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961 _________________________________
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,

2009


.................................................................................................................3
I. ........................................................................................4
1. ....................................................6
5. .........................................9
III.
...................12
1. ..................................................12
2. ......................................................................13
3. .......................................13
IV. ............................................................17
1. ...............................................................................................17
2. ( )....................................................18
3. ........................................................................................22
4. ..........................................24
5. .....................................................24
IV. ..........26
1. () .............................................................................26
2. ( ).....................................................................27
3. () .........................................................28
4. .................31
5. ........................32
V.
. .33
................................................................................................................37




,

.

,

.
,

,
.

.

.
.
.

, .

,
.

I.

II

-220

III

4
(n)

.""

.""

P2(0), cos0
2

IV

IV

LK

P1(0), cos0

I
P, Q,
cos0

1.
.1

P,

cos
,
..

U,

Xd,
..

X'd,
..

X2,
..

1,
2

350

0.8

1.5

1.7

0.2
7

500

0,85

20

2.2

0.4

0.2
7
0.3
3
-

Tj,

S,

U,
%

U,

U,

400

12

10.5

231

630

20

115

630

121

230

12.
5
12

0,8 P;

L=275 ;

L /L =0.7
:
1. ,
.
2. :
E' =const X = X'd, U =const X = 0.
3. , Z = R + jX.
4.
X1 = 0,4 /.
:
X0 = 3.5 X1;
XM = 30.66 X1 (
).
4

5. U = 110 , cos0 = 0.97


.

II.


1.

2.

,
E'=const X = X'd.
I( )
.
S=1000 ;
U=
115 ; ;
I
U III = U
I

U 3
20
= 115
= 20
U 3
115

U IV = U
I

U 4
230
= 115
= 218.595
U 4
121

U II = U
IV

U 1
10.5
= 218.595
= 9.936
U 1
231

2.

X 12

1, 2
3

X 3

2
S
U 1 U
12 2312
1000
1
= 0.5

2 = 0.5

= 0.168;
100 S 1 U IV
100 400 218.5952

2
U 3 U
S
12.5 202 1000
3
=

2 =

= 0.198;
100 S 3 U III 100 630 202

2
S
U 4 U
12 2302
1000
4
X 4 =

2 =

= 0.211;
4
100 S 4 U IV 100 630 218.5952
P 12
350
=
= 437.5(
)
1,2 S
12 =
cos 12 0.8
2
U
S
10.52 1000
1
2 = 0.5 0.27

= 0.345;
S 1 U II
437.5 9.9362
500
=
= 588.235(
)
0.85

X 12 = 0.5 X d' 1
S
3 =

3
X 3

P 3
cos 3

2
U
S
202
1000
3
=X
2 = 0.4
2 = 0.68;
S 3 U III
588.235 20
'
d3

X = 0.5 X 1 L

S
1000
= 0.5 0.4 275
= 1.151;
2
U IV
218.5952

P10 = ( P 1 + P
2 ) 0.8 = (350 + 350) 0.8 = 560

P20 = P
;
3 0.8 = 500 0.8 = 400
Q10 = P10 tg 0 = 560 tg
arccos 0.97 = 140.349

Q20 = P20 tg 0 = 400 tg


arccos 0.97 = 100.249

j14.07
S = ( P10 + P20 ) + j (Q10 + Q20 ) = (560 + 400) + j (140.349 + 100.249) = 960 + j 240.599 = 989.691e

cos 0 =0.97 [1,c.10]


,
,
S * =

S 989.691e j14.07
=
= 0.99e j14.07 = 0.96 + j 0.241;
S
1000

P1(0) =

P10 560
=
= 0.56;
S 1000

Q 1(0) = 0.14;

P2(0) =

P20 400
=
= 0.4;
S 1000

Q 2(0) = 0.1;

U2
1102
(cos 0 + j sin 0 ) =
(0.97 + j sin arccos 0.97) = 11.859 + j
2.972( )
S
989.691
S
1000
: Z * = U 2 Z = 1152 (11.859 + j 2.972) = 0.897 + j 0.225
1
Z =

3.

E'1(0)

X1

X2

E'2(0)

Z
3. -
:
jX c1 = j ( X

12

+ X 12 + X + X 4 ) = j (0.345 + 0.168 + 1.151 + 0.211) = j1.874;

jX c2 = j ( X

+ X 3 ) = j (0.68 + 0.198) = j 0.878

Z11 = jX c1 +

Z jX c 2
(0.897 + j 0.225) j 0.878
= j1.874 +
= 0.342 + j 2.331 = 2.356e j 81.646 ;
Z + jX c 2
(0.897 + j 0.225) + j 0.878

11 = 900 110 = 900 81.646 0 = 8.3540 ;


Z jX c1
(0.897 + j 0.225) j1.874
Z 22 = jX c 2 +
= j 0.878 +
= 0.605 + j1.337 = 1.468e j 65.674 ;
Z + jX c1
(0.897 + j 0.225) + j1.874
22 = 900 220 = 900 65.674 0 = 24.3260 ;
jX jX c 2
j1.874 j 0.878
Z12 = jX c1 + jX c 2 + c1
= j1.874 + j 0.878 +
= 1.727 + j 3.18 = 3.623e j118.469 ;
Z
0.897 + j 0.225
12 = 900 120 = 900 118.469 0 = 28.4690 .
4.


:

Q X
P X

'
E1(0)
= U + 1(0) c1 + j 1(0) c1 = (1 + 0.14 1.874) + j 0.56 1.74 = 1.263 + j1.049 = 1.642e j39.723 ;
U
U


Q X

'
E2(0)
= U + 2(0) c 2
U

P2(0) X c 2

j
= (1 + 0.1 0.878) + j 0.4 0.878 = 1.088 + j 0.351 = 1.143e 17.897
;
+ j
U


12(0) = 1(0) 2(0) = 39.7230 17.8970 = 21.8260.


1 =
2 =

'2
1(0)

Z11
'2
2(0)

Z 22

sin 11 +

'
'
1(0)
2(0)

sin 22

Z12
'
'
1(0)
2(0)

Z12

sin(12 12 ) =

1.6422
1.642 1.143
sin 8.3540 +
sin(12 (28.4690 ));
2.356
3.623

sin(12 + 12 ) =

1.1432
1.642 1.143
sin 24.3260
sin(12 + (28.4690 ));
1.468
3.623

:
1.6422
1.642 1.143
sin 8.3540 +
sin(21.826 (28.4690 )) = 0.56;
2.356
3.623
2
1.143
1.642 1.143
2 =
sin 24.3260
sin(21.826 + (28.4690 )) = 42;
1.468
3.623
C P1 (12 ) = P10 ; P 2 (12 ) = P20 ;
1 =

,

P10 , P20 .


( ) =
( ) =

1 1(0)
1(0)

2 2(0)
2(0)

100%;
100%.

1 =
2 =

'2
1(0)

Z11

sin 11 +

'2
2(0)

'
'
1(0)
2(0)

sin 22

Z 22

Z12
'
'
1(0)
2(0)

Z12

1.6422
1.642 1.143
=
sin 8.3540 +
= 0.684;
2.356
3.623
=

1.1432
1.642 1.143
sin 24.3260
= 0.885;
1.468
3.623

0.684 0.56
100% = 22.224%;
0.56
0.885 0.4
=
100% = 121.27%.
0.4

( ) =
( )

,
(
20%, / () 8-10%), ..
, ,
.
, , .
5.

,
.
21 > 0 , 21 -
.
21 = 0
21 =

1 dP1
1 dP2

= 0;
TJ ( A) d 12 TJ ( ) d 12


tg 12 ( ) =

J ( , ) + 1
J ( , ) 1

tg12 , J ( , ) =

TJ ( A )
TJ ( )


:
TJA = 2 TJ 1
TJ = TJ 3
J =

S 1
437.5
= 2 8
=7 ;
S
1000

S 3
588.235
= 9
= 5.294 ;
S
1000

TJA
7
=
= 1.322;
TJ 5.294

1.322 + 1

1.322 1
= 85.6970

tgtg
12( ) =

'12( )

( 28.469) = 13.291;

''12( ) = 85.6970 + 1800 = 94.3030 ;

'
'

1( ) = 0.166 + 0.518 sin( 12( ) 12 ) = 0.166 + 0.518 sin( 85.697 ( 28.469)) = 0.269;
''
''

1( ) = 0.166 + 0.518 sin( 12( ) 12 ) = 0.166 + 0.518 sin(94.303 ( 28.469)) = 0.602;

'
'

2( ) = 0.367 0.518 sin( 12( ) + 12 ) = 0.367 0.518 sin( 85.697 + ( 28.469)) = 0.84;
''
''

2( ) = 0.367 0.518 sin( 12( ) + 1 2 ) = 0.367 0.518 sin(94.303 + ( 28.469)) = 0.106

'12 ( ) , ''12 ( ) - ,

.4

10



. ,
.
,
.

.
'
0
( ). 12 = 85.697
"
12
= 94.303 0 .

(21 > 0), ,
, . . .
b , ( 1
), dP1 / d12 = 0 dP2 / d12 < 0 ,
, a21 > 0 , ..
T j .
, 1, 2
, , dP1 / d12 < 0 dP2 / d12 = 0 . a21 < 0
T j .
,
T j1 T j 2 .
d , ( 2
), dP1 / d12 = 0 dP2 / d12 < 0 ,
, a21 > 0 , ..
T j .
, 1, 1
, , dP1 / d12 < 0 dP2 / d12 = 0 . a21 < 0
T j .

11

III.

,
.
1.
U1(0)

X
X 1,2

X3

X4

U2(0)

5.
X 12 = 0.168;
X = 1.151;
X 4 = 0.211;
X 3 = 0.198.

.
.

U=const X = 0. . 2 X, E'
U. .
U1(0)

X1

X2

U2(0)

Z
. 6

12

jX c1 = j ( X 12 + X + X 4 ) = j (0.168 + 1.151 + 0.211) = j1.529;


jX c 2 = jX T 3 = j 0.198;
Z = 0.897 + j 0.225;
Z11 = jX c1 +

Z jX c 2
(0.897 + j 0.225) j 0.198
= j1.529 +
= 0.036 + j1.711 = 1.711e j 88.798 ;
Z + jX c 2
(0.897 + j 0.225) + j 0.198

11 = 900 88.7980 = 1.2020 ;


Z jX c1
(0.897 + j 0.225) j1.529
Z 22 = jX c 2 +
= j 0.198 +
= 0.54 + j 0.671 = 0.861e j 51.136 ;
Z + jX c1
(0.897 + j 0.225) + j1.529
22 = 900 51.1360 = 38.8640.
jX jX c 2
j1.529 j 0.198
Z12 = jX c1 + jX c 2 + c1
= j1.529 + j 0.198 +
= 0.318 + j1.808 = 1.835e j 99.99 ;
Z
0.897 + j 0.225
12 = 900 120 = 900 99.99 0 = 9.990 .

Q X
P X
U 1(0) = U + 10 c1 + j 10 c1 = (1 + 0.14 1.529) + j 0.56 1.529 = 1.215 + j 0.856 = 1.486e j 35.1888 ;
U
U

U 2(0)

Q X
= U + 20 c 2
U

P20 X c 2
= (1 + 0.1 0.198) + j 0.4 0.198 = 1.02 + j 0.079 = 1.023e j 4.45 .
+ j
U


12(0) = 1(0) 2(0) = 35.1880 4.450 = 30.7380.

2.

1 =
2 =

U 2 1(0)
Z11
U 2 2(0)
Z 22

sin 11 +

U 1(0) U 2(0)

sin 22

Z12
U 1(0) U 2(0)
Z12

1.4862
1.486 1.023
sin(12 12 ) =
sin1.2020 +
sin(12 (9.990 ));
1.711
1.835
sin(12 + 12 ) =

1.0232
1.486 1.023
sin 38.8640
sin(12 + (9.990 ));
0.861
1.835

:
1.486 2
1.486 1.023
sin1.202 0 +
sin(30.738 (9.990 )) = 0.56;
1.711
1.835
1.0232
1.486 1.023
=
sin 38.8640
sin(30.738 + (9.990 )) = 0.46;
0.861
1.835

1 =
2

3.
J = 1.322 ,
1.322 + 1
tg12( ) =
ctg (9.99) = 40.938;
1.322 1
'12( ) = arctg (40.938) = 88.6
''12( ) = 88.6 0 + 180 0 = 91.4 0;

13

'
'

1( ) = 0.027 + 0.828 sin( 12( ) 12 ) = 0.027 + 0.828 sin( 88.6 (9.99)) = 0.773;
''
''

1( ) = 0.027 + 0.828 sin( 12( ) 12 ) = 0.027 + 0.828 sin(91.4 ( 9.99)) = 0.827;

'
'

2( ) = 0.762 0.828 sin( 12( ) + 12 ) = 0.762 0.828 sin(88.6 + ( 9.99)) = 1.588;


''
''

2( ) = 0.762 0.828 sin( 12( ) + 12 ) = 0.762 0.828 sin(91.4 + (9.99)) = 0.057


1 =
2 =

'2
1(0)

Z11
'2
2(0)

Z 22

sin 11 +

'
'
1(0)
2(0)

sin 22

Z12
'
'
1(0)
2(0)

Z12

= 0.027 + 0.828 = 0.855;


= 0.762 + 0.828 = 1.590;

0.855 0.56
100% = 52.678%;
0.56
1.59 0.4
=
100% = 297.5%.
0.4

( ) =
( )

>20% -
.

:

14

. 7

15

:

, ,

.
,
, :

, , ,
( 52.678 %,
297.5%),
.
'
0
( ). 12 = 88.6
"
12
= 95.027 0 .

(21 > 0), ,
, . . .
b , ( 1
), dP1 / d12 = 0 dP2 / d12 < 0 ,
, a21 > 0 , ..
T j .
, 1, 2
, , dP1 / d12 < 0 dP2 / d12 = 0 . a21 < 0
T j .
,
T j1 T j 2 .
d , ( 2
), dP1 / d12 = 0 dP2 / d12 < 0 ,
, a21 > 0 , ..
T j .
, 1, 1
, , dP1 / d12 < 0 dP2 / d12 = 0 . a21 < 0
T j .

16

IV.
,
.
"" ,
,

.
1.
""
(U = U = const, = const),
P0 = P1(0) 1, 2, 4 (.8
X
U
E'
X1,2
X4
X1,2
X
P0

).

.8
..
:
,
(
):
'
' = E1(0)
= 1.263 + j1.049 = 1.642e j39.723 ;

0 = 1(0) = 39.7230 ;
U c = U = 1;
X cI = X c1 = 1.874;
P0 = P1(0) = 0.56.


""
:

17

PI =

E ' U c
1.642 1
sin 0 =
sin 0 = 0.876sin 0 ;
X c (1)
1.874

P( I ) ( 0 ) = 0.876sin(39.7230 ) = 0.56;
P0 = 0.56; P( I ) ( 0 ) = P0 .

2. ( )
L ""
((1,1)), .

, ,

(. 9).
X
E'1(0)
U
X1,2
X4
X1,2
X'
X''
X(1,1)

.9.

X = 1.151 2 = 2.302;

L
= 2.516 0.7 = 1.611;
L
L
= X (1 ) = 2.151 (1 0.7) = 0.691;
L

X ' = X
X ''

X (1,1) =

X 2 X 0
X 2 + X 0


.

, .
(.10).

18

(2)

X1,2

X'

X4

X''
U2

.10

:
X1 =

X ' X
1.611 2.151
=
= 0.806;
'
''
X + X + X 1.611 + 0.691 + 2.151

X '' X
0.691 2.151
X2 = '
=
= 0.345;
''
X + X + X 1.611 + 0.691 + 2.151
X3 =

X ' X ''
1.611 0.691
=
= 0.242.
'
''
X + X + X 1.611 + 0.691 + 2.151

X(2)

X1,2

X1

X2

X4

X3
U2
.11


X (2)12 = 0.5 X 2 cos

2
U
S
10.52 1000
12
2 = 0.5 0.27 0.8
= 0.345;
P 12 U II
350 9.9362

X 2 =0.27 ( .1)
:
U2

X2

.12
19

X 2 =

( X (2)12 + X T 12 + X1 )( XT 4 + X 2 )
(0.345 + 0.168 + 0.806)(0.211 + 0.345)
+ X3 =
+ 0.242 = 0.633
(2)
( X 12 + X T 12 + X1 ) + ( X T 4 + X 2 )
(0.345 + 0.168 + 0.806) + (0.211 + 0.345)


,
,
,
(. 13).

X1,2

X0- X

X'

X'0- X' X''0-X''

X''

X4

U0
. 13 .
(
)
4 :
X 0 = 3.5 X = 3.5 2.302 = 8.057;
X0 = 3.5 X = 3.5 1.611 = 5.64;
X0 = 3.5 X = 3.5 0.691 = 2.417;

X = 3 0.66 X = 3 0.66 2.302 = 4.558;


X = 3 0.66 X = 3 0.66 1.611 = 3.191;
X = 3 0.66 X = 3 0.66 0.691 = 1.367.

X0

. , X0- X, X'0- X', X"0- X"


(
X0 = X'0 + X''0 X = X' + X''):
X1 =

(X 0 X )(X 0 X )

(8.057 4.558) (5.64 3.191)

= 1.225;
2 8.057 2 4.558
(8.057 4.558) (2.417 1.367)
X2 =
=
= 0.525;
2X 0 2X
2 8.057 2 4.558
(X X )(X0 X ) (5.64 3.191) (2.417 1.367)
X 3 = 0
=
= 0.367
2X 0 2X
2 8.057 2 4.558
2X 0 2X
(X 0 X )(X0 X )

20

X1,2

X'

X1

X2

X''

X4

X3
U0
. 14

:
X0 =
=

(X 1,2 + X + X1 ) (X 2 + X + X 4 )
+ X3 =
(X 1,2 + X + X1 ) + (X 2 + X + X 4 )

(0.168 + 3.191 + 1.225) (0.525 + 1.367 + 0.211)


(0.168 + 3.191 + 1.225) + (0.525 + 1.367 + 0.211)

U0

+ 0.367 = 1.809.

X0

. 15

, ,
.
X (1,1) =

X 2 X 0
0.633 1.809
=
= 0.469;
X 2 + X 0 0.633 + 1.809


E'1(0)
X1,2
X1,2

X1

X2

X4

X3
X(1,1)
.16

21

X1, X2, X3
,
:
X 1 = 0.806;

X 2 = 0.345;
X 3 = 0.242.

-
:
X II = ( X 12 + X 12 + X1 ) + ( X 2 + X 4 ) +

( X 12 + X 12 + X1 )( X 2 + X 4 )
=
X 3 + X (1,1)

= (0.345 + 0.168 + 0.806) + (0.345 + 0.211) +

(0.345 + 0.168 + 0.806) (0.345 + 0.211)


= 2.906
0242 + 0.469


PII =

E '1(0) U
X c ( II )

sin 0 =

1.642 1
sin 0 = 0.565sin 0 ;
2.906

3.
,

, ,
.
E1(0)'

X1,2

X1,2

2X

X4

.17
:
X cIII = X

12

+X

12

+X+X

= 0.345 + 0.168 + 2.302 + 0.211 = 3.025;


PIII =

E '1(0) U
X c ( III )

sin 1(0) =

1.642 1
sin 0 = 0.543sin 0 ;
3.025


PI = 0.876 sin 0 ;
PII = 0.565sin 0 ;
PIII = 0.543sin 0 ;

22

2
,
.
0
30
60
90
120
150
180

PI,
..
0.000
0.524
1.047
1.571
2.094
2.618
3.142

PII,
..
0.000
0.438
0.759
0.876
0.759
0.438
0.000

PIII,
..
0.000
0.283
0.489
0.565
0.489
0.283
0.000

.18 .

23

4.
,
.

,
:
s =

P0 ( )

+ PmIII cos PmII cos 0


1800
PmIII PmII

,

P
= arcsin 0
PmIII
P0
0.56
=
= 1.07 > 1
PmIII 0.522
P0

PmIII

= arcsin

.
5.
( )
t .
,
.
t=(0,020,05)
,
, .
t=0,05 (const ).
, const .
.
t 2
0.052
K = 18000
= 18000
= 6.429;
Tj(A)
7
Tj(A) = 7()
.
, .
P(0) = P10 Pm II sin 0 = 0.56 0.565 sin 39.723 = 0.213;
:
P
0.213
(1) = 0 + (1) = 0 + (0) = 39.723 + 6.429
= 40.408
2
2
24

t(1)= t(0)+ t=0+0.05=0.05 (c)


P
0.0.213
(1) = (0) = 6.429
= 0.685
2
2
. :

.
P(1) = P10 Pm II sin 1 = 0.56 0.543 sin 40.4080 = 0.208;
(2) = (1) + (2) = (1) + (
(1) P+ ) 40.408
(0.685+ 6.429+ 0.208) 42.43=
t(2)=
(1) =
t(1)+ t=0.05+0.05=0.1 (c)
3:

t,
,
,
P,

.. ..
..
0
39.723
1
0.05
40.408
0.685
0.208
2
0.10
42.430
2.022
0.194
3
0.15
45.697
3.267
0.171
4
0.20
50.066
4.369
0.144
5
0.25
55.358
5.292
0.133
6
0.30
61.379
6.021
0.083
7
0.35
67.936
6.557
0.057
8
0.40
74.857
6.922
0.036
9
0.45
82.010
7.152
0.022
10
0.50
89.306
7.296
0.017
11
0.55
96.711
7.406
0.021
12
0.60
104.25
7.539
0.034
13
0.65 112.006
7.756
0.057
14
0.70 120.826
8.120
0.090
15
0.75 128.826
8.700
0.137
16
0.80 138.407
9.581
0.200
17
0.85 149.271
10.864
0.283
18
0.90 161.952
12.680
0.392
19
0.95 177.151
15.169
0.533
20
1.00 195.776
18.626
0.708
21
1.05 218.951
23.175
0.901

25

. 19 = f(t).
IV.
,
,
, .

. ""
.

,
.
,
, :
t = 0.2;
t = 0.4.
1. ()

, .. ,

.
:
X I = X III = 3.025;


Q X

'
E1(0)
= U + 1(0) cI
U

P1(0) X cI

= (1 + 0.14 3.025) + j 0.56 3.025 = 1.4 + j1.77 = 2.258e j51.666 ;


+ j
U

,
:
26

PI =

E ' U c
2.258 1
sin 0 =
sin 0 = 0.714sin 0 ;
X c(I )
3.025

:
P1 ( ) = 0.714sin 51.6660 = 0.56

2. ( )
L ""
((1)).
() ,
,
.
E'1(0)

X1,2

X1,2

X''

X'

X4

X(1)
. 20
X(2)

X1,2

X'

X''

X4

U2
. 21
X 2 =

( X (2)12 + X 12 + X ' ) ( X '' + X 4 )


(0.345 + 0.168 + 1.611) (0.691 + 0.211)
=
= 0.633;
(2)
'
''
( X 12 + X 12 + X ) + ( X + X 4 ) (0.345 + 0.168 + 1.611) + (0.691 + 0.211)


-
:
X1,2
X4
X'(0)
X''(0)
U0

. 22
27

X 0 =

( X 12 + X ' (0) )( X 4 + X '' (0) )


( X 12 + X

'
(0)

) + ( X 4 + X

''
(0)

(0.168 + 5.64)(0.211 + 2.417)


= 1.809;
(0.168 + 5.64) + (0.211 + 2.417)

X (1) = X 2 + X 0 = 0.633 + 1.809 = 2.442;

:
X ( II ) = ( X 12 + X 12 + X ' ) + ( X 4 + X '' ) +

( X 12 + X 12 + X ' )( X 4 + X '' )
=
X (1)

= (0.345 + 0.168 + 1.611) + (0.211 + 0.691) +

(0.345 + 0.168 + 1.611)(0.211 + 0.691)


= 3.809;
2.442

:
PII =

E ' U c
2.36 1
sin =
sin = 0.567 sin ;
X II
4.163

P( II ) max = 0.567.

3. ()

(L(1)). ,
,
,

.
E'

X1,2

X1,2

X()

X4

. 23 ()
,
:
X 2 X0
X ()
.
=
X 2 + X 0

,

,
.

28

X21,2

X1,2

U2()

X4

. 24
.

X 2 = X

212

+ X1,2 + X + X4 = 0.345 + 0.168 + 2.302 + 0.211 = 3.025


,
,
,
.
X1,2

X0

U0()

X4

. 25

X 01,2
=X

+X

(0)

+X

= 0.168 + 8.057 + 0.211 = 8.436;

X (0) = 8.057


X ()
=

X 2 X0
3.025 8.057
=
= 2.227;
X 2 + X 0 3.025 + 8.057

X ( III ) = X 1,2 + X 1,2 + X( ) + X 4 + X = 0.345 + 0.168 + 2.227 + 0.211 +2.302 =5.252;


E U
2.258 1
PIII =
sin =
sin = 0.411sin ;
X (III)
5.252

PIII = 0.411.

PI = 0.714 sin 0 ;
PII = 0.567 sin ;
PIII = 0.411sin ;

29

,
.
0
30
60
90
120
150
180

P I,
..
0.000
0.357
0.618
0.714
0.618
0.357
0.000

4:
PII,
PIII,
..
..
0.000 0.000
0.284 0.206
0.491 0.356
0.567 0.411
0.491 0.356
0.284 0.206
0.000 0.000

. 26

30

4.
,
t = 0,05
, :
t 2
0.052
K = 18000
= 18000
= 6.429;
Tj(A)
7
jA "",

.

, . 0,
(. . t0 = 0)
() (I)
(II).
:
0 = 51.6660.
t
(),
. ,
t
II III.
.

(t = t0 + t = 0.2) (t
= t0 + t + t = 0.6). (t),

() .
.
,
, ( )

:
P(0) = P0 Pm II sin 0 = 0.56 0.567 sin 51.666 0 = 0.115;
P(0)

0.115
= 0.6850.
2
2
:
(1) = 0 + (1) = 51.6660 + 0.6850 = 52.350 ;
(1) = K

= 6.429

t (1) = t (0) + t = 0 + 0.05 = 0.05.


31

.

, ,
,
:
P(1) = P0 Pm II sin (1) = 0.56 0.567 sin52.35 0 = 0.111;
(2) = (1) + K P(1) = 0.685 + 6.429 0.111 =1.399 0.
( 2) = (1) + (2) = 52.350 + 1.399 0 = 53.749 0;
t (2) = t (1) + t = 0.05 + 0.05 = 0.1.
t = t .. t

.
.
= f (t ) , . ,


II III ..
. .
P =

P ' + P"
,
2
P " = P10 P1m ( III) sin ..

P = P10 P1m ( II) sin .. ;

.. P0> PmII .
.
'

5.
( )
:
:
F =

(P P
0

m ( II )

sin )d +

F<< F.

( P0 Pm ( III ) sin )d =

= P0 ( 0 ) + Pm ( II ) (cos cos 0 ) + P0 ( ) + Pm ( III ) (cos cos )

F.. =

( P0 Pm ( I ) sin )d = P0 ( )

+ Pm ( I ) (cos cos )
1800

32

V.


.
, .

.
X * = X

S
. ,
2
U

X ,
X * ,
.
( ), , ,
.

.

.

:
.
:
X1, 2

X4

. 27. .
:
X = X 1,2 + X + X 4 = 0.168 + 2.302 + 0.211 = 2.681

:
U = U +

Q1(0) X
U

P
+ 1(0)
j

= 1 + 0.14 2.681 + j0.56 2.681= 1.375+ j1.5= 2.036 e

j 47.51o

:
Pm =

U U 2.306 1
=
= 0.86.
X
2.681

Pm 20 %: Pm = 1.2 Pm = 1.2 0.86 = 1.032


Pm Pm X X U U'
33

U ' U

X =
Pm

Q X P X

(1), U' = U + 1(0) +1(0)

U U

(2)

(1) (2), :

( U' )

Q U' U
= U + 1(0)
U
Pm

P U' U

+1(0)

m P U

'
'

= 1+ 0.14 U + 0.56 U

1.032 1.032

:
0.6872U ' 2 0.2712 U ' 1 = 0
U' = 1.42; U' = 1.025 .
1

X (1):

U ' = 1.42

U' U 1.42 1
X =
=
= 1.376 ,
Pm
1.032

20 %,
X 2.681 1.376.

1,2

UH=const =UC

Xc

SH

. 28 .
= X X = 2.681 1.376 = 1.305
X = X C = 1.305

:
U 2
218.5952
X C = X

=
1.305
= 62.358
C
S
1000

:
=

1
1
=
= 5.104 105 = 51.04
100 62.358

2- 1.05-75-2.
Q= 75 , U= 1.05 .
, 1= P= P()= 0.86.
1 =

U c U '
sin ( )
X '

1 X '
0.86 1.376
=
= 0.833
'
U c U
11.42
= 56.4
U '2 U U c
1.422 1.42 1
Q1 = '
cos ( ) =

cos ( 56.4 ) = 0.894



'
1.376 1.376
sin ( ) =

34

S1 = P12 + Q12 = 0.862 + 0.8942 = 1.2

,
S
1.2
I1 = 1 =
= 0.845
U 1.42


I1( ) = I1 I
= 0.845

S
1000
= 0.845
= 2.232
3 U IV
3 218.595

U = X C I
1 = 62.358 2.232 = 139.183


n=

U ,

139.183
= 132.55
1.05

n= 134
:
C 216
'
C
= =
= 1.612
n 134

,
:
m=

C 51.04
=
= 31.66
C ' 1.612

m= 31
n= 134

m= 31

. 29

:
C
, =

m C 31 216
=
= 49.97
n
134


:
, =

1
1
=
= 63.7
100 41.97 106


:
, * =

, S
U

63.7 1000
= 1.333
218.5952

35

:
Pm =

U ' U
1.4 1
=
X
2.681 1.333


,*

= 1.038

Pm Pm
1.038 0.86
100% =
100% = 20.76%
Pm
0.86
:


20% .

36


1. :

100100, 100200, 210400
. :
- , 2004. 28
2. , . / .
. ; . . . . . : , 1979. 455 . : .
. .: . 449-450.
3. ..
: . . . . 4- ., . .
.: . ., 1985. 536 ., .

37

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