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Art and Globalization: Then and Now Author(s): Nol Carroll Reviewed work(s): Source: The Journal of Aesthetics

and Art Criticism, Vol. 65, No. 1, Special Issue: Global Theories of the Arts and Aesthetics (Winter, 2007), pp. 131-143 Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The American Society for Aesthetics Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4622217 . Accessed: 04/12/2011 07:17
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Art and Globalization: Then and Now



Thoughthere can be little doubtthatthe worldis becominga much"smaller place"in termsof the amountof time it takesto move information, people (includingbusinessexecutives,tourists,workers,academics, and,unfortunately, slaves),as well as goods,jobs,investment capital,fashions, corporations,services,and so forth aroundit, there is a legitimatecontroversyabout whetherthis condition deservesto be regardedas a new historical the epochin its ownright,namely, epochof globalization.For,on the one hand,the interconnectedlike ness,signaledby barbarisms "globality," as is, criticspointout, exaggerated enthusiasts, since by manypartsof the worldhave not been integrated into the pertinentglobal networks.For example, much of sub-Saharan Africa has not been. Thus, the presentepoch is not trulyglobal,if thatis supposed to implythat every part of the world is in livelycommerceandcontacton a relativelyequal footingwitheveryotherpartof the world.Rather, the currentstate of affairsis very uneven. on Furthermore, the otherhand,the historically mindedobservethatcapitalism, perhapsthe driving engine behind the globalizingtendencies of the present,has alwayshad worldwideambitions with respectto marketsand resources. on this So, view, globalizationis merely an advancedstage of capitalism-an admittedlyboth more extensive and intensiveversionof capitalism thanwhat came before, but not somethingutterlynew under the sun. Globalization, that is, is not a unique historicalmoment, though we in the West may be vain enough to regard our lifetimes as the dawningof a new age. After all, we have already done thisat leasttwicebeforein recentmemoryfirst with the Age of Aquarius and then with postmodernism.

Indeed, even before the emergence of capitalism,there was exchangebetween Europe and Asia, often through Istanbul, as well as between Rome and India,and, of course,among the Hellenisticempiresthatarosein the aftermath of Alexanderthe Great.The tradealong the Silk Route was longstanding.Hence, globalization is not especially recent; it is, arguably,a process with a probably immemoriallineage. The Mongol and Muslimconquestsput large partsof the world in contact. And, the age of Western colonialimperialism was, needless to say, a form of globalization, albeit lamentable in a great many respects.In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries,the introductionof new technologies of transportation-like the railroad, the automobile, and the airplane-and new technologies of communication-such as the telegraph, the the photograph, telephone,the movies,radio,TV, video, facsimile copying and transmission,and satellite delivery systems-must be regardedas ingredientsin a continuingprocess that today has been further accelerated with the advent and dissemination of digital processing and the Internet. But, again, this looks more like a differencein degree from the past ratherthan a differencein kind. In short,the phenomenonof globalization, understoodas a new phaseof worldhistory, dubiis ous becauseit is incomplete-regions of the world lie outside the global village-and, in any event, the process has been ongoing for centuries.'Although skeptics would agree that today we are witnessingmuch more of the same, they would stress dramatically that what needs to be underscored theoreticallyis that it-however we label it-is essentially"thesame." In thisarticle,whichfocuseson artin the global context, I want to suggestthat somethingnew is

132 transnainterconnected, evolving-an integrated, tional artworld-while, at the same time, advancing that hypothesisin a way that avoidsskeptical aboutglobalization. misgivings

GlobalTheoriesof the Arts and Aesthetics that fails stateside is able to recoup its losses At internationally. a visit in the fall of 2005 to a cin6plex in Porto, all the films save one were American.Moreover,the dissemination film is of not only by wayof traditional movie screens.CassettesandDVDs haveextendedthe livesof movies behind their first run, and the devices that play these mediaareeverywhere globally. Boot-legged video cassettesof Jurassic Park(StevenSpielberg, in 1993)wereavailable subwaystationsin Moscow the day beforethe filmwas releasedin the United States. However, the flow of mass art is not just one way. Many Americans,as well as audiences in othernations,havedevelopeda tastefor Japanese anime and martialarts films from Hong Kong. the HongKongcinemahasinfluenced styleof Holfromthe worksof Quentin lywoodmovies,ranging Tarantinoto the Wachowskibrothers.If certain elements of Americancrimefilms have been appropriatedby Hong Kong directors,ninjachoreographyis at home in Los Angeles, not only in movies but also in the dance moves on MTV.Inwe creasingly, areseeingthe emergenceof hybrid, art mass-motion-picture forms. The Westerntaste for different national cinemas is also illustratedby the existence of the film festivalin the Italiancity of Udine,whichadvertisesitself as "the world'slargestshowcaseof popularEast Asian cinema."4Reciprocatingattention, Japanmade the film The Last Samurai (EdwardZwick, 2003), a Tom Cruisevehicle of limitedsuccessin America,the blockbuster was it intendedto be. Indian films are screened in Africa, England, andeven the United States,often cateringto diaswhile also attracting substantial a poraaudiences, non-Indian clienteleas well;outsidePhiladelphia, in the suburb Cherry as well as in the Regal Hill of BarnPlazain Doylestown,there are theatersthat Indianfilmis bespecializein Bollywoodcinema.5 force to reckonwith worldcomingan industrial wide. And perhapsthis cinema,too, is startingto have an impacton Westernfilm producers; think of the musical numbers TimBurton's in 2005Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. Would they have



One areawherethe temptation heraldthe comto is ing of the age of globalization especiallyenticing is that of art and culture.People are eating McDonald's and Cokeevcheeseburgers drinking In Singapore there are more thanforty erywhere. But Starbucks.2 the trafficis not simplyone way. EvenAmericans beingexposedto an unpreceare dented rangeof cuisines.The differencebetween whatwas availablein the supermarket whenI was a youth in the 1950sand the varietyof items on the shelves today from differentethnic food cultures around the world is stunning.Even small American cities are likely to have at least one Asian market, which is not only there for the 6migre population,but is visited by the nativebornas well. Nor is the exchangemerelybetweenAmerican mass cultureand the rest. We have before us hybridphenomena diverseas "Thai as boxingbyMoroccangirlsin Amsterdam, Asian rapin London, Irish bagels, Chinese tacos and Mardi Gras Indians in the United States, and Mexicanschool girlsdressedin Greektogasdancingin the styleof IsidoreDuncan."3 Of course,the factorthatprobably accountsfor the virtually irresistible that impression manyof us have of a new epoch of globalization in a word, is, media.Communication acrossgreatdistanceshas neverbeenfaster,norhasthereeverbeen so much of it. Businesscultureneed neversleep. Financial and transactions deals 24/7 are becomingthe order of the day (and night). What is true of legal crimeand commerceis also true of international terrorism.It is the quantumleap in our commuI nicativeresources, believe,in additionto its conof sequencesforalmosteveryotherdimension culdifferent us ture,thatconvinces thata qualitatively level of globalization uponus.The idea of "one is world" feels right. just As in every other arena of culture, the arts and entertainments the beneficiariesof are the communications-media explosion. American movies make a large percentageof their profits overseas.Often, a film, or even a TV series,

even been there except for the exampleof Bollywood? And a Bollywoodsensibilityis also manifest in the Britishfilm Elizabeth(1998), directed as it was by the BombaydirectorShekharKapur. So far I have been alluding to mass movie culture. But the more artistically ambitious,

Carroll Art and Globalization: Then and Now


so-calledindependentfilm putativelyalternative, movementis also acquiringa global reach. One factorin thisprocessis the proliferation important to of filmfestivals.At present,according Kenneth "thereis barelya day wheresome filmfesTuran, tival is not being celebratedin some exotic city somewherein the world."6 Thoughsome of these festivals are devoted to popular cinema, more frequently they provide venues where foreignfilmmakers present can languageandindependent work that challengesthe routine productof the mass mediathat holds most of the movie screens in the world captive.7At their best, they offer in a "cosmopolitan," KwameAnthony Appiah's That sense,countercinema.8 is,theybringsophistito catedworkfromeverywhere seriousaudiences in searchof somethingdifferent. Moreover,these filmfestivalsare connectedto tourism,anothersalientaspectof our globalmoment. Especiallydue to the vast expansionof the of not possibilities airtransportation, only can art and artiststravel almost anywherein the urban worldwith ease; so can audiences.And one thing that attractsthem to a locale is a film festival. Undoubtedly,these festivalshave contributed to a shift in sophisticatedfilm taste. Whereas the cin6phile of the 1960s and early 1970s was preoccupiedwith Americanfilm and what came to be called the Art Cinema (which was mostly such as European),since the 1980s,connoisseurs, the late Serge Daney and JonathanRosenbaum, have been on the lookout for new developments in emergingnational cinemas such as Iran, TaiSouth Korea.9In short,taste wan, and, presently, in film, both high and low, has never been so cosmopolitan. Whatis trueof film,alsoappears haveat least to some relevance to TV. In Memphis,they watch
American Idol; in Mumbai, they watch Indian

ering of a range of hybrid forms.Furthermore, American television has been hospitable to Japanese shows, like Pokemon (Masamitsu Hidaka and KunihikoYuyama,1997-2002), YuGi-Oh(KazukiTakahashi, 1998-), andthe Hi-HiPuffy Ami Yumi Show (Sam Register, 2004), and

Idol. Mexicantelenovelasare popularin Ghana, while students from KwaZulu-Natalwatch the

American soap opera Days of Our Lives (Allan Chase, Ted Corday,and Irna Phillips,1965-).10

Dallas (David Jacobs,1978-2001),as of this writing, is still runningin Capetown. use Often,nationaltelevisionindustries Americanproductto startup theiroperation,fillingout their programming schedulewith Hollywooduntil there is enough indigenousproductto do the job. When the national industrydevelops, however, it still often uses Americanformats-such as the dramatic series-which resultsin the flow-

the influenceof Japaneseanimationcan be seen The on the cartoonchannelsstateside."1 Japanese productis so familiarto Americansthat a Pokemon figure can be satirizedin the toon Drawn Together(Dave Jeser and Matthew Silverstein, And 2004-) on the cablechannelComedyCentral. an American productioncompany has recently launchedan indigenousanim6program. that of It seemsveryappropriate the impression a globalart marketshouldbe encouraged film by andTV,sincethesetechnologies belongto the catmediathataremaking the egoryof communicative world"a smallerplace."Due to theirmechanical and electronicreproducibility, they are by their very nature able to defy distance.In that sense, they are, at least potentially, globalmedia.Morethe factthatthe basicsymbolsin thesemedia over, are pictures-the sort of symbolsthat requireno in special,priortraining orderto be recognizedunmeans that they have a level of accessibility matched competing printmedia.Thus,it should by come as no surprisethat these media span the world and are readilyable to penetratecultural boundaries. Of course,other media that have this capacity for electronicbordercrossingare auralrecording and broadcastradio. By means of transistorradios, cassetteplayers,Walkmans, CDs, iPods,and can the Internet,musicfromeverywhere be heard anywhere.Indeed, there are more differentaudio technologiestoday that facilitateencounters with more worldmusicthanever before,and this marketis cateredto by transnational musicindustries.12 Rap music has been embracedand producedby Muslimyouthsin Parisand, in fact, this banlieuerap was said to have stoked the Arab insurgencythroughoutFrance in 2005.13Popular Indian music is garneringa following across the globe becauseof its connectionto Bollywood cinema.The South KoreansingerRain (Ji-Hong Jung),who specializesin K-popmusic,is aboutto attemptto crackthe Americanmarketwitha tour; he is describedas a combinationof Usher,Justin Timberlake,and Michael Jackson,but his performanceintegratesdancinginflectedby martialarts movements from his own culture, yielding

134 yet another example of the sort transnational that hybridization at timesseems omnipresent.14 media are Because the mass communications so integral to the experience of the transnational urban world-because they appear to be everywhere-the impressionthat the arts have gone utterly global is hard to resist. Some discern a tendencytowardhomogenization they that lament,while othersfind it liberatingor, at least, However,there are reasonsto be caupromising. for tious here.Motionpictures, example,fromdiverse lands,includingthe United States,do manage to maketheirwayaroundthe world.However, The theydo not do so withequalsaturation. traffic in moviesandTV tendsto be regionalratherthan trulyglobal.Thatis,one does not findmoviesfrom on everywhere the same marquee. The reasonfor thisis obvious,since moviesand TV are not only movingpictures,but (since the third decade of the twentiethcentury) they are tends also talkingpictures. Thus,theirdistribution to be partitionedinto geolinguistic regions,dominatedby playerssuitedto the pertinentcultures. MexicoandBrazil,for example,arethe centersof massculturefor LatinAmerica; audiovisual Hong Kong and Taiwanfor much of Chinese-speaking Asia, though mainlandChinais also attempting to play in that market; Egyptis the centerfor the and Arab world;Indiafor the subcontinent for its In far flung diasporasfrom Africa to America.15 sub-Saharan Africa,Nigeriais emergingas an importantregionalproducerfor audiovisualmedia targetedto equatorialinterests.Suitablyenough, it is beingcalledNollywood.16 Admittedly, to some it has seemed that American productionshave dominatedthe airof waysof the emergingtelevisionindustries what wasonce calledthe thirdworld.However,thistypicallyonly occursin the earlierstages of the evolutionof these industries. Once indigenousprodthe uct becomesavailable, ratiochanges.It is true mediagithatthereare a numberof transnational ants that bestridethe worldlike colossi, but they favor reliance on local production.The American model of televisionas an entertainment predicated on attracting potentialconsumersto a relentlessbarrageof advertisements may be pervasive throughoutthe worldof television;but Hollywood does not dominate the moving picture world.17 In India, for example,the local motion still pictureindustry holdssway. So, on the one hand, art-even mass art-is not a single, unified global phenomenon. It is

GlobalTheoriesof the Arts and Aesthetics but transnational, regionalratherthanglobal,if by 'global'we mean to refer to somethinghomogenous in every cornerof the world.Furthermore, on the other hand, thoughwe may think of ourselves as immersedin a new era of artistic hybridization,a moment'sthought reveals that the arts-including those labeled "high"arts-have ferperenniallybeen susceptibleto cross-cultural tilization.Consider,briefly,the case of theatrical dance,for example.'18 on side Starting the Western of the ledger,much moderndance looked to the choreography early of otherculturesas a way to liberateandto distinguish itself fromthe dominanttraditionof ballet. The dances of other cultures,in short, were appropriatedas a markerof oppositionto whatwas perceivedto be the rulingformof Westerndance. Loi'eFuller,IsadoraDuncan,and Ruth St. Denis all attendedthe ParisExhibitionof 1900and saw, a in particularly the colonialpavilions, wide range of dancesfrom African,Near Eastern,and Asian cultures.This influencedall three artists,though the evidenceis perhapsmost strikingin the work of St. Denis, who staged her own "orientalized" versionsof Asia mythsin pieceslikeRadha.Denis' orientalismwas then furtherinspiredby the performances SadaYacco's of dances,which Japanese she saw in ConeyIslandin New York.19 Fuller'sart nouveau style also owed much to the passion for Japonisme that was sweeping Europe at the time, while MaryWigman'sWitch Dance uses musicreminiscent the Noh ensemof ble and exploits the frozen, stylized (mie) pose of Kabuki.20 Night Journey,MarthaGraham In herselfto whatshe called"Baliturns"and helped "Javanesefoot movements."Not only is Merce basedon ideasfrom Cunningham's choreography Zen-which Cunningham learned from John Dancesfor SoloistandComCage-but hisSixteen derivesfromtheoriesaboutthe nine of Three pany emotionsfoundin classicalIndianaespermanent thetics.In the 1970s,DeborahHay employedTai of ChiChuanin the construction hercircledances andSteve Paxtonwasinspiredby Aikidowhenhe inventedContactImprovisation. Perhapswhat is most ironic about the avanthybridization garde's reliance on choreographic as a means to separate itself from the ballet is that the ballet also has a long historyof turning to other culturesfor ideas. This is true not only of avant-gardeballets, includingthe orientalism and of Diaghilev'sproductionsof Scheherazade Le Dieu Bleu, as well as the Africanismsof the

Carroll Art and Globalization: Then and Now Ballet Suedoi's La Creation du Monde; it is also


evident throughoutthe historyof ballet. Russian the classicalballetfrequently incorporated dances as of the Other,oftenbeforeroyalty, if to celebrate the vast dominion of the czaristempire. Recall the characterdances by Coffee (putativelyArabian dancing)and Tea (Chinesedancing)in The Nutcracker, which, among other things,it is reasonableto speculate,expressedRussia'sdesireto dominatecentralAsia and the FarEast. of Petipa's1877 ballet La Bayadere, course,is while basedon anIndiantempledancer, ostensibly in the eighteenthcentury,Les indes Galanteshas sections set in Turkey,Peru, Persia, and North America;it is what LincolnKirsteincalls a ballet as geographique, indulging, it does,in orientalism, of the sauvagerie the New World, Chinoiserie. and is Indeed,Noverre'sballetFetesChinosises an endance tire spectaclecomprisedof non-European As theaterand ceremonialforms.21 earlyas 1605, therearereportsof Africanimagery-specifically Ethiopiannymphs-in the ballet The Masqueof

moment,in a gestureof exquisitehybreathtaking for the bridization, example, dancerWuZhengdan on essaysan arabesque pointe on the head of her husbandWei Baohua.22 In brief,interestingly enough, ballet and modern dance were becomingentrenchedin Asia at exactly the same time as they were establishing themselves in North America, with both continents adaptingthese traditionsin their own hybridizing ways. Thus,as this very hurriedreviewof dance history should indicate, the thought that there is specialaboutthe artof ourowntimesin something is termsof hybridization hardlycredible. Throughout the history of art we find that where there is culturalcontact between different traditions, poaching and outright assimilationhas been as likely as not.



We seem between a rock and a hard place. On

My point in citing all these examplesis not to of suggestthatthese Westernappropriations nonWesterndance have been done with genuine intercultural My understanding. pointis simplythat new.TheWestern dance is notsomething hybridity traditionhas, to a certainextent, been hybridalmost fromthe get-go. Thisis not only the case withthe Western tradition. In the firsttwo decadesof the twentiethcenballetandmoderndancebothmade tury,Western inroadsintoEastAsia.WhiteRussians, significant such as the Bolshoi dancer George Gontcharov, fled Russiaafterthe revolution foundeddance and schools in China and Japan. Similarly,Isadora Duncan and Denishawntouredthe FarEast and enlistedfollowersto the moderndancemovement. In the 1920sand 1930s,Japanesedancerswent to dance,a heritage Germanyto studyexpressionist that helped shape the Japanese modern dance movementof Butoh. MaoistChinatook on the traditionof the Russian ballet wholesalefrom its Soviet patronsand, by meansof it, producedtheirown versionof socialist realism.At present, a Chinese version of Swan Lake is on tour.Thoughthe basic idea derivesfromthe Western balletictradition, wayof by the choreographer Zhao Ming,the productionis for of noteworthy its unabashed incorporation the acrobatics the tradition Chineseopera.Inone of of

the one hand,we wantto say thatit is undenia ablethatwe haveentered neweraof globalizaand to tionbothin general withrespect art.But, on the otherhand, withjusta littlepressure, the in notionof globalization bothrespects appears in to comeapart. noteverynation theworld For, in is anequalpartner thisglobaldanceandeven that in enthoseparts areinvolved transnational are than terprises oftenmoreregionally engaged
The connected globally. worldis not as pervasively as is often imagined.Moreover,the tendencytowardcultural artistic and influence,and exchange, is even borrowings resultin hybridization not that somethingrecently arrivedwith the Internet.It has been happeningat varyingspeeds whenever civilizationsmeet. So, must we give up the idea

thatsomething changed? has

I do not think so. Something has changed, but the concept of globalization,construedas a is Hegelianzeitgeist, not a fruitful to articulate way the change.Rather than thinkingof the present essence that is refractedin its every dimension, we are betteradvisedto thinkon a smallergauge. relaFirst,let us think in terms of transnational ratherthan globalrelations,where it is untions, derstoodthattherearemanydifferent,often very unalike,kindsof transnational relations,and that these do not add up to a cohesiveglobalnetwork

in termsof a totality, governed an animating by

136 playingthe same tune in differentregisters.Undoubtedly,one reason we speak of globalization has to do with the vast multiplication actors of andsitesof exchangethanheretofore.23 there And are certainlymore transnational activitiesgoing on thaneverbefore,if onlybecausetherearemore nations,more people, and more ways to connect them.But thereis no reasonto supposethatthese fit into a neat packagethat can be labeled informativelywitha summary adagelike the Hegelian "In catchphrase, the ancientworld, one is free." We cannot say, for example,that "today,all are connectedin someineluctably globalway." Things are more fragmentary thanthat. theremaybe somethingunpreceNevertheless, dentedaboutsome of the fragments-some of the parts-that coexist in the present transnational moment.So ratherthanattemptto say something aboutthe globalconditionas a whole,we maytry to say somethingabout some of the forms taken relationsthat are startingto by the transnational evolve in new directions.24 That is, what is called globalizationmay begin to be parsedin terms of the increaseof the available modesof organization for the transnational of construction new versions of the kindsof culturalstructures that previously theirsocialfunctionsmore locally.Or, discharged in other words, the question is better posed as: Are any novel transnational institutionsor practices cominginto being?My own sense is that the I answerto this questionis yes. Specifically, think that an integrated, transnational institutionof art is assembling itself beforeour very eyes.25

GlobalTheoriesof the Arts and Aesthetics an integratedtransnational institution artor, at of set instituleast, an interlocking of transnational tions. One objectionto the existenceof somethingwe mightcall a globalinstitutionof art is that not everyone we are inclinedto call an artistbelongsto it. In Bali, there are traditional artistsengagedin thestatuesof godsandgoddessesthat reproducing populate the many Hindutemples on the island. Becausethe nativeclay fromthe local riverbedis soft, these statuesneed to be replacedeverythirty or forty years;they deteriorateso quickly.There is a wholecottageindustry devotedto thisproject. But no one supposesthat these artistsbelong to the sameartworld does JeffKoons,even though as they,too, are sculptors. but They are artists, they are not partof the internationalartworldthat stages biennalesrelentlessly and that stocksthose burgeoningmuseums of contemporaryart that are sproutingup with abandoneverywherein the urbanized world.Nor are the Balineseartistswho continueto maketraditionalfolk artfor sale to touristsparticipants in the ArtworldInternational. Nevertheless,this objection to the notion of that globalartdoes not reallytouchmyhypothesis thereis aborning international an institution art. of For,I wish to maintainno more than that this institutionis transnational not that it is global, and wherethatis assumed entailthateveryartistbeto longs to it. Not everyonewe are disposedto label an artistbelongs to this transnational institution. soIndeed,not everyonewho is an artist,properly called,is probablyeven admissiblein principleto this transnational institution. institutionof So the notion of a transnational art dodgesthe firstobjectionthat is generallylevHow does it fareagainst eled at globalhypotheses. the second type of objection-namely, that the type of transnationalinteractionwe see nowadays has been aroundfor at least centuries,if not longer.My responseis that what we are witnessing now differsfrom the past insofaras what we is like see emerging something a single,integrated, of transnainstitution art,organized cosmopolitan from tionallyin such a way that the participants, whereverthey hail, shareconvergingor overlapand pingtraditions practicesat the sametime that they exhibit and distributetheir art in internationally coordinatedvenues. And this, I submit, is somethingworth consideringas substantially unprecedented.

Who couldpossiblybe in a positionto pronounce upon the directionof art worldauthoritatively wide today?Althoughit is undoubtedly absurdly overreaching, given the sheer amountof work at issue, to pretend to be able to say anythinginformativeabout the present course of art internationally,perhapsI can state my claims somewhatless ridiculously framing themas tentative by falliblehyhypotheses-provisionalandcertainly potheses.I do not believethatI am on topof nearly I enoughdatato be certainof my conjectures; am not surewhois.But insofaras we need conjectures let to orientfutureresearch,if only critically, me, in the hope of advancing discussion, the speculate on my suspicionthat there is currentlyevolving

Carroll Art and Globalization: Then and Now


To appreciatewhat is new about the emerging internationalinstitutionof art, we need to conart trastbrieflythe modalitiesof transnational exchangesin the pastand those of the present-that is, we need to thinkaboutarton the international stage then and now. and haveperennially crossedcultural Artworks thenas plunder. if ethnicboundaries, not as barter, In the 1460sand 1470s-that is to say,in the earliest stages of capitalism-cultural exchangebeArtists tween the East and the Westabounded.26 such as Gentile Bellini and Costanzoda Ferrara to wereloanedby VeniceandNaples,respectively, MehmetII after his conquestof Constantinople. Both subsequentlyreturnedto the West, bringthat ing with them imageryand iconography they encounteredin the Near East.27 The motifs imin portedby artistslike these appearedfrequently For artworks. instance,the carpetpicEuropean of turedin HansHolbein'sTheAmbassadors 1533 is of Ottomanprovenance.28 However,the specific artistswho influencedBellini and Costanzodid not therebybecome part of the Westernlineage; they were not, for example,cited by the likes of Vasari. Chinawasinvolvedin a livelytradein porcelain in longbeforeEuropebecameinterested theseartworks.Between 800 and 1450,Chineseporcelain was a valuableexportitem in marketsas farflung as Japan,SoutheastAsia, the Middle East, and Egypt.Indeed, Chineseporcelainis first thought to havearrived EuropeviaNorthAfrica.By the in seventeenth century,these artifactswere highly prizedin Europeas well,wherethe demandeventually resulted in the incorporationof Western themes.29 The tradein Asian luxuryitems,encompassing metalwork,furniture,and textiles,includingtextiles fromIndia-useful art,butartnonethelessbecame increasingly heavy from the seventeenth onward.Withthe rise of the bourgeoisie century and the coincidentrefinementof Europeantaste, Asian wares were often the objectsof their aestheticgratification. and Likewise,paintings sculptures traveled Westward.What is noteworthy about this exchangefrom our contemporary perthese spectiveis thatwhileEuropeans appreciated artifactsand collected them, neither the works nor the masterswho producedthem were incorporated into European art narrativesor artistic canons.The narratives canonsremainedstuband bornlyparochial.

A EuropeanmightcollectChineseporcelainor or, drawings, forthatmatter,later,pre-Colombian art, but these collectiblesand the artistswho created them did not enter the "big story"of art as it was told in the West. That narrativeand that canon remainedresolutelylocal, as did the narrativesandcanonsof the variouslineagesof nonart Western Non-Western couldenterthe story art. of art as an outside or externalinfluence,but no artistwastreatedasa full-fledged citnon-Western artworld izen of the Western and,to a largeextent, vice versa.A parallelphenomenonis also observable in music,where composerssuch as Mozart themeswithoutanyTurkish comadaptedTurkish posers therebyfiguringinternallyin the Western lineage. The various traditions,though open to localorreoutsideinfluence, wereeachessentially gional.Therewere multipleartistichistoriesthat, though sometimes tangent, were nevertheless discrete. As is well known,the Japanesecoloredwoodcuts of the Ukiyo-e School of the seventeenth throughnineteenthcenturieshad a visible influence on Seurat,Manet,Van Gogh, Lautrec,and Whistler,but even though that influence is acknowledgedin Westernart histories,the masters of the Ukiyo-e School are not included in the same genealogy as Westernartists.Thoughhaving a causal impacton that tradition,they were conceivedto be as externalto it. Likewise,the influenceof Africantribalart on Picasso'sinventionof Cubismis widelyacknowledged. But it is an outside influenceon developmentsinternal theWestern to no artworld; African traditions were therebyregardedas partand paras cel of the storyof art,or modernism, told from the perspectiveof the West or the Westerninsider. African art is not portrayedas one of the art-historical tributaries flowinginto modernart. No Africanartisthas a place in the story equivalent to that of Manet. That is, the historiansof the Westerntradition do not,for example, as trackmodernism following fromAfricanartin the wayin whichwe traceCubism as evolving from C6zanne.ThoughPicasso was influencedby Africanart,thereis no African artistor even Africanart formationin his lineage in the way that C6zanneis. Rather,we presume that we are dealingwith at least two distinctartworldshere. Asian aestheticsfigures in the narSimilarly, ratives that we tell of Ezra Pound and poetic

138 modernism in our accountsof BertoltBrecht and and the evolutionof theatricalalienationeffects. Butwe thinkof theseAsianinfluencesas opportunitiescertainWesternartistsexploitedin orderto makecertainmoveswithinthe Westernartworld. The relevantaesthetic strategieswere approprivarioustraditional ated in order to short-circuit Western Theycouldfunctionas counapproaches. However,as counterstrategies, they terstrategies. do not havestandingin theirown right,on the bain sis of theirown artisticidentity, the Westernart in narratives whichthey appear. Thus, this sort of artistic exchange, though transnational,is not part and parcel of a unibut fied artworld, occursacrossdifferentartworld institutions,such as Japanesetheater and European theater.Alien aesthetic discourses,as drawereused to markopposigoonedby Westerners, tion to prevailing normsin the indigenousnorthern Atlanticpractice. Alternativeaestheticswere, in suchcases,manipulated ratherthanintegrated; they are deployed for tacticaladvantagesrather to than being contributions a mutuallyreciprocal conversation. However,it does now seem to be the case that the variousnationaland regionalcentersof serito ous or ambitiousfine artare beginning be fashioned into a singleworld-a unified,transnational of institution art.Someevidencefor thisis the proof liferationof biennales, which,on a conservative estimate,there are more than fifty;it is said that there is now a biennalesomewhereon the average of everytwo weeks.30Likefilmfestivals,these on are extravaganzas partlypredicated athigh-art international but they also functourism, tracting tion to assemble a large numberof artistsfrom differentgeographical regionsand culturalbackgroundsandthusto showcase,especiallyforcurators, a wide rangeof work that can, in turn,feed museumand gallerysysinto the ever-expanding Artistssuchas ShirinNeshatand temsworldwide. WilliamKentridge,for example,came to prominence throughthis network. Moreover,this institutionalnetwork has also in a constituted readjustment the balanceof power in the artworld. JamesMeyernotes: As it's who the Within newdispensation, thecurators travel of who who themost, see thegreatest range work, have whoseacthe senseof practice; curators the broadest
tivity (exhibition)is closest to the practiceand has the

GlobalTheoriesof the Arts and Aesthetics

criticismis so enervated... [T]hevitalityof criticalde-

bateappears haveshifted, leastfornow, to at from discourseto curation. who [I]t'sthe curator is mostinwho able what's formed, is most to articulate interesting
andimportant artpractice.31 in

critics on why todaywonder greatest impact it. Many

Given the enhancedpossibilitiesof communication and transportation, these curatorsprovide a constantchannelof information flows from that to large-scaleexhibitions, museumsand galleries, and then back again.The faxes,e-mails,and telephone lines are always vibratingwith art news and art deals.Video cassettesand DVDs of work are constantlyorbitingthe planet. There is without a doubtat presentan interconnected, international art circuitryregulatedby curatorsbidding nomadicartistshitherand yon in searchof recognitionand frequent-flyer miles. this netFurthermore, is not just a distribution work. It has developed something like its own preferredidioms.A commonreactionthat many have during a visit to quite a few biennales and other large-scaletransnational exhibitionsis: Where is the paintingand the sculpture?These shows tend to be dominatedby video, film, photography,installationpieces (often multimedia in nature), conceptualart, and performanceart (often recordedby meansof some movingpicture medium).32 VeniceBiennale, Forexample,at the Fifty-First not one of the Chineseartistsrepresentedexhibited a painting.Of the artistsfrom the People's Republicof China,Jun Yang showed a video installationtitled Hero-This is We, Chen ChiehXu Jen offereda slow-motionfilm calledFactory, Zhen projectedDVD segments on the oil tanks in the Arsenale,LiuWeihad an installationpiece comprisedof a batteryof flashinglightstriggered by motion detectors,Wang Qiheng presented a DVD of himself discussingfengshui, Sun Yuan and Peng Yu offered a performance piece called FarmerDu Wenda's Flying Saucer that they atand tempted to launch unsuccessfully, Yung-Ho Changcreateda massiveenvironment. Likewise,the Taiwaneseeschewed traditional Tsui Kuang-Yu andI-Chen paintingandsculpture: Kuo servedup videos,Chung-LiKao presenteda looped animationcum projector,and Hsin-I Eva Lin profferedan interactiveInternetinstallation. and Chan Hong Kong's anothermountainman Yuk-keung both presented installation pieces, while Singapore's Lim Tzay Chuan unveiled

Carroll Art and Globalization: Thenand Now a piece of conceptualart-a bathroomdesigned to show that art is useful.33 The South KoreanartistYeondooJung'spiece a was Bewitched, slide projectionnamedafterthe 1960sTV showin whichhe askedpeople to imagine their future,which he then staged and photographed.34 MarciaVetrocq'soverallimpressionof the recent Venice Biennale was that "[f]romfull-room videoemerges installations individual to monitors, as a dominantmediumin both sectionsof the international show."35 Similarobservations may be made of other influential scopic exhibitions.Documenta 10 was dominatedby photography Documenta11 by and and instalphotoandvideoprojections large-scale lations. It is noteworthythat in a recent review of the IstanbulBiennial, only one drawingand one sculptureare mentioned; everythingelse discussedis an exampleof installation photograart, Moreover,some of the phy,video, and so forth.36 artistswho have been significantbeneficiariesof the biennale networkare movingimage makers. WilliamKentridgeis a draftsman, he is most but for what he calls his "Drawing Profor respected 2nd Greatest Johannesburg, jection,"including City AfterParis,andSobriety, Obesity& GrowingOld. ShirinNeshat'sreputationrests on films,such as and suchas Fervor. Rapture, video installations of Perhapsbackhandedconfirmation the tenin the emergingartworldthat paintingis dency being ousted from its pride of place is a recent biennalein Prague.Pragueis a city with not one but two biennales;in orderto distinguish from it otherbiennales, both worldwideandin the neighborhood,the co-founderof the second biennale, Giancarlo Politi,declaredthatit wouldbe devoted to primarily paintingbecause,he argued,painting is a critically mediumto whosepowundervalued ers of visualgratification attentionmust againbe paid.37 Supposing that in the emerging transnational artworldpaintingand sculptureare losing ground-perhaps not absolutelybut more probably proportionately-to video, film, photography, computer art, conceptualart, performance art,and installation it is hardto resistthe obart, servationthat manyof these art formshave been constructedon the basis of some of the very technologies that are transformingthe wide world into a small world. Obviously,film, video, and photographyare the sort of mechanically

139 and electronically media that make reproducible it possiblefor the same artwork be everywhere to at once.Thoughan artistlike Chung-Li Kao may 002 chooseto screenhisfilmAnti.mei.ology in one place at a time,it couldbe shownat multiplesites simultaneously. As alreadysuggested,it is, to an important deof gree,thisverypossibility "overcoming" spaceby means of these very sorts of media-that instills in many the convictionthat globalizationis of film, uponus.Thus,the popularity photography, video,and,increasingly, computer, digital,andInternetartis itselfemblematic the emergingcosof artworldinsofar as these media are mopolitan As themselvescosmopolitan.38 one passesthrough the aisles of manylarge-scaleinternational exhibitions with the walls covered with digital photographsand with monitorsflickeringdown the corridor,one has the feeling that one is standing right in the middleof the so-calledwired world. Sometimes,the images,like the photographsof empty airportlounges by MarthaRosler and of tarmacs AndreasGursky, document quotidthe by ian experienceof the citizensof this new republic of art.39 But, in addition,the preferredidiomatic media of this emerginginstitutionalso bear the ambitions. expressivetracesof its world-spanning differentway,concepThoughin an admittedly tualart,anotherfavoritecontemporary formart like video and photography-also defies space, since it is frequentlynot tethered to a particular place inasmuchas a great deal of conceptual art is designedwith the intentionthat seeing it in situis not alwaysnecessary. Often,you canget the point of a conceptualartworkby simplyreading a description seeing a pictureof it. Wheresuch or artis essentiallya matterof an idea, it conceptual is lighterthan air and, like a joke, can move anywherefasterthanthe speed of sound. Performance artworks and installation artworks,of course,are rooted to specificlocations; however,much of the performanceart at largeis scaleinternational exhibitions thereby thegrace of video, while, at the same time, a lot of installationart is multimedia,incorporating video, audiorecording, even computer and photography, technology.40 These devices are deployedto represent and to probe the modernworld.But they also manage indirectly-in virtue of what they are-to expresssomethingof its phenomenological pulse:its informational densityand seemingly communicative connectedness. omnipresent

140 Needless to say, I do not mean to suggest by any means that paintingand sculpturehave vanished from the scene. My point is only that they are not the privilegedart formsof the momentin the emergingtransnational institution. Moreover, severalof the artformsthatwouldappearto maintain that position-like video and photography-are media that, in additionto whateverelse they symbolize,embody the message of globalization as, what FredericJamesoncalls, "the sense of an of immenseenlargement communication."41 The base of the emerging transnationalinstitution of art includes its network of coordinated venues, its "always-on-the-go" curatorialmangerialclass, and its preferredproductiveidioms. But it is also held together by means of a numberof shareddiscourses,both artisticand critical.Artists,presenters,critics,and just plain artdevot6essharea numberof conceptualframeworksand hermeneutical strategiesthat facilitate understanding transnationally. That is, the artist can presume that with respect to certain types of work, featuring certain types of iconography, audience will be the to explore the work in light of variprepared ous recurring or concerns,preoccupations, ideas. Often, these hermeneutical posits are articlesof femprogressive politics,suchas postcolonialism, and inism,gay liberation,globalization global inequality,the suppressionof free expressionand other humanrights,identitypolitics,and the politics of representation, well as a generic antias A establishmentarianism. recentexhibitionat the Museumof ModernArt's (MOMA) P.S.1 ContemporaryArt Centerin New York City,for example, takes day labor around the world as its theme and interrogatesit from a generallyradical perspective.42 criticand the informedauThe dience memberenteringthe galleryspace can try out these hermeneutical keysto attemptto unlock the often obscuresecretsof a rebus-likeinstallation piece untilshe or he findsone thatworks,one that,in otherwords,yieldsa satisfying interpretation. Perhapsneedless to say, the disseminationof On these concernsdid not appearmagically. the one hand,the recurring concernsare repolitical lated to the fact that in urban centers around the world artistsfind themselvesin many of the samecontextswiththeirattendant problematicsincluding capitalismin particularand modernization in general.43Moreover, on the other

GlobalTheoriesof the Arts and Aesthetics hand, these themes have been circulatedwidely critical discourse theyhaveeven been and through showcased by means of internationalartworld events like the "platforms"-theinterdisciplinary lectures and conferences-that comprisedOkui Enwezor'sDocumenta11. Of course, this process also involves assumptions on the part of the audienceabout what the artist might be up to. Much new art is involved in what is called institutionalcritique-critiques of the institutionof the museum,of the system of biennales, the commodification art,andof of of in the artworld general."Apprizedof suchmotifs, gallery-goersattempt to use the critique-of-theinstitutionframeworkin order to organize their thinkingabout the often mysteriousavant-garde object before them. Because the audience and the artist share some mutual assumptionsabout each other'sexpectationsregarding available the range of possible subject matter, they are able to have a conversation.Indeed, since these assumptionshave been broadcastso widely internationally,it is readily possible-without much beeffort-to havetransnational "conversations" tweenartistic sendersandreceivers who speakdifferentnativelanguages. Moreover,the artists,presenters,and viewers are not only aware of a number of recurring themes or frameworks; they also share knowlof a batteryof formal devices for advancedge ing those themes,includingradicaljuxtaposition, and of de-familiarization, the de-contextualization objectsand imagesfrom theircustomarymilieus. Thoughnot a syntaxandmuchlooserthana gramcontentare, mar,theseformalwaysof articulating nevertheless,sense-makingstrategies.The artist knows them and knows that the audienceknows them, and so the artist uses them in the anticipation that the audiencewill recognizethem and apply them to his or her work on the basis of its that sense-makingstrategies like understanding these are quite frequentlyoperatingin contemporaryart. These sense-makingstrategies or associative pathways are shared around the world by the producersand informedconsumersof ambitious fine art. They are in large measure what make institutionof art an the emergingtransnational internallycoherent practice.For this institution is not just a mechanism for moving artworks the can around world.Shipping companies do that. The artworksthat are delivered from afar must

Carroll Art and Globalization: Thenand Now be sent and greeted with sharedunderstandings. To achieve that, the emergingtransnational artworld has evolved a reliable set of themes and sense-making strategiesthat can be mobilizedin Shanghai, Sydney,Rio, or Capetown. One such sense-makingstrategy is pastiche. This may involve the juxtapositionof high and low, but in terms of globalization,the terms of the juxtapositionmightbe the local and the traditional, on the one hand, versus somethingof modernizingimport,on the other. For example, MonaHatoun'sKeffeapresentsan imageof a traditional,male, Palestinianscarf festooned unexof pectedlywiththe cuttings women'shair,thereby subversivelyprompting-through the culturally anomalousopposition-thinking about the sexist Informed,cosrepressivenessof Arab society.45 art viewersare on the lookout for tenmopolitan sionslike thisone in Hartoun's piece andknowto takethemas progressively inflectedopeningson a conversationabout the dialecticalsignificance of the clashingelements.46 Of course,I do not mean to claim that all the themes and sense-making strategiesin playin the transnational artworld utterlyfixed.Manyare. are Indeed,enoughare so thatan intelligibletransnationalconversation possible.Furthermore, do is I not mean to insinuatethat the existence of this transnational institutionof art suppressesthe exof the situatedinterestsof artistsin their pression I place of origin,since the frameworks have been consideringplace a high value on difference,reThe sistance,andcritique. emergingtransnational institutionof art strives,though perhapsnot alto ways successfully, cultivatea cosmopolitan apof the localwithinthe contextof a conpreciation versationthat is intelligible, to the preceding due in factors,to participants far-flung regionsaround the world. Though scarcelyfrictionlessand by no means comprehensive with respect to every interest serious artists pursue currently, the transnational artworld has put in place a language game replete with conversational presuppositions, hermeneuticalgambits,recurringthemes, and sense-making strategies.This is a worldwide discursiveframework-a serviceable,though far from comprehensive,tool-kit, if you will, for approachingand decipheringif not all then at least a very great deal of ambitiousart from all over.Moreover,withthese sharedconversational

141 also and presuppositions comesa sharedtradition history. In the 1980s,the complaint leveled at MOMA's and primitivism modernart show was that it was at to ethnocentricity its most arrogant hangtribal art next to modernistart simply on the basis of their superficial,surfacesimilarities. These were discrete artworlds,even if tribal art sometimes servedas an inspiration modernistartists. for that however,when the artworks derive Today, from nominallydifferentculturesstand side by artworlds side,they are not necessarily apart.The worksat large-scale international exhibitions generally are playingthe same or related language games and share,to a great extent, the same tradition. When in 1999 two Chinese artists,Yuan Cai and JianJunXi, urinatedinto the TateModern's version of Fountain,they were obviously playing the same extended language game the FrenchperformanceartistPierre Pinoncelliwas playing in 1993 when he urinatedinto another versionof Fountain Nimes.47 in Whetherthe Chinese were quoting the Frenchmanis unknown, but both gestureswere capableof makingstatementsbecausethey were tappinginto a common tradition,a traditionwhose Dada, of course,was Duchamp.Indeed, the shadowof Duchampfalls in every direction.At the recent Times of India Kala GhodaArt Festivalin Mumbai,there was a piece calledTheLoovrein the seriesUrbanization II by ApnaviThacker, whichis an installation that uses a row of four gold and sliverpaintedurinals to open a discussion the lackof basicamenities on in the city.48 In the past, the artworlds differentcultures of were distinct, segregated by virtue of their diverse traditionsof makingand meaning,of articulationand interpretation. Even wherethese distinct traditionstouched and cross-fertilized each other, their genealogiesand canons stayed separate. What seems to be changingin the present historicalmomentis that a unifiedartworld with sharedlanguagegames and traditionsappearsto be emerging across the globe. Connectionsbetween museums,galleries,and large-scaleexhibitions are becomingmoreintensivedue to the veritable explosion in the means of communication and transportation. this is more than just a But distribution system. It is underwritten shared by presuppositions, sense-makingstrategies,artistic heritages,as well as a proclivityfor the use of

142 certainmedia.It is, rather,a commonart culture, one whoselineaments requirefarmorestudythan this preliminary sketchoffers. Of course,not every art-making activitytoday institution belongsto this emergingtransnational of art.Thereis still folk art,massart, and various nationaltraditions. But, at the same time,there is this transnational institutionof art that connects the artisticpracticesof urbancentersaroundthe world both physicallyand intellectually. is not It an institutionof art in the sense that the philosopher George Dickie had in mindwhen he coined the term.Its functionis not to enfranchise Its art. or functionis to consolidatea transnational global artworld-a culturescapewith its own language distribugames and networksof communication, and reception.49 tion,
NOEL CARROLL Department of Philosophy Temple University Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
INTERNET: carrolln@temple.edu

GlobalTheoriesof the Arts and Aesthetics

12. Philip Bohlman, World Music (Oxford University Press,2002), p. 133. 13. See "Letterfrom Europe,"International Herald Tribune, November 24, 2005. 14. Deborah Sontag,"TheAmbassador,"TheNew York Times,January29, 2006, ?2. 15. John Sinclair,Elizabeth Jacka,and Stuart Cunningham, "Peripheral Vision,"in The GlobalizationReader,2nd ed., ed. FrankJ. Lechnerand John Boli (Oxford:Blackwell, 2000, 2004), p. 298. 16. Kwame Anthony Appiah made this observation in an interviewon National Public Radio on January26, 2006. In a relatedvein, at present, with films like TimurBekmambetov's Night Watch(2004) and Day Watch(2006), Moscow, with the help of 20th CenturyFox International,is tryingto capture the marketof Russia and the Commonwealthof Independent States,whichhas a populationof 280 million people and is said to be the fastest-growingfilm audience in the world. See "FromRussia with Blood and Shape-Shifters," The New York Times, February5, 2006, Arts and Leisure section. 17. Sinclair, Jacka, and Cunningham, "Peripheral Vision," p. 299. 18. This review of dance history relies very heavily on Sally Banes, "Our Hybrid Tradition,"in Before, After, and Between:Selected Dance Writingsof Sally Banes, ed. Andrea Harris (University of Wisconsin Press, forthcoming). See also Shelley C. Berg, "Sad Yacco in Lond and Paris 1900: Le Reve R6alis6," Dance Chronicle 18(3) (1995): 343-404; Shelley C. Berg, "SadaYacco:The American Tour, 1899-1900," Dance Chronicle 16(2) (1993): 147-196. 19. See the articles by Shelley Berg referred to in note 18. 20. GabrielP.Weisberget al.,Japonisme: JapaneseInfluence on FrenchArt, 1854-1910 (Cleveland, OH: Cleveland Museum of Art, 1975). 21. Lincoln Kirstein, Dance: A Short History of Classic TheatricalDancing (New York:Dance Horizons, 1969), p. 205. 22. David Barboza, "China'sBold 'Swan,'Ready to Export," The New YorkTimes,February2, 2006, Arts section. 23. Ulrich Beck, Whatis Globalization?trans.by Patrick Camiller(Cambridge:Polity Press,2000), p. 36. 24. This emphasis on the forms that current transnational relations are taking is a theme of Roland Robertson. See, for example, his "Mapping the Global Condition: Globalization as the Central Concept," in Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity,ed. Mike Featherstone (London: Sage Publications, 1990, 1992), pp. 15-30. See also Roland Robertson, Globalization:Social Theoryand Global Culture(London:Sage Publications, 1992). 25. Freely adaptingthe vocabularyof Arjun Appadurai, we mightalso call this integratedtransnationalinstitutionof See art a culturescape. A. Appadurai,"Disjunctureand Difference in the Global CulturalEconomy,"in Global Culture, pp. 296-300. 26. Lisa Jardine,WorldlyGoods: A New History of the Renaissance(London, 1996), especially ch. 5. Re27. Lisa Jardineand JerryBrotton, Global Interests: naissance Art Between East and West (London: Reaktioin Books, 2000), p. 32.

1. On the issue of whetherand whatglobalizationis, see FredricJameson, "Notes on Globalizationas a Philosophical Problem,"in The Culturesof Globalization,ed. Fredric Jamesonand Masao Miyoshi (Duke University Press, 1998, 2003), pp. 54-77. 2. Bryant Simon, "Up-Close in the Flat World: A Case of Malay Teens in Starbucks in Singapore," a lecture at the Center for the Humanitiesat Temple University, Philadelphia,PA, February2006. 3. Jan Nederveen Pieterse, "Globalization as Hyed. in bridization," Global Modernities, Mike Featherstone, Scott Lash, and Roland Robertson (London: Sage Publications, 1995, 1997), p. 53. 4. KennethTuran,Sundanceto Sarajevo:Film Festivals and the World They Made (University of CaliforniaPress, 2002), p. 1 5. This informationwas given to me by Priya Joshi of the English Departmentof Temple University. 6. Turan,Sundanceto Sarajevo,p. 1. 7. Turan,Sundanceto Sarajevo,p. 7. 8. For Appiah, a cosmopolitanis someone who, among other things, relishes exposure to cultural and artistic difference. See Kwame Anthony Appiah, Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a Worldof Strangers(New York: W.W.Norton, 2006). 9. See JonathanRosenbaum,"TheMissingImage:Review of La masinon cinema et La monde, Volumes I and II, by Serge Daney," New Left Review 34 (2005): 145-151. 10. Appiah, Cosmopolitanism, 109-111. pp. 11. Just as the development of the Japanese graphic novel, a near relative to the cartoon by way of the comic, has spurredthe evolution of the American genre.

Carroll Art and Globalization: Then and Now

28. Jardineand Brotton, Global Interests, 51. p. 29. Rose Kerr, "Chinese Porcelain in Early European The Collections,"in Encounters: Meetingof Asia and Europe 1500-1800, ed. Anna Jackson and Amin Jaffers (London: Victoriaand Albert Publications,2004), pp. 44-51. 30. RichardVine, "Reportfrom Prague:Biennale Gamble Doubling Down,"Artin AmericaSept. (2005):47. Higher estimates are also available.In his talk "TheGlocal and the Reflections on Art and Culturein the Global Singuniversal: World,"Thierry De Duve cites a low of eighty biennales per year and a high of 140. His talk was given on February 14, 2006, at the conference MultipleCulturesin a Globalizing Worldat the Mohile ParikhCenter for the Visual Arts, Mumbai,India. 31. JamesMeyer,moderator,"GlobalTendencies:Globalism and the Large-ScaleExhibition,"Art ForumInternational November (2003): 152-163. 32. It should be noted that the situation changes somewhat if one focuses on internationalart fairs ratherthan biennales. One sees far less video and installationart (though still a great deal of photography)at events like Art Basle. The reason for this is obvious. Art fairs are about selling artworks to private collectors and noninstitutionalcollectors prefer owning and displayingpaintings and sculptures ratherthan thingslike videos and installationart. Nevertheless, I believe my emphasis on biennales here is justifiable, since biennales give us a sense of what it is that artists and presentersthink is "the now thing." 33. For descriptions of this work, see Susan Kendzulak, "Chinese Artists at the 51st Venice Biennale," Yishu: Journal of ContemporaryChineseArt Septempber (2005): 6-10. 34. Andreas Schlaegel, "YeondooJung,"Contemporary Special Issue on the Venice Biennale (n.d.): 107. 35. Marcia E. Vetrocq, "Venice Biennale: Be Careful What You Wish For," Art in America September (2005): 114. 36. Eleanor Heartney,"Reportfrom Istanbul:Artists in the City,"Art and America December (2005): 55-57. Likewise, TheNew YorkTimesreview of the "Of Mice and Men" festival in Berlin only seems to have had eyes for the videos, photographs,and installationart. 37. RichardVine, "Report from Prague,"p. 49. 38. It should also be observed that there may be an economic element in the gravitationof biennales toward mechanicallyand electronicallyreproducibleart,since it is very expensive to insure a painting or a sculpture for shipping, whereas a video cassette of a performancepiece is readily replaceablefor almost no money.

Issues:The ArtworldUn39. PamelaM. Lee, "Boundary der the Sign of Globalization," ArtforumNovember (2003): 167. 40. Though I am emphasizing the role that these art forms play in large-scale internationalexhibitions, I would also like to add that these art forms are spreading across the world gallery by gallery and performancespace by performancespace as well. For example, in 1998, Geeta Kapur noted the upsurgeof installationart in India.See Geeta Kapur, "Globalizationand Culture:Navigating the Void," in The Culturesof Globalization,pp. 204-206. 41. Thisquotationis cited by PamelaM. Lee, "Boundary Issues,"p. 166. 42. Roberta Smith, "Agitpropto Art: Turninga Kaleidoscope of Visions,"New YorkTimes,November 11, 2005, Arts section. 43. I owe this point to PrashantParikhmade to me in a privatecommunication. 44. In privateconversation,Dominic Willsdon,formerly of the TateModernand presentlythe directorof educational programsat the Museum of Modern Art in San Francisco, has indicatedto me that curatorsof international shows prefer workfromother culturesthat evinces commitmentto critique, thus reinforcingthe spread of a converginglanguage game worldwide. 45. My interpretationof the Hartounpiece follows that of Homi Bhabha in his talk, "Living Together, Growing Apart,"at the Multiple CulturesConference in Mumbaion February15, 2006. 46. Similar strategies of juxtaposition are in evidence among Chinese artists. Wang Guangyi uses the approach of the propagandaof the Cultural Revolution but inserts capitalistimagerylike Marlboroand Coke logos, while Jian Jiweisculptsstone reliefsin traditionalPersianandBuddhist styles but populates them with contemporary characters. (I thank Ales Erjavecfor calling these examples to my attention in a privatecommuncation.) 47. Alan Riding,"Conceptual Artistas Vandal: WalkTall and Carry a Little Hammer (or Ax)," New York Times, January7, 2006, Arts section. 48. See "Return of R. Mutt," The Times of India, February11, 2006. 49. I especially thank Susan Feagin, Ales Erjavec, PrashantParikh, Dominic Willsdon, and MargaretMoore for their help in the preparationof this article, and wish to express my gratitudeto the very responsiveand informative audiencewho attendedmy lectureat the Mohile ParikhCenter for the Visual Arts on February15th,2006 in Mumbai, India.

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