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Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy.

Learning Goal: To understand the terms in Faraday's law and to be able to identify the magnitude and direction of induced emf.

Faraday's law states that induced emf is directly proportional to the time rate of change of magnetic flux. Mathematically, it can be written as ,

where is the emf induced in a closed loop, and

is the rate of change of the magnetic flux through a surface bounded by the loop. For uniform magnetic fields the magnetic flux is given by area . , where is the angle between the magnetic field and the normal to the surface of

To find the direction of the induced emf, one can use Lenz's law: The induced current's magnetic field opposes the change in the magnetic flux that induced the current. For example, if the magnetic flux through a loop increases, the induced magnetic field is directed opposite to the "parent" magnetic field, thus countering the increase in flux. If the flux decreases, the induced current's magnetic field has the same direction as the parent magnetic field, thus countering the decrease in flux. Recall that to relate the direction of the electric current and its magnetic field, you can use the right-hand rule: When the fingers on your right hand are curled in the direction of the current in a loop, your thumb gives the direction of the magnetic field generated by this current. In this problem, we will consider a rectangular loop of wire with sides and placed in a region where a uniform

magnetic field exists (see the diagram). The resistance of the loop is .

Initially, the field is perpendicular to the plane of the loop and is directed out of the page. The loop can rotate about either the vertical or horizontal axis, passing through the midpoints of the opposite sides, as shown.

Part A Which of the following changes would induce an electromotive force (emf) in the loop? When you consider each option, assume that no other changes occur. Check all that apply. ANSWER: The magnitude of increases. The magnitude of decreases. The loop rotates about the vertical axis (vertical dotted line) shown in the diagram. The loop rotates about the horizontal axis (horizontal dotted line) shown in the diagram. The loop moves to the right while remaining in the plane of the page. The loop moves toward you, out of the page, while remaining parallel to itself. Correct Part B Find the flux through the loop. Express your answer in terms of , , and . ANSWER: = Correct Part C If the magnetic field steadily decreases from to zero during a time interval , what is the magnitude of the induced emf? Hint C.1 Find the change in magnetic flux

Express your answer in terms of , , , and . ANSWER: = Correct Part D If the magnetic field steadily decreases from to zero during a time interval , what is the magnitude of the induced current? Express your answer in terms of , , , , and the resistance of the wire. ANSWER: = Correct Part E If the magnetic field steadily decreases from to zero during a time interval , what is the direction of the induced current? ANSWER: clockwise counterclockwise

Correct The flux decreases, so the induced magnetic field must be in the same direction as the original (parent) magnetic field. Therefore, the induced magnetic field is out of the page. Using the right-hand rule, we deduce that the direction of the current is counterclockwise. Part F Which of the following changes would result in a clockwise emf in the loop? When you consider each option, assume that no other changes occur. Check all that apply. ANSWER: The magnitude of increases. The magnitude of decreases. The loop rotates through 45 degrees about the vertical axis (vertical dotted line) shown in the diagram. The loop rotates through 45 degrees about the horizontal axis (horizontal dotted line) shown in the diagram. The loop moves to the right while remaining in the plane of the page. The loop moves toward you, out of the page, while remaining parallel to itself. Correct Clockwise emf implies that the induced magnetic field is directed into the page. Therefore, the magnetic flux of the original field must be increasing. Only the first option corresponds to increasing flux.

Conceptual Induction

A loop of wire is initially held above a short solenoid. A constant counterclockwise (as viewed from above) current passes through the turns of the solenoid.

Throughout this problem, when you answer questions about the direction of current, assume that you are viewing the wire loop from above, looking downward.

Part A What is the direction of the induced current in the loop when the loop is above the solenoid, moving downward? Hint A.1 Using Lenz's law

Hint A.2 Using Faraday's law

ANSWER: clockwise counterclockwise no current Correct Part B What is the direction of the induced current at the instant that the loop is at the midpoint of the solenoid and still moving downward? Hint B.1 Applying Lenz's law

ANSWER: clockwise counterclockwise no current Correct Part C What is the direction of the induced current when the loop is below the solenoid and moving downward? ANSWER: clockwise counterclockwise no current Correct

A loop of wire is at the edge of a region of space containing a uniform magnetic field . The plane of the loop is perpendicular to the magnetic field. Now the loop is pulled out of this region in such a way that the area of the coil inside the magnetic field region is decreasing at the constant rate . That is, Part A , with .

The induced emf in the loop is measured to be . What is the magnitude of the magnetic field that the loop was in? Hint A.1 The formula for the magnetic flux through a loop

Hint A.2 How to take the derivative of the product of two functions

Hint A.3 The formula for the emf induced in a loop (Faraday's law)

Express your answer in terms of some or all of the variables , , and . ANSWER: = Correct So you see that in general, there can be contributions to the induced emf in a wire loop both from a changing magnetic field through the loop (about which you may have studied earlier) and from the change in the area of the loop (within the magnetic field region), as in this problem. Part B For the case of a square loop of side length being pulled out of the magnetic field with constant speed (see the figure),

what is the rate of change of area ? Hint B.1 How to approach the problem

Express your answer in terms of and . ANSWER: = Correct

Later, you will learn, if you have not already, that the "motional emf" associated with a rod of length moving through a uniform magnetic field of magnitude with speed is given by , or, equivalently, . This is another way of thinking about the result derived above. If you have already studied this, can you see which sides of the square loop contribute to the motional emf and which do not, and why?

Learning Goal: To understand that the motion of a conductor through a magnetic field generates a perpendicular electric field.

A conducting rod of length is moved at a constant velocity through a uniform magnetic field perpendicularly out of the page. The end of the rod at is labeled a, and the end of the rod at Part A

As a result of the motion through the magnetic field, a charge in the rod will experience a force : the usual part of the Lorentz force for charges moving through magnetic fields. This force will push the charge in the rod, and hence this force will be an electromotive force (EMF). For now, we shall say that the force that moves the charges is due to an induced electric field , which will enable us to calculate the EMF. The fact that there is an induced electric field at all is rather subtle, because there is no closed loop that encloses some changing flux. Therefore, a method that does not involve Faraday's law must be used to solve this motional EMF problem. In fact, this problem is a good introduction to some of the ideas behind Faraday's law. Find the y component of the induced electric field . Hint A.1 Find the force on a charge due to motion in the magnetic field

Hint A.2 Find an equivalent electric field

Express your answer in terms of the variables given in the problem introduction. ANSWER: = Correct Part B To describe the effect of this electric field on the rod, we need to find the EMF . We take as a reference direction the path from end a to end b (i.e., moving along the positive y axis). The EMF is then negative if the induced electric field points in the direction (i.e., like a battery with the positive voltage end at a, where the positive charge collects due to the magnetic force on the charges). Hint B.1 What is EMF?

Express your answer in terms of the variables given in the problem introduction. ANSWER: = Correct Part C There is a big complication in measuring the EMF generated by the moving rod: The wires that connect the meter to the rod also move through the magnetic field, and therefore, there is an electromotive force for them also. This is a general problem: A voltmeter can measure the EMF produced only in a closed loop around the circuit. In general, the EMF caused by the motion of a rod through a uniform magnetic field will be canceled by the opposite EMF induced by the motion of the rest of the circuit through this same uniform field. The only way to get a nonzero voltmeter reading is to make the field nonuniform, for example, such that the bar is moving through a region of nonzero field, but the rest of the circuit is (temporarily) moving in a region of zero field. For example, consider the arrangement shown in the figure for measuring

In this arrangement,

only for

and

The hookup wires and voltmeter will have to move with the rod; they are rigid and of the dimensions and shape shown. The physical setup is that shown at the end of Part B. Which graph shown best represents the magnitude of that will be measured by the voltmeter? Take to be the moment pictured in the diagram.

Hint C.1

Hint C.2 Describe the EMF when only the rod moves through the field

Hint C.3 Describe the EMF when the whole circuit is moving through the field

ANSWER: a b c d e Correct Part D Is the sign of positive or negative? If current flows through the meter from positive to negative, then it will read a

positive voltage. Hint D.1 Which way is the magnetic force pushing the charge?

ANSWER: positive negative Correct

It makes little sense to discuss only the EMF generated in the rod. How the wires connect the voltmeter to the rod is important, too, because they may move through the field (or the field lines may move across them). The crucial realization (by Michael Faraday) is that EMF is really a property of an entire closed circuit.

Exercise 29.28

A 1.55-m-long metal bar is pulled to the right at a steady 5.7 perpendicular to a uniform, 0.785-T magnetic field. The bar rides on parallel metal rails connected through = 25.8- , as shown in the figure

, so the apparatus makes a complete circuit. You can ignore the resistance of the bar and the rails. Part A Calculate the magnitude of the emf induced in the circuit. Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: 6.9 = Correct Part B Find the direction of the current induced in the circuit. ANSWER: clockwise counterclockwise Correct Part C Calculate the current through the resistor. Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: 0.27 = Correct

Rail Gun

This problem explores how a current-carrying wire can be accelerated by a magnetic field. You will use the ideas of magnetic flux and the EMF due to change of flux through a loop. Note that there is an involved follow-up part that will be shown once you have found the answer to Part B. Part A A conducting rod is free to slide on two parallel rails with negligible friction. At the right end of the rails, a voltage source of strength in series with a resistor of resistance makes a closed circuit together with the rails and the rod. The rails and the rod are taken to be perfect conductors. The rails extend to infinity on the left. The arrangement is shown in the figure.

There is a uniform magnetic field of magnitude , pervading all space, perpendicular to the plane of rod and rails. The rod is released from rest, and it is observed that it accelerates to the left. In what direction does the magnetic field point?

Hint A.1 The force on a conducting rod due to a magnetic field

Hint A.2 The direction of the magnetic field

ANSWER: into the plane of the figure out of the plane of the figure Correct Part B Assuming that the rails have no resistance, what is the most accurate qualitative description of the motion of the rod? Hint B.1 Lenz's law

Hint B.2 Appyling Lenz's law to this problem

Hint B.3 The velocity of the rod

ANSWER: The rod will accelerate but the magnitude of the acceleration will decrease with time; the velocity of the rod will approach but never exceed a certain terminal velocity.

Under these idealized conditions the rod will experience constant acceleration and the velocity of the rod will increase indefinitely. The rod will accelerate indefinitely with acceleration proportional to its (increasing) velocity. Correct Part C What is the acceleration of the rod? Take to be the mass of the rod. Hint C.1 Find the induced EMF

Hint C.2 Find the current in the rod

Hint C.3 Find the acceleration of the rod

Express your answer as a function of , , the velocity of the rod ANSWER: = Correct , , , and the mass of the rod .

which you can solve to find the velocity of the rod as a function of time: .

To achieve a high acceleration, which is necessary for a useful gun, a magnetic field of large magnitude and a high voltage are advantageous. Part D What is the terminal velocity reached by the rod? Hint D.1 Find an expression for the terminal velocity

ANSWER: = Correct A larger magnetic field increases the acceleration of the rod, but lowers the terminal velocity: a trade-off for rail gun engineers!

Problem 29.56

You are shipwrecked on a deserted tropical island. You have some electrical devices that you could operate using a generator but you have no magnets. The earth's magnetic field at your location is horizontal and equal to , and you decide to try to use this field for a generator by rotating a large circular coil of wire at a high rate. You need to produce an emf of and estimate that you can rotate the coil at by turning a crank handle. You also decide that to have an acceptable coil resistance, the maximum number of turns the coil can have is . Part A What area must the coil have? Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: 18 = Correct Part B If the coil is circular, what is the maximum translational speed of a point on the coil as it rotates? Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: 7.5 = Correct

Exercise 29.4

A closely wound search coil has an area of 3.26 , 100 turns, and a resistance of 60.9 . It is connected to a chargemeasuring instrument whose resistance is 46.6 . When the coil is rotated quickly from a position parallel to a uniform magnetic field to one perpendicular to the field, the instrument indicates a charge of 3.50105 . Part A What is the magnitude of the field? ANSWER: 0.115 = Correct

Exercise 29.7

The current in the long, straight wire AB shown in the figure increasing steadily at a rate Part A .

is upward and is

At an instant when the current is , what are the magnitude of the field at a distance to the right of the wire? Express your answer in terms of the appropriate quantities. ANSWER: =

Correct Part B At an instant when the current is , what are the direction of the field at a distance to the right of the wire? ANSWER: into the page out of the page Correct Part C What is the flux through the narrow shaded strip? Express your answer in terms of the appropriate quantities. ANSWER: = Correct Part D What is the total flux through the loop? Express your answer in terms of the appropriate quantities. ANSWER: = Correct Part E What is the induced emf in the loop? Express your answer in terms of the appropriate quantities. ANSWER: = Correct Part F Evaluate the numerical value of the induced emf if ANSWER: 5.06107 = Correct , , , and .

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