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1980 .

132, , 3

535,310

*)
. . , . .

1.
2.
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6.



,



7. . . . .
8.
9. -
10.

. .

475
477
480
481
484
486
488
490
492
494
495

1.

- - . , ,
.
,
,
**).
,
- .
(. . 4 ).
*) *, V {, 1979).
**)
, . ., , ,
. : (/) < , = /, 0 = 2JW/<O
.

. . .
5*

476

. . . .

, (),

( \


, 0,
y\,\)
= /.
(1.1)
l/ikQ *),

= ,

,
1
" (

= ^^

)"2

m=0

( i f c e ) m

+ ^ =
:

*= + a dr = 0-h \ ,

(1.2)

) V ( ') ^-<1';

(1.3)

= (0), ^IJt ^ ^ (0) = 0. (1.2) (1.3) ,


&

V2

(1.4)

= , ,
<1 = /.
" (1.3), , (0)/#(),
S ( t ) ~ (, z)Id (, , ) #, , , , . 3)() , = (, , ) (
).
as
ttds r
As
,
0 = 0.
, ,
4~* 8 5 .
)


(1.6)
*) ,
^ i/konL {L
),
. . (. , *86).

477


(1.6).
(1.2)
,
:
>

fc|V*|<*.

*=ft~.

(1-7)

(1.5) (1.6)
| V/|<C/,

* < * , , I,

(1.8)

i? l e .
)

,
2 = (i/kQnL)2.
(1.9)

w0, ,

+ 202 = ***-4
2

(1.10)
2

^40 0 1 0.
AAoeik<>^,
, *). ~ \lkJL - 1
(1.7) (1.8) ,
.
. ,
.
2.
)


,
* * ) . ,
*) , ,
, .
**)
.
7, , .
.

478

. , .


, , ,
-
.
, ,
* ) .
, , . , , (. 1),
F{r')=O

. , , ,
. , ,

. 1.
.
( , <^ L)
, = (), .
)

. ,
(. . 1). -* 2 , rj 2 ,
. -> 2
-- ' -* r 2 , , (1.4).
, '. ( , )
() , :

(, r 6 ) = \ .
(2.1)
F (') = ,
' , =
= (, ') + (', ), ->-> ' -- , " = ( 2) 0 = 2n/k0 = 2/ ( ^^ ^^ ). ,
. (. . 1)
F (') = |

- I (*,

2 )-( , r 2 ) | ^ =
(2.2)

*) , ,
: ,
8 , 8 , 10
.

479

, ,
S.
F(r') =

2 , > 2
. 2.
, [ >- '-^-2 (. 2).
,
(, )
F (') = 0 .
)


.
(2.2) (2.3) ' . r s
' (. . 1 2),
' 3

F(T')

4 | ( r ' - r , , V3)2H>(r,,

, r2)] | ^ = 0 ,

(2.4)

V 3 3 .
.
, (2.3)

, 2 )! I2^ =

(2.5)

(2.4) (2.5) ,
, . .

(, ) ~ \ \
(2.2) (2.5) . rt 2
2, ' = y V a -|- '2, (2.4)

(2.6)

480

. , , , ,

Lx ' zlt L2 = z a '.


' = const
a

'l+nL-i

f=V

(2-7)

, ,
(2.5)
F(r'\~

'

ntp

'> 2

2 \ '\

- -
2 ""

/ \
'

^'

(2.9)
3.

-
,
:
I. ,
( )
.

at \VXAO I < 0 , at \ Vp} \ < , Of | Vn | J < n ,
(3.1)
Vx ,
3 = dtyfdxj, a at * ) .
(3.1) , ,
(3.1)
i?j 2 :
at < I , 2 |.
.
(3.2)
, ,
,
. , , (3.1) - .
, (3.1) .
, , I,
:
I I . 0 ( ),
, :
& >
(3.3)
( | 2 I /2).
, ,

, . II
*) , I , . , (3.1) at
,
, .

481

( , ) *).

,
. .
, (
) 8 . - (. . , ,,
) , (3.1)
- , II
- .
-
,
.


,
32> 3 3 . , , I II , , .
I II .
, , .
I II ,
I II
: , , . . 59.
. 3
. ,
I II
. ,
.
4. ,

)


, , , .
*) . . :
, ,
, , , .

, I, - .

482

. . , . .

. , (3.1), (3.2) (1.6):

(4.1) , , , . ,
,
.

1.

(4.2)

) ,

,
,
: <^ 1.
,


, ,

. , , .

(4.2), 11 (. . 7).
,
.
() :
| " |

Yf

(4.3)

,
, =
0
2
= | | () :
IP = | | 2 AS0 = | 2 5 ;
(4.4)
5 0 ,
() (. 3), AS .
(4.5)
5

(4.5)

(4.3), ' nAS/nAS0


" 1 ( . 59). -

483

, ,
( ,
, . .)
.
, (4.3) (4.5), , , .
)

, ()
. .
,
(. 4, ).
- ,

(. 4, ). ,
.
, -
(

/%). ,
(,
-, )
.



.

. 4


,
. , ,
, . 4,
, , .
, I
, , %1 >> X
, .
)

,
,
.
- ,

484

, . , . .

, , (. . )).
, , , . , , , .
, ,
.
5.
)

;
() (. 5)^
( .
), . at = at (z) (2.7), Lx =
=

z 0 , L%

= :

at =

020

(5.1)

(. . 5)

,(*) =
. 5.

^ = / () .

= [(z -J- ( /2)]|/ / . , , . , , .
(->- ) (5.2)
= ~. ;
.
, (5.1) , 0
, .
)

,
, .
2 (-

485

) , .
, , I, at =
,
. . < 62/0.

/6,
l ~ Xor/b. (2.7)
^
at = ,

af</x,

>-1.

, , .
, ,
. , ,
.
,
, . .
. ~
~ 0 .

26
F.
F.
2L

=|/**-

(5.3)

(z -> F)
, at . =s
= F . ,
at <g. 6, = F
^.
2

(5.4)

/ = 0 (F/b)
. AF, (. 6),

486

, . , . .

= F ijj
<5.5>
. .
, , | 0 | , ,
. 4. =
= {A)*nbu , | \>1\ ( ,
Z),
(5.6>

(5.6>

| " I

:
** | = I ,

0 | = 2 | | "J/

(5.7)

, (5.6)
.
6.

. 0
S
,

(6.1)
D ,

,


(. 7).
(6.1) , .
(3.1)
,
D &*;.
bt = af/cos , .

487

, (3.2) , aelt 2
bt : aBlt 2 ~> h as (2.7) , Lx
R$ ()
(), L%
().
> 1 2 .
, D .
)

,

=

(. 8),

. cos 0 m l n
?
COS I



*> 8 9 .

cos 0 m l n = (2/0 | 8 )1/3, . . 12 ,


)



= , , ,
= arg ,
| VF | = .
, . . 9
,
. (
. 9 ) 13
, . . (. * ).

,
, 1 3 .

488

. . , . .

, . . ,
> .

( ), ,
(. . , )

0
,

,
.
,
, :
. 9.
| .-
, t|) m +i " ^ /2.
I I : (. + 1)- m- .
7.


.
"
, I I : ,
, [ (. 10),


:
(. . )
,
,
.


. 10.
| 2 I <
(7.1)
1 5 ,
()
| |*

1/2

! ,

= 20,

(7.2)

489

/ , , v 0TH = | vKayCT Vy cos | , , , ^4


,
( ). (7.2) (7.1), | lN | <; /
(7.3)

/1 = 1,02, = ( * $ ) - 1 / 3

(7.4)

,
14>(17. (7.4) , 1 8 , 59 = 1,
= (/2^) 1 / 3 , = viiycr .
)

0 , 1 ~
(. . 10), , (4.5) AS0 /0
ASu ,


14> 1 ? . * , ( 1 = 1,02
) 1,34 (7.5).
,
, , 1 6

() = , I W - W [ ( - | ) " 1 / 4 (iAl + 2) () + ( - 11/4 (lAt-

V ()], (7.6)

() ,

yplt 2
Alt 2 , , '1 2
Alt 2 , . ,
, . . , , 1 9 2 0 .
)

2 = 0 :
0 = exp (ikopV2F). *= F . . 3
= 0:
(7.7)

, . 132, . 3

490

. . , . .

1 (5.5), *,
at.
l ~ (FI4)lt*. (4.5) = }, 50 = \,

(7.8)

W-

/"|^2 = 2,2 .
)

, . = ilkQLn, *

I " 1 ~ lit" " * ,
(7.9)
.
, . ,
= 1/6, = 1/4,
= 1/4, , = 3/10.
= 1 ^ ( 0)
. , , , ,
^ 31 22 8 5 .
, .
8,


=?= (),

a)

vSn

(8.1)

491

, s = sin ,
, & =
(. 11, ). (sQ = 0)

(8 2)

(8.2) ()
, = const =s
= (), ()
: at (') > ]/ 0 ( ')/ ().

,
, .
Vt F 2 (. 11, ),
Vx
(. . 11, ), V2 ,
( . ) .
)

^
( /2)
,
,
[ = sin 2 , ,'
~ /2 . at (2.7)
~ 1: af,max ~ 01//2 (L ).
I
, ()
2at ~ 1^XOL :

4!-2,<1.

(8.3)

~ /| /dz |
50100 , 0 = 15 (8.3)
L - 10 6 10 .
, ,

.
,
, 2 3 .

492

. , , . .


(
, .
at &,
, .
24> 2 5 .
9. -

(, ) ,

Oft

9~,
,
(, f) (, t) . )
(9.1)
- | | ~ ~ ,
, .

-, -f, ^}<1;

(9.2)

0 (
0 ), L
.
(9.2) - -.
)

(, )

(, ) = (, *)**'.*> SB 4 ( *>
(9.3)
2, = (1), t (|) R = R 0 (|), R = (, ),
R sa(t, ), = {| 2 is} If 2.
- R x ->- R a
< = (Ri) + (Rn ) R^ -*- R' -** R a * =i (Ri) + (R;, R') - (R'* Ra). Rx = (r 1( h),
= (rji i;) 2, R a =
(, i a ) - .

493


F ( R ' ) | |

= |[(;)4-(; ') + (;, 2 )]-[() + (, R 2 ) J | - ^ - 0 ,

(9.4)

R' = ( , t') . , (9.4)


.
) -

(9.4) - ().
% = 0 (0, t) = (t), . .
(9.4)


Z'

z=ct
T

=0:

? = 1 / 2

ZZR

(9.5)

k"Q = d2k0 ()/(12 | = ,


:
(9.6)

(9.5)
(2.7)
. 12.
.
, = const, (10.11)
| \ ->
? = / 2 | ^ | .
(9.7)
(s, t) . 12.
= '

; (*-*').

(9.8)

, (9.7)
~ \k"Q | , 28> 3 0 - .
)

1 . 3

dt

i*L

<z? m

, ^
, , ( ), - , -

494

. , , , .

.
.
, () -
( *).
)

(t) , - (, ) (. 13).
2 = 0 (9.5):

= 1/ 2\

(9.10)

(9.9) - ,
Tf : ~ .

(. . 13):

---L (9.11)
I

mln

(9.12)

I ." I ., **

**

.
:
I |2 \
j

"^ mln*

(9.13)
29

30

* , -
. , . . 3 1 (. 2 7 ).
10.
,
, ,

,
, .
:
1. , , ,
.

495

2.
.
3.
.
4.
.

,
*).

, . , ,
,
, ,
. ,

,
,

.
.

, ,
(,
) . .
, ,
. 1

.

. . .
. . .



1. . ., . . : V
, , 1979 . .
..: , 1979.. 76.
2. . . , 1938, . 18, . 263.
3. . . . , 1940, . 2, . 1.
4. . . . . .: , 1979. . 257.
5. . ., . .
..: , 1972.
*) | ,
, *.

496

. . , . .

6. . ., . . . .
, 1978.
7. ., . , .
.: , 1968.
8. . . .
.: - , 1961.
9. . . . .: . , 1972.
10. t n i . L., F e l s e n L, ., H e s s e l . IEEE Trans., 1971, . -19,
p. 226.
11. . ., 3. . . . . t
1969, . 12, . 886.
12. . . .
.: . , 1970.
13. . . . .: , 1973.
14. . . . .: - . -, 1961. 5, . 73.
15. . ., . . . . . , 1968,
. 11, . 1812.
16. . . I b i d . , 1964, . 7, . 664.
17. . . . , 1974, . 194, . 103.
18. . ., . . . ,: , 1960.
19. . . . ., 1968, . 14, . 3.
20. B e r r y . V., M o u n t . . R e p t . Prog. Phys., 1972, v. 35, p. 315.
21. . . . .: , 1974.
22. . V. Adv. Phys., 1976, . 25, p. 1.
23. . . . ,
..: , 1974. . 29, . 157.
24. . ., . . . . . ,
1970 . 13 . 1795.
25. . . I b i d . , 1973, . 16, . 254.
26. K r a v t s o v
Yu. ., O s t r o v s k y i
L. ., S t e p a n o v
N. S . P r o c .
I E E E , 1974, v. 62, p. 1492.
27. . . - :
V , , 1979.
.: . .: , 1979.
. 5114.
28. . ., . , . .
: V
, , 1979. .
..: , 1979. . 28.
29. . . . . . , 1964, . 7, . 460.
30. . ., . . Ibid., 1967, . 10, . 539.
31. . . , 1976, . 118, . 339.
32. . . ..: ,
1969. . 386.
33. Feynman Path Integrals. In: Proc. of Intern. Colloquium. Marseille, May 1978.
Berlin; Heidelberg; New York: Springer-Verlag, 1979. (Lecture Notes in Physics. V. 106.)
34. 3 . . ..:
, 1967.
35. . ., . . .
.: , 1980.

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