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Physic Laboratory 6 Section: 4061

Introduction to the Lab: Measurement Lab # 1

RODNEY PUJADA Partners: .. ..... Performance Date : 08/31/2011, Submission Date: 09/07/2011 Professor: Miguel Angel Moreno, Ph.D.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction 1 2. Purpose . 2 3. Equipment .. 2 4. Procedure .. 2 4.1. 4.2 5. Dimensional measurement for the three objects. Calculate the density for the three objects

Formulas and Calculations

.. 3 5.1 Using the following formulas for each object. 5.2 Calculate the volume of the three objects: using the table No 2 5.3 Measure the mass for three objects using the double pan balance. 5.4 d Calculate the density for iron objects. A) Using the caliper and micrometer, and the mass from the calculation in part 6.2: 5,5, Calculate the Percentage of Error 5.6 Relative Error Estimate and Analysis

6.

Experimental Results

.,. 6 A) Using the caliper and micrometer, and the mass from the calculation in part 6.2: B) Using the caliper and micrometer, and graduated cylinder to measure the mass of the three objects: 7. Conclusions .. 6

1. Introduction Accurate measurement requires appropriate tools. When measuring a tabletop, for instance, one could use a meter stick to produce a suitable measurement. The meter stick has gradations small enough to attain a measurement to within millimeters. Therefore, one can make a measurement accurate to within a thousandth of a meter. This is good accuracy if the table is roughly a meter or longer. To measure a table top the most appropriate instrument would be: (a) a ruler (b) a micrometer, and (c) a vernier caliper By this reasoning one can see that measuring something like the thickness of a pencil with a meter stick would be inappropriate. Assuming a pencil is roughly 5 millimeters in diameter; one would want a tool that could give measurements accurate to a fraction of a millimeter. The vernier and micrometer calipers were developed to perform such measurements. The vernier caliper (figure 1) is a fairly simple measurement tool. It has two parts: a stem with the main scale (cm, mm, and inches) and the vernier, a secondary scale, which slides along the stem and allows for identification of fractions of the main scale. Each part of the caliper culminates in a jaw to grasp the item being measured. Ten vernier scale divisions fit within nine stem divisions (remember the stem is the fixed part), so each vernier division is 9/10 as long as a stem division. When the jaws of the caliper are closed, the first line of the vernier, the zero line, coincides with the zero line of the main scale. This means that the first division of the vernier is 0.1 mm from the first main scale division, the third division of the vernier is 0.3 mm away, etc. To make a measurement with the vernier caliper, the jaws must be tightly closed around an object. Wherever the zero line of the vernier falls indicates the number in the tenths place of the measurement. The next line on the vernier that aligns with the main scale indicates the hundredths place. (Refer to figure 2 for examples)

Figure No1 Micrometer caliper Another type of caliper is known as the micrometer caliper. Often times these calipers consist of a barrel and shaft. As the barrel is turn the caliper opens and

closes. Each turn is usually one-half of a millimeter. To measure with a caliper, close the caliper gently till it just closes (don't crank it closed). Make a reading, if the caliper is in good shape it will read zero. It is likely that it will not, read the zero value, you will either need to add or subtract this from your final measurement. After this reading is made, open the caliper and close it gently on the object you are measuring (don't crank it closed). The shaft will have millimeter and half millimeter marks, read over until you reach the thimble. Next you read the number on the thimble that is aligned with the laterial line on the shaft. Finally, we add this number together. If we examine the micrometer scale on in Figure 2, we see that the shaft reads 8.500mm and the thimble reads 0.269mm. The digit 9 is an estimation of the position of the line on the shaft between 0.260mm and 0.270mm. Now we add our two readings 8:500mm+0:269mm = 8:769mm. Since there is no Vernier scale we make a generous estimate of the uncertainty of the last digit, as 1/2 of the smallest division. x = 0:005mm. Now, we write our measurement as 8:769mm 0:005mm

Fig ure No2 2. Purpose: The purpose of this laboratory is to gain experience using the caliper and micrometer to measure length, width, height for the objects. We will do this laboratory by measuring the measures of a copper cylinder, one aluminum block, and steel sphere, using the equations for volume and density. Finally the experimental value of the density will be compares to the theoretical density of the three objects. 3. Equipment Caliper, micrometer, ruler, 100mL graduated cylinder, double pan balance, and distilled water. 4. Procedure a. Dimensional measurement for the three objects.

i. Measure three (3) objects using the vernier caliper and three (3) objects using the micrometer caliper. ii. Weight the three objects using the double pan balance. iii. Record the data b. Calculate the density for the three objects iv. Measure the volume from two objects (cylinder and sphere) using the 100 mL graduated cylinder. v. Record the data. 5. Formulas and Calculations 5.1 Using the following formulas for each object.

Table No 2 : Experimental Data using the caliper and micrometer

Objects

Diamete r
(cm) 1.25

Height
(cm) 5.07 3.58

Width
(cm)

Length
(cm)

Formula

Volum en
cm 6.222

Cylinder Block Sphere

0.64

3.80

V= H*W*L

8.707 8.479

2.530

5.2. Calculate the volume of the three objects: using the

table No 2
For cylinder: Data: height = 5.07 cm; Diameter= 1.25 cm using the caliper Formula volume: V= diameter * *height / 4 = (5.07 cm) * * 1.25 cm/ 6 =6.22 cm For block: Data: length = 3.80 cm; Height = 3.58 cm; Width= 0.64 cm using the caliper
2 2

Formula volume: V= length * Height * Width = 3.80 cm * 3.58 cm * 0.64

Objects
Cylinder Block Sphere diameter 5.3.

Volum en
cm 6.22 8.71 8.479

Mass
g 56.7 23.6 67.0

* / 6 = (2.530 cm)

* / 6 = 8.48 cm

cm= 8.70 cm For sphere: Data: Diameter = 2.530 cm using the micrometer Formula volume: V=

For cylinder: Data: mass = 56.7 g For block: Data: mass = 23.6 For sphere: Data: mass = 67.0

Measure the mass for three objects using the double pan balance.

Table No 3: Mass of three objects (g)

5.4. Calculate the density for iron objects A) Using the caliper and micrometer, and the mass from the calculation in part 6.2: Table No 4: Experimental data using micrometer and caliper with theorical density
From caliper and scale measurements

Objects
Cylinder Block Sphere

Volumen
cm 6.22 8.71 8.479

Ma ss
g 56.7 23.6 67.0

Densi ty
g/cm 9.11 2.71 7.90

Theorical Density

% Error 8.97 2.70 7.8 -1.59 -0.39 -1.31

g/mL Copper Aluminum Steel

For cylinder: Data: mass = 56.7 g.; volume = 6.22 cm Formula density : D= mass/ volume = 56.7 cm /6.22 cm = 9.11 g/mL For block: Data: mass = 23.6 g.; volume = 8.71 cm Formula density : D= mass/ volume = 23.6 cm / 8.71 cm = 2.71 g/mL For sphere: Data: mass = 67.0 g.; volume = 8.479 cm

Formula density : D= mass/ volume = 67.0 cm / 8.479 cm = 7.90 g/mL B) Using the caliper and micrometer, and graduated cylinder

to measure the mass of the three objects: Table No 5: Experimental data using micrometer and caliper and the mass from the graduated cylinder. Mass of the cylinder = 6.0 mL Mass of the sphere = 8.0 mL
From Graduated cylinder and scale measurements

Objects
Cylinder Block Sphere

Volume n
cm 6.0 8.0

Mass
g 56.7 23.6 67.0

Densit y
g/cm 9.45 8.38

Theorical Density

% Error 8.97 2.70 7.8 -5.35 -7.37

g/mL Copper Aluminum Steel

For cylinder: Data: mass = 56.7 g.; volume = 6.0 cm

Formula density : D= mass/ volume = 56.7 cm /6.0 cm For sphere: Data: mass = 67.0 g.; volume = 8.0 cm

= 9.45 g/mL = 8.38 g/mL

Formula density : D= mass/ volume = 67.0 cm / 8.0 cm

5.5. Calculate the Percentage of Error: A) For the table 4: For the cylinder of copper.

% Error = (Experimental Density - Accepted density) *100 / Accepted density % Error = (Experimental Density 8.97) *100 / 8.97 = % Error = ( 9.11 8.97) *100 / 8.97 = % Error = -1.59 %

B)

% Error = (Experimental Density - Accepted density) *100 / Accepted density % Error = (Experimental Density 7.8) *100 / 7.8 = % Error = ( 7.90 7.8) *100 / 7.8 = % Error = -1.31 %

For the table 4: For the sphere of steel

5.6. Relative Error Estimate and Analysis


A) Volume of the Block. Measure valued (MV) user a ruler to measure length, width, and height Accepted valued (AV) uses a Vernier caliper to measure length, width, and height. % error = (MV AV) *100 / AV

% error =

B) Volume of the cylinder. Measure valued (MV) user a vernier caliper to measure diameter Accepted valued (AV) uses a micrometer to measure diameter. % error = (MV AV) *100 / AV % error =

C) Volume of a sphere Measure valued (MV) user a vernier caliper to measure diameter Accepted valued (AV) uses a micrometer to measure diameter. % error = (MV AV) *100 / AV % error =

6. RESULT OF THE EXPERIMENT A) Using the caliper and micrometer, and the mass from the calculation in part 6.2: Table No 4: Experimental data using micrometer and caliper with theorical density
From caliper and scale measurements

Objects
Cylinder Block Sphere

Volumen
cm 6.22 8.71 8.479

Ma ss
g 56.7 23.6 67.0

Densi ty
g/cm 9.11 2.71 7.90

Theorical Density

% Error 8.97 2.70 7.8 -1.59 -0.39 -1.31

g/mL Copper Aluminum Steel

A) Using the caliper and micrometer, and graduated cylinder to measure the mass of the three objects: Table No 5: Experimental data using micrometer and caliper and the mass from the graduated cylinder.
From Graduated cylinder and scale measurements

Objects
Cylinder Block Sphere

Volume n
cm 6.0 8.0

Mass
g 56.7 23.6 67.0

Densit y
g/cm 9.45 8.38

Theorical Density

% Error 8.97 2.70 7.8 -5.35 -7.37

g/mL Copper Aluminum Steel

7. Conclusions When we compare the ruler and the caliper, we find the caliper is more accuracy than the ruler by approximately ten percent of analytical error. When we compare the caliper and the micrometer, we find the caliper is more accuracy than the ruler by approximately ten percent of analytical error. When we compare the density from the measurement from the caliper and micrometer versus the volume from the graduated cylinder we find more percent of error if we take the density of the graduated cylinder.