be reflective of the actual potency/power of the respective molecules contained therein. In terms of dosage, it is probably best to start with 1-3 drops, 2 times a day can be taken, with the dosage as normal increased slowly and built up to 10 drops 3 times a day. NCD stays in the system for 5 to 7 hours after taking it. It may be optimal to take smaller doses but more often, for example 4 times or day, or even continuously during the day. For example, add your daily dosage to a large bottle of filtered/mineral water, mix, and then pour your cups of water that you drink during the day from this bottle. Rik Deitsch has said that there is no point taking more than 10-15 drops at once as it is not necessarily much more efficient to do so, but that in extreme cases or when chelating at high doses at the end of your detoxification programme, one can take 1015 drops every hour, with a little water. NCD zeolite has a large affinity to water, and so requires the user to drink large quantities of water. As with other chelating or clathration agents, taking the product late in the evening may inhibit full sleep. You may want to perhaps start with PCA-Rx and then move onto NCD after this. However, always consult with your specialist and follow your specialist's recommendations. NCD can be taken whilst amalgam fillings are still in place. Information about this product and videos can be found on Waiora's web site. Please see the links page. The Waiora web site's NCD page is also listed below for convenience. http://www.waiora.com/products/item26000-NCD.php

Alternatively view the NCD White Paper below for more detailed information (simply left click, or right click and select 'Save Target'). Waiora Natural Cellular Defense White Paper pdf file To read an in depth interview with Rik Deitsch of Waiora regarding NCD, please click on the link below (simply left click, or right click and select 'Save Target'). Interview with Rik Deitsch pdf file An Interview with Rik Deitsch by Jake Reimer from 4th June 2007 can be read at the link below. www.litmuszine.com/feature/side_6.04.07b.html To read the patent on NCD, please click on the link below (simply left click, or right click and select 'Save Target'). NCD Patent Viewing the above pdf documents requires Adobe Reader. If you do not have this, please download it from the following link. http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html A product review/endorsement by Dr Gabriel Cousins can be found at the link below. www.bizzyblogz.com/Waiora A description of the O-Ring Test, a trial of 60 participants conducted by Dr Gabriel Cousins at his Tree of Life Rejuvenation Center in Arizona, USA. Subjects took NCD in conjunction with a greenjuice fasting diet for a week, with extremely favourable results in terms of toxin level decreases. How much of this was down to the NCD and how much was down to the juice fast has not been established. www.treeoflife.nu/zeolite A comparison of NCD to synthetic chelation agents by James C. Roberts MD FACC can be found at the link below.

www.zimbio.com/Zeolite/articles/15/Chelation+therapy+EDT A+DMPS+DMSA+Zeolite+Let 'Zeolite is less potent a chelator than are the chemical agents such as EDTA, DMSA, and DMPS, and we do not have a long-term track record with the use of Zeolite in chelation therapy, but this material appears to be quite safe. Zeolite makes chelation therapy affordable to everyone.' General information about taking NCD and some of the above reference documents can be found at the site below. www.liquidzeolite.org BlackSpy would recommend that everyone should try this product as well as PCA-Rx, whether suffering from CFS, related conditions, Autism, Multiple Sclerosis, or Cancer (detoxifying here is an immediate matter of life or death), or whether in 'normal' (i.e. mediocre) health, but don't take his word for it, always consult with a health professional. BlackSpy does not recommend undertaking an unsupervised detoxification programme. The Zeolite Clinoptilolite is used in a variety of applications such as in water filters, fertilisers and animal feeds. It is relatively inexpensive. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinoptilolite http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/silicate/clinopti/clinopti.h tm Rik Deitsch of Waiora claims that "I use naturally-occurring clinoptilolite for the NCD. The process used to purify (in effect to 'activate') the zeolite is proprietary to myself and my manufacturer. It took several years to perfect this process and yields a completely safe and very active product." www.litmuszine.com/feature/side_6.04.07b.html The form of clinoptilolite in Waiora's NCD is therefore claimed to be a proprietary form. Other zeolite formulations tend to contain 'regular' clinoptilolite zeolite and are significantly cheaper - and are not usually specifically marketed for human consumption or for heavy metal

detoxification. Rik Deitch claims that whilst most of the NCD Zeolite stays within the digestive tract, a smaller proportion is absorbed into the bloodstream. Jean Munro of Breakspear Medical claims that Zeolite, being a very large molecule, does not actually pass into the bloodstream, but stays within the digestive tract, rather like other absorbants like Bentonite clay, and is thus is a passive absorbant rather than direct chelator throughout the body. Thus she argues, you cannot take too much, unless one considers the potential demineralisation effects of higher dosages. This is not the view of the supplier Zeolite.com, who state that zeolite is absorbed into the bloodstream, can cross the blood-brain barrier, and is excreted by the kidneys. http://www.zeolite.com

Another Zeolite product on the market is the Global Healing Center's Zeotrex. This contains organic volcanic Zeolites (clinoptilolite) as well as an Angstrom colloid blend (including organic Cilantro leaf and blue-green algae). www.ghchealth.com/zeotrex.php BlackSpy is not certain whether this product contains 'regular' clinoptilolite or whether it is a proprietary formulation, but suspects it is the former. How much better is Waiora's proprietary form of clinoptilolite compared with normal, naturally occurring clinoptilolite? It would be interested to see some comparison data from Waiora. back to top

Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP) - 'PectaSol' / Modified Alginate Complex (MAC) - 'Algimate':

Citrus Pectin is a plant fiber obtained from the rind and peel of citrus fruits such as lemons, grapefruits, oranges and tangerines. Structurally, pectin is classified as a water soluble, complex polysaccharide, rich in the sugar galactose. At a molecular level, pectin is a strong binding agent, which directly relates to its tremendous detoxification and cholesterol lowering properties. Citrus pectin is very bioavailable and has a galactose rich make-up, giving it the ability to deliver the following extraordinary benefits: - removes heavy metals and toxins - promotes cardiovascular health - promotes normal cell growth Fruit Pectin has been shown to have chelating properties, and has been recommended in eliminating radiation poisoning from the digestive tract in sufferers of the Chernobyl disaster. www.chernobyl.info/index.php?navID=578 Click here to read the 2006 paper 'Comparison of Prussian blue and apple-pectin efficacy on 137Cs [Caesium] decorporation in rats' by B. Le Galla, F. Taranb, D. Renaulta, J.-C. Wilka and E. Ansoborlo. Both Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP) and Modified Alginate

Complex (MAC), are patented products by EcoNugenics. They are Polyuronides, naturally occurring types of complex polysaccharides, i.e. complex natural sugars. MCP is harvested from the inner peel of citrus fruit, and is a soluble dietary fibre composed mainly of repeating Galacturonic Acid units. Alginate is derived from seaweed. Alginate is made of linear chains of Mannuronic and Guluronic Acid. The toxic metal binding properties of polyuronides depends on their level of esterification and the exact molecular structure of the pectin or alginate molecular chains. The highest binding affinities are reputedly found in pectins with a low degree of esterification and alginates that are high in guluronic acid, arranged in adjacent blocks. Pectin and Alginates in their natural form cannot be absorbed from the digestive tract into the bloodstream and thus only act to detoxify the digestive tract of heavy metals (collecting heavy metals that have been excreted previously through the biliary tree, i.e. the liver). MCP on the other hand has been modified so that they can be absorbed into the bloodstream from the digestive tract (allegedly over 5-6 hours providing prolonged/slow rate of absorption into the blood), to enable chelation to occur in the body itself. MAC according to Jarrow Formulas is reputed to remain in the digest tract and increase rates of binding of excreted heavy metals in the digestive tract, to prevent their reabsorption. Presumably the MAC is there primarily to bind with heavy metals already in the digestive tract from the body's natural detoxification processes (Glutathione conjugates of heavy metals etc excreted from the liver into the digestive tract) and also historical accumulation of heavy metals in the stool and mucoid plaque in the colon; but also perhaps to a lesser extent to bind with any heavy metals introduced into the digestive tract by MCP bound to metals excreted by the liver. The main pathway of excretion of MCP is via the kidneys (i.e. urine) but some is excreted by the liver into the digestive tract. 'PectaSols modified citrus pectin (MCP) has a unique chemical structure and optimized molecular weight that allows for maximized absorption, systemic chelation of toxic metals, and facilitation of their removal.* PectaSols modified alginate complements MCP by chelating toxic metals within the digestive tract and preventing their reabsorption.'

Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP) and Modified Alginate Complex (MAC) appear to function in a similar manner to the other natural chelation/clathration agent mentioned below, the peptide-based PCA-Rx. It is claimed to form an 'egg box chelation structure' where toxic metals become trapped in the chelation complex, become highly water soluble and are more easily eliminated by the kidneys and liver, with 'no side effects'. MCP is excreted mainly via urinary excretion, i.e. via the kidneys. As with PCA-Rx, NCD and Cilantro, there are no reported effects of removing nutritional elements from the blood stream that can happen with synthetic chelation agents as described above. BlackSpy takes the claims of 'no side effects' and the extent to which such molecular structures shield the liver and tissues from any harmful effects of the toxic metals held therein with a pinch of salt, as experience with PCA-Rx and NCD points to them considerably reducing these effects, but not completely eliminating them. MCP is claimed to chelate Lead primarily and other heavy metals secondarily. MAC is claimed to chelate Mercury primarily and other heavy metals secondarily. The 2007 paper 'Integrative Medicine and the Role of Modified Citrus Pectin/Alginates in Heavy Metal Chelation and Detoxification: Five Case Reports' by Isaac Eliaz (the chief chemist responsible for formulating the 'PectaSol' chemistry), Elaine Weila and Barry Wilkb can be viewed in pdf format by clicking on the link below. It reviews the positive and negative effects of common synthetic chelation agents such as EDTA and DMPS. It also studies the effects in (just) five case studies using either just Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP) or a combination of MCP and Modified Alginate Complex. Chelation study PDF A view on Dr Isaac Eliaz's web site can be seen at the link below, which includes a video. www.dreliaz.org/hot_topics/index/removing_dangerous_toxic _metals_from_our_bodies An audio file interview of Dr Eliaz with Mike Adams (aka 'Health Ranger') of NaturalNews.com, discussing MCP and

Chelation, can be found at the link below. www.naturalnews.com/podcasts/DrIssacEliazCitrusPectinPo dcast2008.mp3 Other documents relating to the use of Alginates for chelation can be found below. BlackSpy has not yet tried this particular method out so cannot comment. www.freepatentsonline.com/5292525.html www.heartfeltmedicine.com/Health/EcoNugenics/pectaSolChelation-Complex.html MCP has also been shown to help inhibit cancer cell growth. 'MCP is a chemically modified form of pectin. In 1992, researchers at the Michigan Cancer Foundation published the results of a study in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, which indicated that MCP significantly decreased the spread (metastasis) of melanoma and prostate cancer cells in rats. Similar results have subsequently been obtained from other animal studies, concerning breast and colon cancer. Some small and uncontrolled human studies have also shown that MCP may inhibit the spread of melanoma and prostate cancer. MCP has no effect on the growth of primary tumours. Secondary tumours develop through the adhesion of roaming cancer cells to each other and to other organs by means of sticky' protein molecules, known as galectin-3. MCP inhibits this sticking process by preferentially binding to the sticky molecules. Under the influence of MCP, cancer cells lose their stick. Hence, the metastasis of all cancers that spread by means of galectin-3 may be inhibited by MCP.' www.self-helpcancer.org/cancertreatment2_1.htm#MCP 'PectaSol' is the registered trademark of a chelation product based on the use of Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP), harvested from the inside of citrus fruit peel. At the time of writing (June 2008), there are currently 2 main products on the market containing PectaSol. These are sold by EcoNugenics or under licence by Source Naturals and Jarrow. PectaSol Modified Citrus Pectin

The first product is called 'PectaSol Modified Citrus Pectin' (MCP). The main active chelation ingredient is Modified Citrus Pectin (i.e. 'PectaSol'). This is a chelating agent that can be absorbed into the bloodstream and remove various types of heavy metals, including both Lead and Mercury. According to the author William Rasmussen, it is primarily targetted at removing Lead from the body, but can also chelate other heavy metals - however this does not seem to be corroborated elsewhere from what BlackSpy can see, and the manufacturer nor resellers have made such a statement. Pectasol MCP is sold by EcoNugenics, and under licence by Now Foods and Source Naturals. It is available in both capsule and powder form, the latter being much more cost effective, particularly at the end of one's detoxification regime when larger quantities are taken. The PectaSol MCP capsules contain 800mg of PectaSol MCP each. The powder form is 100% PectaSol MCP. NOW appears to be the cheapest brand. European buyers will save money if they buy in bulk from the US.

www.econugenics.com/products/datasheets/datashee t_6001.pdf http://store.sourcenaturalscatalog.com/sn2020.html http://store.sourcenaturalscatalog.com/sn0703.html www.nowfoods.com/?action=itemdetail&item_id=1009 21 www.nowfoods.com/?action=itemdetail&item_id=1008 73

PectaSol Chelation Complex

The second product is called 'PectaSol Chelation Complex' or 'PCC' for short. This contains both Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP, i.e. 'PectaSol') and a Modified Alginate Complex (MAC - using the trademark 'Algimate'). These two ingredients are collectively known as 'PectaSol Chelation Complex'. This product is a combination product, providing the chelating agent PectaSol MCP and also the intestinal heavy metal absorbant Modified Alginate Complex. According to William Rasmussen, Algimate is a chelating agent that is absorbed into the bloodstream and that is primarily targeted to Mercury chelation, but this is not corroborated elsewhere and BlackSpy is sceptical about this claim which does not match manufacturer or reseller statements, which refer to it as a selective intestinal absorbant. PCC is only available in capsule form, and is the more potent of the two types of product. Each PCC capsule contains 300mg of PectaSol MCP and 450mg of Algimate MAC. MAC seems to be the more powerful chelator from BlackSpy's experiences. PCC is sold by EcoNugenics and under licence by Jarrow Formulas. They are both exactly the same product. The EcoNugenics product is called 'PectaSol

Chelation Complex' (probably as you would expect!) www.econugenics.com/products/datasheets/datashee t_6342.pdf Jarrow Formulas' 'ToXguard Heavy Metal Detox' contains an equivalent amount of 'PectaSol Chelation Complex' (i.e. MCP and MAC) per capsule to EcoNugenics own 'PectaSol Chelation Complex' capsules product. It is slightly cheaper than the EcoNugenics branded product. It is pictured above. European buyers will save money if they buy in bulk from the US. www.jarrow.com/product-428 EcoNugenics recommend a 'stage II' product, after the use of PCC for one to six months. This is called 'PectaSol Detox Complete'. Contrary to the name, it does not actually contain any Modified Citrus Pectin. It appears PectaSol is a brand name for a range of products by EcoNugenics, some of which contain PectaSol and some don't, and also the name of the trademarked active chelating ingredient 'PectaSol'. PectaSol Detox Complete is basically a mix of various antioxidants and, glutatione precursors, Sulfur, ALA, Milk Thistle and Cilantro leaf. www.econugenics.com/products/datasheets/datasheet_6350.p df BlackSpy's view on the PectaSol Detox Complete product is that rather than wait until one has finished the bulk of one's heavy metal detoxification to start taking these antioxidants and glutatione precursors, one should really have been taking these all along. BlackSpy strongly believes that the chelator Cilantro should be used in every heavy metal detoxification programme, as it is a powerful chelator. BlackSpy in general thinks it is best to focus on using Cilantro after one has done at least a bulk of one's chelation as it can be a little 'rough'. This is explained more in the Cilantro section. However, in order to get the concentrations of Cilantro that one is after, it is likely cheaper and more convenient to buy bottles of Cilantro tincture rather than rely on a pre-fabricated (value added) supplement like this. This is particularly relevant when one tailors one's Cilantro dosage as one goes along, and may not necessarily want to take more of the antioxidants or precursors than one

normally does as one increases the Cilantro dosage. If you are taking a capsule such as the one above, then taking high Cilantro dosages would therefore become highly expensive and would result in taking very high dosages of the other associated ingredients. BlackSpy prefers to take them individually and be in control of the dosages himself. This is not to say it is not a convenient product however. PectaSol (MCP) powder appears to be negative charged, which one can feel when one opens the jar, and indeed can notice if one uses a metallic spoon. When serving the PectaSol powder, it is probably best to use a non-metallic spoon, such as a ceramic or plastic spoon. BlackSpy presumes that the capsules of PectaSol Chelation Complex (MCP and Algimate) are similarly containing negatively charged powder. BlackSpy has briefly trialled Modified Citrus Pectin and Modified Alginate Complex (the Jarrow Heavey Metal Detox product described above). The recommended dosage is 1-3 capsules twice a day on an empty stomach. BlackSpy took approximately 7-8 capsules three times a day. He felt no adverse side effects until he took 24 capsules per day, when he experienced a slight headache. He was able to take such high doses as he had been chelating and detoxing for 2.5 years previously and so his heavy metal levels were relatively low. BlackSpy used 4 bottles of 90 capsules in approximatley 30 weeks. He felt the product working OK although there was only slight constipation at the very beginning (a usual sign of detoxification occurring). Before having trialled the MCP MAC product, he had reached a 'wall' with regards to his Cilantro tincture intake, at 100 drops, 3 times a day. This is a very high dosage, achieved by BlackSpy after 2.5 years of cellular detoxification. BlackSpy had been unable to increase this dosage after 3 weeks or so at this level. After having taken the MCP MAC product for 3 weeks, going back to Cilantro, he noticed he was able to increase his Cilantro dosage again comfortably by at least 20%. This is probably at least equivalent to if not more than he would have achieved if he had been taking Cilantro during this trial period instead. BlackSpy will return his final verdict when he receives his next hair analysis test results although it is probably not fair to judge the product on such a brief usage period. BlackSpy tried NOW PectaSol Powder for approximately 3 to 4 weeks - after a similar period using PectaSol Chelation Complex, as described above. The recommended dosage is

5g to be taken 3 times a day, on an empty stomach. BlackSpy started off with 10g three times a day which was fine (at his stage in his detoxification regime - not recommended for beginners). He gradually increased this to just over 60g three times a day over this period, to stay in the optimal zone'. During this 3-4 week period he used six jars of powder, each containing one pound (454g), using thus approximately 3 kg (6 lbs) of PectaSol powder! Tweaking the dosage was a case of estimation and guesswork, and if he overdid it, he did experience headaches (like a general malaise in the head as opposed to a sharp and painful headache). After this 3-4 week period, he went back to using Cilantro again, and found that he could increase his former dosage from 120 drops three times a day to 180 drops three times a day, so the % increase was even greater from having used PectaSol Chelation Complex (perhaps more even more so on account on the quantities taken and slightly longer duration). BlackSpy is shortly going to have a hair analysis performed, which would cover his whole PectaSol chelation period, to provide more concrete data, but his opinion is that it was extremely good and recommends it for a relatively headache-free chelation. Towards the end of his detoxification programme, he was able to take up to 70 capsules of Jarrow Toxguard Heavy Metal Detox (PCC) in one dosage, once a day, without experiencing any excessive diarrhoea (discussed below). This is probably about the maximum dosage that he could take in one go, if taken once a day, and slightly lower dosages could be taken three times a day (e.g. 60 capsules, 3 times a day). However, these are very advanced dosages and not recommended for the beginner. One downside to PCC only being available in capsule form is that it can be extremely unpleasant to swallow so many capsules, and a large amount of water is required to swallow them all down, so that they do not stick in the throat, which can be extremely uncomfortable to say the least! BlackSpy almost threw up one time as a number of capsules had blocked his oesophagus! Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP) is of course a form of pectin, i.e. (a modified) natural sugar. 5g of MCP consists of 4g of carbohydrate. It functions as a chelant as it is small enough to easily permeate the digestive tract and into the blood stream to function systematically; and also because each molecule is a tiny fibre, which can bind to heavy metals and other toxins. 5g of MCP contains effectively 3g of soluble fibre. The upside is also its potential downside, but only when taken in VERY large

quantities. This is only really relevant for those at the end of their detoxification programmes, who need to take very high dosages of chelants to flush out the last of their heavy metals from their tissues. Taken in very large doses, it may induce very loose stools or diarrhoea and also excessive wind. To offset the effects of the diarrhoea, one should perhaps cut down on ones Magnesium supplemental intake whilst taking high doses of MCP. However, as one approaches one's maximum limit of chelant, the stools may start to firm up again, on account of the additional bile produced and so on. The wind is caused by the very high pectin intake, if one is taking, for example 100g a day (a very advanced dosage), which feeds the (good and bad) bacteria in ones colon, producing large amounts of Carbon Dioxide (wind) during the day and night. In addition it may also result in a little insomnia if one is taking it too late in the evening (being a sugar). If one is taking MCP at this dosage, then one should not perhaps do so for more than a couple of months maximum as it may upset one's bacterial balance in one's colon. Taking Pectasol powder in very high dosages may also 'fill one up' a little, and take the edge off one's hunger for a couple of hours. So whilst being an excellent product, there are a few considerations when at the very tail end of ones detoxification programme. Other chelants, such as Cilantro, do not have this problem. Every chelant has its pros and cons. So to sum up MCP and PCC are excellent chelants, but they work best at low to medium dosages. One can only increase the dosage up to a certain level before the laxative effect of all the dietary fibre becomes too unbearable. Other chelant agents do not have this problem and can be taken in high dosages without such side effects. BlackSpy has found that PCC capsules are roughly 50%+ as strong as the PectaSol MCP Powder if one considers the relative amount in each serving. At very high dosages, even though slightly dearer, it may be worth taking the PCC capsules instead as the relative laxative effect will be less (i.e. requiring less weight of MCP/MAC per serving). Do not even think about taking more than 70g of PectaSol Modified Citrus Pectin in one go, three times a day, as the laxative and wind effect becomes totally debilitating in BlackSpy's experience. When one gets to this ultra-advanced level of chelation at the end of one's program, it is best to swap to another chelation agent, for example, cilantro; or simply take a lower dosage of MCP powder of PCC capsules and take another chelator in combination, e.g. Zeolite or Cilantro, or combine it with another type of detoxification

therapy such as FIR saunas etc. back to top Detoxamin (EDTA Suppositories):

EDTA (EthyleneDiamine TetraAcetic Acid) is an FDA approved chelating agent, invented in the 1940s. EDTA exhibits low acute toxicity in laboratory rats, and has been found to be both cytotoxic (toxic to cells) and weakly genotoxic (toxic to genetic material) in laboratory animals. No such data exists for humans

as far as BlackSpy is aware. It is classed as a persistent organic pollutant. EDTA is a powerful antioxidant. EDTA is found in a variety of skin and bathroom products, and is also used in various medicine applications e.g. as a blood anticoagulant in blood samples, and to prevent cell clumping on account of Calcium deposits. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edta Absorption of EDTA is quite poor when taken orally (e.g. oral EDTA supplements) compared with absorption through the rectum (e.g. EDTA suppositories) for this particular molecule. The top selling EDTA product is called Detoxamin - an EDTA suppository which is strictly speaking rectal chelation and not oral chelation. Detoxamin is an anal (rectal) EDTA suppository in a cocoa butter base. It is shaped like a long bullet, the flat end going into the anus. Despite the 'bum bullet' shape, it is better to insert the flat end into the rectal opening, so that once in the anus, it is likely to go further into the rectum because rectal pressure applied to the lower side (the pointed end) of the suppository will result in more forward/upward motion than pressure on the flatter end. One pushes it into one anus with one's finger, past the tight muscle of the sphincter.

The best time to take Detoxamin suppositories is before one goes to bed. The suppositories are meant to have most of the EDTA absorbed through the wall of the sigmoid colon (going directly to the liver) in around 80 minutes, so it is recommended not to pass stools within this time. After inserting the suppository, it starts to melt and you will likely have s slushy, slimey liquid in your sigmoid colon for a few hours after taking it. This can be uncomfortable, especially if you need to pass wind, which is best avoided or performed extremely carefully! It is best to have squeezed out all the stools one can before using it too, to help absorption. This is partly why they are taken at night - less interference from passing stools like during the day and less need to consciously 'hold in the goo'. The first 'dump' of the next day is normal, except for a little slime on the end of the first 'log' to come out. Although EDTA is absorbed readily though the rectum, it is not excreted via the liver and into the digestive tract for removal, but is actually excreted via urinary excretion, i.e. by the kidneys. As discussed on the Mucoid Plaque page, whilst the rest of the GI tract (with the exception of the mouth) is connected to the liver, the blood supply in the rectum and under the tongue bypassing the liver and joining the rest of the blood circulation to the lungs, brain and other organs. This is what makes you feel nauseous as you are excreting your stools on the toilet momentarily as some toxins are reabsorbed. This is why sublingual and rectal absorption is more effective than swallowing something. The EDTA suppositories utilise this rectal absorption pathway and 95% of the EDTA is said to be absorbed in this manner, as opposed to 5% if an EDTA capsule or tablet is taken orally. According to Dr Elena Koles, 3 nights of rectal EDTA suppositories is equivalent to one IV injection of EDTA. http://www.u-ok.net/chelation_chicago.html Detoxamin suppositories are available in 3 strengths/sizes, a children's version called 'Detoxamin for Kids' - each suppository contains 375mg of Ca-Na2-EDTA. The adult sizes come in 750mg and 1000mg versions. It is reputed that if taken orally, only 5% of EDTA is absorbed. However, when taken rectally, the rate of absorption is reputed to be considerably higher and more gradual in delivery, going straight to the liver and bypassing the stomach and small intestine. BlackSpy can

vouch for the effective rate of rectal absorption of EDTA suppositories. Clearly the longer you leave it up there the better, before it finally mixes in with the stool ready for excretion. Whilst there is debate over their effectiveness as a method of chelation, there are clinical studies on the Detoxamin web site, and in addition, several more natural treatment-oriented practitioners also recommend it for chelating Lead from the body over other methods. Whilst the effectiveness of the various natural chelants BlackSpy used over 3 years is hard to measure, on account of changing methods of measurement and their various drawbacks, and the uncertainty as to how much there was in absolute terms at the start of the chelation proramme, in BlackSpy's most recent tests, Lead did appear to be highest of all his remaining heavy metals, so that one could deduce that all of the above natural chelating agents are less effective with Lead that with other heavy metals. www.detoxamin.com/faq BlackSpy was kinesiologically tested for two brands of EDTA suppositories, Detoxamin and also College Pharmacy, and the adult versions of both did 'nothing', whereas the Detoxamin for Kids tested positively. BlackSpy found that unlike with any other chelating agents, he actually felt slightly euphoric after taking the EDTA suppository, presumaby on account of its effects on the nervous system, as well as its chelating abilities. He felt like he had more energy, almost like an Acupuncture session. This would wear off after 12 hours. On those occasions when BlackSpy had a slight headache after taking EDTA, this was down to taking too much Alpha-Lipoic Acid around the clock, as it would mobilise additional heavy metals, resulting a higher than optimal level of circulating heavy metals for the body to clear at once. BlackSpy has been recommended to take Strontium to assist in the process of removing lead from the body by displacing the Lead from its protein sites etc. Recommendations vary regarding the frequency, schedule and dosage of EDTA suppositories. T. Michael Culp recommended BlackSpy take 3 Detoxamin for Kids suppositories (375mg) three times a week (every other day for 6 days then an extra day off), on the basis of muscle testing. This worked out quite well. Jean Munro of Breakspear Medical recommended an 800mg EDTA suppository, taken on 3 consecutive nights, then 11 days break (which is more or less the same dosage over 2

weeks as Culp's recommendation but taken in a different way). BlackSpy tried taking a whole such 800mg suppository and did feel tired for a couple of days afterwards, so would imagine that 3 consecutive days would be very draining indeed. BlackSpy found that on his 3 x Detoxamin for Kids suppositories, he was not able to take any other chelating agents, as they strained his kidneys. In addition, when BlackSpy had taken too much ALA, and after ceasing the ALA, took Detoxamin for Kids, 6 nights in a row, as an emergency measure to remove the built up heavy metals, he found it far too much and felt exhausted the following week and had a pain in his left kidney for a couple of days. The regime felt good for the first 2 nights, then after that it felt rather exhausting even when he was taking the EDTA. He would not recommend such a regime even in an emergency. Whilst Andrew Hall Cutler does not recommend EDTA, he does make several suggestions for other chelating agents such as DMPS and DMSA. These include 3 days on and 3 days off; and even 7 days on and 7 days off. The latter schedule would presumably be far too much for most people to handle. Kelatox is a rival product to Detoxamin, which reputedly utilises the same (source of) ingredients as Detoxamin, but contains 900mg of CaNa2 EDTA per suppository. www.chelationbysuppository.com/faq_chelation_suppository.ht ml Another highly regarded EDTA product is called Bio-Chelat. This is an oral chelation product. Oral EDTA supplements are generally not very well absorbed. Bio-Chelat comes in 100ml bottles and contains relatively speaking a very small amount of EDTA. However this is offset by the inclusion of an oxidative catalyst that is said to oxidise the SH-group bonds that bond very strongly with heavy metal ions, allowing the EDTA to effectively bond with the heavy metals for removal by the body. Some may argue that despite this, because it is taken orally, will not be effective on account on the rate of low absorption of EDTA in the digestive tract. BlackSpy has not personally tried Bio-Chelat and cannot comment on its effectiveness. As stated above, EDTA is known to deplete the body's nutritional minerals, so it is important to consume foods rich in these minerals and to supplement these minerals to avoid inducing nutritional deficiencies.

back to top OSR#1 - Oxidative Stress Relief

Oxidative Stress Relief (OSR) by NeuroScience, is a new chelating agent for Mercury, introduced by Prof. Boyd E. Haley's company CTI Science in 2008. It has the code name or catalogue number 'CT-01'. The active ingredient in OSR#1 is 100mg of N1,N3-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide. This is a combination of Cysteamine Hydrochloride (a.k.a. Mercaptamine Hydrochloride) - an animal feed additive and new drug for cystinosis (a kidney disorder); and Isophthalic Acid, a chemical used in the manufacture of resins and industrial coatings. One might perhaps abbreviate this to BMEIP or just call it OSR (a somewhat misleading name).

OSR is reputed to be very similar if not identical to a chelating agent developed in 2003 by Prof. David A. Atwood, Brock S. Howerton and Matthew Matlock, called 1,3benzenediamidoethanethiol (BDETH2 or MetX), the patent for which is owned by the University of Kentucky Research Foundation. BDETH2 is synthesised using Cystamine Hydrochloride, Isophthaloyl Dichloride and Triethylamine. Both compounds are prepared slightly differently but the end molecule structure is identical. Haley however marketed it as a commercial product in the Autism community initially. http://neurodiversity.com/weblog/article/168/ The bond it forms with heavy metals such as Mercury is reputed to be one million times stronger than DMPS or DMSA. One assumes this is not simply a hyperbole. It is non-toxic to rats, and is believed to have a low toxicity in humans. BDETH2 was never intended to be used on humans. One can consider it an experimental treatment, most likely relatively safe, but the long term toxicity of OSR has not been established as it is so new. OSR is not believed to cause demineralisation of minerals such as Copper and Zinc. It is lipid soluble and is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. OSR is excreted via the liver/gallbladder into the digestive tract. The bond it forms with the heavy metal is very strong so little reabsorption occurs in the digestive tract. OSR is primarly designed to chelate heavy metals such as Mercury and Arsenic, and it is not so capable at bonding with heavy metals such as Lead. Boyd E. Haley PhD states in an interview from an unknown date. www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid=44216634847&topic=6153 'OSR is likely not effective at removing metals that EDTA would be useful for. EDTA would be useful for detox in ways that OSR is not.' 'OSR goes into lipid/fat stores, mitochondria, etc. Its not rapidly excreted. Has a long holding time in body and contains two thiol groups (-SH). If there is a hydroxy free radical from metal toxicity or any inflammatory process, this thiol group on

the OSR will react with it and scavenge it. This scavenging of hydroxyl free radicals salvages glutathione.' According to Boyd Haley, 18/12/2009 via Twitter: 'OSR#1 crosses the blood brain barrier and peaks in the brain tissue at 2 hours post ingestion.' Haley states that OSR is lipid soluble but it able to become water soluble when coupled with Glutathione. Presumably this is the mechanism by which it is excreted from the body in the digestive tract. OSR is said to bind to the Glutathione conjugate of Mercury. Perhaps this is why some patients fare better with OSR (less detoxification symptoms) when their Glutathione levels are higher (e.g. when they also take Lipoic Acid (a Glutathione precursor). BlackSpy has also heard that negative interactions with Lipoic Acid are possible (on account of its Sulphur content). For legal reasons, it is marketed as a Free Radical Scavenger and Glutathione promoter (i.e. a dietary supplement), rather than a Chelating Agent (i.e. a drug), so it does not have to go through FDA testing and be restricted in supply (and possibly not be available for a large number of years). It is currently available through practitioners only. Thus CTI Science is not able to be completely forthcoming about how it works on their official literature and web site! A rather ridiculous situation perhaps. Hence the rather understated description from the instructions below, and focus on the antioxidant capabilities of OSR. All antioxidants can be said to boost Glutathione levels, or rather recycle oxidised Glutathione to its reduced and active form. This is perhaps why Haley explains how it actually works in interviews etc. https://www.ctiscience.com/CTIScience/pdf/osr1-packageinsert-0609.pdf 'CTI Science, Inc. offers an antioxidant product, OSR#1, which is a highly purified dietary supplement that helps maintain healthy glutathione levels. Both OSR#1 and glutathione scavenge free radicals, allowing the body to maintain its own natural detoxifying capacity.' OSR has an ORAC value of 192,400! Acai fruit has an ORAC value of 18,500. Other synthetic chelating agents such as DMPS, DMSA and EDTA are also antioxidants, but information

about comparative ORAC values are not available at this time. https://www.ctiscience.com/CTIScience The old cached FAQs page from the CTI Science web site has been reproduced here. According to the instructions, OSR is contraindictated with Candida infections: 'OSR#1 will attract and bind disulfide compounds. Because Candida albicans (a common yeast/fungal condition in humans) is known to release by-products that contain disulfide bonds, OSR#1 may theoretically bind to them. As a precaution, people with suspected yeast problems and people who are on antifungal medications should not take OSR#1 until their yeast conditions are under control.' OSR comes in capsule form, with one capsule (100mg) as a recommended adult dosage per day. A powder form variant is also available. It can be taken on an empty stomach or with meals. Please see the links below for more information. https://www.neurorelief.com/osr/MoreInfoOSR.htm http://curezone.com/forums/fmp.asp?i=1386716 An OSR Forum on yahoo groups can be found at the link below. http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/OxidativeStressRelief Below is an interivew with Boyd Haley on Mercury, Autism and OSR.

BlackSpy is currently trialling this chelating agent. BlackSpy was suggested one capsule three times a week, taken together with a probiotic Securil (based on kinesiological testing). Bacteria tend to absorb heavy metals in the GI tract and are passed out of the body in the stool, thus helping to eliminate heavy metals (assuming bowel movements are healthy). OSR does seem to remain in the system much longer than any other

chelating agent he has taken, meaning he has to stay off adding Lecithin granules to his regime even up to 36 hours afterwards (to avoid overdetoxification symptoms), so this method of dosing is most likely appropriate. Body Haley has stated that it stays in the system for several days, and has a blood plasma half-life of 6-7 hours. After 3 months of use, BlackSpy believes that it is the best chelating agent for Mercury he has used, with neurological symptoms subsiding and no adverse side effects experienced at his low dosage. As of 29th July 2010, it appears that the FDA have pushed CTI Science into a corner and CTI halted sales of OSR#1 on the grounds that it is a drug not a nutritional supplement. Once existing stock has been sold at stockists, OSR will no longer be available - unless it is manufactured outside of the USA or achieves FDA-approved drug status in a few years time. Please see links below for more information. This is a major blow to the chelation community and typical of the FDA. One can see that the FDA has a point, but in this case, BlackSpy strongly believes the compound is actually safe to use. Whilst there are many chelators for Mercury, none seem to be as effective or problem-free in the short-term as OSR from BlackSpy's experience. It also tested positively with Applied Kinesiology testing, unlike any other 'natural' or modified natural chelating compounds. This is of course not likely to be taken very seriously by the FDA. Mercury can cause neurological damage, cancer etc. and one might ask if avoiding OSR, and sticking to FDA-approved methods, and leaving the Mercury in the body for much longer than is necessary, would be 'safe'. Most users would rather take their chances with OSR than with the Mercury - which is known to be the 2nd most toxic element in the known Universe. There are also many drugs that have passed FDA approvals that are really unhealthy and dangerous to one's health. The FDA is an American government body and does not represent the international medical regulatory bodies or industry and it is not unknown to get things badly wrong. http://www.naturalproductsinsider.com/news/2010/06/fdawarns-cti-science-on-drug-claims.aspx www.chicagotribune.com/health/ct-met-autism-chemical20100623,0,7088247.story www.theautismnews.com/2010/07/26/following-fda-warningpharmacies-stop-selling-purported-autism-treatment/

At the time of writing on July 31st 2010, BlackSpy has found two internet stores that have remaining stocks of OSR, that ship internationally, but would not necessarily recommend this route, without a practitioner's advice and recommendations. http://shop.startlivingwelltoday.com/prodinfo.asp?number=OSR %20CAPS www.forresthealth.com/osr-1-30-100mg-caps.html www.forresthealth.com/osr-1-powder-3-pack.html back to top IP6:

Inositol Hexakisphosphate (IP6), also known as Phytic Acid, or Phytate when in the salt form, is a form of Vitamin B8. It is the principle store of the element Phosphorus (P) in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds. The denomination Phytates also includes the salts of related acids IP3 (Inositol Triphosphate), IP4 (Inositol Tetraphosphate) and IP5 (Inositol Pentaphosphate). As well as being a source of dietary Phosphorus, a vitamin promoting the immune system's natural NK-cells, and an antioxidant, it is also an excellent chelating agent. It readily chelates Calcium and Magnesium in it's acid form. If taken in its salt form, i.e. Calcium-Magnesium Inositol Hexaphosphate, it is already combined with Calcium and Magnesium and will not chelate these out of the body. The salt form is therefore preferable to take as an oral supplement. IP6 is used for chelating excess iron from the body in cases of haemochromatosis - there being no natural mechanism for removing excess iron from the body (besides menstruation in women). IP6 is also one of the few chelating agents used for Uranium removal, although BlackSpy is sure that other natural

chelators work well also. IP6 has also been used in cancer treatment and in antioxidant therapy. IP6 is generally recommended to be taken on an empty stomach. It may be as well to ensure one is supplementing sufficient Calcium and Magnesium with meals also, and to ensure that one's Iron levels do not drop too much during the course of taking it, as this may result in various biochemical and cellular problems. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IP6 http://www.advance-health.com/inositol.html back to top

Mobilising/Chelating Combination Product Reviews: back to top

Fermented Peptides and Micronised Chlorella back to top PCA-Rx:

BlackSpy has experienced probably one of the best and most convenient results for heavy metal detoxification with a new, cutting-edge product by Maxam Labs, known as PCARx. Information about this product can be found on Maxam's web site. Please see the links page. A link to the Maxam Labs's PCA-Rx web page is listed below for your convenience. http://www.maxamlabs.com/ In essence, it uses a process known as clathration, whereby natural peptides seek out and bond with any toxins in the blood and surround them in a matrix, rendering them less harmful, and are removed by the liver as normal. Perhaps these peptides work in a similar way to the peptide Glutathione (GSH). Any toxins that are attached to tissues are removed and dealt with in a similar fashion. Retoxification (reabsorption of toxins from GI tract into the blood stream) is largely not an issue as they are firmly bonded into a peptide matrix. It is therefore not necessary to take an absorbant in conjunction with PCA-Rx, although it is not necessarily a bad thing to do so anyway, to aid the detoxification process via the gastro-intestinal pathway. In addition to removing heavy metals, the product also removes renegade proteins, mycoplasmas, arterial plaque and PCBs (printed circuit board chemical). The product can be used prior to mercury amalgam filling removal, unlike chelation

agents. Please note that the use of absorbants such as chlorella or bentonite are not necessary whilst using PCARx. However, they can still be used, working in parallel to the effects of PCA-Rx, and gently removing heavy metals from the GI tract. The term 'clathration' is used, presumably to mark PCA-Rx out from other chelation agents, such as cilantro or DMSA, in that it shields the user from reabsorption of toxins to a greater extent. However, the mechanism is technically speaking still chelation. We have however referred to it as clathration. PCA-Rx in many ways shares most in common with NCD, described below. So what is PCA-Rx? What is the active ingredient in PCARx? Maxam states that the ingredients are: 'Purified Water, Micro-Fermented Peptides Of Glutamic Acid, Glycine, Acetylcysteine, Glutathione, Peptidylgluconase, Hyaluronic Acid, Blue-Green Algae Extracts, Chlorella, Phytoplankton, Multiple Beneficial Flora Ferments Including: Lactobacillus Bulgaricus, Acidophilus Salivarus, Streptococcus Thermophilus, Hydrated Colloidal Silica, Algenic, Fulvic, Ferulic And Lipoic Acids; All In A Cultured Medium Of Oligopolypeptides, Glycoproteins, Phospholipids, Ionic Sea Minerals, Amino Acid Complexes, Vitamins And Minerals.' Two of the organic acids in PCA-Rx (and Metal-Free), Fulvic acid and Lipoic acid, are excellent chelators and mobilisers of Heavy Metals. They are discussed in the sections below. The NAC and Glutathione also help mobilise heavy metals and draw them out of the tissues and brain. The main chelators that bind with the heavy metals for convenient removal from the body are Peptidylgluconase and Chlorella. Chlorella normally does not leave the digestive tract but here it is micro-fermented to allow it to be absorbed into the blood stream and act as a chelating agent. Maxam labs are a little vague in their exact definition of the ingredients and mechanism of delivery, but BlackSpy understands it to be a mixture of peptides, organic and amino acids and algae extracts that are micro-fermented with probiotic bacteria, which produce the enzyme peptidyl

gluconase, which binds to these components and allows them to be absorbed into the blood stream and reach within the cells where the ingredients can bind with heavy metals and other toxin molecules. Further information relating to PCA-Rx can be found on the Maxam web site, including a comparison between DMPS, DMSA, EDTA, NDF (Nanocolloidal Detox Factors containing Cilantro and Chlorella) and PCA-Rx. Below is a link to a PCA-Rx pdf booklet. BlackSpy takes claims about PCA-Rx's ability to combat mycoplasma with a pinch of salt however. This is likely to be an indirect mechanism on the immune system of eliminating heavy metals. www.maxamlabs.com/Downloads/PCA-Rx_Booklet.pdf PCA-Rx is removed from the body primarily through biliary excretion, i.e. via the liver and into the digestive tract, and secondarily through urinary excretion via the kidneys. Using PCA-Rx, the patient may notice usual signs of detoxification such as slight hardening of faeces and/or a skin rash. A skin rash is a sign of over-detoxification (i.e. too high a dosage). If the dosage is correct, then the patient should not notice any headaches etc. that can occur using chelation agents. Of course, if passing faeces becomes too hard/infrequent or a person's skin rash worses significantly, then it is a sign that the patient should reduce the dosage of PCA-Rx. You are unlikely to experience any headaches whatsoever if you build up the dosage SLOWLY, which is excellent for a detoxification product. Everyone experiences slightly different detox symptoms. Detoxification symptoms are much less mild than with cilantro and it is not necessary to drink such abnormally large amounts of water as it is with cilantro either, although proper hydration is of course important (regardless of whether one is detoxing or not). Detoxification using cilantro is like a raging bull compared to using PCA-Rx which is more like a well-behaved mouse. That is not to say you cannot use PCA-Rx as your main detoxification agent, and introduce a little cilantro gently at the end of your detoxification programme to aid in the final stages of detoxification. It is probably best to start off with a dosage such as one

spray per day, and slowly increase by one daily spray every 5-7 days, up to a maximum of 8 sprays twice a day. Do not however feel that you need to reach the maximum dosage of the product, as detoxing more gently is easier on your liver and kidneys. It may take many months to work your way up to this dosage, and you may reach the maximum dosage towards the end of your detoxification programme. Whilst BlackSpy is aware that there are limited clinical trials with this product, it has received excellent reviews, and he has personally tried it and can testify that despite the far fetched claims, it does indeed work and is probably one of the best methods of detoxification currently available. PCA-Rx can be taken whilst amalgam fillings are still in place, although because of the lipoic and fulvic acid it contains, it may be sensible to use another agent such as MCP or NCD which does not, whilst the fillings are in place. Don't wave the white flag and give up on your health until you have tried this! BlackSpy would recommend that everyone should try this product, whether suffering from CFS, related conditions, Autism, Multiple Sclerosis, or Cancer (detoxifying here is an immediate matter of life or death), or whether in 'normal' (i.e. mediocre) health, but don't take his word for it, always consult with a health professional. BlackSpy does not recommend undertaking an unsupervised detoxification programme. back to top Metal-Free:

Another manufacturer that also sells a spray bottle microfermented peptide complex is BodyHealth - the product is called 'Metal-Free'. Upon close investigation of the respective ingredients of PCA-Rx and Metal-Free, they

appear to be virtually identical, with very similar sounding manufacturing and fermentation processes. BodyHealth are reputed to have brought out their product first, although BlackSpy is not certain of the respective product launch dates. Maxam have in the past used some of BodyHealth's product research in connection with PCA-Rx, although later this was apparently withdrawn for legal reasons. It is likely that Maxam would claim that Metal-Free is a copy of their product however or perhaps not acknowledge it at all. BlackSpy is to to try out Metal-Free, and it would perhaps have been optimal if he had done so at the start of his detoxification programme in 2005 when he first used PCARx. However, it is his intention to try out Metal-Free and provide some kind of feedback on this Detox page. If favourable, a new section will be created for Metal-Free. Watch this space! www.metalfree.com/home.html The fermentation process is broadly defined on the MetalFree web site, listed below. www.metalfree.com/characteristics_micro.html The active ingredients of Metal-Free are listed as: Microactivated algae, lactobacillus and bifidus extracts, peptidylgluconase, glycine, ionic sea minerals, hydrated colloidal silica, glutathione, vitamin C, hyaluronic acid, fulvic acid, ferulic acid, lipoic acid, chlorella, and acetylcysteine.

Both PCA-Rx and Metal-Free are available in a standard 30ml spray bottle size, and both have an almost equivalent retail price. Metal-Free seems to be sold mainly directly by BodyHealth and available from a few selected resellers at a nominal discount. PCA-Rx on the other hand, whilst also available direct from Maxam, is more widely available from resellers, at significant discounts. back to top NDF:

The PolyFlor ferment (MIER) in BioRay's NDF could be said to sound similar to that used in Maxam Lab's PCA-Rx and Metal-Free. However, it is not regarded as the same by Maxam Labs, and indeed BlackSpy recalls (from memory) that NDF was initially marketed as equivalent to PCA-Rx under licence, but it was found that the peptide content was very low, and their licence was revoked, so they have made a 'similar' product, but which contains Cilantro and Chlorella (perhaps as Cilantro is a known quantity in cellular detoxification as opposed to their PolyFlor. The article about NDF appears to have been withdrawn from Maxam Labs web site, although there are references and comparisons with NDF on the Maxam site. Please see the Cilantro section below for more information about the Cilantro component.

Mucopolysaccharide Ion Exchange Resin (MIER) NanoColloidal Detox Factors(NDF) - aka NDF - is a cellular detoxification product by BioRay that contains nanocolloidal' cell wall cracked Chlorella Pyrenoidosa, 'nanocolloidal' Cilantro and nanocolloidal' PolyFlor (a complex ferments and cell wall lysates and enzymes from beneficial bacteria). The product is available as NDF and also NDF Plus. BioRay's site is shown below. www.bioraynaturaldetox.com NDF works on the basis of binding heavy metals with the MIER for removal from the body in the kidneys (i.e. urine) presumably as well as the Cilantro and Chlorella binding with the toxins for removal also by the live. 'NDF Ingredients: Nanocolloidal cell wall decimated Yaeyama Chlorella, Nanocolloidal Organic Cilantro, 12 strains of cell wall broken beneficial lactobacillus, 3 strains of cell wall broken bifidobacterium, Silica, 18% grain neutral (gluten free) spirits. NDF Plus Ingredients: Contains all of the above ingredients plus, fulvic acid complexes and concentrates of PolyFlor predigested agaricus blazei, ganoderma lucidum, cordyceps sinensis, milk thistle seeds, horsetail herb, Silica, 18% grain neutral (gluten free) spirits.' NDF Plus could be said to have a stronger mobilising capability, containing both Mercury and Arsenic mobilisers Cilantro and Fulvic Acid, so if one is going to take NDF, one is probably better waiting to take NDF Plus later on after having used NDF for some months prior.

The PolyFlor ferment (MIER) could be said to sound similar to that used in Maxam Lab's PCA-Rx and Metal-Free. However, it is not regarded as the same by Maxam Labs, and indeed BlackSpy recalls (from memory) that NDF was initially marketed as equivalent to PCA-Rx under licence, but it was found that the peptide content was very low, and their licence was revoked, so they have made a 'similar' product, but which contains Cilantro and Chlorella (perhaps as Cilantro is a known quantity in cellular detoxification as opposed to their PolyFlor. The article about NDF appears to have been withdrawn from Maxam Labs web site, although there are references and comparisons with NDF on the Maxam site. Please see the PCA-Rx section above for more information. NDF is approximately half to two thirds the price of PCA-Rx and Metal-Free, however NDF Plus is considerably more expensive. www.drkaslow.com/html/ndf_mier_chelating_drops.html http://toothwisdom.info/detox_mobilization.html www.webdeb.com/q-machine/heavy-metal-detox.htm back to top Heavy Metal Nano-Detox:

Another product that contains 'nanoised' Chlorella is by Premier Research Labs (PR Labs), called 'Heavy Metal Nano-Detox', a.k.a. 'HM Nano-Detox'. This is probably the cheapest of all of the above. 'Ingredients: Servings (2.5ml) per bottle: about 95 Each 1/2 teaspoon (2.5ml) serving contains: Proprietary blend (2.5 ml) of: Grade A Chlorella (whole; broken cell wall) (C. pyrenoidosa), Bifidobacteria Species (breve ss. breve, infantis ss. infantis, longum), Enterococcus Species (faecalis TH10, faecium), Lactobacillus Species (acidophilus, bulgaricus, casei ss.casei, fermentum, helveticus ss. jagurti, plantarum), Streptococcus thermophilus. Other Ingredients: purified water, certified organic alcohol. Preserved with certified organic alcohol (no detectable pesticide or heavy metal residues). Clearly whilst Chlorella is just an absorbant, and whose outer shell that binds with heavy metals cannot leave the digestive tract, in nano-form, it is able to be absorbed into the blood stream, and is thus classifiable as a chelating agent.

back to top Zeotrex:

Another Cilantro-based product is Global Health Center's Zeotrex. This also contains Zeolite and is discussed in the NCD - Activated Zeolites section above. back to top

Mobilising Agent Reviews: back to top Lipoic Acid:

Lipoic acid (1,2-dithione-3-pentanoic acid) is a sulphur containing antioxidant and organic acid. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipoic_acid Lipoic acid contains two thiol groups (a sulphur atom linked to a hydrogen atom) which enable its chelation qualities. Other sulphur containing substances are known for their ability to bind with toxins in the body, as seen in the above sections, for example, MSM, NAC, Glutathione and food such as Garlic. Lipoic acid is however active in both lipid (fat) and aqueous (water) phases and so is an excellent chelator with the ability to cross the blood brain barrier and penetrate lipid compartments; and for this reason is known as a 'universal antioxidant'. As Lipoic Acid is both water and lipid soluble it is able to provide antioxidative protection in both water and lipid phases, neutralising free radicals at the moment of formation. Lipoic acid exists as two enantiomers (one of two stereoisomers non-superimposable mirror image molecule structures). The first enantiomer is the R variety, R-Lipoic acid, which occurs naturally in the body, and the second enantiomer, the S variety, S-Lipoic acid, is synthetically produced and does not occur naturally.

Lipoic acid, a.k.a. Alpha Lipoic Acid or Thioctic Acid, is generally used to describe those supplements that contain a mixture of both R-Lipoic Acid and S-Lipoic Acid. www.yourhealthbase.com/lipoic_acid.htm 'A very recent study of children living in the area affected by the Chernobyl disaster showed that ALA prevents radiation damage. There is also evidence that ALA could play a role in minimizing the adverse effects of smoking and may be useful in the treatment of mercury and cadmium poisoning.' Lipoic acid has an important role to play in the body in breaking down any Superoxide that leaks out of the mitochondria of the body's cells, that may otherwise potential form the powerful oxidising agent peroxynitrite. This is examined in more detail on the Heart Insufficiency page. Alpha Lipoic Acid (sometimes annotated to ALA) should not be confused with Alpha Linoleic Acid (ALA), the Omega 3 Essential Fatty Acid (EFA). It is debated whether the S-enantiomer is actually beneficial or not when mixed together with the R-variant, as some scientists have noted positive synergistic effects and other antagonistic effects. www.benbest.com/nutrceut/lipoic.html R-Lipoic Acid has been shown in studies to be between 2 and 20 times stronger and more effective than Alpha-Lipoic Acid. As R-Lipoic Acid (aka RLA or RALA) is natural and is actually produced by the body, and the fact that it is a better chelator than SLipoic Acid, this is probably reason enough to avoid the S-form (i.e. any product labelled Alpha Lipoic Acid) and take just the natural RLipoic Acid form (if taking such a supplement). However, muscle testing may assist in ascertaining which form works best with the body. Lipoic acid (LA) is the oxidised form of DiHydroLipoic Acid (DHLA). Lipoic acid (LA) should not be confused with Linoleic Acid (LA) which is an Omega 6 Essential Fatty Acid (EFA). Both Lipoic Acid and DHLA are both good chelators, with slightly different chelating qualities. DHLA is however a pro-oxidant and may exaccerbate free radical damage. Lipoic acid has been used in conjunction with

Mercury chelation and also to treat AIDS patients. R-Lipoic Acid is a cofactor in energy production, helping to regulate glucose metabolism. Alpha lipoic acid is a cofactor in the multienzyme complex that catalyzes the last stage of the process called glycolysis. Glycolysis is the first step in converting blood sugar (glucose), which is obtained from carbohydrates and proteins, into energy in a form that the body can use. R-Lipoic Acid is active in all the tissues of the body and in its cellular compartments. Alpha lipoic acid recycles both water and fat soluble antioxidant vitamins, improves sugar metabolism and energy production, promotes the incorporation of cysteine into glutathione and combines synergistically with other antioxidants for greatly increased benefits. It is therefore frequently referred to as the ideal or universal antioxidant and free radical scavenger. R-Lipoic acid is used in Glucose metabolism in the Krebs cycle as well as a universal antioxidant, to assist in recycling Glutathione. According to author William Rasmussen, supplementing Lipoic Acid can raise cellular Glutathione levels by 30 to 70%. Lipoic acid also has the effect of binding with heavy metals and carrying them out of cells and across the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) (both ways), depending on relative concentrations of heavy metals in the body and brain. According to Andrew Hall Cutler, it also increases the secretion of bile and nonprotein sulphydryl groups. This may result in darker stools and some irritation to the anus and may potentially exacerbate gallbladder problems (if present), on account on increased bile excretion. High levels of R-Lipoic acid are found in foods such as liver, heart, yeast and spinach. It can also be taken in supplement form, if greater than normal quantities are required for a particular patient, and as mentioned above, is found in the chelation products PCA-Rx and Metal-Free. Lipoic acid is absorbed very quickly by the body, but levels tend to also drop off very quickly. According to a study by Gregus Z., 'Effect of lipoic acid on biliary excretion of gluathione and metals' from Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 1992 May; 114(1):88-96, ALA may inhibit the binding and removal of methylmercury by Glutathione. In addition, it is also suggested that it may reduce Copper excretion from the body, and if taken in excess or over a long period of time, may elevate copper levels dramatically, possibly even to dangerous levels (perhaps Copper supplementation is therefore not necessary!) Andrew Hall Cutler in his book 'Amalgam Illness' suggests rest periods when taking Lipoic Acid on account of the potential for Copper build up in

the body. However, Cardiac patients may well take Lipoic acid continually. It is probably best to have regular mineral level checks (e.g. hair mineral analysis) when taking ALA. The chelating agent EDTA is able to chelate copper from the body (as is IP6), but taking EDTA with ALA or Na-RLA is not an excuse to dose Lipoic acid constantly without breaks, as it may still end up with hugely elevated Mercury levels, mobilised from the tissues. It is also reputed by the Autism Research Institute to be a food for yeast, and oral intake may exaccerbate yeast overgrowth in the body if present. See page 19 of the document here. One may argue that function of ALA in the body depends the circumstances it is taken in and the amounts. BlackSpy is unsure if any particular pathway of ALA is more dominant than others if taken in low dosages. Perhaps it depends on whether any pathways in the body are impaired and in chronic need of Lipoic acid or not, any excessive perhaps resulting in further chelation. Lipoic acid is a nutritional requirement of the body, involved in Glutathione regeneration and in the Krebs Cycle, and if levels are depleted, then one can argue that if one is only supplementing ALA back to normal levels then this type of phenomenon mentioned above may not occur. Tests on rat livers suggest that lipoic acid supplementation may reduce the activities of biotin-dependent carboxylase enzymes (responsible for amino acid conversion) in rats livers: 'Lipoic Acid Reduces the Activities of Biotin-Dependent Carboxylases in Rat Liver'. Janos Zempleni, Timothy A. Trusty, and Donald M. Mock. 1997. http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/127/9/1776 Martin Pall in his book Explaining Unexplained Illnesses (discussed on the Nitric Oxide page) claims that it is well known that Lipoic Acid supplementation depletes Biotin levels, so if one is taking Lipoic Acid, one should also be taking supplemental Biotin. This is perhaps one reason why most ALA supplements contain the B-vitamin Biotin. This is also explained by manufacturers as helping to restore the activity of ALA. One should therefore consider additional supplementation with Biotin over and above what is found in Lipoic Acid supplements, if one believes one is potentially deficient or prone to deficiency (e.g. low levels of probiotic bacteria - which are responsible for the production of biotin required by the body as opposed to dietary sources). Some potential adverse effects of high dosage Lipoic Acid supplementation include stomach upsets, nausea, diarrhea, flatulence

or possible allergic reactions if applicable. Lipoic acid has a warming quality to it, and if taken in tablet form, should not be chewed or kept in the mouth, as it is a acid solid, and is in concentrated form, and will tend to attack the mucus membranes of the throat and cause a burning sensation and sore throat. It should be swallowed with water.

One advanced formulation of Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) of note is ALAmax CR by Xymogen's EP (Exclusive Patented) range. It is a controlled-release form of Alpha-Lipoic Acid. According to Xymogen, Lipoic Acid has a brief blood plasma half life of 27 minutes, which is insufficient time to provide any meaningful protection to one's cells if taken once a day. ALAmax CR allows the body to keep continual blood and cellular lipoic acid levels up during the day. ALAmax CR is reputed to increase levels of glutathione by 30%. ALAmax CR, as with some other Lipoic acid formulations, includes the B-vitamin Biotin. www.xymogen.com/2008/formula.asp?code=000143 In June 2009, BlackSpy was muscle tested for various forms of Lipoic Acid, and the above form was shown to be the only form of those tested that could be effectively utilised by the body. BlackSpy hopes to do a comparison between ALAmax CR and an R-LA supplement using muscle testing soon. Watch this space.

BlackSpy has trialled RLA quite late into his detoxification and chelation programme. However, based on his observations to date, it seems extremely effective, if taken in a sufficient dosage. Doctor's Best 'Best Stabilized R-Lipoic Acid' is a form of R-Lipoic Acid that comes in 100mg capsules. It is based on 'Bioenhanced Na-RALA' or Sodium R-Alpha Lipoate, the sodium salt of RLA. Na-RALA is said to be a stabilised form of RLA that is said not to degrade at high temperatures (not really an issue if stored correctly), to be more bioavailable than regular RLA and with no solvent residues. Each capsule contains 143mg of Na-RALA which is equivalent to 100mg of R-Lipoic Acid. One can elect to either take smaller amounts of ALA/RLA with meals, for example, to supplement one's existing chelation regime, or one can elect to take (a higher dosage of) ALA/RLA, as one's main chelation agent, on an empty stomach, in between meals. With a slow release ALA supplement such as ALAmax CR, this is less of an issue, and one does not have to think so much about repeated dosing to prevent the lowering of Lipoic acid levels in the blood and subsequent 'dropping' or 'dumping' of any chelated metals the Lipoic Acid is carrying. It is highly recommended to read the Oral Chelation section above for related issues with half-life and dosing. BlackSpy trialled the Doctor's Best R-Lipoic Acid during the latter phase of his detoxification regime in 2008. BlackSpy has found that approximately 8-9 capsules of 100mg RLA (i.e. 143mg Na-RALA), in the latter stages of his detoxification regime was approximately equivalent to 17 capsules of Complete Metal Cleanse 85mg Humifulvate, representing a powerful and cost effective chelating agent. RLA is also available in 50mg capsules. Clearly when starting out on one's detoxification regime, a much lower dosage is probably more appropriate, e.g. 50-100mg at a time, building up slowly from there. As mentioned above, a slow release or controlled release Lipoic Acid supplement may be preferable for chelation purposes, as dosages are not spiked as they are when taken in its 'normal' form, e.g. with ordinary ALA or RLA supplements. BlackSpy had finished his

detoxification programme by the time he started trying ALAmax CR, which he was taking to improve Mitochondrial function, in conjunction with Magnesium and Vitamin B1. However, as Lipoic Acid is such a useful compound, it will also assist in glutathione production, antioxidative protection and also chelate any heavy metals out of the tissues too, so chelation detoxification is always going to occur to some extent when supplementing with it, if there are any heavy metals to chelate out, which there pretty much always are, to some degree, however large or small. It is impossible to reach 'zero' heavy metal levels, by the nature of concentrations and probability. There are other compounds or herbs that have chelating properties too, which can be an added benefit or factor to bear in mind when dosing with them, e.g. Hawthorn to lower blood pressure. Please see the Chelation vs Mobilisation section and the Low Frequent Dose Chelation section regarding the best time and manner in which to use Lipoic Acid. As Lipoic Acid is a mobilising agent primarily, it should not be taken at the start of a detoxification programme, but be used in the latter half of a chelation programme, and should ideally be taken in conjunction with another chelating agent to bind with the heavy metals that are mobilised/drawn out of the blood and tissues. Lipoic Acid as mentioned above is a necessary cofactor in energy production and the utilisation of Glucose. It is produced in very small quantities in the body, and in some deficient individuals, the amounts produced are simply insufficient. Those with cardiac symptoms who have particularly low mitochondrial function may wish to consider taking Lipoic Acid for this, but if they have a significant toxic metal load in their body, particularly more in the body than the brain, then taking Lipoic Acid may make them feel more ill. In such cases, the patient must decide whether he shall just take small amounts around the clock, the minimise the effect of releasing additional heavy metals into the blood stream, or whether to stop taking ALA entirely for a period of time, and use a chelating agent to mop up what is extra cellular, so that taking ALA again after that will be manageable. Clearly with ALA, there will be an effect of mobilising of heavy metals at whatever dosage you take it at, but the amount of heavy metals mobilised increases with the amount of ALA taken. Those with a high demand for ALA (i.e. mitochondrial impaired) may be able to take slightly more ALA than those who do not have a biochemical (generally mitochondrial) requirement for it. If less is used up, then more will clearly be around to recycle/create Glutathione etc. However, it is generally not a good idea to take more than 50-100mg in one go. Slow release ALA is probably best, to avoid spikes of dosing with regular ALA supplements. However, to achieve the right

dose, it may be necessary to take fractions of an ALA tablet, measured using digital scales (e.g. chopping up a Xymogen ALAMax CR tablet which contains 600mg of ALA in each tablet). If you have overdone it and taken too much Lipoic acid, and are suffering from sharp headaches, and increased neurological symptoms and inflammation, it is likely that you have released too many heavy metals at once from the tissues, which are circulating in the bloodstream, and/or have carried heavy metals across the bloodbrain barrier (BBB). In other words you have drawn heavy metals out of the tissues and into the bloodstream and readily accessible compartments of the body faster than the body can remove them, and over time they have accumulated and resulted in the effect of being 'poisoned' a little like having an amalgam filling out! Taking even small doses of Lipoic acid in this condition may result in worsening of these headaches. Assuming you should be taking Lipoic acid in the first place, the remedy is to simply stop taking Lipoic acid for probably at least a month or two, wait for all the symptoms to subside, and resume after that, but starting off with a very low dosage and building up the dosage slowly over time to reach your previous 'sustainable' dosage. Andy Culter suggests that one should take Lipoic Acid a couple of weeks on and a couple of weeks off, so as to avoid Copper built up on account of ALA's supression of Copper excretion pathways. However, there he is talking about preventative breaks rather than reactive strategies to deal with incorrect (i.e. too high) dosages of ALA. To speed up the recovery from over-toxification from too much ALA, you may want to take intestinal absorbants to mop up any heavy metals in the digestive tract and also chelating agents (NOT mobilising agents) to mop up the heavy metals that are readily accessible and causing problems in your bloodstream and the outside of cells (e.g. EDTA or a natural chelating agent such as Pectasol Chelation Complex etc.) BlackSpy has found anal EDTA in his personal experience to be the most effective at performing this job. Consider such a toxification episode to be a new starting point and act accordingly (i.e. you would not take ALA straight after an amalgam filling removal, so don't do it here). You need to remove the bulk of the readily accessible heavy metals from the body before continuing again with your ALA dosing. back to top Thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide (TTFD):

Thiamine Tetrahydrofurfuryl Disulfide (TTFD) is a synthetic counterpart to Allithiamine, the naturally occurring form of vitamin B1 formed enzymatically in garlic when it is crushed (the act of crushing garlic creates the compound resulting in the more flavoursome taste of crushed garlic cloves). It is not yet FDA approved as a therapeutic agent or chelating agent. Whilst not strictly speaking a chelating agent, it does have a strong mobilising effect on heavy metals in the body. One case study from a practitioner cites significant improvements with child chelation using TTFD as opposed to DMSA etc. http://www.latitudes.org/forums/index.php?showtopic=243 TTFD can be found in the Nutricology/Allergy Research Group supplement (Thiodox) Glutathione Complex. This contain both the mobilising agents TTFD (5mg) and Lipoic Acid (150mg), as well as other cofactors and amino acids. BlackSpy found this supplement to be perfectly satisfactory for many months, but slowly as he become more sensitive to ALA (presumably on account of mobilising too many heavy metals), he found it much harder to take Thiodox compared with an ALA supplement with the same amount of ALA in it. BlackSpy is uncertain what component of Thiodox makes it so potent, but perhaps it is a combination of the ALA and TTFD. If necessary, one may want to consider cutting up tablets into small parts. http://www.nutricology.com/Glutathione-Complex-90-Tabs-p16484.html TTFD can also be found in Ecological Formulas' product Allithiamine (Vitamin B1), containing a more substantial 50mg of TTFD.

TTFD can also be found absorbed transdermally, in cream form. For example, Authia Cream by Westlake Laboratories, Inc. contains 50mg/ml of TTFD and 500mcg/ml of Methyl-B12. It also contains a trace amount of Lipoic acid (Thioctic acid). It comes in a two 2 ounce tube. http://westlake-labs.com/products/authia-cream back to top Fulvic Acid and Humic Acid:

Fulvic Acid is belongs to a group of organic substances called Humic substances. These are dark brown constituents of humus found in soil, contributing to the qualities of soil and are precursors to fossil fuels. They are also found in peat, coal upland streams, dystrophic lakes and ocean water. Humic substances are classified into 3 different categories, Fulvic acid, Humic acid and Humin. Both humic acid and fulvic acid are excellent chelators and powerful antioxidants. Humic acid is normally found in the form of 'humate' (the salt of humic acid), i.e. humic acid bound to a nutritional mineral element. Fulvic acid is normally found in the form of 'fulvate' (the salt of fulvic acid), i.e. fulvic acid bound to a nutritional mineral element. Humic acid/humate is a much larger molecule than fulvic acid/fulvate as can be seen from the diagrams above and below. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humic_acid

'A substantial fraction of the mass of the humic acids is in carboxylic acid functional groups, which endow these molecules with the ability to chelate (bind) (precipitate in some media, make solution in other media) positively charged multivalent ions (Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Fe3+,

most other "trace elements" of value to plants, as well as other ions that have no positive biological role, such as Cd2+ and Pb2+.) This chelation of ions is probably the most important role of humic acids with respect to living systems. By chelating the ions, they facilitate the uptake of these ions by several mechanisms, one of which is preventing their precipitation, another seems to be a direct and positive influence on their bioavailability.' Humic acid and fulvic acid have been the subject of many years of scientific study, on account of its role in soil and plant biology, but also with respect to its chelation application in humans for removing heavy metals from the body, with favourable statistics. Humic and fulvic acids may act in a similar manner to some synthetic chelation agents, except that they bind only with double valency positive cations, i.e. nutritional elements and/or heavy metal ions. It is likely that a heavy metal ion will displace a lighter, nutritional metal ion and bind with the humate or fulvate. Many nutritionists recommend Fulvic Acid as an electrolyte (to increase cellular electrical efficiency) and supplement to take in combination with trace mineral supplements, to assist in the uptake of them by the body. The Fulvic Acid bonds with these minerals and as it is a small molecule and easily able to pass through cell membranes, allows delivery of the minerals efficiently into the body's cells. Most products however are based on processed humate, taken from high quality soil sources, containing large amounts of nutritional cations already bound into the matrix. They are therefore not likely to (significantly or in any way) deplete one's mineral levels. As fulvic acid/fulvate is the smaller molecule, it is more easily absorbed into the cells, and is regarded as an excellent method of delivery for trace elements and nutrients into the body, as well as being an excellent chelator. Taken from www.humate.net: Terminology of Humus Materials: Humus is the product of the decay of organic matter. It contains both humic and nonhumic material. Humic acids (plural) is the collective name for the acid radicals found in humic matter. They may be separated from humic matter by alkaline extraction. Humic acid (singular) is the acid radical found in humic matter which

is soluble in alkali but insoluble in acid, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl alcohol. Humates are the salts of humic acids, collectively, or the salts of humic acid specifically. (The usage must be determined from the context.) Fulvic acid is the acid radical found in humic matter which is soluble in alkali, acid, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl alcohol. Fulvates are the salts of fulvic acid. Leonardite is a soft brown coal-like deposit usually found in conjunction with deposits of lignite. Lignite is a type of soft coal. Humin is the alkali-insoluble fraction of leonardite. (The usage of this term does not correspond exactly with the usage by other workers.)' Chemical processing allows the nano-extraction of fulvic acid from humus, which can be used in chelation products. PCA-Rx and MetalFree contain Fulvic acid as one of the ingredients. The amounts of fulvic acid in PCA-Rx and Metal-Free (described above) however are quite low. PCA-Rx and Metal-Free are taken in a spray form under the tongue (sublingual), on an empty stomach. Other products that contain Fulvic acid include Global Health Trax's Oxygen Elements Max (Fulvic Acid) and Life Science Products' Body Biotics (an SBO probiotic formula containing Fulvic and Humic acids). There are also dedicated Humifulvate (registered trademark) products (in capsule form) such as Enzymatic Therapy's Complete Metal Cleanse Humifulvate or Life Flo Health's Metal Detox capsules. Humifulvate contains a purified, propretiary complex of humic, fulvic and phenolic acids. These are harvested from a springfed, peat deposit from the northern shore of Lake Balaton in Hungary. Humifulvate is processed by PharmaNutrients Botanical Corporation and is used under licence by Enzymatic Therapy and Life Flo Health in their respective products. www.humifulvate.ca/ www.pharmanutrients.ca Enzymatic Therapy have stated about their Complete Metal Cleanse

product that it helps to 'lessen the amount of heavy metals in your body without depleting beneficial minerals', which implies that humifulvate does not behave like synthetic chelation agents, depleting whatever metal it comes across, heavy or nutritional. Enzymatic Therapy have also stated that the humifulvate-based product requires an avoidance of fibre close to taking it, at least 3 hours beore and after each dose. They state that 'in the immediate presence of fiber, Complete Metal Cleanse may lose its effectiveness and miss some toxins.' Perhaps this implies that taking any fibre too close to the humifulvate will simply mean that it is flushed through the digestive tract quicker, and indeed that the fibre may absorb some of the humifulvate, rather than it being so readily absorbed from the GI tract into the blood stream. Enzymatic Therapy's Humifulvate product should probably also best be taken on an empty stomach and a few hours prior to one's next meal, and perhaps not a high fibre meal according to their recommendations.

http://www.enzymatictherapy.com/Products/Product-

Categories/Product-Details.aspx?p=08643 BlackSpy has trialled Enzymatic Therapy's Complete Metal Cleanse, albeit quite late into his chelation programme and for a short time. It seemed to work rather well. The capsules are small and containing a brown mixture. The dosage taken was 17 x 75mg Humifulvate capsules, which is of course extremely high, but after nearly 3 years of chelation and other detoxification protocols. At that stage in BlackSpy's detoxification programme, it had a similar chelating effect to taking 70 capsules of Jarrow Toxguard Heavy Metal Detox or 60ml (4 tablespoons) of Cilantro Tincture. By BlackSpy's calculations, extrapolating his dosage of other chelants and the dosage he first started taking them at, the Humifulvate dosage that someone at the beginning of his detox programme should be around 1-2 capsules, which is in line with the manufacturer's recommendations. It can therefore be considered quite a potent chelating agent. It is doubtful that is has any of the 'protective' or 'encapsulating' qualities of other chelating agents described above such as Zeolite, Pectasol or PCARx. Garden of Life's Primal Defense and Primal Defense Ultra, an SBO probiotic formula, is another product that contains Humate.

One can also buy pure liquid Fulvic acid, Humic Acid or mixtures of both in various bottle sizes, from various suppliers, mentioned below. This can be ideal when wishing to buy a chelator in bulk volumes towards the end of one's detoxification programme. A search on the internet may reveal different sources of Fulvic and Humic acid, some sold for agricultural or horticultural use and others sold specifically for human consumption (i.e. as a health supplement). The exact difference BlackSpy is not fully sure of, but agricultural/horticultural sources no doubt do not need to be so stringent about the heavy metal levels in the acid (i.e. depending on the soil source) or soil quality; and indeed it may be extremely diluted; whereas for direct human consumption (i.e. in much large concentrations) very low heavy metal levels are required. It is therefore recommended to find a source of Fuvlic and/or Humic Acid that is low in Heavy Metals. Fulvic acid and humic acid are not just marketed as chelating agents but also as nutritional products, as they contain a wide variety of

minerals (usually), vitamins, enzymes, DNA and are powerful antioxidants and electrolytes. Humate, fulvic acid and humic acid are also known to be anti-viral; it is even believed they are also antimicrobial and anti-fungal. www.beta-glucan-info.com/humic_acid_research.htm The most common extraction method is chemical processing. The processing also draws out the minerals, vitamins and enzymes etc. present in the Humus, producing a rich nutritional supplement. Whilst the vast majority of the elements present in these Humic and Fulvic Acid solutions are essential or trace nutritional elements, some are toxic elements and heavy metals, presented in the same ratio as they are found in the soil. There is however no aluminium, arsenic, lead or mercury present in these solutions. Clearly it depends on the soil source, but the most common and high quality solutions do not contain these specific heavy metals. In any case, they are present in a very low concentration. Some argue that the ionic forms of the metals present in soil (e.g. insoluble metallic oxides) cannot be absorbed by the body, as in other soil-based mineral products, but because of the Fulvic and/or Humic Acid, these heavy metals may be bound to by these organic acids and thus carried easily into the body's cells (in a highly bio-available form) and even past the blood-brain barrier. Silicates and various metals are well known to dissolve in Fulvic acid. However, the Fulvic and Humic acids also have a chelating property, and as easily as the Heavy Metals are carried in, they are of course carried out or if dumped in the cells, are equally carried out by other Fulvic acid molecules, so perhaps the argument is circular. One may want to consider the potential effects here of consuming large volumes of Fulvic or Humic acid containing soil minerals over a period of many years; but for short term usage, BlackSpy does not believe that it is an issue at all, and in fact the nutritional element levels are a positive attribute. The exact source of the soil extracts will clearly determine its purity, level of heavy metals present and also nutritional quality. Manufacturers claim that they can be taken to compensate for diets based largely on crops grown from depleted soils. It is stated by manufacturers that Humic acid is more nutritious that Fulvic Acid, as it contains a wider variety of larger molecules and associated nutrients. This is why some manufacturers sell Fulvic and Humic Acid premixed. One can equally buy Fulvic and Humic Acid separately and consume both or mix it oneself. The optimum ratio is reputed to be 2 parts Fulvic to 1 part Humic according to Nano Health Solutions. Supreme

Fulvic claim not to simply mix pre-produced Fulvic and Humic acid together to produce their combined Fulvic & Humic Mineral Complex, but create their own Humic acid from humate, the exact ratio being proprietary. The ingredients are listed as 'Proprietary blend of bioavailable: Fulvic Nutrients 100% in solution; and Humic Nutrients 100% in solution; and Deionised carbon-filtered reverse osmosis water.' This is in contrast to their Fulvic acid product which is said to contain 'Fulvic Acid 100% in solution' as well as the same deionised water. Both products however contain the same mineral profile, the blend being reputedly slightly higher in concentration of such nutrients. Some suppliers, e.g. BioAg, argue that one should not supplement minerals in an arbitrary manner, i.e. consuming a broad spectrum of nutritional elements, as the body may not require all, but specific minerals in specific quantities, and consuming 'too many' of particular elements may result in less than optimal ratios of nutritional elements in one's blood and also potentially toxic levels of these elements (which become toxic at certain high concentrations). However, for CFS patients, this is unlikely to be an issue in BlackSpy's opinion, mineral levels all being very low, and the effect of mineral content is likely to be minimal given the lower volumes that Fulvic and Humic acids would be consumed in (on account of the chelating properties); and indeed the poor absorption from the digestive tract in any case. BioAg offer a Fulvic Acid product which is produced not from chemical processing but from a natural fermentation process, which results in pure Fulvic Acid solution being produced, which contains no minerals of any kind in it. Such a Fulvic Acid solution has potentially a higher chelating ability on account of all the Fulvic Acid being unbound when it is consumed, unlike sources described above that contain Fulvic Acid bound to minerals already in the Fulvic Acid solution. Fulvic acid is transparent, odourless, somewhat tasteless and slightly golden coloured, whereas Humic Acid slightly more of a flavour and is black/brown in colour (no jokes about staying off the brown acid please!) As Fulvic Acid is a smaller molecule than Humic, it is probably the better chelator and can more easily cross the bloodbrain barrier, however a combination of the two acids may also be beneficial from a nutritional standpoint and to benefit from two slightly different chelation mechanisms. The general recommendations that BlackSpy has seen from suppliers of Fulvic and Humic Acids is that one should consume approximately 1 to 2 ounces per dosage, with approximately 6-8 ounces of nonchlorinated water (although it can be drunk relatively undiluted also), on an empty stomach, at least 30 minutes prior to a meal or nutritional

supplement intake. This is somewhat different from the recommendations of Humifulvate as described above. The emphasis is on drinking the Fulvic or Humic Acid with a non-chlorinated water source, i.e. mineral water or water that has gone through a purification system that removes the chlorine from the water. Tap water typically contains chlorine. Chlorine is of course added as it is an oxidising agent and helps to kill off the microbes in the water (as well as slightly lowering the tap water's pH, i.e. making it more acidic). As Fulvic and Humic Acids are very high in antioxidants, then mixing it immediately with chlorinated water will reduce the effectiveness of the product (i.e. oxidising the antioxidants before they even go into the body) and there are very woolly references to it producing a bad byproduct. Presumably this oxidation would occur in the body in any case when the acids can into contact with free radicals anyway, so it is better value for money to use non-chlorinated water to get the full benefit in any case. Another factor to bear in mind if drinking large quantities of fulvic and/or humic acid is that it will tend to slightly lower the body's pH, and so one may want to offset this with an alkaline food or supplemental intake. As fulvic and/or humic acid are both acidic (!), then if drinking them undiluted, on a regular basis, one may want to brush one's teeth afterwards to avoid excessive acidic erosion of the tooth enamel. Nano Health Solutions stated that their Fulvic and Humic acids come from 'Native American land in Western America'. www.fulvic.org www.fulvic.org/html/nano_humic___fulvic__acid.html Supreme Fulvic claim that their Fulvic and Humic acids come from (what used to be) an ancient freshwater lake in northern New Mexico in the 'Fruitland Formation' geological area (i.e. in South West or West of the US). www.supremefulvic.com/fulvic.php www.supremefulvic.com/fulvic-humic.php www.supremefulvic.com/ingredients.php Nano Health Solutions make ambiguous claims that imply that their Fulvic and Humic Acid products are close to 100% solution concentration, whereas some manufacturers on the market sell a 2-

5% solution. This is however clearly grossly exaggerated, because 100% solution means that every molecule in the solution is a Fulvic Acid molecule, i.e. there is no water present! In general, solutions of between 20-50% of any chemical tend to be very thick and viscous (i.e. between 1 in 5 and 1 in 2 molecules would be the molecule in question, the rest being water molecules), but this is of course a gross generalisation. Supreme Fulvic market their Fulvic acid product as a pure Fulvic acid solution (but which contains minerals and vitamins etc. so it is not actually pure at all.) However they have stated that they do not dilute it in any way, but sell it as it is supplied from the miners/producers. They have also stated that there is no universal (national or international) standard for measuring fulvic acid percentage (or content). It has been proven on numerous occasions that when testing the same sample of fulvic acid, by changing the type of testing extractant or the concentration of the testing extractant, one will obtain different concentration percentage results, i.e. if ten samples of the exact same source of fulvic acid are bottled up and sent off to ten different independent laboratories for analysis, the results will vary from lab to lab. The results may vary from 1% to 40% depending on the test methodology. So concentration claims with no universal standard or citation of methodology used are basically totally meaningless. This applies to whether the product is a liquid or powder. All miners/producers will use some water in the extraction process. To produce 100% Fulvic Acid liquid with no water content is not possible. No reputable suppliers of Fulvic and Humic acid dilute their products after the production process to increase profits. Direct comparison is clearly difficult on concentration terms. Therefore, the most important consideration is probably the source or 'nutritional quality' of the humic material from which the product is derived. One could therefore make a subjective comparison by observing the results of different products. One may therefore wish to take concentration claims with a pinch of salt. Try a few different brands and see which you like best. BioAg Humic & Fulvic Solutions are suppliers of bulk quantities of Wu Jin San Pure Fulvic Acid. It is described as 'Fulvic Acid Solution Herbal Supplement' and containing 'Concentrated Fulvic Acid in Pure Rainwater from the Sea'. It is made using 'the complex traditional way, developed in China 500 years ago' - a slow, enzymatic, proprietary fermentation process. The source of BioAg's Fulvic and Humic extracts is also in the South West of the USA; and BioAg uses filtered water from Crater Lake in Oregon, an unpolluted area. www.bioag.com

www.bioag.com/teamfulvic/fulvicresearch.html www.bioag.com/buyhealthproducts/wujinsanfulvicacid.html 'Fulvic Acid has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over 1200 years, where it is referred to as 'gold medicine' or 'Wu Jin San'. It's benefits are just now being discovered by western medical societies.' 'In the 15th century during the Ming Dynasty, Li Shi Zhen, in the Materia Medica Pharmacological Compendium, recorded incidents of the use of "Wu jin san" (golden medicine), containing Fulvic Acid as the active ingredient in the treatment of infectious ulcer growth and female hemorrhage diseases.' 'Used since antiquity in China as an anti-inflammatory medicine, and as a tonic to increase energy and well being (Chi). Now made in the U.S from ancient humic mineral deposit.' 'For our [WuJinSan] liquid fulvic we use a complex enzymatic process, or slow fermentation, using a culture developed by Dr. Faust in Hawaii. The technology is based on an updated method of a centuries old Chinese process developed in the Ming Dynasty.' BioAg state that Wu Jin San can be used externally, undiluted, to relieve pain, to assist in the cessation of bleeding or to heal burns and cuts; or when soaking sore muscles and joints to use a 1:10 dilution. The latter usage to BlackSpy seems a waste of Fulvic Acid, as one presumably may as well just drink it instead, which will circulate around the body in the blood stream anyway. BioAg also sells a product called Fauna Mana, a powder which contains fulvic and humic acids, as well as green tea, ashwagandha and 8 certified medicinal US-grown mushrooms (Maitake, Cordyceps, Reishi, Turkey Tail, King Trumpet, Brown Beech, Himematsutake and Shiitake). BlackSpy has tried out three different types of Fulvic Acid, and also one Humic/Fulvic mixture and one Humic Acid solution. At the time of writing, he was unable to purchase directly from Nano Health Solutions, and was advised that the company World Health Mall could supply the exact same product for export. The brands he trialled were thus Supreme Fulvic, World Health Mall and BioAg. Based on BlackSpy's crude calculations, and assuming that the Fulvic

Acid in Supreme Fulvic is as effective a chelator mass for mass as the Humifulvate (i.e. Enzymatic Therapy's Complete Metal Cleanse) previously trialled (see above), then BlackSpy estimates that given the relative volume of Supreme Fulvic required to produce the same chelating effect (in terms of sensation) as Humifulvate, that Supreme Fulvic is approximately 2-3% in concentration (or at least in that order of magnitude). This is however a subjective evaluation, and based on a number of debatable assumptions and equating two different substances as equivalent. BlackSpy can however state that Supreme Fulvic is hugely better value for money than Humifulvate. Whilst 2-3% does not sound like much it is in fact quite strong. Sea water is itself is considered extremely salty and it is 3-4% in concentration (of NaCl). BlackSpy found that: Supreme Fulvic & Humic Mineral Complex and it's Supreme Fulvic product were approximately equivalent in chelating strength.

World Health Mall's Fulvic Minerals X-2 Gold and Supreme Fulvic's Fulvic Acid were approximately equivalent in chelating strength. BlackSpy tried drinking both separately and both mixed together.

World Health Mall's Humic Minerals X-1 Earth (i.e. Humic acid solution) was approximately equivalent in chelating strength as its Fulvic Minerals X-1 Gold (i.e. Fulvic Acid solution).

BioAg's Wu Jin San was approximately 25% stronger in chelating terms than all the other solutions tried. The chelating strength of Supreme Fulvic was (initially) approximately 70% of that of the pre-purchased and homemade Cilantro tincture that he had been previously been using - in terms of volume required to produce the desired effect. At the time of writing (February 2009), in 1 US Gallon sized bottles (3.8 litres), both World Health Mall and Supreme Fulvic Products were the same price per gallon, whereas BioAg's Wu Jin San was 12.5%

dearer. However, given Wu Jin San's superior chelating abilities, it is the better value product. It is however different from the other products on review here, as it has no mineral content, whereas the other products do. To what extent the mineral content of the other products contributes to their reduced chelating power, and to what extent Wu Jin San actually contains a higher concentration of Fulvic Acid than the others, is a matter of debate. Perhaps it is a little of both, but most likely more of the former than the latter. It is likely that both the chemical extraction method and also the natural fermentation method are only able to extract so much fulvic acid into solution, and that what one buys is the maximum strength available. Chelating ability aside, BlackSpy noticed that when consuming the different products, he felt a slight increase in wellbeing within 5-10 minutes of consuming the Fulvic(/Humic) Acid, with a very slight headache following an hour or two later (i.e. chelation occurring clearly dosage dependent). The sense of well being is probably mainly from the electrolyte properties of the Fulvic/Humic Acids rather than the mineral content; and perhaps also the antioxidant properties to a lesser extent (although BlackSpy was taking huge amounts of antioxidants anyway and did not have an inflammation problem that he was aware of) All products had a slightly different taste, but none were unpalatable by any means. All were fairly tasteless. Which product is the cheapest my well come down to shipping policies, and most offer free shipping. For export, Supreme Fulvic offered free shipping whereas the other suppliers currently offer rather costly shipping options (at the time of writing). But for US buyers, Wu Jin San is probably the best bet. Of course, it depends what one is after and whether one wants mineral content or not. BlackSpy is rather sold on the idea of Fulvic and Humic Acid mixed together, and found this particularly pleasing, not necessarily in terms of effect, but perhaps it was more psychological. Because of the heavy metal content, even though the levels are very low in the other two products, for long term usage, i.e. drinking sizeable volumes daily, BlackSpy would probably recommend using Wu Jin San on account of its claimed zero mineral content. But for short term, low or even high volume usage, BlackSpy would personally be comfortable using any of these products. That is just BlackSpy's personal preference at this point in time. Each manufacturer/supplier claims to have a unique selling point. It is unlikely however that one will 'go wrong' with any of the above. Information about Fulvic and Humic Acid suppliers and their shipping

policies can be found on the Links page. Comparing Fulvic Acid and Humic Acid to Cilantro Tincture, then BlackSpy can conclude that if using home made Cilantro, then Fulvic/Humic Acid are approximately 50% at best and the same price at worst. However, ready made Cilantro tincture (available in small 50ml or 100ml bottle sizes) is volume for volume massively more expensive than either Fulvic/Humic Acid or making your own Cilantro tincture. When consuming large volumes of Fulvic and/or Humic Acid, there is one benefit over Cilantro is that they do not contain alcohol, and if using large volumes of Cilantro tincture, one may have to heat it up to evaporate most of the alcohol off, which is time consuming. However, alternating and making the most of the properties of all different types of chelant mixture is probably the wisest strategy. It is of course not strictly possible to compare chelating agents in this way, as each works slightly differently, and also each seem to have an short term equilibrium, i.e. when one takes a chelating agent for the first, time, smaller amounts are required, targetting the 'easiest' compartments or structures, with this particularly chemical approach, but once those compartments are cleared out, then the medium term equilibrium is reached, which is harder to increase from and requires time to keep working it. This medium term equilibrium is clearly different for each type of chelating agent, and in the case of Fulvic and Humic Acid, BlackSpy was able to relatively quickly double the dosage tolerated over a period of a couple of weeks, until he hit that equilibrium. With Cilantro, the short term and medium term equilibrium is not quite so obvious, and increases take a long time and are gradual. BlackSpy paid for all the products and shipping to the UK himself, with the exception of WuJinSan, from BioAg, which the company offered to send to BlackSpy for free, if he paid for the shipping. As it turned out, the shipping cost was about the same as the cost of the WuJinSan bottle, so in the end, it was not that much cheaper for him than with the cheapest of the others. But BlackSpy would like to make it clear that the free sample in no way affected his own judgement in the course of this review. Please see the Categorisation of Chelating Agents - Chelation vs Mobilisation section and the Low Frequent Dose Chelation section above regarding the best time and manner in which to use Fulvic and Humic Acid. As Fulvic and Humic Acids are poweful mobilising agents, one may not elect to take them at the start of a detoxification programme, but be used in the latter half of a chelation programme, and should ideally be taken in conjunction with another chelating agent to bind with the heavy metals that are mobilised/drawn out of

the blood and tissues, although this is not strictly necessary. Mobilising agents work best when taken in small doses regularly, rather than large doses. It depends ultimately on the patient, the level of toxicity in their body, how many heavy metals are freely circulating in the blood and are in the more readily accessible tissue compartments. Those who have just had a Mercury Amalgam filling removed or have been overdoing mobilising agents in the recent past, and are quite poisoned with Mercury, should not use any mobilising agents, including Humic or Fulvic Acids. back to top Cilantro (Coriander Leaf) back to top General: Certain herbs also help to increase bile production by the <"a href="toxicity1.html#gallbladder">gallbladder, such as peppermint and milk thistle, but the most important herb is cilantro. This herb is capable of mobilizing mercury, cadmium, lead and aluminum in the bones, brain, and the central nervous system. Cilantro is claimed to actually leach heavy metals from the bones themselves. Cilantro, NCD and PCA-Rx (both described below) are probably the only effective chemical agents in mobilizing mercury stored in the intracellular spaces of the body (e.g. attached to tubulin, liposomes and mitochondria etc.) and inside the nucleus of individual cells (helping to reverse DNA damage from mercury toxification). Because cilantro mobilizes/releases more toxins than it is actually to attach to and carry out of the body itself, it may well flood the connective tissue (where the nerves reside) with metals, that were previously locked into 'safer' (less immediately damaging) hiding places. This retoxification can be avoided to an extent by taking an absorbant such as chlorella or bentonite clay.

The leaves of the Coriandrum Sativum plant are usually known in the USA by their Spanish name, Cilantro. In Europe, the leaves are simply known as Coriander leaves. They are also called by other names, such as Dhania, Chinese Parsley or Mexican Parsley. This is why some Europeans may be confused as to why it is difficult to buy 'cilantro' outside of the Americas! The seeds or ground seeds of the plant are usually referred to as 'coriander'. Throughout this web site, we shall use the term 'cilantro' when referring to the leaves of the Coriandrum Sativum plant (i.e. coriander leaves), and BlackSpy hopes this alleviates rather than perpetuates confusion! It is the leaves that possess the chelating benefits, and not the seeds. The leaves (cilantro) are also a very strong anti-oxidant, and can help to prevent animal fats from turning rancid as well as helping to kill off bad bacteria, fungus and insect larvae in stored foods. The reason people tend to use different names for the leaves and seeds is that they have a different taste, and their primary use is in cooking. One can buy the leaves from a supermarket, grow one's own or purchase a cilantro tincture. The quantity of cilantro required to provide an equivalent strength to 10-15 drops of cilantro tincture is quite large and may be enough to kill the taste of your meal, and may prove too much on a daily basis. A tincture may therefore be more convenient for those who do not like the taste or for those who do not wish to prepare cilantro every day.

The above Herbs of Grace Coriander leaf tincture is 1:3, which means that for every ounce of Coriander leaves (by weight) one is using 3 fluid ounces of alcohol (by volume). The 45% signifies the strength of the menstruum (alcoholic solution - similar to vodka strength) prior to addition of the herbs. Menstuum literally means a 'substance that dissolves a solid or holds it in suspension'. Tinctures may be made with either fresh herbs (ideal) or previously dried herbs. Another form which can be purchased is in the form of a pesto sauce, e.g. Sacla Coriander (leaf) Pesto. One thing to bear in mind about the Pesto is that it contains whole leaves (ground up naturally) rather than just the Coriander leaf's active ingredients that a tincture would, so

the Pesto will be naturally more 'hot' in its nature. In addition, Pesto is quite oily (vegetable oil - a good thing, if not heated) but it also contains Cheese, which some may have a Food Sensitivity to. Cheese is also 'hot' in its properties, according to Traditional Chinese Medicine. Those issues aside, it can be very useful to take additional Coriander in this form (within one's limits).

To begin with, one should start with a very low dosage, such as two drops twice a day of tincture. If you are using the leaves themselves, you can either add them to food, such as soup, or grind them with a mortar and pestle. So to begin with, use cilantro for one week, then take two weeks off. Repeat as necessary. As one slowly increases the dosage, one can take it daily without a break and build up to a maximum of ten drops two or three times a day. Depending on your level of toxicity, if you take a high level at the beginning you may become quite ill, e.g. 30-60 drops at a time, sometimes stated as the recommended dosage on cilantro tincture bottles, which is an excessive dosage. Towards the end of your detoxification programme you may like to increase the dosage slightly, but if you do so, increase very slowly and notice the effects it has. e.g. only after 2.5 years of heavy detoxification, was BlackSpy able to take 60 drops 2-3 times a day. When you are taking a large dosage at once, be wary that sometimes two drops may emerge from the dropper bottle at once but may form one (large) droplet as they fall down. If this occurs with half of your drops, and you are taking it 3 times a day, then you may well exceed for comfortable detoxification capacity. Be aware of how many drops are really going in. Droplets may be smaller when you first use a

bottle and become a little larger as the level of liquid goes down - this may of course vary according to bottle and dropper design. A pipette build into the lid of the bottle will of course dispense the same volumes regardless of the liquid level in the bottle. It is best to take cilantro 30 minutes after taking chlorella/bentonite or just before a meal. The idea is that the cilantro stimulates increased bile release, which then mixes with the cilantro/bentonite clay in the intestine, which helps to absorb all the toxins and metals present in the increased volume of bile. If you are taking your maximum comfortable level of cilantro, and are not experiencing any side effects (headaches, fatigue, constipation etc) be very careful to monitor your water consumption. Maintain at least the same level of water consumption every day. If your routine changes and you neglect to drink enough water for just a day or two, you may experience severe fatigue and a gradually increasing headache. If this is the case, then you are starting to retoxify yourself, and you need to immediately drink more water. The symptoms should disappear once you water consumption is back to what it should be. During this 'retoxification' period, whilst increasing your water consumption, you may also wish to temporarily decrease your cilantro dosage slightly. Depending on the exact toxic elements being removed from your tissues at any one time/stage, the exact detoxification symptoms may vary. At one stage they may take the form of a slight skin rash, usually on the face or cheeks. Later on, the symptoms may take the form of acne, minor swellings or boils on the scalp. If these symptoms become unbearable then reduce the dosage of course, but otherwise just ignore them and carry on. Signs of over-detoxification include headaches, fatigue, liver pains and constipation. If you experience any of these, in particular within a hour or two after taking the Cilantro, then you have either taken too much at once, or too many times within a 24 hour period (at that dosage level) or you took it on an empty stomach and did not follow it shortly after with food. It is important to try to take the Cilantro immediately before a meal or if in leaf form, mixed in with one's food. If you continue to take too high a dosage for you at that point in time, whilst experiencing these sings of over-detoxification, then it is likely that you will 'burn out', both in terms of your general energy levels and also your liver's energy levels, and be forced to take several weeks or months break before recommencing your chelation programme, which of course is counter productive and will simply drag out your chelation programme rather than speed it up. You also run the risk of liver damage.

At the beginning stages of a chelation programme, you may find that you cannot sleep (that night) if you take the chelation agent too late in the evening. However, towards the tail end of your chelation programme, you may well find that you can take a high dosage in the evening (i.e. just before your dinner) and feel no ill effects. Please note that depending on your personal choice and the advice from your practitioner, you may choose to use one, two or three products together (e.g. Cilantro with absorbant, PCA-Rx and/or NCD). If you use multiple products, you may choose to take each one for a month or two, before rotating to the next one. Or you may choose to take all at once, but at lower dosages. However, if you do take more than one product at once, you need to be aware of the relative dosages to each other, which is something that is not that hard to figure out if you listen to your body's response. Please note that the herb cilantro has a warm/hot energy component according to Chinese Medicine and with prolonged use will create an energetic imbalance in the body (with excessive heat). This effect may be slightly less when using a tincture as opposed to the leaves themselves. You may find when consuming significant numbers of drops of Cilantro tincture, or any tincture or combination of tinctures for that matter, that the alcohol volume may be a little high for you. This is especially important if you are chelating already, when the liver does not want additional alcohol to have to process/destroy. You can get around this by putting the Cilantro tincture drops into a cup, then adding a couple of fluid ounces of boiling water and leaving for a few minutes or so. This will evaporate off most of the alcohol. If you are using large quantities of Cilantro tincture (which is very much inadvisable), then you may want to consider making your own, as it is far cheaper. It just requires a little leg work, to find a local (organic) farmer's market and a grower who can sell you a kilo or two of organic Coriander leaves. If stalks are provided you may want to consider picking the leaves off and just using the leaves. It isn't so important if you have enough alcohol volume to work with. You also need to find a supplier of grain alcohol - this does not have to be local but could be mail order. Then it is simply a case of throwing the rinsed herbs into a volume of alcohol in a suitable receptacle (e.g. a sealed kilner jar) - pre-chopped or crushed or not - and keeping the jar somewhere warm and shake it a couple of times a day. You may wish to leave the leaves in there for a few weeks and at the end of it strain the liquid away into a (e.g. empty vodka) bottle and discard the leaves. Please see the Recipes page for more information.

William Rasmussen stated in his book Natural Mercury Detoxification that Cilantro contains a toxic enzyme that is destroyed by heat, namely boiling water, and recommends putting Cilantro tincture into a cup of freshly boiled water or tea prior to drinking. Cilantro leaves eaten with food may be best cooked if eaten in any quantity. BlackSpy personally likes to take most of his tinctures this way anyway as it eliminates most of the alcohol content. BlackSpy is unaware of any specific scientific studies to actually verify this, although some people do have an adverse reaction to Cilantro. This could possibly be it's chelating abilities, and if they do have toxic metals in their system, then they may feel unwell. However, some report a revulsion to its smell even. This may be psychological possibly. A link discussing this issue is listed below. www.whoknew.us/archives/000464a_question_about_cilantro.php Please see the Chelation vs Mobilisation section and the Low Frequent Dose Chelation section regarding the best time and manner in which to use Cilantro. As Cilantro is a mobilising agent primarily, it should not be taken at the start of a detoxification programme, but be used in the latter half of a chelation programme, and should ideally be taken in conjunction with another chelating agent to bind with the heavy metals that are mobilised/drawn out of the blood and tissues. back to top Other Chelating/Mobilising Herbs: Besides Cilantro (Coriander Leaf), other important chelating herbs include: Hawthorn

Bugleweed

Chaparral

Yellow Dock Root

Carrageenan (sulphated polysaccharides from red seaweeds and Irish Moss) Other herbs to assist in blood cleaning and circulation include: Red Clover

Burdock Root

Blue Flag These may be taken in tincture form or as fresh/dry herbs. Some Cilantro tinctures, for example, also contain Yellow Dock Root. One can also use a dedicated Yellow Dock Root tincture. One dried herb formula is Herbs of Grace's Heavy Metal Purify, which contains all of the above dried herbs (except for Cilantro) in dry capsule form. These herbs may well be worthwhile taking in conjunction with Cilantro, or on their own, as a break from Cilantro in one's detoxification regime. One may choose to alternate the herbs used in order to utilise the different chelating abilities of the compounds contained in these herbs. Judging from BlackSpy's hair analysis results, and the temporary elevation in hair heavy metals levels when using Hawthorn regularly, he believes it might even be a more effective chelator of Lead and Mercury than Cilantro or Humic Acid. Hawthorn is discussed on the Cardiac Insufficiency page. Remember of course to use an absorbant, such as Chlorella, in conjunction with any chelation agent. Certain herbs, commonly used to dissolve Kidney Stones, such as Hydrangea Root and Gravel Root, also appear to have chelating qualities from BlackSpy's experience. Taking significant quantities of these herbs, in addition to one's normal chelation dosage of another chelant product or herb can result in over-detoxification symptoms. back to top Mobilising Products containing Cilantro: Besides using a Cilantro tincture or making your own, there are a

number of products on the market that contain Cilantro as well as other herbs, and even those which combine Cilantro and Chlorella into one product. BlackSpy has not yet tried these latter alternatives, and whilst they may be convenient and highly effective, they are certainly MUCH more expensive - and are they really any better than using a Cilantro tincture and Chlorella tablets? If they contain other chelating agenets, they may utilise the 'mobilising' property of Cilantro with the chelating properties of other chelating agents for a smoother and more effective detox. Chelorex:

Science Formula's product Chelorex is a mixture of Cilantro, Lipoic Acid, Chlorella, MSM, L-Glutamine and a variety of minerals and vitamins. Chelorex is available in both capsule form and in liquid form. www.scienceformulas.com/primer.html "Q: What is the best Chelating agent? A: In addition to the ability to bind and remove toxic metals, an ideal

chelator can do so without producing adverse effects. Some chelators have an increased risk of adverse reactions for four reasons. 1) Synthetic chelators must be detoxified. A high portion of people have inefficient glutathione dependent detoxification mechanisms and are already chemically sensitive, leading to severe side effects. 2) Synthetic chelators cause excessive toxic metal release in persons whose antioxidant defenses are depleted due to chronic metal poisoning resulting in immune suppression and free radical damage to the body. 3) EDTA has been shown to form a toxic complex with mercury which can damage the brain. 4) Chelators can cause significant essential trace metal depletion. Q: Why do you prefer natural chelators? A: Synthetic chelating agents have a higher incidence of adverse reactions because they release toxic metals in persons whose antioxidant defenses are sub optimal. Following a course of chelation, levels of toxic metals, especially lead, tend to rebound after an initial decrease because of ongoing release of lead from bone or recurrent environmental exposure. Clearly, what was needed was an effective chelating agent for all toxic metals, based on natural ingredients that penetrates the blood brain barrier and can be taken safely for an extended period of time at a reasonable cost with minimal or no side effects. Using my background in biochemistry and my clinical experience, I formulated a combination of individual natural ingredients that performed well on individuals without adverse side effects. Using the most cost effective natural chelators available, we performed clinical testing which thus far has exceeded expectations with removal rates on 16 toxic metals in the normal reference range as high as 98% for a (90 dose 45 day) regime." Chelorex's ingredients are examined below. www.scienceformulas.com/misc_images_07/chelorex_supplement_fa cts.jpg www.scienceformulas.com/text/how_text_07.html Science Formula's web site contains a comparison of chart of EDTA, DMSA, DMPS and Chelorex at the link below. www.scienceformulas.com/compare.html Alan Greenberg Chelorex study can be found at the link below. www.detoxhealth.com/oral-chelation-greenberg-study-page-1.html

A review of Chelorex by Morten Walker in the Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients Aug/Sept 2005 can be found at the link below. www.detoxhealth.com/walker_tnl.pdf Science Formulas list their own studies on Chelorex's effectiveness on their web site below. www.scienceformulas.com/how.html back to top

Phospholipid Therapy:

back to top Role of Phospholipids:

Omega 3 and 6 Fatty Acids help to constitute healthy cell membranes, including the mitochondrial membranes. The uptake in many individuals may however be very poor. However, one of the major constituents of inter- and intra-cellular membranes are phospholipids. Phospholipids are to be found in all the cells in the body, and in particular the inter and intra cellular membranes. They make up a substantial proportion of the body's total mass (besides water). The brain cells are made up of 70% phospholipids and 30% proteins. The cells of the nervous system are 25% phospholipids and 75% proteins. Cells in the body are being continually regenerated, and all the cells in the body are replaced on average every few months. However, if the body does not have the proper and sufficient quantities of building materials, then the body will never rebuild itself properly. The body naturally produces phosphatidyl choline by a process of Methylation and if methylation is impaired (which it frequently is in individuals with CFS, ME or FMS), then phospholipid production in the body will consequently be imparied too. This is why a course of phospholipid supplements may indeed help with proper cell membrane construction and composition. Phospholipids are absorbed by all cells, and it is believed that those cells that lack phospholipids can absorb them from adjacent cells. It is therefore believed that they can be absorbed from the GI tract and be redistributed throughout the body as required. http://researchednutritionals.com/FactSheets/NT%20Factor%20Energ y%20PowerPoint.pdf There are four major phospholipids that help to constitute cell membranes in the body. These are Phosphatidyl Choline (PC), Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine (PE), Phosphatidyl Serine (PS), and Phosphatidyl Inositol (PI). The body in normal circumstances produces these in the relevant proportions required. Phosphatidyl Choline is by far the most important of these, constituting up to 50% of the cell membrane, Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine being the second most important, constituting up to 35% of the membrane. This is why most Phospholipid Therapy programmes concentrate on Phosphatidyl Choline (or indeed Lecithin extract which contains both of these compounds). However, supplementation with other phospholipids or their precursor is also important. In many individuals who suffer from CFS or related conditions, these cell membranes may be partially oxidised and/or constituted with less than ideal long chain fats. This is often as a result of low phospholipid levels in the body and high free radical levels. Mitochondrial inner and outer membranes are particularly at risk from free radical stress

through the process of metabolism and energy production and insufficient levels of the body's natural antioxidants can result in excessive oxidation of the membranes. Impaired cell membranes do not function as they should and are not as permeable to nutrients such as oxygen, and also partial detoxification products may attach themselves to the mitochondrial membranes, further impairing mitochondrial function (energy production). It is possible also that free radicals such as Superoxide may escape out of the mitochondria because of these damaged mitochondrial membranes; and that mitochondrial DNA may become damaged by free radicals. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phospholipid Phosphatidyl Serine (PS), as helping to repair cell membranes, also acts to facilitate the repair of the cortisol receptors in the hypothalamus. It is believed that cortisol receptors become damaged by elevated cortisol levles, reducing the ability of the hypothalamus to detect and correct excessive cortisol levels. In individuals with elevated cortisol stress hormone levels, PS can be useful in lowering this cortisol level to the normal range. www.advance-health.com/cortisol.html Phospholipids, in particular Phosphatidyl Choline, are also one of the main constituents of bile and helps with the breakdown of fats in the liver and proper absoprtion of Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids. Phosphatidyl Choline also helps to reduce LDL 'bad' cholesterol and increase HDL 'good' cholesterol, as it is an unsaturated phospholipid, working in a similar way to unsaturated Essential Fatty Acids. Phosphatidyl Choline also encourages the liver and gallbladder to produce more bile (thus enhancing the breakdown of fats in the liver; assisting in essential fatty acid absorption; and also promoting digestion), and probably enhances brain functioning (as Phospholipids as well as Omega 3 fatty acids make up a signficant part of brain tissue also). Bile is a detoxification medium as well as digestive aid. Also, when phospholipids come into contact with the mitochondrial membranes, they help to 'flush out' the neurotoxins, which glutathione attaches itself to, and which are removed by the liver. Phosphatidyl Choline ensures good cell membrane fluidity in the body - used in rebuilding the inter- and intra-cellular membranes and to help promote the elimination of glutathione conjugates or neurotoxins that are attached to and impairing these cell membranes (known as Neurotoxic Membrane Syndrome or NMS). Phospholipid therapy therefore is a nutritional therapy, a mitochondrial therapy, a neurological system therapy and also a

detoxification therapy. In the latter application it helps to release partial detoxification products attached to the cell membranes. This is examined below. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lecithin In addition to cell membrane integrity, Phosphatidyl choline is a major component of our body's naturally produced lecithin which helps to break down/emulsify fats in the liver, as mentioned above. Phosphatidyl choline is also an important constituent of bile, which the liver and gallbladder use to excrete toxins into the digestive system. During a detoxification programme one is actively releasing toxins from the tissues and filtering them out through the liver and kidneys, and so more bile needs to be produced to help in the excretion process. Phosphatidyl Choline is also a precursor to the catecholamine 'stress hormone' neurotransmitter Acetyl Choline, appropriate levels which are required for proper brain chemistry functioning. Clearly maintaining reasonable phospholipid or phosphorus input levels during a detoxification programme helps in this respect. One may also perhaps consider that if there is excessive cellular inflammation and Peroxynitrite build up on account of immune modulated activity, then supplementation with Phosphatidyl Serine may be of benefit, as it may inhibit iNOS enzyme activity, which is responsible for the immune system mediated release of Nitric Oxide. back to top Soy Lecithin:

Phosphatidyl Choline is one of the major component of soy lecithin. Lecithin is composed of phosphoric acid, choline, fatty acids, glycerol, glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lecithin can be purified using fractionation, working on the principle that some phospholipids (particularly Phosphatidyl Choline) are soluble in alcohol whereas others are less so. By adding alcohol (or instead glycerin), mixing and separating this solution from the lecithin sludge, a purer form of lecithin is obtained with contains a higher concentration of phosphatidyl choline. Phosphatidyl Choline supplements are all based on soy lecithin. The average concentration of phospholipids in Phosphatidyl Choline in Lecithin granules is approximately 97%. The average Phosphatidyl Choline concentration of products on the market is 22-25%, the remainder of the phospholipids being made up of Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine, Phosphatidyl Inositol and a small amount of Phosphatidyl Serine. BlackSpy is not certain whether these Lecithin granules or Lecithin based products have been purified by

fractionation. However, the availability of some sources of Lecithin with as low a Phosphatidyl Choline concentration as 15% would probably imply that they have, unless the 15% sources are from a more 'poor' form of bean. 15% sources are however not the norm. The lower the Phosphatidyl Choline concentration, the more likely it is that there is more sludge and impurities present - which is probably not a huge big deal, but it is preferable to have less rather than more if one is taking it long term or in large quantities. but this is unusual, and presumably indicates a higher concentration of impurities or inferior bean source. Always check the label. Oral and IV Phosphatidyl Choline treatments have been used for over 50 years and are well established in the treatment of a variety of illnesses. As Soy Lecithin and most lecithin extracts contain very low levels of Phosphatidyl Serine, it may be worth considering a dedicated Phosphatidyl Serine supplement, which is extracted from lecithin, if one is looking to utilise the inhibitory effects of PS in immune system (iNOS) mediated Nitric Oxide release (induction), as described above. back to top Oral Phosphatidyl Choline supplementation:

Phosphatidyl Choline can be taken as a supplement as either Lecithin granules, or as capsule form. The gelatin-based capsules generally contain just Lecithin liquid (equivalent to the same weight as granules). Most capsules marketed as Lecithin capsules or Phospatidyl Choline capsules contain around 22-25% Phosphatidyl

Choline. The composition is usually 25% Phosphatidyl Choline, with varying amounts of Phosphatidyl Inositol and Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine, other other lipids, depending on the exact source. There are some capsules on the market that contain a higher concentration of Phosphatidyl Choline, namely 35%, and BlackSpy suspects that these have been produced by fractionation and use of ethanol or glycerin, as there is a slight smell of ethanol or glycerin from such capsules. One such example is Jarrow Formulas MEGA PC-35 (marketed as 'Triple-Strength Lecithin'). Each capsule size is 1200mg Lecithin (concentrate), containing 35% Phosphatidyl Choline and 5% Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine. No Phosphatidyl Inositol is listed on the ingredients, but one would assume some is present. NOW Foods also make a Triple Strength Lecithin (1200mg per capsule) product containing 35% PC, but BlackSpy would probably prefer to use Jarrow Formulas as they are a very high quality brand. The total Phosphatide content of such 35% PC capsules is likely to be in the region of 40-45%.

It should be noted that there is no such thing as 'pure' Phosphatidyl Choline for all intents and purposes, as it is not possible to cost effectively separate the Phosphatidyl Choline fraction from the other phospholipids in Soy Lecithin. Anything marketed as 'Phosphatidyl Choline is in fact Lecithin or Lecithin fractionate. If one requires large quantities of Phosphatidyl Choline, then one may wish to toss up the benefits of a 35% capsule (containing gelatin potentially, a rich source of the excitotoxin Glutamate) or take it in a slightly weaker form (Lecithin granules) which do not require any capsules in each dosage. Many people take Soya Lecithin (granules) anyway as a dietary supplement, as it is a rich source of phospholipids, dietary phosphorus and the B-vitamins B8 (Inositol) and Bp (Choline). Please note that taking soya lecithin will increase the body's phosphorus levels slightly.

Lecithin granules, or lecithin-based phosphatidyl choline complex capsules, like other polyunsatured fats, oxidise readily when exposed to air, light or heat, and should be stored in a cool, dark, dry place. If room temperature is warm to very warm, then it is recommended to store these item in your refigerator. One can taste when lecithin has gone rancid, much like one can with Omega 3 fatty acids when they have become partially oxidised. Discard any lecithin that has become rancid as it will do you more harm than good and will likely make you feel sick. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Membrane_lipids http://www.steve.gb.com/science/lipids_and_membranes.html In general terms, the more you take, the more you will produce bile, so the more gelantinous your stool will become, and at too high a dosage you will simply experience a detoxification headache, where too many toxins have been released at one, and there is some reabsorption into the blood stream. The headache symptoms may take a day or two to appear from overstepping your maximum dosage at that time. If you are increasing the dosage, it is best to do so very slowly and to observe what happens. Other detoxification symptoms may include acne or boils, perhaps on the shoulders, neck or skull. Or even an increase in production of oil from the scalp (resulting in a nasty, greasy feeling in one's hair/scalp sometimes merely hours after washing it). These types of symptoms are more typical of detoxifying the cell membranes of drugs and chemicals rather than heavy metals, but of course this may vary according to the individual. The general recommendation is to take it daily, normally two to three times a day, with a meal. Some practitioners recommend one day on, one day off, doing the FIR Sauna and taking the Phospholipids on the same day. BlackSpy has personally found that taking lecithin granules mixed with a small amount of Spirulina and perhaps ground sprouted flaxseed (or FOS) mixed with a small amount of water is a very tasty snack. Lecithin has a crunchy texture, and is best eaten straight away. If left to stand in water it loses its crunchy texture and becomes oily and gelatinous. Whilst taking lecithin granules is of course much cheaper than taking for example BodyBio Phos Chol capsules (probably the most expensive source of Phosphatidyl Choline), there are of course some minor drawbacks (from a practical perspective). Lecithin tends to stick between your teeth and become gooey and gelatinous. If you floss it out, it tends to stick to the sink, mirror or bathroom wall and can stain walls (if not tiled). It requires brushing to remove from a sink. BlackSpy finds lecithin slightly annoying from this perspective, but it is cheap and convenient. An option is therefore not

to floss (although your hygienist might have something to say about that!) A typical daily dosage of (standard 25% PC) Lecithin granules for someone embarking on an oral phospholipid programme for mitochondrial membrane repair and detoxification would be in the order of 4-6 teaspoons per day (each teaspoon being approximately 3.5g),taken with meals, in other words 1-2 teaspoons of lecithin granules per meal. This would provide approximately 3.5 - 5.25g of Phosphatidyl Choline per day. e.g. Lanes. If one was to take 35% Phosphatidyl Choline capsules (i.e. Lecithin concentrate) instead,then this would be equivalent to approximately 8 - 12 capsules per day, or in other words, 4-6 capsules per day with meals if taken twice a day, or 3-4 capsules per meal if taken 3 times a day. Spreading the capsules out over 3 meals will likely be easier to tolerate in terms of toxin and bile release and demand on your liver. In general, Lecithin capsules of varying quality and potency are going to be more expensive than simply purchasing Lecithin granules, but may be more convenient for some to take. It is best to take the dosage of PC at meal times (e.g. breakfast and lunch, or breakfast and dinner), in general with a protein meal, although this is perhaps not critical. You might want to take your daily dosage in three goes rather than twice, for example, at breakfast, lunch and dinner.

Another Phosphatidyl Choline/Lecithin product is produced by a company called E-Lyte and is called BodyBio PC. This is available in liquid or capsule form. Clearly with the liquid then although you need to measure it up, there is no capsule consumption each time. Each capsule contains 900mg of 'phospholipid complex'. Of this 900mg of phospholipid complex, approximately 450-605mg is Phosphatidyl Choline, according to the manufacturer's UK distributor, although this fact is not stated on the product packaging. According to this source, the average content of Phosphatidyl Choline per capsule is 528mg, with and a smaller amount of Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine and Phosphatidyl Inositol and minor glycolipids. If this is indeed correct, then it would make it the most concentrated source of Phosphatidyl Choline capsule on the market, at 58%. The quoted phospholipid content is quoted at 66%.

BodyBio PC also contains a 4:1 ratio of Linoleic Acid (LA - Omega 6) and Alpha-Linolenic Acid (ALA - Omega 3) Essential Fatty Acids (EFA), but it is not known what the exact ratio of Lecithin concentrate to EFAs that make up the 900mg of 'Phospholipid Compex'. The ingredients state that the total fat content is 900mg, of which the saturated fat content is 200mg, the polynunsaturated fat content is 600mg and the monounsaturated fat content is 110mg. As the ingredients do not specify the exact amounts of each, and polyunsaturates describes both the Phospholipids (propotion of the Lecithin) and the Essential Fatty Acids, then it is not very helpful (presumably for anti-competitive reasons). However, the figures cannot be quite correct as the ingredients are listed as being solely fat, yet the total calories per capsule is 9 (of which 8 come from fat the other 9% coming from carbohydrates - which are not listed on the ingredients). BodyBio PC is also available in liquid form, where 1 tsp (teaspoon) contains 1500-1800mg of Phosphatidyl Choline. The downside with BodyBio PC is that it is extremely expensive, disproportionately (and almost ludicrously) so. However, if you can afford it, it is a great product to use, but for those on a limited budget, 35% PC capsules or Lecithin granules offer hugely better value for money and arguably equal benefits. E-Lyte products are not available by personal parallel importing and must be purchased by one's local distributor at local prices (for those outside of the USA). If one is engaged in a Phospholipid Therapy programme, one should be ingesting significant amounts of Omega 3 and Omega 6 Essential Fatty Acids, so the relative proportion in the BodyBio PC capsules is really neither here nor there. But it is of course a small added bonus. The target daily dosage of Body Bio PC capsules is 4 capsules twice a day (or 3 capsules three times a day - which is slightly more), providing between 3.6 - 4.85g of Phosphatidyl Choline. You may wish to increase the dosage over time, but this is best done with advice from your medical practitioner. Some people, including BlackSpy, have found at certain points in time that taking 4 capsules 3 times a day (i.e. a total of 12, providing between 5.4 - 7.25g of Phosphatidyl Choline) is a comfortable upper limit (after a few months at 8 capsules a day). This clearly depends on the individual however. Indeed at other times, a much reduced limit was tolerated, depending on general liver health and glucuonidation pathway efficiency in the liver. Below is a link to an article on Nutri Link's web site by John Foster,

M.D., Patricia Kane, Ph.D., Neal Speight, M.D., entitled 'The Detoxx System' (also found elsewhere on the web), relating to membrane toxicity and overall lipid status. http://www.nutri-linkltd.co.uk/elyte_news1.htm Below is a link to a pdf fact sheet by E-Lyte on Phosphatidyl Choline (simply left click to open, or right click and select 'Save Target').. www.bodybio.com/downloads/phosphatidylcholine.pdf Viewing this fact sheet requires Adobe Reader. If you do not have this, please download it from the following link. http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html Below is the Questions and Answers page from E-Lyte regarding the Phos Chol product. www.e-lyte.com/main/products/bodybiopc_qa.htm Below is some information on Phos Chol provided by Bodybio.net in 2005. It is in Rich Text Format (.rtf): Bodybio.net 2005 Phos Chol Info An article on Weston A. Price's web site about the less desirable aspects of soy lecithin and phosphatidyl choline supplements can be found below. This article to be put into context is however concerned with the generic use of soy lecithin as a supplement rather than the specific and short term usage of Phos Chol for detoxification. http://www.westonaprice.org/soy/lecithin.html Some patients may benefit from taking both Phosphatidyl Choline (half of above dosage, i.e. 2 capsules twice a day) and also Citicoline orally (four or more 250mg capsules twice a day). It may pay to experiment with the exact ratio and dosage, perhaps even taking exclusively Citicoline (e.g. 4000+ mg daily) to find what feels best and most effective. Citicoline is also known as stabilised CDP Choline - an abbreviation for Cytidine-5'-DiPhosphoCholine (a.k.a. Cytidine DiPhosphate Choline). Citicoline serves as a choline donor in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine, providing cholinergic and neuroprotective activity. It is the intermediate to the body's production

of Phosphatidyl Choline and Phosphatidyl Serine etc. By taking Citicoline, the body can effectively produce the exact ratio of phospholipids that it requires. Citicoline is readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Two well known brands for Citicoline (CDP Choline) are Thorne Research, Jarrow and AOR. Below are 3 pages from the AOR web site containing information and magazine articles and abstracts. www.aor.ca/us/related_research/cdp-citicoline.php www.aor.ca/us/magazines/citicoline.php www.aor.ca/us/abstracts/cytidine_5-diphosphocholine.php NT Factor by Nutritional Therapeutics, Inc. is a proprietary blend of phosphoglycolipids (i.e. phospholipids, glycolipids etc) extracted from soy. How this differs from other phosphatidyl choline supplements and indeed soy lecithin, BlackSpy is not exactly sure of. It seems to be 'stronger' weight for weight than other regular lecithin supplements, perhaps twice the strength of 35% Phosphatidyl Choline capsules (comparable with E-Lyte BodyBio PC) so perhaps the Phosphatidyl Choline content is relatively high.It is marketed as a mitochondrial supplement and to assist in rebuilding oxidised/impaired mitochondrial membranes. www.ntfactor.com NT Factor is sold under licence to various supplement manufacturers who use it, along with other mitochondrial cofactors, in their own mitochondrial assistance formulations. Examples include Researched Nutritionals 'NT Factor Energy' and ProHealth 'Mitochondria Ignite'. https://www.researchednutritionals.com/store/item.cfm?code=CRN10 1 https://www.prohealth.com/shop/product.cfm/product__code/PH195/t ab/Label Nutritional Therapeutics also sell their own NT Factor mitochondrial support product, called Propax, in addition to a number of other NT Factor containing products, the most economical of which is 'Healthy Ageing with High Potency NT Factor'. Healthy Ageing with High Potency NT Factor contains per tablet: 650mg of NT Factor and 100mg of 'Mitochondrial Fuel Blend' (Potassium Pyruvate, Alpha-

Ketoglutaric Acid, L-Carnitine-L-Tartrate and Creatine Phosphate). www.propax.com

One type of dedicated Phosphatidyl Serine supplement is Jarrow Formulas' PS100, each capsule containing 100mg of 'Cogni-PS' Phosphatidyl Serine and 60mg of Phosphatidyl Choline. It is virtually impossible to separate PS from all other phospholipids by fractionation, so lower levels will always be found of the other phospolipids, even in a dedicated PS supplement. This is no bad thing. As stated above, PS supplementation may be geared more towards lowering cortisol levels, but can also help to repair cell membranes. Citicoline, a precursor to PS and PC, may perhaps be preferable. back to top Phospholipid Exchange (PLX) - IV Phosphatidyl Choline Infusions

Phosphatidyl choline (abbreviated to phos chol) is usually orally supplemented. In extreme cases, IV therapy or injection is prescribed by certain doctors in addition to oral supplementation, for example for the removal of high levels of glutathione conjugates from the mitochondrial membrane and to rebuild the inter- and intra-cellular membranes (i.e. cell membranes and mitochondrial membranes) from oxidative (free radical) damage. Phospholipid Exchange (PLX) Therapy is the intravenous push of phosphatidyl choline into the blood stream. Usually a combination of Phos Chol and Glutathione injections are used. A similar effect can be had from oral consumption of high levels of Phos Chol. However, when ingested orally, it is likely that because the blood supply from the digestive tract goes straight to the liver, that the liver and gallbladder will utilise most of this PC for bile production, pushing it straight back into the digestive tract, expelling a number of toxins with it. Injecting it bypasses the liver and allows the tissues to absorb the PC as required before eventually being captured by the liver (assuming it has not all been absorbed by the tissues). Thus one can try to replicate a PLX by large quantities of orally ingested PC, but this will result in considerably more bile production/ejection than with the injection. Phos Chol treatment is usually combined with oral omega 3/6 intake and glutathione supplementation/injection. Where Phos Chol injections are prescribed (usually once a week, but may be up to three times daily for those suffering from chronic diseases), a daily oral regime of Phos Chol intake is also accompanied to boost the effectiveness. Your consultant should be able to advise you of what is appropriate and what dosage and frequency.

An example of a typical Phos Chol PLX injection might consist of two 5ml ampoules of the Lipostabil brand of phosphatidyl choline (i.e. 10ml in total) and 20ml of Glutathione (100mg/ml concentration, i.e. 2g). BlackSpy has known some practitioners to recommend 3 ampoules of Lipostabil injected via infusion (IV drip) over the period of an hour, followed by a Folinic Acid (Leucovorin) infusion for 30 minutes, followed by another 3 ampoules of Lipostabil by infusion (drip) over the period of an hour. A slower delivery is likely to be more effective. Each 5ml ampoule of Lipostabil N i.v. contains phospholipids composed of 93% 3-sn-Phosphatidyl Choline (250mg) in a base of 96% alcohol (i.e. 4% phospholipids). So two ampoules of Lipostabil provides 500mg of Phos Chol, which does not seem much, but it is available in the blood stream immediately, as opposed to orally where it has to pass through the digestive tract. The phosphatidyl choline is administered first, following by the glutathione (to bind with any neurotoxins released by the PC coming into contact with the mitochondrial membranes etc.), and finally saline (3-5ml). Lipostabil is manufactured in Germany. There are numberous negative stories about Lipostabil on the internet, but these relate to the subcutaneous injection of it for weight loss purposes, which is not recommended by the manufacturer. A fact sheet by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency in the UK is listed below regarding this matter. The injections we are concerned with here are I.V. (i.e. straight into the blood stream), which is what the product's intended usage is. MHRA Fact Sheet about Lipostabil Viewing this chart requires Adobe Reader. If you do not have this, please download it from the following link. http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html Wikipedia defines 'saline' at the link below. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saline_(medicine) Please see the B-Vitamin Dosages section on the Nutritional Deficiencies page for more information on Glutathione injections and the Myer's Cocktail. Some people report feeling very ill after a PLX for a couple of days. Others report feeling actually much better after a PLX injection for a couple of days. This may be in part on account of the increased levels

of glutathione in the blood. Usually the patient may take one or two PLXes to get used to it, and so normally a half dosage (i.e. 1 ampoule of PC and 10ml of Glutathione) is administered for the first one or two PLXes, before subsequently administering full strength PLXes. It is normally played by ear and if the first half dosage PLX goes ok, then a full dosage may be administered for the second PLX. If one is consuming ionised water or ERT/MRET water (as discussed on the electromagnetic page) on the same day as the PLX, the effect of the PLX may be greatly enhanced, depending on the individual's electromagnetic balance and amount drunk. It may or may not also result in an increased likelihood of the vein collapsing, when first consumed. These factors clearly depend on the individual. Combining ERT/MRET water with PLXes may however help to accelerate the overall detoxification programme. PLXes may also be taken in conjunction with a B12 injection, which is performed IV using the same needle and vein. This are can be in the form of, for example, a 5000-20,000 mcg methylcobalamin injection, or a 2000mcg cyanocobalamin injections. Clearly the former is much more effective than the latter, as methyl B12 is more readily absorbed than Cyano B12. The B12 can be administered either intra muscular (IM) or intra venous (IV). If given IV in the same vein as the PLX, a 5 minute gap is usually observed from having the PLX, to having the B12 injection, to optimise the extent of absorption. 3-5ml of saline is also injected immediately after the B12. Please see the section above on The Body's Natural Mechanisms For Detoxification on this page, and also the Nutritional Deficiencies page for more information on BVitamin deficiencies and methylation. A personal web site on one person's experiences of Phospholipid Exchange (PLX) Therapy is shown below. A very useful web site with an excellent links page. www.zipworld.com.au/~ataraxy/plx.html PhoenixCFS has an overview of treating methylation problems which includes references to supplementation (Vitamin and Phospholipid etc) and detoxification. http://phoenixcfs.org/GSH%20Methylation%20Treatment%20Konynenburg.htm It may help to avoid any mineral supplements (for example, essential minerals (metals) or trace minerals (metals)) on the day of the PLX, so that the PLX can more effectively act to remove some of the heavy

metals that are attached to the inter- and intra-cellular membranes. back to top Combining PLX with FIR Saunas If you are undergoing FIR Sauna or OAPD treatments, it is highly recommended to avoid having an FIR Sauna 24 hours prior to having a PLX injection. Otherwise it may have an effect on your veins and the ease of physically administering the injection successfully (e.g. effects may include collapsing veins or Phos Chol coming out of the vein and spreading out under the skin). The precise effects may vary according to the individual. There is no hard and fast rule about how soon to have your next FIR Sauna or OAPD session AFTER the injection - this is something you will have to learn to play by ear. You may find it optimal to wait at least 2-3 days after the injection before starting your FIR Saunas or OAPD sessions up again (i.e. if you have the PLX on day 1, you would have the FIR sauna on day 4), or your tolerance to the saunas may be very low and you will have to take a break before you can resume your normal schedule. You may find that you may have to build up the FIR Sauna intensity and frequency over a few days and not dive straight into 2 saunas a day (for example) the next day. Some examples are shown below of FIR sauna schedules for a person who can comfortably do 10 minutes in the sauna at a time. Please note that Day 8 is the same as Day 1, and so on. With PLX: 4 x 5 min saunas per week. Day 1: PLX; Day 2: Nothing; Day 3: Nothing; Day 4: 5 min FIR; Day 5: 5 min FIR; Day 6: 5 min FIR; Day 7: 5 min FIR.

With PLX: 2 x 10 min saunas per week. Day 1: PLX; Day 2: Nothing; Day 3: Nothing; Day 4: 10 min FIR; Day 5: Nothing; Day 6: Nothing; Day 7: 10 min FIR. Please note that one may wish to do the 2nd FIR treatment on Day 6 and leave Day 7 and a rest day, depending on how one finds the PLX.

Without PLX: 3 x 10 min saunas per week. Day 1: 10 min FIR; Day 2: Nothing; Day 3: 10 min FIR; Day 4: Nothing; Day 5: 10 min FIR; Day 6: Nothing; Day 7: Nothing.

Without PLX: 4+ x 5 min saunas per week. Here you could experiment, and do 2 days on, 1 day off, or 3 days on, 1 day off. The general recommendation is to take Phosphatidyl Choline oral supplements daily, normally two to three times a day, with a meal. Some practitioners recommend one day on, one day off, doing the FIR Sauna and taking the oral Phospholipids on the same day. If you are engaging in a serious FIR sauna program, then it is unwise to exceed your comfortable normal amount of oral phosphatidyl choline on the day before or the day of an FIR sauna. Otherwise, if you do push your limits on the phospholipids, you may find that you cannot perform your usual FIR sauna duration as it gives you a big headache early on. BlackSpy personally found that after approximately 6 months of taking oral phospholipids (e.g. 8 capsules of BodyBio PC per day), FIR saunas 2-3 times a week, and roughly 20 PLX injections, that there was no longer no ATP blocking on his mitochondria translocator sites, but that there was still rapid depletion of energy on energy demand. After approximately 9 months of taking oral phospholipids (the last 3 of those taking equivalent of 12 capsules of BodyBio PC per day, or a combination of BodyBio and Citicoline), FIR saunas 2-3 times a week, and 30 PLX injections, all the (previously very high levels of) glutathione conjugates of a drug or other chemical and traces of toxic metals on the white cell mitochondrial membrane had disappeared. An ATP Profile and Translocator Protein microscopy should highlight any issues around the inter- and intra- cellular membranes, as described on the identification page. A metabolic profile (organic acid analysis) based on a urine sample may also provide indirect evidence of ATP efficiency, which may provide a rough idea of the efficiency of the mitochondrial membrane. Phospholipid therapy may work very well in conjunction with regular FIR sauna usage, and BlackSpy considers both to be an essential part of a detoxification programme that is concerned with heavy metal and organic toxin removal from the inter- and intra-cellular membranes. FIR saunas are examined in more detail in the section below on light therapies. back to top

Light Therapies / Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Therapies:

Introduction There are a number of light-based detoxification treatments on the market, such as far infrared (FIR) saunas, infrared heat pads, detox food pads (discussed in the section below), laser energetic detoxification (LED), low level laser therapy (LLLT) and many others. These work on the basis of heating the inside of the body through infrared light, of which approximately only 20% heats the air and 80% of which heats the skin and penetrates the body. It acts to dilate blood vessels and increasing blood circulation, and probably increasing cellular activity. This may increase the body's ability to detoxify itself through its natural mechanisms. LED is different as it also utilises principles of homeopathy. Light-based therapies work on the basis of draining toxins from the lymphatic system as well as stimulating the release of toxins from the inter- and intra-cellular membranes (cell and mitochondria membranes). The toxins themselves are then freed up in the

bloodstream and are eliminated mainly by the liver and kidneys, but also though sweat and breath to a smaller extent. Light-based therapies are commonly used to help promote the elimination of glutathione conjugates or neurotoxins that are attached to and impairing the inter- and intra-cellular membranes, especially the mitochondrial membranes. Such a condition is known as Neurotoxic Membrane Syndrome or NMS. Depending on what types of toxicity you are suffering from, they may help you as part of your detoxification programme, as indeed will any activity that makes you eliminate toxins through your skin as sweat, to a lesser extent (such as saunas, hot baths etc.). Please note that anyone who engages in regular activities involving sweating (!), whether they are saunas, work outs etc., it is very important to replace the lost electrolyte minerals calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride either in one's diet or through supplementation (or both) as otherwise this can result in severe mineral depletion over time and mineral deficiencies. One does not actually have to sweat during a light therapy session to obtain the detoxification benefit from it. However, it is a good idea to shower afterwards to wash off any toxins from the surface of the skin that have been excreted in sweat, so that they are not reabsorbed. Although specific light therapies can be extremely powerful detoxification methods in themselves, BlackSpy does not personally recommend to use a light therapy as your ONLY mechanism of detoxification, but for optimum results should be used with some of the other methods described on this page. Links to information web sites about light therapies can be found on the links page. Some light therapies are listed below. back to top Far Infrared (FIR) Saunas back to top What is FIR and how does it work? Far Infrared (FIR) Saunas are devices that use a particular set of wavelengths of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum (the far end of non-visible infra red) to penetrate deep into the body's tissues (approximately 4-5cm) and heat the body, whilst also energetically stimulating the cells and helping to release toxins. It is probably a combination of the heating of the tissues and the dilating effect the

radiation has on the blood vessels, combined with their electromagnetic stimulation, that results in the release of mainly organic toxins into the blood stream and lymph (from the lipid/fatty compartments of the body), and the mobilisation of waste in the lympathic system. FIR Saunas do not use hot air or steam convection and conduction to heat the body as do steam and dry saunas (i.e. direct contact with skin). They use a series of bulbs or heating elements that radiate FIR radiation at the user that passes through the skin. Those who do not react well with steam saunas or hot baths (on account of over stimulation of the endocrine system and inability to sleep) will more than likely not have this issue with FIR saunas. FIR saunas help to energise the cells of the body. They are sometimes used by the elderly to improve circulation and increase energy levels, and promote a healthy metabolism. They may for example assist in bowel movements on the day of the sauna. It is at higher levels of energetic functioning that cells are best able to function on a biochemical and metabolic level. If we consider the fact that cells that are at a higher state of energetic functioning will more readily rid their membranes and fatty cells of toxins, then one can probably safely assume that conversely that neurotoxins on the interand intra-cellular membranes decrease the potential maximum energetic states that the cells can actually reach and their biochemical efficiency. Once the body is rid of the majority of its neurotoxins from the cell membranes and fatty cells, then light therapies like FIR saunas can then really be used for longer periods at each session, where the focus can be on increasing the energetic state of the cells, without having to worry about the side effects and limits imposed by the release of toxins in a controlled manner. Some links showing additional information about the effect of FIR saunas are listed below. www.steamsaun.com/saunas-infrared-more.html www.jashbotanicals.com/articles/far_infrared_saunas_1.html (12 pages) The long term effects of FIR sauna usage have not been studied with closely monitored trials, so the effects are still somewhat unknown, but informal studies since the 1950s have revealed a number of beneficial effects. Please see the powerpoint presentation here fir.ppt. Another important effect of FIR is to replicate the effect of a fever to some degree, i.e. a raised internal core body temperature, which can

help to kill pathogenic organisms and boost the immune system temporarily. back to top Types of FIR Sauna: FIR Saunas are not commonly available to the public for use, although certain health spas may use them. In general, steam based heat saunas are more popular and common. A purchase of one's own Far Infrared Sauna may be therefore required if one cannot locate one for use at a sauna, health spa or fitness club. This may work out cheaper over the medium term than renting on or paying per session. There is no reason however that you can't buy one for yourself and allow your friends and family to use it. Or club together and buy one. One UK supplier for infra-red sauna rental is listed on the links page. If you consider the cost of certain types or a combination of detoxification supplements over 6 months or even 18 months, then the one off capital cost of purchasing an FIR Sauna is actually quite small and relatively good value. It can also be shared by a number of people. BlackSpy strongly believes that the use of an FIR Sauna is an important part of any cellular detoxification programme. There are a wide variety of FIR sauna products, including portable saunas, domes, mattresses and blankets, as well as the tradition wooden sauna cabins. There is some evidence to suggest that saunas made from poplar are preferable to cedar on account on cedar wood's potential to release gaseous toxins, so bear this in mind if you decide to purchase a wood cabin FIR sauna. One can also purchase FIR heaters individually and set up a sauna in your bathroom - this is a cheaper way to set up an FIR sauna in your home. The differences between them are clearly cost, the total bodily surface area that the FIR heating elements are able to radiate onto, proximity to the skin, power consumption issues, the posture you wish to adopt in the unit, and the ease of which you can move or wipe sweat from your body with a towel or paper towel. Consider the relative benefits of the different FIR sauna models or options available. A portable or tent-style FIR Sauna is shown below.

Four different styles of FIR Dome Sauna are shown below.

A wooden cabin style FIR Sauna is shown below.

A simple FIR Heater set up is shown below.

Below is an example of how FIR Heaters can be set up in your bathroom if you want to try that method. www.xmission.com/~total/temple/Soapbox/Articles/brsauna.html There is some speculation that an FIR blanket sauna may be optimal as it puts the elements into very close contact with the skin. The FIR blanket sauna (like a sleeping bag) can also be used to target specification sections of the body as it has 3 channel (area) settings, each with adjustable temperature and timer settings. If you wish to sweat during an FIR session, then a blanket style sauna may be optimal as the 'blanket' is in contact with the skin and does heat up and a suitable temperature can be selected to promote sweating if desired. Below is an example of a 'blanket' or 'sleeping bag' style FIR sauna,

that BlackSpy uses.

Close up shots of the control unit for the above sauna are shown below.

A shot of the sauna open to dry after use is shown below. Only the main rectangular area would emit FIR radiation when in use.

Probably the cheapest way to detoxify your body with FIR is to simply buy a couple (up to say a maximum of 5) of red 250W Infrared Reflector bulbs and a couple of Porcelain Lamp Holders or similar heat resistant lamps and mount them in a suitable manner. Just be sure to check to wattage of the bulbs and the maximum wattage capability of the light fitting or lamp you are using. Often, regular desk lamps etc have a rating of 60 or 100W. You may be able to get away with using a 100W light fitting with 125W bulbs for very brief periods of usage, although it is not recommended for safety reasons. If you elect to install lamp holders, then you will need to be experienced in DIY or have a qualified electrician help you (for safety reasons). Choosing to buy your own infrared bulbs might only cost you 5% of the cost of buying a FIR sauna. Please note that these bulbs give out a broad spectrum of IR radiation/light, and not just FIR, but even so are still effective. The bulbs should probably be mounted 20cm apart (centre to centre) to ensure even heat radiation distribution. You could mount the bulbs overhead or on a wall, depending on what angle you want the light to hit you. With vertically mounted (overhead) bulbs, you would lie underneath them. With horizontally mounted bulbs, you would sit on a wooden chair (for example) and face the bulbs. Never leave the infrared bulbs or FIR sauna on unattended. An example of these items are shown at the links below from a UK on-line supplier. They should be available from electrical suppliers in your country. www.lampspecs.co.uk/Light-Bulbs-Tubes/Infra-Red www.maplin.co.uk/Module.aspx?ModuleNo=26765&doy=16m5 An example of horizontally mounted 250W infrared reflector bulbs (i.e. 250W per bulb) is shown in the picture below, using the above items, as set up by a friend of BlackSpy's.

Bear in mind that the electricity consumption of a blanket-style FIR sauna with a total power output of 300W (at 36VDC) will be massively less than an array of 250W (at 230V or 110V AC) infrared reflector bulbs, and so if used in the long term, the latter solution could well become more costly, depending on the number of bulbs used. back to top FIR Sauna Duration: At the start of a detoxification programme, one may elect to start with 5 minute sessions every other day and built up slowly over time, as one would with a detoxification supplement. If one has a weak cardiac

function, then one may want to start off with 1 or 2 minute sessions to start with. Before increasing session lengths by the next 5 minute step (i.e. increasing from 5 minutes to 10 minutes), one can try having 2 saunas per day, for example of 5 minutes duration each. One can start off with every other day, then increase to 2 days on 1 day off, 3 days on 1 day off, and finally moving to every day. It depends on the individual and which pattern one feels most comfortable with. However, be aware that doing the maximum number of minutes per day, every day, may well take its toll on the liver and adrenal glands, so remember to pace yourself for the long haul rather than burn yourself out in a month or two. Once one is used to FIR, then the most usual duration/frequency of FIR sauna use for detoxification is approximately 20 minutes per session, approximately 3 times per week, or every other day. The maximum duration recommended is 30 minutes in one session. But it may take many individuals a long time to build up to this. Dr John McLaren Howard, of Acumen and ex-director of Biolab Medical Unit (UK), has stated that FIR is best used in short-sharp treatments, and should never be used like an ordinary sauna, as one only sets up an equilibrium between excretion and reabsorption through the skin. He recommends short durations in the FIR Sauna (e.g. 10 to 15 minutes), followed by immediate, rapid showering off to get the best from this technique. He has also stated that longer periods in an FIR sauna (and indeed a steam sauna) can also deplete potassium, which may have an adverse cumulative effect on heart function and also adrenal function. This may be in addition to the cardiovascular effect of FIR being equivalent to mild exercise, putting a workload on the heart in any case. Potassium deficiency may be physically felt by muscle twitches, for example, in the eye lid or perhaps upper arm etc. If you do experience such symptoms it would be best to desist from FIR usage for at least a week, supplementing Potassium all the while, with Potassium-rich foods, and/or in supplemental form. When you start back up again it may be wise to only use the sauna every other day as a maximum. As mentioned, mineral supplementation during an FIR sauna programme is of paramount importance. It may be useful to keep a record of your FIR sauna usage, noting down the temperature, duration, and number of sessions performed at each setting/duration, and which part of the body has been exposed (whole body except head, head only, etc.) In this way, you

can see patterns that emerge and see how many sessions you have performed at any one duration, so you know roughly when to next experiment with slightly longer durations etc. How long should you continue to use your FIR sauna? Well, if you can get to the point where you can use it every day for 30-60 minutes or so with no detoxification side effects over a prolonged period, then you have probably completely detoxified your body's tissues. Unless you have actually reached this point, then you should continue your FIR schedule and not quit or give up unless of course you need to take a break for a few weeks or so to rest your liver etc. In any case, once you have reached this point, you can use the sauna a couple of times a week to energise the body's cells and to relax in any case. However, you won't know for sure unless you actually perform a Translocator Protein Studies test to examine if there are any partial detoxification products stuck to the mitochondrial white cell membranes; or indeed a Fat Biopsy to examine the levels of organic toxins remaining in the adipose fat cells. Please see the Identification page for more information regarding suitable tests. The reason we say 30-60 minutes maximum is that over time although the maximum comfortable duration that you can use the FIR sauna gradually increases through use, there may be a certain limit on the amount of time you can spend in the FIR sauna before your endocrine system becomes overstimulated. You will notice this as you will fail to fall asleep the night after an FIR sauna session. If you are taking adrenal stimulating supplements (e.g. herbs or glandulars), you may wish to cut back on these to a dosage where you can fall asleep at night again, and if necessary cut them out completely. In most cases, it is the act of taking adrenal stimulating herbs or supplements which restricts your FIR sauna duration, if you have progressed this far, and simply by cutting them out you can increase the duration (without overstimulating the endocrine system) and simply be limited by the actual detoxification limit instead. BlackSpy has tried this, and it seems to work fine. e.g. BlackSpy could do 35 minute sessions whilst taking an adrenal stimulating supplement but no more without incurring insomnia. BlackSpy was however able to do 60+ minutes without taking an adrenal supplement at all. Another approach is to omit the adrenal stimulating supplement(s) on the day of the FIR sauna, but continue with your normal dosage on all other days. As you increase the level of stimulation, your endocrine system may well no longer require an adrenal stimulating supplement at all (even on FIR-free days).

If none of the above options are possible or work for you, then cut back on the FIR duration until you reach a comfortable level. The amount of EM stimulation your endocrine system can cope with every day may well change with time, and you may well quickly adapt or get used to higher levels of stimulation, and so it may well be possible to increase the FIR duration with time. Experiment. It is something that you will have to figure out for yourself. BlackSpy has experimented with FIR Sauna duration, and has performed session durations up to 80 minutes. He however found that at 70-80 minutes, one may experience palpitations of the heart and a strange feeling in the heart muscle. This may build up over time, in terms of one's susceptibility to develop these symptoms with consecutive long FIR sauna sessions; or from one very long FIR session; to the extent that the heart nuscle may feel uncomfortable for days on end. If this happens to you then it is best to lay off the FIR saunas for a week or so or until you feel totally happy to continue again (and also avoiding anything more than light exercise, hot showers and lying on your left side in bed). The heart muscle in such instances may well be overstimulated electromagnetically and also in its cardio-vascular capacity (as FIR saunas are a method of burning calories, and it may be easy to exceed one's cardiovascular capacity by just lieing down in the FIR sauna!) It is therefore probably wise not to exceed 60 minutes in one session - 45 minutes may be the optimal maximum for one session if performed 3 times a week. If one requires more session time to reach the maximum level of comfortable detoxification, then it may be better to break it up into more sessions, and perform say a 30 minute session every day (rather than 60 minute session every other day). Try and experiment and stick only to what feels comfortable for you. As a general rule, you should not engage in a single session of FIR longer than you can perform moderate exercise for (without a break); and you should not do more FIR sessions per week than you can comfortably perform exercise sessions per week, without wearing yourself out. Also bear in mind that if you do exercise during the week as well as FIR sauna sessions, then you have to be able to cope with both! If you reach the limit of what your endocrine system can cope with in terms of FIR (i.e. insomnia at night), then that is not to say that you are not still detoxifying your body at each FIR session, it is just that you are not able to reach the optimum limit. Keep using the FIR sauna regularly for many months until you feel you have finished detoxing. Of course, many people choose to use FIR not for detoxification but for increasing cellular energy levels, so there is no

reason why you should necessarily stop taking FIR saunas just because you feel you have finished detoxing for the moment. All in all an FIR sauna is an excellent tool, and one of the most important for cellular detoxification. Towards the end of your FIR sauna detoxification programme, which may be after a couple of months or perhaps a year and a half, then you may well find that you can take a whole body FIR sauna late in the evening and not have this interfere with your sleep pattern in any way. This is also true if one is doing higher durations on body parts such as the feet. back to top Considerations for FIR Sauna Usage: If one feels fatigued or experiences headaches immediately or hours after a sauna, then one has overdone it, and one should ideally wait until one feels normal again, and wait a further day, before resuming the sauna programme on the following day. You may find that if you have overdone it, you can't simply revert back to the last schedule that worked comfortably without any headaches or fatigue without at least a day or two's break. If the day after having felt fatigued from saunas you revert back to your previous schedule, you may find it still continues to give you a headache. This is a sign that the liver needs time to clear all the toxins that have been released from the tissues and that are floating around the blood stream, before you release any more. Otherwise the toxins in the blood don't have a chance to go down sufficiently to a comfortable level and remain elevated (hence the headaches). If you are feeling temporarily run down for other reasons (overdoing things etc.), then you may find your body and liver unable to tolerate the normal amount of FIR sauna treatments, so it may be best to recover properly first before resuming. Other detoxification symptoms may include acne or boils, perhaps on the shoulders, neck or skull. This is more symptomatic of drugs and chemical detoxing rather than heavy metals, but of course this may vary according to the individual. Also known as liver spots, they are a sign that the liver and detoxification pathways of the body are overburdened (i.e. an adverse inflammatory response, and that one should consider lowering one's exposure to FIR in order to keep toxin relase within the body's ability to eliminate them. In general, when using FIR saunas, the body will feel the most warmth in areas where the circulation is strongest, and less warmth in

those areas where circulation is weak. FIR Saunas may also help with muscle and ligament injuries (and healing in general) on account of their deep heat penetration and stimulation of the body's circulation and internal organs. Although you can indeed purchase your own FIR Sauna, it is highly advisable to seek professional guidance as to how to structure your FIR Sauna programme, as there is a fine line between optimum detoxification and release too many toxins at once (causing a bad/splitting headache and other detox symptoms, much like taking too much Cilantro). Remember to always drink a glass of water before and after the sauna, preferably at least 2 x 8 fluid ounces for every 15 minutes in the sauna. And also don't forget to replace any electrolyte minerals as described above. In addition, a small amount of chlorella can be taken 15-30 minutes prior to the FIR sauna, to help absorb any heavy metals released from the tissues into the blood stream. The mineral loss results from sweating, and the more you sweat, the more minerals you will lose, particularly Magnesium. Toxins are released into the bloodstream and also escape from the body in the sweat. The more you sweat the better, as you are removing more waste from the lymphatic system, but it is not a big issue if you don not sweat (very much) at all, as there are other pathways for removal of the toxins. Increased temperatures can promote sweating, particularly in a sleeping bag style FIR sauna. If you do sweat, it is a good idea to actually wipe or mop up the sweat with a towel or with paper towels, rather than simply leaving the sweat on one's skin, where some of the toxins may be reabsorbed. This is clearly easier in a tent style FIR sauna than in a sleeping bag style FIR sauna. Otherwise one can simply ensure that one goes immediately to the shower and does not hang around after leaving the sauna bag, maybe wiping and cleaning it after your shower, rather than before. Be aware than regular use of FIR saunas, where sweating occurs, as indeed any other regular activity or regular exposure to environments where you sweat profusely, can result in mineral depletion, and one should try to remineralise effectively as one goes along. It is also a good idea to have a mineral level blood test every 3 to 6 months to proactively ensure that any significant demineralisation does not occur. One may find that FIR usage is most needed or effective in the winter, as the body is subjected to less natural light (i.e. radiation) and tends to sweat less (depending on clothing and home heating etc.) BlackSpy personally prefers to have a sauna first thing in the morning. BlackSpy has noted that more sweating occurs when there

is food in the stomach, although it is probably advisable to avoid an FIR immediately after a meal as blood will be concentrated more around the stomach rather than around the body as a whole. One other possible factor to bear in mind when using FIR saunas is that according to Traditional Chinese Medicine, too much exposure to strong light, especially those frequencies that which heats the body, either internally or on the surface, may result in a large increase in yang in the body (and heart fire/hot energy). According to BlackSpy's acunpuncturist, FIR Sauna usage may well help the body to build up yang energy and also build up Qi. If one is suffering from excessive heat energy in the body and also yin deficiency, whilst very short durations may be useful up to a point, it may also result in excessive heat energy in the body. Some constitutions may tolerate FIR more than others clearly. Whilst building up yang energy in the body with FIR or exposure to light, one is clearly doing nothing to increase yin energy, so simply doing more and more FIR is not going to help you in this respect. Long term it may exacerbate any hot energy issues you have, creating more imbalance in the body, not less. So, with regular usage, and for those individuals who are yin deficient (e.g. most CFS sufferers) this may be a price that one has to pay, in the short term, to enjoy the detoxification and increased blood/lymphatic circulation benefits that FIR offers. See the Digestive Disorders page for more information. back to top Combining FIR Saunas with Other Detoxification Protocols: If you are commencing on a regular FIR sauna regime, it may be wise to temporarily suspend taking any oral chelation/clathration products, or at least allow for enough days after the FIR Sauna before you start taking chelating agents, and of course not to take any additional chelating agents on the day of the FIR Sauna. Otherwise, if you do the maximum comfortable duration/amount of FIR saunas, plus the maximum comfortable daily dosage of chelation product, then you will in effect be loading the liver twice as much as you would if you only stuck to one. If you do both in this manner, then at some point your liver will start to become warn out and it may affect your energy levels, and you may notice some physical liver discomfort. If this occurs then you should stop all chelation/clathration products and FIR saunas for at least a couple of weeks until your liver recovers (and preferably have an energetic treatment on your liver to increase its qi levels).

FIR Saunas may work well in conjunction with high dosages of Niacin (Vitamin B3). High dosages of Niacin produce an effect called skin flushing, but doses slightly lower than this but way above 'normal' may assist in vasodilation and the effectiveness of the FIR sauna treatment. Dosages of between 50 and 1000mg have been tolerated by different individuals, so it is best to work your way up slowly, rather than try 1000mg initially! If you do take too much, then you will experience a temporary redness and stinging sensation which will disappear after a little while. Prolonged ingestion of dosages of Niacin that cause flushing may well cause liver damage, so it is important to stay within this limit. It is best to take this Niacin dosage up to an hour before the FIR Sauna. BlackSpy has not tried this protocol but will be investigating it shortly. This is an optional addition to the FIR Sauna treatment programme and is of course not strictly necessary; and you do so at your own risk. To read more about Niacin, please see the Nutritional Deficiencies page. Another protocol that may help your FIR treatments is to take an enzyme such as Bromelain (on an empty stomach), which can help to remove stagnant substances and waste that might be clogging up the lymphatic system and bloodstream, which might assist in releasing more toxins from the fat cells. Bromelain is also an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. More information on Bromelain can be found on the Nutritional Deficiencies page. However, some critics argue that such Enzymes are really for anti-inflammatory use, and if you do not have an inflammation problem, then they are really just fancy antioxidants (and possibly not the best use of your money). FIR Saunas may also work well also in conjunction with the use of detox foot patches, which also utilise FIR. FIR Saunas also tends to complement Phospholipid Therapy. Phospholipid Therapy helps to promote bile production and ensure the effective functioning of the pathway of the liver for excretion of toxins, and so helps to eliminte the toxins that are released from the tissues into the bloodstream and lymphatic system during FIR sauna use. Please see the Phospholipid Therapy section below for additional sauna schedule considerations. Remember that if you are taking one or more chelation or clathration products, or Phos Chol, then they may have a cumulative effect in the number of toxins that are released, and so may affect the intensity of FIR saunas that you can comfortably have. A balance must be struck. If you are undergoing FIR Sauna treatments, it is highly recommended to avoid having an FIR Sauna 24 hours prior to having a PLX injection (described below in the Phospholipid Therapy section. Otherwise it may have an effect on your veins and the ease of physically administering the injection successfully (e.g. effects may

include collapsing veins or Phos Chol coming out of the vein and spreading out under the skin). The precise effects may vary according to the individual. There is no hard and fast rule about how soon to have your next FIR Sauna AFTER the injection - this is something you will have to learn to play by ear. You may find it optimal to wait at least 1-2 days after the injection before starting your FIR Saunas up again (i.e. if you have the PLX on day 1, you would have the FIR sauna on day 4), or your tolerance to the saunas may be very low and you will have to take a break before you can resume your normal schedule. You may find that you may have to build up the FIR Sauna intensity and frequency over a few days and not dive straight into 2 saunas a day (for example) the next day. Some examples are shown below of FIR sauna schedules for a person who can comfortably do 10 minutes in the sauna at a time. Please note that Day 8 is the same as Day 1, and so on. With PLX: 4 x 5 min saunas per week. Day 1: PLX; Day 2: Nothing; Day 3: Nothing; Day 4: 5 min FIR; Day 5: 5 min FIR; Day 6: 5 min FIR; Day 7: 5 min FIR.

With PLX: 2 x 10 min saunas per week. Day 1: PLX; Day 2: Nothing; Day 3: Nothing; Day 4: 10 min FIR; Day 5: Nothing; Day 6: Nothing; Day 7: 10 min FIR. Please note that one may wish to do the 2nd FIR treatment on Day 6 and leave Day 7 and a rest day, depending on how one finds the PLX.

Without PLX: 3 x 10 min saunas per week. Day 1: 10 min FIR; Day 2: Nothing; Day 3: 10 min FIR; Day 4: Nothing; Day 5: 10 min FIR; Day 6: Nothing; Day 7: Nothing.

Without PLX: 4+ x 5 min saunas per week. Here you could experiment, and do 2 days on, 1 day off, or 3 days on, 1 day off. back to top Experimentation: It appears that the predominant cardiovascular effect on the heart is

due to direct FIR radiation striking and heating up the heart muscle. Of course, FIR will generally warm the inner core and stimulate blood circulation locally also. Bearing this in mind, if one's heart is the limiting factor in one's FIR usage, particularly for those with weak Cardiac/Mitochondrial function, one may wish to expose the mid abdomen down to FIR. This is easiest achieved in a sleeping bag style sauna, and one can climb inside, with the top edge of the 'sleeping bag' touching the bottom of one's rib cage, which should ensure that the heart muscle does not receive any radiation directly. BlackSpy has tried this, and it appears that he can spend at least twice as long in the FIR sauna this way than he can if doing FIR on the neck down. If you can comfortably do 10+ minutes in a normal fashion, then clearly it is not really worth doing the above. It is only really if you cannot do more than 1-2 minutes in the sauna on account of cardiac issues. Clearly the more of your body you expose to FIR during your sauna times the better, and the above is really just a compromise. The sleeping bag style FIR sauna can also be used to treat the soles of the feet. Normally whilst lying in the FIR sauna, the head or soles of the feet are never exposed directly. What may be helpful is to do 5 minutes or so, sitting on a chair, with one's feet inside the sauna, a couple of times a week. This provides part of the effect of Detox Foot Patches, in terms of FIR output and stimulation of acupuncture points on the feet corresponding to different organs of the body (and encouraging release of toxins from these organs) and also opening up the meridians in the legs; but does not provide the negative ions that detox patches do. However, using the sauna in this way may in some cases increase the rate of absorption of the detox foot patches, e.g. 5 - 15 minutes of FIR on the soles of the feet may reduce the amount of time required for the detox patches to be worn each day for a couple of days. You may also choose to actually lie with your head and neck inside the FIR sauna bag, making sure you can breathe of course, and try perhaps 5 minutes initially and add this to your sauna routine. This could either be achieved by laying on your side, with the back of your head and neck in the folded section of the sauna bag, so that the sauna is in contact with your skull on three sides (e.g. the left side of your head is touching the bottom of the inside of the sauna bag, the right side of your head is touching to top of the inside of the sauna bag). You may need to use a few pillows or cushions under the sauna bag, to keep your neck in line with your spine. Lying like this is probably preferable to lying on your back, as in this case, your eyes (even with eyelids closed) may be subject to too much FIR stimulation. In many cases, there are a number of neurotoxins in the

brain itself, which is high in fatty tissue, and as such any FIR treatment on the head should be treated as a normal FIR session according to one's FIR sauna schedule. The throat also contains the thyroid gland, and the back of the neck below the skull contains two lymph nodes, and these are all good glands to detoxify with FIR. Although using the FIR blanket sauna is meant to stimulate the entire body indirectly, targetting the head specifically may well provide more detoxification from the head and neck specifically. The extent of penetration of the skull with FIR is another matter (which is why it is good to combine this type of therapy with phospholid therapy perhaps it could be determined by brain biopsy (joke!)) Try these alternative methods of usage out and experiment, to see what pattern of sauna usage suits you best. BlackSpy found that he tended to lose weight quickly (if not doing weight training regularly) when performing 2-3 FIR full body saunas per week. This did not appear to be the case when only performing FIR sauna treatments on his feet. You may well find that if, for example, you just use the FIR sauna on your feet (i.e. soles of feet) or other parts of the body (excluding the heart), then you may well be able to build up to much more than 45 minutes per day. For example, BlackSpy initially could only do 15 minutes on his feet, but after a 16 months of FIR sauna usage was able to do several hours a day on his feet, which would not have been possible for a whole body FIR sauna session (as the heart would probably not cope with it!) BlackSpy found that in the early stages, that the maximum duration of a whole body FIR sauna was roughly the same as the maximum duration of just his feet. Towards the end of his FIR detoxification programme, whilst BlackSpy respected the amount of FIR that the heart can take, he built up the duration of FIR on his feet up to 5-7 hours a day, when it became totally impractical, whereupon he moved onto other detoxification methods instead for a while (i.e. chelation or EM Stimulating Wrist Bands, etc.) BlackSpy would probably not recommend doing this excessive FIR duration with your head however! Experiment and find where your comfortable limits are. Use your common sense. back to top Light Beam Generator (LBG) LBG, also known as Oxygen-Assisted Photon Detoxification (OAPD), is a lymphatic detoxification therapy, using extremely low current, cold gas light photons to transfer energy frequency patterns to cells in the targeted lymphatic regions. Frequency modulation is accomplished using a sweep generator, which sweeps all frequencies from 0Hz

(through ELF waves, radio waves, microwaves) to visible light wave frequencies. In normal use, a high frequency is used (i.e. visible light frequency). The photons are pulsed at approximately 1 to 1.3 Hz. The photons pass through pressurised oxygen, which is claimed to impart 'oxygen's energetic signature' to the photons. The body utilises those frequencies that are needed. This sounds a little like pseudo-science (and homeopathy) but BlackSpy can confirm that OAPD really does work. For more information on electromagnetic radiation from cold sources - with frequencies of low visible light (not invisible frequencies such as FIR or below)- see the electromagnetic page. LBG is claimed to work by rebalancing the charge of the cells electromagnetic field in the lymphatic system, to separate them from each other and their accumulated fluids and waste protein structures (such as artificial hormones found in non-organic meat that accumulate in the body through meat consumption), thus removing blockages in the lymphatic system, improving lympathic circulation efficiency. Please see the Immune System Impairment page for more information on the lymphatic system. LBG/OAPD can also help to restore electromagnetic balance to cells, restoring any frequencies that may be deficient. The therapy is performed using a device known as Light Beam Generator, which normally has between 4 and 6 probes. The LBG device mst be primed with oxygen from an oxygen cylinder. The probes emit photons and are placed over the lymph nodes on the body, usually in symmetrical pairs (one of each side of the body). The probes can be laid on top of cotton underwear or a cotton shirt (with no print on it) for example, but more layers are probably not a good idea. A typical treatment lasts for 2 hours, and up to 2 treatments can be performed in one day, or 4 treatments on two consecutive days per week. If treatments are recommended for an individual, a minimum of 6 sessions is usual required, up to a maximum of perhaps 12 in extreme cases of lymphatic blockages or electromagnetic deficiencies. If you do intend to have a course of OAPD sessions, make sure that you target the right lymph nodes, especially if you have an enlarged ones (e.g. a back of the neck). BlackSpy noticed that adrenal function had significantly improved after 4 sessions to the point where fewer adrenal supplements were required (i.e. one might notice that one cannot sleep unless one reduces the dosage! One may want to review whether one needs to start taking adrenal supplements again further down in one's treatment programme however.) A good and targeted OAPD session feels a little like an acupuncture session, or being treated with negative ions. BlackSpy did however notice that OAPD did not really do much to reduce the size of a moderately swollen lymph node on

the right side of his neck, despite many sessions targeted specifically at the neck lymph nodes. Unlike FIR, the radiation does not heat the body, nor does the treatment release toxins from the tissues across the body to the extent that FIR does (FIR radiation is normally spread over the whole body, rather than targetted at the relevant lymph nodes for an individual). See the Immune System Deficiencies page for more information on the lympathic system. It is best to avoid an OAPD session the day after a PLX injection, as it may leave you feeling excessively tired and with a headache for 24 hours. And it is probably wise to avoid any FIR sauna treatments the day after an OAPD session or sessions.

www.lightbeamgenerator.com www.quackwatch.org/04ConsumerEducation/Nonrecorg/elf.html www.chironclinic.com/cc-pain.htm www.chironclinic.com/cc-beauty-detox.htm www.chironclinic.com/cc-detox.htm back to top LymphStar Pro LymphStar Pro by Alt Med Services is a type of light therapy device used to stimulate the lymphatic system and to break down physical blockages in it, by passing light through a gas prior to striking the body, in a similar way to LBG/OAPD (as described above). However, it differs in that it does not utilise oxygen, but 'ionised noble gas technology'. Noble gases are those elements that are those relatively unreactive gaseous elements with a complete outer electron shell. It utilises Xenon, Argon and Krypton in a properietary combination

within a Pyrex tube. These gases are electrically excited, causing an energy field, or plasma, to emit form the glass tube and onto the skin. The device is said to emit energetic "information" to the body via the harmonics of sound and frequencies of light to the energy field of the cell. The pattern of frequencies used is highly complex and designed to include the minimum of repetition, to provide the broadest spectrum of beneficial EM frequencies to the body. The method has been found to be effective in re-polarising the electrical charge of proteins in the lympathic fluid in order to break down blockages of such proteins where present and restore proper and healthy lymphatic circulation. The LymphStar Pro device is shown below. Alt Med Services also offer an ionising foot bath generation device called a Cygnus AquaCleanse.

www.lymphinfo.com/equip-lymphstar.htm www.wonderworkers.com/lymphstar.html back to top Lustre - Electro Lymphatic Drainage/Therapy (ELT) - Lustre is a light generation device created by a company called Lustre Tech. It is said to utilise cold-gas-ionization technology to produce negatively charged light photons (negative quanta charge). These light photons are set to a specific frequency and are able to penetrate up to 2

inches below the skin into the tissues. The negatively charged photons affect the flow of both blood and lymphatic fluid. Substance P, lactic acid, neurokinins and other substances are claimed to be released from the muscles which subsequently relax, relieving muscle tension and creating more space to allow fluids to flow more freely. It is also said to break congestion of red blood cells and waste protein materials that stick together on account of insufficient negative charge in the membranes of the red blood cells. The treatment is thus intended to restore cell membrane electrical charge. The design seems similar to LymphStar Pro, and it appears to work on the basis of passing light of specific frequencies through an ionised gas inside a 'wand'. Whether this is the same gas mix as LymphStar or not has not been declared by the manufacturer.

www.lustretech.com/product.php www.longevitytherapies.com/id4.html www.thewindsorclinic.co.uk/#/howdoeseltwork/4529844485 back to top Laser Energetic Detoxification (LED) LED therapy works on the basis of shining a laser light beam through a homeopathic substance (to be detoxified from the body) which then stimulates the body's ability to detoxify that particular substance. The type of substance that is an issue can be determined kinesiologically. This method is reputed to be successful for the detoxification of sulphur-based antibiotics, benzene, zylene, toluene, gasoline and pesticides, for example. It can also be used to stimulate the immune system to help assist in the elimination of bacterial infections, for example, lyme disease. Laser Energetic Detoxification (aka LED) should not be confused with Light Emitting Diode (LED)! Dr W. Lee Cowden, MD is a lecturer in a variety of disciplines including applied kinesiology (muscle testing) and has authored a number of books. He also developed the Laser Energetic Detoxification (LED) method. He is currently based in Chandler, near Phoenix, Arizona. He runs the Academy of Bio-Energetic and Integrative Medicine (ABEIM), which runs a variety of related seminars nationally as well as internationally. www.abeim.net/seminars.htm

www.nuchoice.com/about/cowden.shtml back to top Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) LLLT is used in conjunction with a variety of therapies such as acupuncture and physiotherapy for sports injury rehabilitation. LLLT can use a variety of frequencies depending on what the purpose of the treatment is. http://www.laser.nu/lllt/Faq1.htm back to top Other Electromagnetic Stimulation: We have examined above how electromagnetic radiation based therapies, such as FIR saunas, can play an extremely important part in a detoxification programme. There are other techniques for simulating the body's electromagnetic field. This include those magnetic products that stimulate the body's own electromagnetic field. These come in a variety of forms such as magnetic wrist bands, Teslar (pulsed) bracelets/watches, and unidirectional magnetic fields such as that found in a magnetic sleep pad. Whilst sounding rather strange, they can be very powerful detoxification tools, at least as powerful as FIR saunas. Detailed information on how such electromagnetic therapies work and detoxification tips is available on the Electromagnetic Therapies page. back to top Foot Detox Patches and Tourmaline: back to top Foot Detox Patches

Detoxification patches (applied to the foot) were developed by Japanese scientists and work on the principle of using reflexology points on the foot to detoxify varies organs or groups of organs or body parts. The patches are attached to the underside of each foot with an adhesive pad. They help to improve circulation and to remove toxins from the lympathic system. A patch is required on each foot and are usually positioned on the instep of the foot, although the position is varied according to where the most toxins are being drawn from (which corresponding organs). The patch absorbs moisure and may turn from a white colour to a brown or black colour after use. So you can actually see how much absorption is occurring, and when the process has been completed (in as far as the respective targetted organs releasing as many toxins as they are able/willing to into the lymphatic fluid using this method of stimulation). When detoxing is complete (with the patches) they no longer become damp and brown, but stay dry and white. The patch may be worn longways or sideways, but longways may provide the greatest coverage for the largest number of organs. The duration of usage varies from 6-12 hours (or until extremely damp) depending on the supplier's recommendations and they are usually worn at night, under a pair of socks. Patches are usually worn on successive nights until the patches no longer show any discolouration. Some users may find that

they cannot sleep very well whilst wearing the patches, so may elect to wear the patches during the daytime, in which case, additional microporous tape may (or may not) be required to hold the patch in place properly for the duration of its use (applied slightly loosely as to not constrict the foot during normal motion). In addition, if patches are worn during the day, then by the nature of the fact that the user is walking on them, depending on where the patch is placed, the contents of the patch may not remain completely evenly distributed within the patch itself, resulting in a slightly smaller surface area of the foot receiving treatment, and on occasion feeling 'lumpy' and uncomfortable. This will of course vary according to the patch manufacturer and the wearer's habits. The patches seem to increase Qi circulation somewhat which may be felt in the legs many hours after removing the patches and may help to raise one's energy levels slightly also. It is a good idea to clean the feet prior to use each day. It is also wise to wash the feet thoroughly after removing the patches for the day, and dispose of the patches hygienically. One may also consider exfoliating excessive dead skin etc if this has built up over time at the start of a detox foot patch regime. Using microporous tape to fix the patches onto the foot may only be necessary when worn on the heel in particular or sometimes on the ball of the foot, when being worn during the day. If the rate of absorption varies from day to day, you may find it useful to peel the patch up every few hours to have a 'peek' at how much has been absorbed, and taking them off and washing your feet once all white patches have disappeared from the middle of the patch and the 'goo' has started to come onto the edge of the adhesive pad. Two pictures of Champneyn (now Serenity)'s Detox Patches being prepared for use are shown below.

A picture of Champneys (now Serenity)' Detox Patches after use is shown below.

The ingredients of the patches varies, but may include wood vinegar (a distilled compound from tree sap), Tourmaline (a semi-precious stone - pictured below), Pearl Stone, Highly Purified Silica, Chitosan (extract from exoskeleton from lobster/crab/shrimp - usually only hundredths of a gram), Polyolic Alcohol, Starch, Mugwort Extract, etc.

The wood vinegar is dried and is a powerful absorbant. Tourmaline emits a warming, far infrared (FIR) radiation and negatively charged ions. These two ingredients appear to be common to most detox foot patches, however the amount and purity in each patch will of course vary according to supplier and brand. When the patch is placed in contact with the sole of the foot, the warming effect of the FIR radiation stimulates blood and lymphatic circulation, and also opens

up the pores on the skin (in contact with the patch), causing more perspiration. The lymph system beings to move toxins to the patches where the some of fluid is claimed to be absorbed. The negative ions stimulate the reflexology meridian points on the foot resulting in the targeted organs releasing stored toxins into the lymphatic system. The negative ions are also said to stimulate the production of serotonin. The body usually only transports a small quantity of toxins to the entire surface of the skin (via sweat) relative to those eliminated by the liver and kidneys. The excess lymphatic fluid is eliminated via sweat and absorbed by the detox foot patches. This fluid contains toxins. The brown or black colouration of the patches is a result of them absorbing liquid and it is the colour of the contents of the patch becoming damp. It is not necessarily indicative of the colour of the toxins. The toxins are likely invisible to the eye within the sweat. If you were to pour water onto a patch, it would likely go brown. However, the body tends not to release so much lymphatic fluid when the lymph is circulating properly and does not contain too many toxins. The organs also do not release more into the lymph once they are cleansed. Tourmaline is sometimes embedded into clothing or used in jewelry, to provide an energising effect from the negative ions released and absorbed by the body. This is discussed at the end of this section on foot detox patches. Beneficial effects of negative ions (as emitted by detox foot patches) are documented in a variety of research papers and studies. Negative ions seem to stimulate the nervous system and also may have an anti-oxidative effect. www.sleepgrounded.com/Electrons%20as%20antioxidants.pdf www.detoxfullbody.com/negative-ions.htm back to top Detox foot patches do seem to work very well indeed. BlackSpy has trialled a variety of different brands, and so far BlackSpy has found the Serenity (formerly branded by Champneys), Bodytox, Patch-It! and Detoku brands to be the most effective (probably in that order). They are not as powerful as using an FIR sauna by any means (in terms of FIR emission), but can be used as a beneficial accompaniment to a detox programme. There are many different types and brands, and some are very cheap indeed, and good for the money, but tend to have correspondingly less filling in each patch.

This may result in not enough absorptive capability and excess sweat and fluid leaking out of the patch and onto your socks. Bodytox offer 2 types of foot detox patches, 'Detox Foot Patches' and 'Detox Warm Patches'. The ingredients are slightly different in both, but they are both designed to emit FIR radiation and negative ions, and absorb excess lymph. The warm patches differ in that they are designed to stimulate circulation in the feet to assist in alleviating the symptoms of cold feet. However, whilst BlackSpy was quite happy with the Detox Foot Patches, he was less convinced by the Detox Warm Patches. The Detox Warm Patches perhaps worked too well, as they felt like he was wearing red chili peppers on his feet after 3-4 hours to the point where it almost became unbearable. This is a shame as the patches can take much longer to actually absorb as much lymph as they are able to, sometimes up to 12 hours. BlackSpy does not personally recommend the Detox Warm Patches. Certain brands of detox patch do no contain chitosan (i.e. are 'vegetarian'), for example, 7, Patch-It! or HealthyDirect Detox Patches. One is however not supposed to eat the patch (!), so whether it can really be called vegan or vegetarian is another matter; and some may view a lobster as a lower life form than a large mammal such as a cow that is used to make leather shoes worn by many people who do not eat beef. This is clearly a personal decision. Those with an allergy to shellfish are unlikely to have any adverse reaction (e.g. slight skin rash in the covered area on the foot) with detox patches that contain chitosan. Patch-It! detox patches are somewhat different to all the others BlackSpy has tried, in that they seem to stop working after 7 hours or when the patches are moist, whereas the other patches seem to keep going and get gooier and gooier until fluid starts to leak out of the sides etc. In addition, they do not produce a goo as such, but the absorbent filling merely becomes moist, its appearance not changing that markedly the more is absorbed, and so it is hard to determine just how much absorption has actually taken place and when they should be removed. BlackSpy's evaluation is subjective, and suggests that those who are interested in using them try a few different brands for themselves. BlackSpy has an associate who tried the same top brands and she believed that Serenity/Champneys patches were the best overall also. Additional patches can be worn on other areas of the body (not instead of on the feet) to generate heat and increase healing at injury sites. Please follow the manufacturers instructions. Detox patches are not to be worn over broken skin.

If one's feet become cold, then one may notice that the level of secretion of lymph from the body (i.e. the amount or rate at which the patches absorb) declines. If your feet are cold (in relative terms), then you may just wish to either warm your feet up by wearing more socks or simply wear the patches for longer each day. Similarly, secretion may be greater whilst awake rather than if worn whilst one is asleep, on account of greater circulation to the extremities and an increase in one's pulse and metabolic rate etc. As a general rule, patches should be worn until the 'goo' starts to leak out of the side and onto the adhesive pads, which may be 6-8 hours or may be shorter or longer. Over time, one will find that the rate of absorption of toxins into the patch (if repeatedly worn on the same place on the feet) slows down gradually, and if the position of the patches is changed, fast secretion may well resume again. When one has got to the point where hardly any toxins are released from anywhere on the sole of the feet, then one has finished detoxing using the patches. Wearing more than one pair of patches on your feet can be done, but is probably not advisable as it may over excite your nervous system, and cause problems for you when trying to get to sleep at night. The amount of toxins that the patches absorb may be increased if additional FIR treatments are used concurrently. For example, if FIR Sauna treatments are used, if a detox patch is worn on the same day, it will tend to absorb slightly more toxins and be much damper, but this of course depends on the individual. There is no reason why you cannot use an FIR sauna every other day and wear detox foot patches every day, until your detoxing is complete. Some manufacturers recommend 5 days on and 2 days off for detox foot patches. Others recommend every day use until all toxins are eliminated. This may take a few days or maybe a few years depending on the individual. For those with CFS or related conditions, it is likely to take at least a few months if not years using this method alone. BlackSpy highly recommends that people try a reputable brand of detox foot patches, as a brief trial at the minimum. You may find that when wearing detox patches on different parts of the feet, if you wear the patch close to your toes, then you may towards the end of the time you wear the patch that day that 'goo' may leak out of the sides of the patch and make the area around your toes moist. If worn in such a manner regularly, they may potentially encourage a condition like athlete's foot. You may thus wish to keep the patches sufficiently away from the toes during use, and stick to all the other areas of the foot for everyday use. You may find it useful to keep a daily record of detox patch usage,

and marking down each day that you wear a pair of patches. Alternatively, if you record the date when you first started wearing them, assuming that you use them every day, then this could suffice also. You may wish to keep a note of the part of the foot used and the number of days of patches on each area. Some research data on detox foot patches can be found at the web site below. http://www.detoxi.co.uk/research.htm The BodyTox, Patch-It! and Detoku brands of detox food patches have been medically approved by the FDA. Approximately 15 million detox food patches have been sold in the South East Asian market up to 2006. Most appear to be manufactured in South Korea. Some people might argue that foot detox patches are a big con, and that they simply absorb sweat and go brown, and there is little detoxification benefit nor evidence of actually detoxifying specific organs or parts of the body. Whilst detox patches do indeed become damp and go brown when they absorb sweat, lymph or even water, for some bizarre reason beyond BlackSpy's understanding, they only seem to absorb the lymph from the body part they have targetted. For example, if one places a detox patch on the sole of one's foot, and one has been using the patches on this part of the foot for some months, the patches will gradually absorb less and less toxins from the corresponding body parts and start to develop white/dry patches. However, if one is then the move the patch slightly, so that it covers an area corresponding to organs/areas that have not been detoxified before, then instead of the whole patch going brown, only that part of the patch corresponding to those organs actually goes brown. Presumably if all the patch was doing was absorbing lymph or sweat, then the whole patch would go brown. However, this is not the case. There are of course various other ways of quantifying the detoxification process, including blood tests, urine tests and hair analysis tests which can be conducted during the detoxification process to measure how much progress is actually being made. However, the reliability of such data is in question if one is engaging in multiple detoxification protocols simultaneously, as one cannot then assess individually which protocols are more effective than others. One could engage in one protocol at a time, but there is little benefit in dragging the process too much longer than is necessary. One has to use one's common sense. BlackSpy had been using foot detox patches pretty solidly for 2.5 years, between January 2007 until June 2009, using a total of 856

pairs! This equates to a total cost of 1835 if buying patches at a discount. He started off with 200 pairs of patches in the middle of the foot, and as the patches gradually absorbed less fluid from this area, he wore them alternate days on the ball of the foot and the heel of the foot. He wore them during the day as he found that he could not sleep after the first few hours of putting the patches on. Clearly this meant frequent foot washing; and also soiling many pairs of socks, which were more or less ok after washing each time. At the time of finishing, the detox patches were still absorbing fluid from each part of the foot, slightly less so from the middle of the foot. There was more absorption in the winter than the summer. BlackSpy could have continued but felt that he really couldn't be bothered. As to whether it is an effective detoxification method is hard to say, as he was during 2007 and 2008 detoxing heavily using other methods concurrently. As a detoxification method then BlackSpy would not rate it as the best method by any means. However, even after 2.5 years he still liked the negative ion emissions (and also the FIR emissions) from the Tourmaline in the foot patches, as this continued to stimulate his nervous system. However, this is certainly not the cheapest way to achieve this! And a number of chunky pieces of tourmaline jewelry could be purchased at a fraction of the cost. Whilst wearing jewelry has similar effects in certain respects, it does not work on the reflexology points on the foot like detox foot patches claim to do, does not absorb toxins in the same way (with the except of Ki Flow jewelry, and do not feel as intense as the foot patches. However, the jewelry can be worn around the clock if required, whereas the patches are only worn for 6-12 hours at a time, although the after effect of tingling on the soles of the feet may continue for may hours after the patches have been removed. Clearly each individual has different detoxification requirements and variable levels of detoxification efficiency, but BlackSpy does feel the manufacturers' claims are slightly exaggerated. So all in all, BlackSpy doesn't regret using the detox foot patches for so long, but will be focussing on other areas from now on. Tourmaline jewelry is discussed below. back to top Tourmaline Jewelry:

Tourmaline, one of the key ingredients of foot detox patches, is sometimes embedded into clothing or used in jewelry, to provide an energising effect from the negative ions released and absorbed by the body. It is an inexpensive mineral (crystal) and the main cost of beads is the actual manual labour than the raw material cost. The more finely polished and shaped the beads are, in general, the more expensive they are. Part of the cost is also how fancy the necklace is. Jewelry varies in terms of actual mass of tourmaline used. Tourmaline comes in a variety of colours, including black for a more manly look (!) There are other types of mineral than also emit negative ions, including Amethyst. You can purchase these minerals or crystals on a famous auction web site or at your local jewelry or 'crystal' store.

Ki Flow are manufacturers of tourmaline and zeolite jewelry, two minerals which ground up and mixed together produce approximately 8x more negative ions than tourmaline does on its own. They have some research to prove this on their web site. Rather than produce

intolerably powerful pieces of jewelry, they have elected to simply use a small amount of this mineral mixture instead, allowing the jewelry to be extremely lightweight. Of course, whilst pieces of Tourmaline can be strung together as a bracelet or necklace, such a Tourmaline/Zeolite mixture needs to be kept in a housing, and Ki Flow achieve this by using a Silicone rubber perforated tubing. The zeolite in the bracelet or necklace tends to absorb toxins over time and the bracelet becomes darker, and is normally discarded after up to 12 months of use (if worn daily). The clasps on the necklaces are magnetic which BlackSpy is not particularly enamoured with (albeit very weak magnets, but still unlikely to provide beneficial effects on your EM field - but the FIR and negative ion emission is likely to be the overriding effect). BlackSpy has tried a few different types of necklace, one with black tourmaline, and another with amethyst, sodalite, hematite and clear quartz. He found both to be beneficial, improving circulation and resulting in a tingling in his legs and the soles of his feet (not unlike wearing a foot detox patch). He did however find that when used in combination, e.g. wearing two necklaces together (i.e. in the same place), or wearing a foot detox patch on the ball of the foot (corresponding to the upper body), the amount of stimulation was too much and he felt slightly strange and could not sleep. Removing one piece of crystal containing jewelry or the foot patches caused this sensation and these symptoms to gradually subside. BlackSpy also found that when at the limits of detoxification capability (from chelation or phospholipid therapy - i.e. experiencing a headache etc.), adding a crystal necklace made the over-detoxification symptoms worse and they continued to intensify until the necklace was removed. With tourmaline or other crystal jewelry, depending on the number and size of stones on the piece, there is likely to be more of a detoxifying effect (negative ions and FIR) than there is with foot detox patches. This should be noted when wearing other EM field stimulating devices, such as Teslar or Magnetic Wrist bands, or when using FIR saunas, or when undergoing chelation as mentioned above. In terms of cost effectiveness, they are also much better value than foot detox patches, as it is a one off purchase, versus a regular purchase for foot detox patches, which can mount up to thousands of pounds if used daily for a number of years! One consideration for Foot Detox Patches vs Tourmaline or Amethyst Jewelry, other than cost and logistics, are the properties of the crystal over time. One can speculate as to why such crystals emit negative ions and FIR radiation, and according to the law of conservation of energy, cannot do so indefinitely. Whether this emission is therefore

'fuelled' in any way by absorbing light (radiation), heat or otherwise from the environment, BlackSpy cannot say. Some people believe that crystals need to be 'cleaned' every week ideally, by placing them outside on some soil, grass or rocks/stones (preferably not on concrete or tarmac etc.) overnight or for 24 hours. One can similarly immerse them in sea salt over night. This is said to 'clean' them by absorbing the energy that themselves have absorbed from the environment, in particular the wearer who is in close proximity to the jewelry on a regular basis. Some say this works on a similar basis to bio-energy healing, as discussed on the Energetic Therapies page, drawing out 'bad energy' from the body. By the same logic, it is considered by some to be useful to have large crystals around the house to 'absorb negative energy' and indeed when one has received a piece of crystal jewelry, one may want to 'wash' it prior to use as it may have absorbed 'energy' from the manufacturer's employees who have handled it. Whether you believe this to be true or not, and if it is one step too far into 'new age hocus pocus', you can try it and feel if it makes any difference or not. BlackSpy is not aware of any research into the FIR and Negative Ion emissions of crystals before and after such treatment and most people who believe in such ideas tend to accept it on faith and experience rather than subject the notion to scientific analysis. This is not a consideration for Foot Detox Patches which are disposed of each day. back to top Example of a Liver and Gallbladder Cleanse/Flush:

The example of a liver and gallbladder cleanse below is based broadly on that described by Andreas Moritz in his book 'From the Amazing Liver and Gallbladder Flush'. This has been included for information purposes only. There are many other types of liver and gallbladder cleanses and some may be equally as effective. Andreas Moritz has authored a number of other relevant books such as 'Timeless Secrets of Health and Rejuvenation'. For further information, please purchase the book. It is important to follow a gallbladder flush to the letter, and to ensure that you have all the required ingredients before starting. Failure to follow the procedure properly may result in becoming very nauseous or in the worst case scenario having to go to hospital to have gallstones surgically removed from your billiary tubes if they get stuck and are not flushed out properly.

It is important to first conduct a colon cleanse prior to starting the liver and gallbladder cleanse. The colon cleanse could take the form of a successful Psyllium and Bentonite Regime or it could take the form of a Colonic Hydrotherapy session (using filtered water and no anti-biotics).

For 5 days prior to the cleanse, follow an alkaline or vegan diet. Either drink a litre of preferably organic apple juice each day (on an empty stomach). Apples/apple juice contains malic acid (more than citric acid) which is the active ingredient in the preparatory phase. If you have/are suffering from candida/parasite/bad bacterial overgrowth, then do NOT drink apple juice, but instead take a malic acid supplement. Either a dedicated malic acid supplement or a supplement that happens to contain malic acid (for example, Nutri's Ultra Muscleze). 1-2g of Malic acid a day is equivalent to a litre of apple juice, make sure you are consuming at least 1-2g of Malic Acid a day in whatever form it may be. It will also help to eat a few apples a day as well, and they are good for you! Malic acid helps to soften the gallstones so they they can pass out of the biliary tubing (bile ducts) more easily when we do the actual cleanse.

After 5 days on the above regime, we come to day 6, the day of the cleanse. For breakfast, eat some hot oatmeal/porridge (just oats and water) if you are hungry. Maybe eat some apples if you are peckish mid-morning. For lunch, eat plain steamed vegetables with white, basmati rice, i.e. without any condiments, sauces, etc. Try to drink all the water you need for the day before lunch. Do not eat or drink anything after 2pm.

Prepare an epsom salts (magnesium sulphate crystals) solution. Take 4 tablespoons of Epsom salts and add to 24 fluid ounces of water. Stir until all salts have dissolved. Divide into four servings of 6 fluid ounces each. Drink the first serving at 6pm.

Drink the second serving of epsom salts solution at 8pm. If you are chronically deficient in magnesium, at least the first serving will help with your daily requirement.

The idea of the cleanse is to flush out your gallstones with the espom salt induced diarrhea, and so the intestines and bowels should be fairly empty to allow this to be unimpeded. Make sure you have had a bowel movement in the last 24 hours! If you have not, then your diet needs examining, but more importantly, you need to induce a bowel movement with a water enema. This is however an emergency measure, and should not be necessary for the vast majority of patients.

Just before 10pm, squeeze enough fruit (either lemons, oranges or grapefruit, preferably organic) to make 6 fluid ounces of juice. Add 4 fluid ounces of cold-pressed extra virgin olive oil and either stir or mix in a juicer/blender. Pour into a pint glass. [You may optionally want to try adding an inch of ginger root to the above mixture prior to blending/juicing, in order to help suppress feelings of nausea that you may perhaps experience later - BlackSpy has not tried this - it is a recommendation from Dr Richard Schulze.] Prepare yourself for bed! Now at 10pm, give the mixture in the pint glass a quick stir and drink. It doesn't taste that bad, so it should be easy enough to drink it all fairly quickly. If not, then try holding your nose. Go to bed immediately (you may want to quickly use some mouthwash first to remove the taste from your mouth and to stop rampant tooth decay during the night!) Lie immediately on your right side in the foetus position, with your knees pulled up towards your head. It's not great for your back, but lie as still as possible like this for 20 minutes. Then you can adopt your normal sleeping position, but it helps if you remain on your right side. You may feel nauseous or feel the need for a bowel movement during the night. Do what you have to do, but don't force anything. If you can't sleep, try not to worry to much about it.

At 6am the next morning, i.e. day 7, drink the third serving of the epsom salts solution. It may be practical to keep the third and fourth servings near the bedroom but in a safe location.

At 8am, drink the fourth serving of epsom salts solution.

10am onwards - you can start to eat and drink again now. Your stomach may be a little sensitive, so perhaps start on fruit juice, or go straight to fruit if you are comfortable with this, moving onto very light vegan/alkaline foods for the rest of the day. Don't plan on doing anything the rest of the day as you are likely to feel somewhat tired. For monday to friday workers, it may be best to co-ordinate the cleanse schedule so that day 6 is a saturday and day 7 is a sunday. [It is a good idea to drink a Milk Thistle tincture or other strong detoxification herbal tea as soon as you have finished the Liver/Gallbladder Flush, to help coat the liver cells and assist in digestive function and effective elimination through the digestive tract.] You may have diarrhea early morning or late morning, and this will mostly likely include very small, soft green chunks ('floaters'). They are not necessarily round, and vary from a few millimetres in diameter to perhaps a centimetre in diameter. These are gallstones/mineral deposits from the gallbladder. You have successfully removed them! Be sure to drink plenty of water that day as you will lose plenty of fluids in your diarrhea.

Perform a colon cleanse once the above liver/gallbladder cleanse has been completed, preferably within one to two days of passing the gallstones (e.g. day 8). This would be in form of a colonic hydrotherapy session (using filtered water and no anti-biotics), to help remove any accumulated toxins and gallstones in the colon.

It may not be possible to flush out all the gallstones/mineral deposits from the gallbladder in one go, so an additional gallbladder cleanse may be necessary. It is generally a good idea to leave 6 weeks between cleanses to allow the stones to build up a little, to create more pressure for when they are blasted out during the next cleanse. A gallbladder cleanse will most likely deplete your energy levels greatly, in addition to the colonic hydrotherapy which accompanies it. This procedure is likelyt to impact your energy levels in the short term. Repeated colonic hydrotherapy and/or gallbladder cleanses over a number of months (e.g. more than 2) are not recommended as it will likely greatly impact the CFS patient's energy levels. A point worth remembering is that those with an impaired digestive system, perhaps most people trying this cleanse, that betaine HCl capsules should be taken with the epsom salts solution (as it is alkaline and the amount of epsom salts is quite large). With such patients, betaine HCl (the dose you normally take with a meal) and digestive enzyme capsules should also be taken together with the cleansing mixture (fruit juice with olive oil). Otherwise the cleansing mixture has a tendency to remain in your stomach all night undigested and make you feel slightly nauseous during the early hours of the morning, which is highly unpleasant. If necessary, depending on how sensitive your stomach is and how little stomach acid you produce, you may want to take some additional betaine HCl and digestive enzymes during the night. You will know when you have taken too much by the sensation of heartburn. Suppliers of epsom salts and malic acid supplements can be found on the links page. Epsom salts can also be purchased at a dispensing chemist. Another Variant of the Gallbladder Flush can be found below. It is based on Dr Richard Schulze's method. BlackSpy has not personally tried this and cannot vouch for it. www.jonbarron.org/barron_reports/8-1-1999.php Dr Richard Schulze's Liver/Gallbladder and Kidney/Bladder cleanses, and indeed other Kidney/Bladder cleanses, are described in the Detoxification Diets section below. Another variant is the coffee enema. This is perhaps less fatiguing than the above, which involves the absorption of caffeine directly into the bloodstream, bypassing the filtering of the liver, to stimulate the liver from the outside, the increase the gallbladder's output. It may be accompanied by taking Calcium Magnesium Butyrate for a few days

beforehand, to provide the liver with enough calories to burn to function faster during the actual coffee enema. Butyrate is the produced in the colon by the fermentation of soluble fibre by good bacteria under normal circumstances. back to top Kidney Stone Elimination: Kidney stones are one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. Most kidney stones pass out of the body with any intervention. However some do not and require treatment. Some individuals may be more prone to developing/forming kidney stones for genetic reasons, but on the whole it is dependent on diet and a high 'oxalate' intake (e.g. chocolate, rhubarb, spinach, wheat germ, tea etc.) One of the most important things is to drink enough water so that one is drinking enough water and not consuming too high dissolved mineral concentrations (e.g. excessive supplementation) or consuming too much oxalate. www.kidney.niddk.nih.gov/Kudiseases/pubs/stonesadults/index.htm There are of course medical procedures for removing kidney stones, but what we are proposing here is to remove them naturally, using highly effective herbs, as a first point of call, before cutting up the body unnecessarily. A number of different methods for kidney flushes are described on CureZone.com. CureZone also describes two teas which help to dissolve kidney stones: - Melon seed tea - Celery seed tea These are produced from crushed seeds (in a mortar and pestle). For example, melon seeds can be taken from each melon you eat, and rinsed/cleaned, dried and stored; and crushed in a small mortar and pestle as and when you wish to prepare each cup of tea. Please note that melon seeds can be extremely difficult to crush - as BlackSpy found out - even with a heavy duty mortar and pestle. One can however purchase pre-crushed celery seeds, although this may be regarded as 'cheating' and the packet should no doubt be well sealed in between uses. BlackSpy personally finds crushed celery seed tea somewhat disgusting, but is isn't that big a deal! They are quite acidic though in a tea or tincture. BlackSpy has not tried all of the methods

for kidney flushes and dissolving kidney stones on CureZone.com and so cannot vouch for them as yet, but will update this section accordingly in the future. http://curezone.com/cleanse/kidney/default.asp According to Dr Richard Schulze, the key herbs used by Schulze that help to dissolve kidney stones are: - Hydrangea root / Hortensia root - Gravel root (Eupatorium purpureum) Hydrangea is actually a genus of 70-75 different individual species, rather than a particular species itself. One species commonly used is Hydrangea arborescens. Certain herbs, commonly used to dissolve Kidney Stones, such as Hydrangea Root and Gravel Root, also appear to have chelating qualities from BlackSpy's experience. Taking significant quantities of these herbs, in addition to one's normal chelation dosage of another chelant product or herb can result in over-detoxification symptoms. According to Schulze, a number of herbs and plant extracts may also help to help 'flush' the kidneys. Many of these herbs are simply diuretics to promote more urination and also anti-bacterial herbs. These are listed below. - Uva Ursi leaf - Arctostaphylos uva ursi - Juniper berries - Juniperus communis - Corn silk - Zea mays - Horsetail herb - Equisetum arvense - Burdock root and seed - Arctium lappa - Parsley leaf and root - Petroselinum crispum - Pipsissewa leaf - Chimaphilla umbellata tops - Goldenrod flower tops - Solidago virgaurea An example of a product containing all of the above herbs is Dr Schulze's Kidney/Bladder Formula). Please note that this herbal

tincture and tea is used as part of a Kidney Flush programme to ensure maximum benefit. However, the Hydrangea Root and Gravel root can of course be purchased separately as a dry herb or in tincture form, from a number of organic herb suppliers, and used not necessarily as part of a formal 'Kidney Flush programme'. Kidney/Bladder Formula Kidney/Bladder Tea Ojibway Tea herb powder (aka Essiac tea - after Rene Caisse who treated and cured cancer patients in the 1930s and 40s using it) contains Sheep Sorrel, Burdock Root (mentioned above), Slippery Elm and Turkey/Indian Rhubarb). Dr Joseph Mercola adds some additional herbs to the list for treating acute incidences of kidney stones. Most of these are diuretics: - Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) - Cleavers (Galium aparine) - Crampbark (Viburnum opulus) - Khella (Ammi visnagi) - Stone root (Collinsonia canadensis) - Seven barks (Hydrangea aborescens) http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2009/06/23/WhoKnew-Preventing-Kidney-Stones-was-This-Easy.aspx www.urologychannel.com/kidneystones/alternativetreatments.shtml Potassium Citrate is more frequently used to treat kidney stones. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_citrate back to top Skin Cleansing: back to top Bentonite Clay Bath Bentonite clay, whilst described above for internal use, can also be used for external use.

Bentonite clay can be used in the bath. This can help to absorb toxins present in the outermost layer of the skin. Remember that the skin is the largest organ of the body and is one of the body's natural pathways for detoxification. So, if you are undergoing a detoxification programme, it is useful to cleanse the skin of toxins on a regular basis. Gently heap 2 or 3 ounces (70-100g) of Bentonite Clay onto the top of the hot/warm bath water and wait for it to sink to the bottom (perhaps 5-10 minutes). Then mix thoroughly and bathe as usual. Your bath water will take on a slightly dark, milky appearance. This isn't that much more expensive than buying those bubble bath fizzy balls and is so much better for your skin! Make sure you shower down afterwards and rinse away all the clay residue from your bath tub. Please note that using bentonite in a bath requires considerably more than you would use in a P & B Shake and may exhaust your supply quickly. Probably the optimum length of time for a soak in a mild clay bath is 30-60 minutes. Make sure you rinse and wash yourself down thoroughly afterwards, as Bentonite clay may clog up the pores in your skin and prevent the skin from 'breathing'. Some people find that if they have such a bath too late in the evening (e.g. much after 6pm), then they are unable to get to sleep later that night. However, this may well vary from individual to individual. If one does not have a bath tub, one can try using a foot bath instead, although clearly the surface area of skin being cleansed is hugely less. back to top 'Mud' Pack An alternative to a clay bath is to apply a clay paste (mud pack) to the skin. Because the clay is much more concentrated when applied to the skin in this way than when in a bath, it may provide a great detoxification benefit. Take a bowl of filtered water and add enough clay chunks (an external clay is recommended, see below) so that the water level just covers all the chunks. Leave for a couple of hours and it is ready for use. You may find it a little cold to apply. You can make it using freshly boiled water instead, in which case you probably need slightly less water volume to make the right consistency paste, and by the time it has cooled down to luke warm it is ready for use and application. If you are using a fine internal clay, then sprinkle it on the top of the water and leave it to settle overnight. Rinse yourself off in the shower (so that your whole naked body is wet). Then take the bowl into the shower with you. Scoop up small amounts of thick clay at a time and apply to the skin. Cover your whole body, including your face, ears and scalp. If you are confident about your balance, you can

apply to the soles of your feet as well, although this may make things a little slippery, so proceed with caution and stand with a wide shoulder width stance. Once applied, stand in the shower for at least 20 minutes. During this period of standing you may find that certain parts of your body dry, in which case take a little more clay or water from the bowl and apply/rub in to those dry areas. Occasionally you can massage the clay around your body. You could try listening to some music or doing some breathing exercises if you get bored. Afterwards, rinse off with warm water using a massaging or rubbing action to make sure all the clay comes off. You may indeed make quite a mess in your shower cabinet, so taking a brush in there and using the shower to rinse/scrub it off the walls should only take 5 minutes or so. Don't trip over the glass bowl on your way out of the shower. Remember the clay pack in the shower does not have to be a solo activity and can be enjoyed with your husband, wife or partner. Remember, detoxification can be fun!! You may find that if you spent too long with a clay pack on or if you do it too late in the day, you may have trouble sleeping. Try it first thing in the morning and limiting the time initially and see how it goes. Whether it is the act of cleansing the skin and stimulating the body, or the negatively charged anions that stimulate the nervous system and adrenal glands (like other minerals like tourmaline or zeolite that emit negative ions), BlackSpy is not certain. There are a number of detoxifying clays available on the market, for example, Argiletz clays (montmorillonite or green clays). The purity of clays varies very greatly. The actual chemical composition also varies greatly also. Typically the cheaper clays are for external use only, and are of much lower purity than clays for internal use, and may contain grit and the occasional stone or rock! External clays often come in hard chunks, and do not have to be crushed prior to use. They can simply be placed into bath water or in a bowl of water (if being applied as a mud pack) to soak and crumble apart. Be sure to rinse off afterwards, as you may well get thick silt in your ears and eyes. Only certain clays of high purity are really optimal for internal use (i.e. eating/drinking), typically containing the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium in specific proportions. These come in the form of a very fine dry clay powder. You may elect to use a cheaper clay for external use and the more expensive bentonite (montmorillonite) clay for internal use. Having said that, when you have a clay bath you may require two to three times more of a cheaper, external clay compared to how much of a pure, internal clay. The cost for either type however is quite small in the grand scale of things. Suppliers of bentonite clay can be found on the links page.

back to top Skin Exfoliation

You may find it useful to use an exfoliating pad or glove (for example sisal natural fibre glove) to scrub the skin, whilst in the shower for example, which will help detoxing via the skin. Brush towards the heart. Continue to scrub a given area until it feels slightly sore (temporarily) or until it goes a little pink colour (whichever comes first). Start from the feet and work your way up the body - first scrub the soles of the feet, then the whole foot, the ankles, the calves, thighs, then stomach and buttocks, chest, then your back (strokes moving upwards and towards the heart. Go slightly easier on the breasts. The nipples don't require scrubbing and are more sensitive than the rest of the skin. Next scrub your arms, starting from your hands and working up to your shoulders (i.e. towards the heart). Finally, scrub the head, ears, throat and neck. Skin scrubbing/exfoliation is best performed with dry skin, as wet skin is more likely to stretch. A good rub down with a pair of exfoliating gloves is also a form of tip to toe massage. Perhaps have a wash and shower after the skin scrubbing exercise. Don't forget to rinse off your exfoliating pad or gloves after use. It is best to dedicate one set of exfoliating gloves or a scrubbing pad per person. You may not wish to do this every day, but maybe once or twice a week. Find a rhythm that suits you. Above is an example of a pair of abrasive, exfoliating gloves that BlackSpy picked up at his local Holland and Barrett store. You may want to clean the gloves periodically as they will become greasy and slightly smelly. Always dry out before use. back to top Skin Brushing An alternative to skin scrubbing as described above is gentle skin brushing. This is probably not particularly effective if at all at exfoliation, but is primarily a lymphatic circulation stimulating exercise. This can be performed with a gentle brush, with a long handle.

Natural fibres are preferable. As above, brush strokes should be performed towards the heart (to encourage it to pumped around). This can be performed up to twice a day and helps to stimulate your lymphatic system as well as help to remove excess dead skin. You may want to avoid the nipples as they can become quite sore if brushed daily (the same problem long distance runners sometimes have with their T-shirt or vest rubbing against their nipples repeatedly - very uncomfortable - cured by putting a plaster over each nipple!) There is no need to brush the face. Ideally, take a shower after skin brushing. www.naturalhealthtechniques.com/healingtechniques/Dry_Brushing_ Technique.htm back to top Himalayan Crystal Salt Bath Not strictly related to bentonite clay, but Himalayan Crystal Salt can be used in a bath to assist in detoxification of the skin through osmosis. 1 to 2lbs of the rock salt is placed into warm water, and once dissolved, one should bath in the water for 30 minutes maximum (using no soap or shampoo). Allow the skin to dry naturally and rest for 30-60 minutes afterwards. On account of the large amount of Himalayan Crystal Salt required, this is however MUCH more expensive than using bentonite or other clays as described above. For information relating to Skin Elasticity and the Fountain of Youth, please see that section on the Effects of Toxicity page. back to top MSM Bath According to William Rasmussen in his book 'Lead Detoxification Naturally', MSM can be used externally as well as internally. MSM baths can be used to assist in Lead detoxification, in place of using clays like Bentonite in the bath, or Bentonite or other clay packs on the body. MSM is not however able to bind with organic toxins like clays are. Rasmussen writes that MSM has such a strong affinity for Lead, and is able to penetrate into the pores and outer layer of skin where it may come into contact with lead-carrying blood and lymphatic fluid. Here it binds with Lead. Lead-bound MSM is unable to cross cellular membranes easily as the molecule is very large, so the

pathway for excretion from the skin is through sweating. This is why it is important to use quite hot water in the bath (or foot bath), to encourage sweating, or to at least take a hot shower afterwards to build up the sweating process again. Rasmussen discourages prolonged use of such a bath, when the temperature becomes too cool to allow sweating, as Lead-bound MSM may be trapped in the skin. Usually 20-30 minutes is optimal and after that it becomes counterproductive. One can get around this problem potentially if one wants longer in the bath or foot bath by adding more hot water. It is likely that some MSM is absorbed directly into the bloodstream and tissues with an MSM bath, and this may cause potentially adverse detoxification side effects in some individuals through heavy metal mobilisation (according to Andy Cutler, who opposes MSM supplementation. Rasmussen states that 2 tablespoons of MSM is sufficient for either a full bath or a foot bath. Rasmussen mentions using such a bath 2-3 times week. One example of a large capacity source of MSM is Jarrow Formula's MSM Sulfur Powder (1lb/454g also comes in 2.2lbs/1kg size), which is relatively inexpensive if obtained from the USA. Other sources of MSM include horse feed suppliers. Alternative sources of Sulphur-containing minerals can be used, instead of MSM, including sulphur mineral concentrates from natural sulphur springs (more expensive than using MSM). back to top Other Detoxification Methods: Below are described some other methods for detoxification, some of which BlackSpy has personally tried. They are listed for completeness, but in BlackSpy's experience and personal opinion are not of that great interest (in relative terms). They may not be as effective as the techniques mentioned above, in isolation, but may perhaps supplement the procedures described above. However, please feel free to come to your own conclusions. back to top Detoxification Diets: Whilst there are undoubtedly many variations of detoxification diets promoted in the media and in alternative health circles. Detoxification diets tend to be very slow and gentle - but not necessarily (e.g. consuming berries for detoxification purposes). They are probably best suited to individuals who have fully detoxed at least once during their

life, and so have a much smaller burden of toxins to eliminate. They are a good long term solution for periodic bodily detoxification, for those who have a commitment to alter their diets for greater health. One example of a detoxification diet is described in the Detoxx Manual, as described on the links page. As an emergency measure, the actual effectiveness of (most) detoxification diets is rather limited, and the process may take many years. In the case of CFS sufferers or those who are chronically ill because of toxicity problems, then taking one or more of the above mentioned detoxification supplements is essential. However, this is not to say that certain foods cannot be consumed in addition to one's detoxification programme, to aid in detoxification, such as raw garlic, etc. (see the body's natural mechanisms for detoxification above.) Ayurvedic detoxification diets seem to be more effective than most detoxification diets, as practitioners use the whole 'system' and compliment their detoxification diet with herbs such as Triphala, massages, meditation and enemas. To be effective, one cannot pick and choose a particular part of the programme, but must really embrace the entire system, which of course requires dedication. If you are interested in this approach, a qualified Ayurvedic practitioner may be able to advise you. Some severe detoxification programmes recommend a 100% 'juiced fruit/vegetable' diet for a period of 1-3 weeks. Such detox programmes are not only very taxing on the digestive system, as a pure raw food diet is often very hard to digest and has a very cold and damp energy, but it is also are conducive to severe weight loss (if not enough raw green vegetable juices are actually consumed which is not stressed enough by Anthony Robbins' seminar), and potentially nutrient depletion from the body. Some detoxification may occur, but at what cost? Tony Robbins' Unleash The Power Within seminar proposes such a detoxification regime, to be done a couple of times a year. BlackSpy's account of his experience with such a detox regime can be found on the Digestion page and also on the Cults page in the psychology section. When such methods are available as described in the rest of this page above, it is perhaps rather foolish to engage in such a severe dietary programme, especially so if one has had not consulted with

a proper dietician or GP. Juice fasting is discussed on the Mucoid Plaque page, as it is a strategy of many for mucoid plaque removal. Some approaches to Detoxification Diets, including that above, rely on reducing bodily fat (i.e. reduced calorific intake) and also targetting mucoid plaque with the high fibre intake. The idea of detoxifying by burning one's fat is based on the principle that most toxins are stored in the body's fat cells. This is indeed correct, but does not take into account the toxins that are stored in the brain - it is not possible to consume one's own brain whilst on a fasting type diet! And indeed one would not want to. The brain is predominantly made up of phospholipids and fatty acids and is a place where lipophilic toxins can attach and 'hide'. Indeed it is also not possible to 'burn up' the lipids that make up one's inter and intra-cellular membranes and those of the nervous system. Toxins can often to clog up cell membranes and no amount of dieting will get rid of these. It is possible some of the nutrients that are consumed in special diets can help in this respect, but many of the methods described above on this page are far more effective in this respect. Such detox diets cannot effectively remove many toxins from the brain and elsewhere in the space of 1-3 weeks. In addition, by burning up the body's fat, what also happens is that the body also consumes its own muscle, resulting in dramatic weight loss both in terms of bodily fat and muscle mass. Proponents of fasting and eliminating body fat often also promote exercise as a valuable detoxification tool. This is very true as it speeds up metabolism in general; and indeed any activity that promotes sweating as it is a good way of expelling toxins from the lymph. However, if combining cardiovascular exercise with a low calorific juicing type fast diet, then this could potentially increase the rate of starvation and selfconsumption that occurs in the body. Lipotropic compounds that improve fat metabolism in the body, or more specifically assist in the catalytic breakdown of fat in the liver. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipotropic Examples include phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl inositol as described above. L-lysine and betaine may also help, although there are no clinical studies in humans to suggest they are effective as far as BlackSpy is aware.

Betaine, also known as trimethylglycine (TMG), is derived from sugar beet. Betaine has many commercial uses for example as a homocysteine regulator and a restorer of the body's osmotic balance. It has many uses in agriculture in animal/fish food. TMG is a methyl-group donor and can be used to treat high homocysteine levels, turning it into methionine and itself into DMG (dimethylglycine). TMG is commonly used with the amino acid lysine in livestock to decrease fat and increase muscle mass, although this effect has not been observed in humans with TMG. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trimethylglycine One proponent of fasting and exercise for detoxification is Dr Vincent Bellonzi, who can be seen at youtube below.

BlackSpy himself did a fast eating/drinking just blended raw green vegetables and green soups for 7 days (as opposed to an actual juice fast, as he had not understood the difference at the time), and after this, he was extremely skinny, had lost many kilos of muscle also, and his face looked bony and gaunt and was compared with a 'concentration camp victim' by some of his friends. His error was to not take vegetable juice hourly but to have 3 or 4 blended green vegetable 'meals' a day. If one is doing such a detox, it is hard to tell that one is getting thinner as one loses one reference points easily. It is often only others that can tell at what point during such a cleanse that one should stop as one has become 'too thin'. BlackSpy felt great after his cleanse, but it was clearly very severe for the body, and if it is anything to go by, the results were temporary and he become extremely ill 6 months later. This is described on the other pages mentioned above and also on the About Us page. Such blended vegetable fasts, performed in this manner, are arguably mainly for the morbidly obese or cancer victims rather than the 'average person'. If the average persons them to such severity, they should only be performed for brief periods of time, and under observation (or simply performed more gradually and conservatively). A juice fast if performed properly with sufficient supplementation may not result in severe weight loss at all. It is recommended that a professional sees on every day in any case. Rather than simply locking oneself away and wasting away to a 'bean

pole'. It should also be considered that whilst the actual dietary intake during such a regime may be lighter on the liver, being low in fat, consuming and burning one's own fat will of course release all the toxins held in those fat and lipid compartments into the blood stream, overloading the liver as well as effectively starving the body. The techniques on this page are effective at removing toxins from all fat cells and lipid compartments, including the brain, without having to starve oneself and become unhealthily thin (with too low a ratio of fat to body mass). Having no fat remaining also allows newly introduced toxins nowhere to hide and may make one more susceptible to toxic overload.

Some natural medicine practitioners recommend a 'juice diet' detoxification procedure for severe medical cases, such as those with terminal cancer, with weeks to live. In such cases, any issues surrounding 'cold energy' may not be such a big deal as one is concerned with the short term and not the long term, and perhaps such an approach followed by the above detoxification protocols may be of benefit. Such fasts are not intended to go on that long in any case, so such

concerns are also perhaps not so critical. Dr Richard Schulze (picturely amusingly above) subscribes to this approach. He uses targeted herbal products in combination with a juice fast to achieve the cleansing of the liver and kidneys, for example. With his juice cleanse, he affirms the importance of drinking enough juiced fresh fruit and vegetables - approximately 8 Fluid Ounces per hour during the day! Clearly if you just eat/drink three juices per day, in place of meals, you will lose a catastrophic amount of weight. This type of cleanse is supposed to clear out the liver, colon, blood, fatty tissue (adipose) and organs. http://curezone.com/schulze/handbook/TNIP.asp http://www.herbdoc.com/p62.asp For less critically ill patients, but where the patient is still very poorly, Schultze recommends a purely raw food diet, rather than a juice cleanse, which is supposed to be a sustainable, long term diet. http://curezone.com/schulze www.herbdoc.com Dr Schulze's Liver and Gallbladder Cleanse is described below. The ingredients of his products are examined in the Herbs section above. http://curezone.com/schulze/herbal_5day_liver_cleanse.asp Click on 5-day Liver Detox Dr Schulze's Kidney and Bladder Cleanse is described below. The ingredients of his products are examined in the Herbs section above. http://curezone.com/schulze/herbal_5day_kidney_cleanse.a sp Click on 5-day Kidney Detox Dr Schulze features some introductory videos on his web site at the link below: www.herbdoc.com

You can order a free CD from Dr Schulze's web site at the link below. https://web2.herbdoc.com/index.php?option=com_content&t ask=view&id=212 A list of testimonials from patients of Dr Schulze can be found at the link below. https://web2.herbdoc.com/index.php?option=com_content&t ask=view&id=27&Itemid=106 A personal web site summarising many of Dr Schulze's methods and protocols can be found at the link below. http://healingtools.tripod.com/DS_pages.html This web site also contains links to Schulze's Herbal Therapies and Natural Healing Crusade videos. They are hosted on Germany's Google Video. http://healingtools.tripod.com/DS_pages.html#videos MP3 files of Curezone's Bob Mantz Jr interviews with Schulze can be found at the link below. http://home.comcast.net/~gnxfan/page2.html WhiteSpy has personally tried all of Dr Schulze's main cleanses, the Liver cleanse, the Kidney cleanse and the Bowel cleanse, and whilst all three cleanses seemed quite good, he still had issues in all three areas subsequently. So WhiteSpy remains slightly sceptical about the claims made by Dr Schulze with regards to his products in these areas; but without examining what issues were present before and after, an analytical review is not really possible at this stage. See the above Digestion page links regarding BlackSpy's view of the raw food diet. It should be noted that BlackSpy does not automatically dismiss all of Schultze's ideas, but tries to look at the pros and cons, and indeed shares some of his ideas (e.g. the idea of clearing the organs of elimination prior to a serious detoxification programme, e.g. a liver/gallbladder cleanse cited above; also ideas regarding supplement and herb quality, etc.) BlackSpy takes the view

that one should look at the individual on an 'individual basis' and not just apply a 'one size fits all' approach.

back to top Homeopathic Remedies for Detoxification: There are various homeopathic remedies for removal of heavy metals from lymph and tissues, which BlackSpy has limited personal experience of (and enjoyed little success with), but if homeopathy is your preference, then it is recommended to consult a qualified homeopathic practitioner to device a detoxification programme for you. General comments on homeopathy can be found on the Energetic Therapies page. Some practitioners regard homeopathy as a flawed approach to help to physically remove toxins from the body, although they believe there are other useful applications for it. www.chelationtherapyonline.com/anatomy/p150.htm back to top

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