Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 853




1 Preface 2 Acknowledgements 3 References 4 The building blocks 5 The deciphered IVC inscriptions


This work is a sequel to Bharata the Language of the Harappans.By this we confirm 1. The inscriptions carry a language.The scripts are not symbols without a language. 2. The language of the IVC script is Bharata(vedic Sanskrit). 3. It is an Aryan language script. 4. It is not a Dravidian language script. This work is divided into two parts.The first part deals with the annals of history, archeology and epigraphy beginning with Anatolia and reaching IVC.It is a compilation of articles/study matter from various sources and different authors,sometimes even contradicting each other.We bring out the evidences favouring the Aryan and non- Daravidian IVC.We perform a net storming cum brainstorming with the available resources to locate the right readings of the inscriptions.The inscriptions are given multiple readings in the preliminary study,but we hope to bring out the exact readings later . We were aided by the powerful search engines of Google,the brilliant articles of the Wikipedia, Harappa.com etc.apart from the works of eminent individual authors in this endeavour. In the second part we give tentative readings for most of the IVC inscriptions available on the net. General readers can skip the first part and go to the second

part directly,though the first part is essential for a proper understanding of the evolution of history and the inscriptions themselves. I hope,the research fraternity on IVC will find this volume highly useful for further studies.



I am greatly indebted to the articles and works of many foundations,scholars and researchers in this field without whose works this volume would not have been possible.The sources for this volume is shown in the reference list. I gratefully acknowledge my thankfulness to those authors and their publishers whose articles I have used in this work either in whole or in part. Special mention may be made of

Google.com,Wikipedia.com,Harappa.com,Ancient scripts.com,Dr.Asko Parpola,Dr. I.Mahadevan,Dr.Brian Wells, Dr.Kalyanaraman,Dr.J.M.Kenoyer,

Dr.Subhash C Kak ,Dr.Nupam Mahajan,Dr.B.B.Lal,Roger D.Woodard,James Prinsep,Lionel D.Barnett , Jonathan Slocum and Sara E. Kimball ,Dr. Roy Davies and Glyn Davies , Dr.Colin Narbeth ,Dr.Marvin A.Powell,Dr.Jimmy Dunn,Dr.T.S.Subramanyan, etc.in this context whose articles constitute the

main body of this work.I have tried to contact all the original authors for their permissions,but due to non availability of addresses some of them could not be contacted .However I utilize this opportunity to express my indebtedness to them and thank them.

Vijaya Bhaarati


1.Google.com 2.Wikipedia.com. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/indus_valley_civilization;Articles on atalhyk, Gbekli Tepe,

Neval ori (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) etc.; palm/olive/cinnamon branch; Egyptian Apis(Hapis or asva or Hapi-ankh ) bull; Traditional Indian Bindi; Maasha bean(Vigna mungo) ; Goat; Sheep; Abrus precatorius; Tola (unit) ; Ratti; Grain;

Narmer palette of Egypt; Troy ounce; Carat; Akkadian;Asvattha, sal tree; Buchis cult; Mnevis; Sphinx; Griffin ; Pegasus; Lamassu; Garuda; Sikha ; Pharaoh; Gautama Buddha ; Assyria Altyndepe ; Bhadra River ; Barada; Battle of the Ten Kings ; List of Indian monarchs;

PhoenicianCoin2A.jpg (400 400 pixels, file size: 26 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg); The bulla of Remesses 11;

Papal bullas ; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Papal.bull.JPG; Money; The Laguna Copperplate Inscription; Coins ; Dram (unit); Shekel; Kohen Gadol; Mitre ; Atum; Rice; kramuka ; Sed( HebSed) Festival ; Gharial;


64. Monkey figurine; 63. Elephant head; 62. Turtle figurine; 27. Bull seal, Harappa;
154. Unicorn seal; 42. "Priest King."; 41. "Priest King."; Libation vessels.;M-18A; 135. Inscribed storage jar,M-1196; 126. Inscribed mold fragment; Ravi Phase Pot ; 102.Ravi Phase Motifs ; 101. Hand-built Pot ; 124. Inscribed Ravi sherd; Textile Evidence; 90. Molded tablet; 15. "Granary," Harappa; 2. Ox- or water buffalo-drawn cart with driver from Harappa; 133. Unicorn seal; 22. Toy carts, Nausharo.; 149. Three groups of tablets; 150. Stroke direction; 151. Two inscribed tablets; 156. Long rectangular seal with no animal motif; 60. Seal Fragment; 36. Silver seal, Mohenjo-daro.; 25. Unicorn Seal, Mohenjo-daro; 145. Unicorn seal; 8. "Great Bath," Mohenjo-daro. 4.Archeologydaily.com
Oldest modern human found in England; DNA study deals blow to theory of European origins; Into the Stone Age With a Scalpel: A Dig With Clues on Early Urban Life; Ancient Middle Eastern stone structures revealed by Google Earth; Solving the Mystery of a Megalithic Monument in the Land of Giant; More on Family ties doubted in Stone Age farmers; No Family Plots, Just Communal Burials In Ancient Settlement; Digging up Turkeys past. Totally stone age: James Mellaart at Catalhoyuk; Archaeologist argues worlds oldest temples were not temples at all; 9,000-year-old ancient figurines were toys not mother goddess statues are discovered; The earth mother of all neolithic discoveries; Pyramid Exploring Robot Reveals Hidden Hieroglyphs; Big Question for 2012: The Great Pyramids Secret Doors; Solving the Mystery of a 35,000 Year Old Statue; Udupi: Ancient Unicorn Idol Found at Kalya; Site hints at Asian roots for human genus; Ancient Egypt was destroyed by drought, discover Scottish experts; Company digging mine in Afghanistan unearths 2,600 year old Buddhist monastery; Ancient City Mysteriously Survived Mideast Civilization Collapse; Tamil Brahmi script found at Pattanam in Kerala ; Worlds Oldest Erotic Picture settlement found at Plocnik

; Worlds oldest Copper Age

5.Dr.Asko parpola for his works 1. a) Asko Parpola . 1994. Deciphering the Indus script/DTIS. 1994. Cambridge University Press; Cambridge

DTISpage21; DTIS-page32.Sumerian tablet from Uruk indicating 54 oxen and cows.; DTIS page 55 Indus script on a late Harappan seal Dmd-1.; DTIS page 55; DTISpage55. DTIS page 82; DTIS page 83. M-314; DTIS page 91. H-3305; DTISpage92.H102;

DTIS page92.M-318; DTIS page92. M-1203; DTIS page 108.DK-7535; DTISpage108.DK2119; DTIS page109 H3458 ; DTIS page 109 H-247; DTIS page 109.M- 478.; DTIS page 111 B12B6; DTIS page 111 C2B7; DTIS page111 A7B10; DTIS page 65.; DTIS page 132 M-228; DTISpage 132.BM120228; DTIS page181 IM87798; DTIS page 183; DTISpage183.Monochrome goblet painted with three star symbols from Mehrgarh.3000-2600 B.C; DTIS page 185. M-305.; DTIS page 188.M-304. ; DTIS page192.Shahr-i Sokhta,; DTIS page 194 .H-302; DTIS page194.H-3452; DTIS page 195 H-9.; DTIS page 213.Bull statuette with trefoil inlays from Uruk(w.16017).; DTIS page219. BM-123059; DTIS page 219.M-489B; DTIS page 227.H-182; DTISpage226.M-453; DTIS page 226.H-306 ; DTIS page228.H-147.Signs of fireplace and intersecting circles.; DTIS page 231 M172.The sign sequence Fig tree+ fish.; DTIS page 231 .H-6.Fig tree+two long vertical strokes. DTIS page 234.Two sets of copper tablets from Mohenjo-daro ;DTIS page 243.M-414 ; DTIS page 247.M-308; b) Sanskrit has also contributed to Indus civilization Dr.Asko Parpola http://www.deccanherald.com/content/79062/sanskrit-has-contributed-induscivilisation.html C) The Indus script and the wild ass http://beta.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/article481104.ece

6 .B. B. Lal, Director General (Retd.), Archaeological Survey of India Lecture given at the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), New Delhi ).
Why Perpetuate Myths? A Fresh Look at Ancient Indian History

http://www.cycleoftime.com/articles_view.php?codArtigo=54). 7. Roger D.Woodard

The Ancient languages of Asia minor- H i t t i t e , The Lycian alphabet; 8.

Copyright 2006 The Royal Society

Carob bean seeds 9. James


Coins, Weights, and Measures of British India 10 Lionel D. Barnett

Antiquities of India: An Account of the History and Culture of Ancient Hindustan


Ancient scripts.com


12. Jonathan Slocum and Sara E. Kimball


http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/hitol-BF-X.html 13. http://www.hindubooks.org/scriptures/manusmriti/ch8/ch8_191_200.htm

Manusmriti: The Laws of Manu 14. www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-15621229.html The Oxus river Civilization: the Bronze Age of central Asia.

15. P Gopakumar In his Hindu article The Viiraraaya FaNam

16. Accounting existed in Vedic India

17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/334517.stm
Earliest writing found 18.

Roy Davies & Glyn Davies, 1996 & 1999

A Comparative Chronology of Money 19. Colin Narbeth

The cowry shell as money 20

Marvin A. Powell

Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 39, No. 3 (1996)
Money in Ancient Mesopotamia 21.

Nupam.Mahajan@moffitt.org Ancient Indian coins


http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/weightsandmeasur es.html
Shekel 23. JewishGates.org
The History of Coins: How We Got From Shekels to Sela'im 24.


Rice grain 25. Jimmy

The Sed-festival

26. T.S. Subramanian

Bull-baiting of yore The Bhirrana potsherd

Harappan link

27. Iravatham Mahadevan, May 6 2006 | A Note on the Muruku Sign of the Indus Script in light of the Mayiladuthurai Stone Axe Discovery

28. The Australian coin collecting weblog

Proclamation Coin - Indian Rupee


Subhash C.Kak The Indus Script-Its Connection With Brahmi 30. J.M. Kenoyer

Hariyupia and the Rg Veda 31 .Akkadian dictionary Association Assyrophile de France

32. http://www.hindunet.org/hindu_history/sarasvati/html/Corpusmain.htm Corpus of Indus Inscriptions

33 The Indus script: texts,concordance and tables(ITCT).Iravatham Mahadevan.1977.ASI,New Delhi. 34.An Introduction to Indus writing (AIIW). Bryan wells. The University of Calgary . 1998. Canada.

35.Sumer. Wikipedia 15.2.2008(SWP). 36.Ancient Egypt Myth and History (AEMH). Geddes and Grosset Ltd. 1997. New Lanark. Scotland. 37A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian (ACDME). Raymond O Faulkner .1991. Griffith Institute. Oxford. 38The Hebrew Greek Key Word Study Bible. 1996. AMG International Inc. U.S.A. 39.Sanskrit - English Dictionary. Sir Monier Monier Williams. 1999. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi. 40Sanskrit Malayalam Dictionary. Kanippayyuur Sankaran Naambootirippaatu. 1996. Pancaangam Pustaka Saala, Kunnamkulam, Kerala. 41 Sabdataaraavali. Sriikantesvaram G. Padmanaabha Pilla .April 2000. National Book stall , Kottayam, Kerala. 42 Puraanic Encyclopedia (PEP). Vettam Maani. 1991. Current books, Kottayam. Kerala. 43 The Rigveda (RV). OMC Narayanan Nambotirippatu. 1995. D. C. Books .Kottayam. Kerala. 44 The Vedic people (VP). Their History and Geography: Rajesh Kochhar. 2000. Orient Longman. Hyderabad. India. 45 A Phrenologist Amongst The Todas (APATD). William E. Marshall. 1995. Asian Educational Services. New Delhi. 46 Iythareya Brahmanam(IB) .V.Balakrishnan,Dr.R.Leela Devi . 1992 .The Vidyarthi Mithram Book Depot,Kottayam,Kerala. 47.Life In Ancient India In The Age of The Mantras : P.T.Srinivas Iyengar .Asian

Educational Services-1991

Rare Indus seal discovered in Cholistan

PART ONE The Decipherment of the IVC inscriptions The Building Blocks-A Net.Brain Storming The sites for this session are listed in the reference.
1.Dr .Parpolas claims of a Dravidian Indus script
Dr Parpola claims that the Indus script is Dravidian and non- Aryan as the vedic asva (domesticated horse ) bones were not found in the early and mature Indus Valley Civilisation(IVC) phases.(Parpola. 1994. Deciphering the Indus script/DTIS :p 155 .The Horse Argument) . But there are other scholars who claim that horse bones were found at Harappa during this period and the following statements are myths created by vested interests . 2. Why Perpetuate Myths? A Fresh Look at Ancient Indian History .

by B. B. Lal, Director General (Retd.), Archaeological Survey of India Lecture given at the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), New Delhi ).

Myth 1: 'There was an Aryan Invasion of India' Myth 2: 'The Harappans were a Dravidian-speaking People' Myth 3: 'The Rigvedic Sarasvati was the Helmand of Afghanistan,' and

Myth 4: 'The Harappan Culture became Extinct' And here is how these myths came into being. In the nineteenth century a German scholar, F. Max Muller, dated the Vedas, on a very ad hoc basis, to 1200 BC. Granting that the Sutra literature may have existed in the sixth-fifth centuries BC, he assigned a duration of two hundred years to each of the preceding literary periods, namely those of the Aranyakas, Brahmanas and Vedas and thus arrived at the figure of 1200 BC for the last-named texts. However, when his own colleagues, like Goldstucker, Whitney and Wilson, challenged him, he stated that his dating was 'merely hypothetical' and confessed: 'Whether the Vedic hymns were composed in 1000 or 1500 or 2000 or 3000 BC, no power on earth will ever determine.' However, the saddest part of the story is that his blind followers, both in India and abroad, even today swear by 1200 BC and do not dare cross this Laksmana rekha. Be that as it may. The first quarter of the twentieth century witnessed the discovery of an altogether unknown civilization on the Indian subcontinent, datable to the third millennium BC. Called variously the Harappan, Indus or Indus-Sarasvati Civilization, it is characterised, amongst other things, by systematic town-planning, an underground drainage, excellently engraved seals, a monumental script, a refined system of weights and measures and some beautiful statuary. However, recent excavations have thrown new light on various other aspects of this civilization, which call for a fresh look at many issues connected with it. Radiocarbon dates indicate that its roots go back to the 5th millennium BC, while its peak period lay between 2600 and 2000 BC, after which began its decline. With the discovery of Harappan Civilization there also started a debate about its authors. Because of Max Muller's fatwa that the Vedas were not earlier than 1200 BC, it was argued that this civilization could not be associated with the Vedic people. Since the only other major language spoken on the subcontinent was the Dravidian it was but natural at that point of time to assume that the Dravidian-speakers were its authors. In 1946 Sir Mortimer Wheeler carried out further excavations at Harappa and discovered a fortification wall around one of the mounds. However, his interpretation of it was nothing more than a mere flight of imagination. Since the Rigveda refers to Indra as puramdara (destroyer of forts),

he jumped at the idea that there was an 'Aryan invasion' which destroyed the Harappan Civilization, and the latter became 'extinct'. To give a prop to his thesis, he referred to certain skeletal remains found at Mohenjo-daro, which, he held, provided evidence of a 'massacre' by the invaders. If these skeletons are at all to be associated with a massacre by invaders, one expects that these would have come from the latest level. But the hard fact is that these came from various levels, some from the middle and some from the late, and some were found in deposits which accumulated after the site had been abandoned. Thus, there is no case for a massacre; and Professor George F. Dales of the University of California, Berkeley, has rightly dubbed it as a 'mythical massacre'. Further, if there at all was an invasion, one expects at the site the weapons of warfare as also some remains of the material culture of the invaders. But there was no such evidence. On the other hand, there is a clear case of cultural continuity, not only at Mohenjo-daro but also at other Harappa Culture sites. Commenting on this issue, Lord Colin Renfrew (UK) avers: 'If one checks the dozen references in the Rigveda to the Seven Rivers, there is nothing in any of them that to me implies invasion... Despite Wheeler's comments, it is difficult to see what is particularly non-Aryan about the Indus Valley Civilization.' After a thorough analysis of the skeletal data, Professor Hemphill (of USA) holds: 'As for the question of biological continuity within the Indus Valley, two discontinuities appear to exist. The first occurs between 6000 and 4500 BC. The second occurs at some point after 800 BC but before 200 BC.' It is, thus, abundantly clear that no new people entered the Indus Valley between 4500 BC and 800 BC. So, where is any case for an 'Aryan invasion' around 1500-1200 BC? Now to the second myth, viz. the 'Harappan = Dravidian' equation. It has been made out that the Aryan invaders drove away the 'Dravidian-speaking' Harappans to South India but a small section somehow managed to stay on in Baluchistan, speaking the Brahui language. However, many scholars do not agree that Brahui belongs to the Dravidian group. Some even hold that the Brahui-speaking people migrated to that region from elsewhere during the medieval times. Further, if the so-called Dravidian-speaking Harappans were pushed down to South India, one expects some Harappan sites over there. But the hard fact is that in none of the four Dravidian-speaking sates of South India, viz. Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala do we have even a

single site of the Harappan culture !! On the other hand, what we do have in South India about that time is a neolithic culture. Do then the proponents of the 'Harappan = Dravidian' equation expect us to believe that the urban Harappans, on being sent away to South India, shed away overnight their urban characteristics and took to a Stone Age way of living? Again, it has been observed all over the world that even if the original inhabitants are pushed out of an area, some of the rivers, mountains and towns in that area continue to bear the original names. Thus, for example, even after the Europeans overran North America and gave their own names to the towns, such as New York, New Jersey, etc., many of the names of the towns and rivers given by the earlier inhabitants, viz. the Red Indians, may still be noted: for example, Chicago and Massachusetts those of towns and Missouri and Mississippi as of rivers. But in the entire region once occupied by the Harappans there is not even a single name of river, mountain or town which can claim a Dravidian origin. Why? The obvious answer is that the Harappans were not a Dravidian-speaking people. Let us deal with the third myth, viz. that the Helmand of Afghanistan was the Rigvedic Sarasvati. This is totally wrong. According to RV 10.75.5, it lay between the Yamuna and Sutlej (imam me Gange Yamune Sarasvati Sutudri stotam sachata Parusnya...). RV 3.23.4 states that the Drishadvati and Apaya were its tributaries (Drishadvatyam manusa Apayam Sarasvatyam revadagne didihi... ). Further, RV 7.95.2 clearly mentions that the Sarasvati flowed all the way from the mountains to the sea (ekachetat Sarasvati nadinam suchir yati giribhya a samudrat... ). In Afghanistan there are no rivers by the name of Yamuna and Sutlej, nor are there Drishadvati and Apaya. Further, there is no sea in Afghanistan. So how can the Rigvedic Sarasvati be placed there? All this evidence positive in the case of India and negative in the case of Afghanistan clinches the issue: the present-day Sarasvati-Ghaggar combine, though now dry at places, does represent the Rigvedic Sarasvati; the Helmand of Afghanistan does not. Earlier we had established that the Harappans were not a Dravidian-speaking people. Were then they the Sanskrit-speaking Vedic people? Against such an equation the following four objections have been raised. First, the Vedic Aryans were 'nomads', whereas the Harappan civilization had a major urban component. Secondly, the Vedas refer to the horse, whereas the Harappan Civilization is thought to be unfamiliar with it. Thirdly, the Vedic carts had spoked wheels, whereas the Harappan vehicles are supposed to be bereft of such wheels. And finally, since according to the dating of Max Muller the Vedas cannot be earlier than 1200 BC and the Harappan

Civilization belonged to the third millennium BC, how can the two be equated? Unlike nomads, the Vedic people lived a settled life and even constructed forts. In RV 10.101.8 the devotee's prayer is: '[O gods] make strong forts as of metal, safe from assailants (purahkrinadhvamayasi-radhrista). RV 4.30.20 refers to 'a hundred fortresses of stone'. Sometimes these had a hundred arms (RV 7.15.14: purbhava-satabhujih). The Vedic people carried on trade, not merely on land but also across the sea. RV 9.33.6 states: 'From every side, O Soma, for our profit, pour thou forth four seas filled with a thousand-fold riches (rayah samudranchaturo asmabhyam soma visvatah. Apavasva sahasrinah)'. Further, the ships used in sea-trade were not petty ones but could be as large as having a hundred oars (sataritra, RV.1.116.5). Even on the political and administrative fronts, the Vedic people were highly organised. Not only did they have sabhas and samitis which dealt with legislative and perhaps judiciary matters, but they also had a well-established hierarchy amongst the rulers, viz. Samrat, Rajan and Rajaka. Thus, in RV 6.27.8 Abhyavarti Chayamana is stated to be a Samrat (Sovereign), while RV 8.21.8 states that, dwelling beside the Sarasvati river, Chitra alone is the Rajan (king) while the rest are mere Rajakas (kinglings or petty chieftains). That these gradations were absolutely real is duly confirmed by the Satapatha Brahmana (V.1.1.12-13), which says: 'By offering the Rajasuya he becomes Raja and by the Vajapeya he becomes Samrat, and the office of the Rajan is lower and that of the Samraj, the higher (raja vai rajasuyenestva bhavati, samrat vajapeyena l avaram hi rajyam param samrajyam). The horse.: In his report on Mohenjo-daro, Mackay states: 'Perhaps the most interesting of the model animals is one that I personally take to represent the horse.' Wheeler also confirmed the view of Mackay. A lot more evidence has come to light since then. Lothal has yielded not only a terracotta figure of the horse but some faunal remains as well. On the faunal remains from Surkotada, the renowned international authority on horse-bones, Sandor Bokonyi, Hungary, states: 'The occurrence of true horse (Equus Caballus L.) was evidenced by the enamel pattern of the upper and lower cheek and teeth and by the size and form of the incisors and phalanges (toe bones).' In addition, there are quite a few other Harappan sites, such as Kalibangan and Rupnagar, which have yielded the faunal remains of the horse. The spoked wheel. It is absolutely wrong to say that the Harappans did not use

the spoked wheel. While it would be too much to expect the remains of wooden wheels from the excavations, because of the hot and humid climate of our country which destroys all organic material in the course of time - the Harappan Civilization is nearly 5,000 years old, the terracotta models, recovered from many Harappan sites, clearly establish that the Harappans were fully familiar with the spoked wheel. On the specimens found at Kalibangan and Rakhigarhi, the spokes of the wheel are shown by painted lines radiating from the central hub to the periphery, whereas in the case of specimens from Banawali these are executed in low relief - a technique which continued even into the historical times. Now to the chronological horizon of the Vedas. The Harappan settlement at Kalibangan in Rajasthan was abandoned, while it was still in a mature stage, because of the drying up of the adjacent Sarasvati river. This evidence has been thoroughly worked out by Italian and Indian hydrologists, and Raikes, the leader, aptly captions his paper: 'Kalibangan: Death from Natural Causes.' According to the radiocarbon dates, this abandonment took place around 2000-1900 BC. Eminent geologists, V. M. K. Puri and B. C. Verma, have demonstrated how the Sarasvati originated from the Himalayan glaciers and how subsequently its channel got blocked because of tectonic movements in the Himalayas, as a result of which the original channel dried up and its water got diverted to the Yamuna. Putting together the entire archaeological, radiocarbon-dating, hydrological, geological and literary evidence, the following conclusion becomes inescapable, viz. that since during the Rigvedic times the Sarasvati was a mighty flowing river and according to archaeological-radiocarbon-dating-cum-hydrological evidence this river dried up around 2000 BC, the Rigveda has got to be earlier than 2000 BC. How much earlier, it would, of course, be anybody's guess. As is absolutely clear from RV 10.75.5-6, the entire area right from the Ganga on the east to the Indus on the west was occupied by the Rigvedic Aryans. Further, since the Rigveda must be dated to a period prior to 2000 BC, a question may straightaway be posed: Which archaeological culture covered the entire region from the Ganga on the east to the Indus on the west during the period prior to 2000 BC? Please think coolly and dispassionately. If you do that, you cannot escape the inevitable conclusion: It was none other than the Harappan Civilization itself. However, in spite of such strong evidence in support of a Vedic = Harappan equation, it would be prudent, as I have all along

advocated, to put this equation on hold until the Harappan script is satisfactorily deciphered. It is needless to add that all the tall claims made so far in this respect are not tenable at all. There is also no truth in the fourth myth, viz. that the Harappa Culture became 'extinct'. What had really happened was that the curve of the Harappa Culture, which began to shoot up around 2600 BC and reached its peak, in the centuries that followed, began its downward journey around 2000 BC. Several factors seem to have contributed to it. Over-exploitation and consequent wearing out of the landscape must have led to a fall in agricultural production. Added to it was probably a change in the climate towards aridity. And no less significant was a marked fall in trade, both internal as well as external. As a result of all this, there was no longer the affluence that used to characterise this civilization. The cities began to disappear and there was a reversion to a rural scenario. Thus, there was no doubt a set-back in the standards of living but no extinction of the culture itself. In my recent book, The Sarasvati Flows On, I have dealt extensively with this aspect of continuity, giving comparable photographs of the Harappan objects and the present ones. In a nutshell, let it be stated here that whichever walk of life you talk about, you will find in it the reflection of the Harappa Culture: be it agriculture, cooking habits, personal make-up, ornaments, objects of toiletry, games played by children or adults, transport by road or river, folk tales, religious practices and so on. Here we give just a few examples. The excavation at Kalibangan has brought to light an agricultural field dating back to circa 2800 BC.It is characterised by a crisscross pattern of the furrows. Exactly the same pattern of ploughing the fields is followed even today in northern Rajasthan , Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh.Today mustard is grown in the widely-distanced furrows and chickpea in the narrower ones and it is most likely that these very crops were grown in a similar manner during the Harappan times; we do have evidence of both these items from the Harappan levels. Kalibangan has also yielded a linga-cum-yoni of the same type as is worshipped now. This very site, along with Banawali, Rakhigarhi and Lothal, has brought to light 'fire-altars', indicating rituals associated with fire. There were originally seven firealtars, some of which have been disturbed by a subsequent drain. There is a north-south wall at the back, indicating that the performer of the ritual had to face the east. In the front may be seen the lower half of a jar in which were found ash and charcoal, signifying that fire was kept ready for the ritual. Close to these fire-altars, on the left, there were a well and a bathing pavement, suggesting that a ceremonial bath constituted a part of the ritual. (It needs to be

clarified that these fire-altars have nothing to do with those of the Parsis.) It would appear to be a mere tale if it was stated that yogic asanas, which are now becoming fashionable even with the elites, were being already practised by the Harappans. A married Hindu woman usually applies sindura (vermilion) to the manga (the line of partition of the hair on the head). Though most surprising, yet it is a fact that Harappan ladies did the same,as evidenced by many female terracotta figurines. In these terracottas, the ornaments are painted yellow to indicate that these were made of gold, the hair is black, while a red colour has been applied in the manga, indicating the use of vermilion. Even the Hindu way of greeting with a namaste is rooted in the Harappan Culture, as shown by certain other terracotta figures. From the foregoing it must have become abundantly clear that all four theories, viz. that there was an 'Aryan Invasion of India', that the 'Harappans were a Dravidian-speaking People', that the 'Rigvedic Sarasvati is the Helmand of Afghanistan' and that there was an 'Extinction of the Harappa Culture', are nothing more than mere myths which, once created, have subconsciously been perpetuated. Since these have coloured our vision of India's past, the sooner these are cast away the better would it be. How long must we continue to bury our heads, ostrich-like, into the sand of ignorance? B B Lal as quoted in http://www.cycleoftime.com/articles_view.php?codArtigo=54). While this debate about the physical presence of the horse in Harappa continues,in my works I had pointed out that the word asva of the Bharata (svarasabdaveda) does not indicate the domesticated horse, but instead the sun/king/ elephant/buffalo/bull/ dawn etc. Dr.Parpola overlooked the possibility that before the horse riding Steppe Aryans, the crops farming Anatolian Aryans might have entered India(cf.the west to east shift of the settlements) and founded the Indus valley civilization from Mehergarh or even earlier .cf. Balter, Michael "Search for the Indo-Europeans: Were Kurgan horsemen or Anatolian farmers responsible for creating and spreading the world's most far-flung language family?". Science 303 (5662): 1323. . The IVC is a continuation of the earliest Neolithic settlements such as atalhyk (Pottery Neolithic), ayn (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A to Pottery Neolithic), Neval ori (PrePottery Neolithic B), Haclar (Pottery Neolithic), Gbekli Tepe (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and Mersin which are considered to be among the earliest human

settlements in the world. Cf. Thissen, Laurens Time trajectories for the Neolithic of Central Anatolia. CANeW Central Anatolian Neolithic e-Workshop. Refer Wikipedia.

3. Bharata is veda
Bhadra(cipher,king,bull,elephant,mountain,gold,maiden;srava-karNa) is paNa(money.cf.paatra is paana), pitri,Bharata,vrisha,svara, paada(feet,a quarter-1/4,bhaata-dawn,bhaasa-light,deva-god cf.the position of rise of the sungod),paatha,bhaasha,veda, bhaarata(fire,Hittite pahhur-fire cf.Bhaarata-Harappa-Hittite happiriancity;happiriyats-from city ) karsha, garta, naasa, maasa, maasha etc.Bhadra is kanaa, naaga and karNa.Naaga is nagna , nayana ,naanaka , naaNya,maanya etc. The feet of the bull is bhadraasana-the split strokes indicate the hoofs or the four feet. Karsha(karNa,naagara) is naagara,vaaca and bhaasha.Naagara is gira of naa(nara,nri).Thus Bharata is Bhaarata and Deva-naa-gara.The IVC is Bhaarata,their language is Bharata or veda or Deva(veda-bharata)naagara and its script is the Devanaagari itself, the oldest form of which is the Indo-Anatolian or IVC script.

4.Dr. Parpola gets confused

Saturday, July 03, 2010 Sanskrit has also contributed to Indus civilization Dr.Asko Parpola Yes, I think these two language families have been in contact with each other ever since the Indo-Aryan speakers entered South Asia. It is impossible to leave Indo-Aryan sources out of account. They have preserved very important information of Harappan heritage http://www.deccanherald.com/content/79062/sanskrit-has-contributed-induscivilisation.html Earlier(1994) the trojan horse created by Dr.Parpola performed an asvamedha in IVC supporting the Dravidian cause. In 2010 he made the wild ass bray for the same cause.Did the writers of the veda foresee this scenario when they said the ass is not led before the horse? Let us hope ,great scholars

like him will finally realise the truth and support its cause fully.

5.The Indus script and the wild ass

// <![CDATA[// Asko Parpola http://beta.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/article481104.ece

M-290a bhadra(paala-deva-paada-leg,1/4) garja-karsha) tiger). aasana(ass;garddabha-karta-gartakarsha(garja-


Bhadra(gold,1/4) being hiraNya and aasana being , aksha(sa) bhadraasana is the equivalent of hiraNyaaksha in several inscriptions. va=sa=tiger,na=khara=kha-ra=10 cf.das-ra(ass.dasa=10).khara+sa=karsha In one of his latest papers,Dr. Parpola has brought in a wild kazhuta(ass) along with the domesticated horse to support the Dravidian cause ..(The Hindu 23-06-2010) . He has equated the Harappan fish with the Dravidian miin(fish/star). His latest argument is that the harappan symbol the thigh of animals hind leg means old Tamil taal (leg) and the vedic word gardabha(donkey/ass) is a translation of the Tamil word kazhutai(donkey/ass) . Also he gives the word kazhutai the meaning kicker of the salt desert, from *kaZ(i) / *kaLLar saline soil and *utay to kick. According to him bones or depictions of the domestic horse and the donkey are not found in South Asia before 1600 BCE. Tamil kaZutai or donkey has cognates in Malayalam, Kota, Toda, Kannada, Kodagu, Tulu, Telugu, Kolami, Naiki, Parji, Gondi and Kuwi. Rigvedic gardabha(sabda-karamaking sound;hasa,dabhapadasabda-sound;garagira-speechgarjaroarkhara-ass) - donkey has no cognates in Iranian; it is a Dravidian loan word with the added Indo-Iranian animal name suffix bha.

The palm tree is called taala (cf.daana- donation,vana- tree,house,water,panapalm tree/paNa-Vishnu,money,praise,price,trade,chess,house,saalahouse,jaala/netra-net,aasana-seat) in Sanskrit from Proto-Dravidian *taaZ. Ironically he takes refuge in the myth of Dhenukavadha in Harivamsa 57 which refers to the palm(kala-taala- phaNa- pana-paNa- bhaNa-vana-the hand-hood-food-foot-wood mark ) emblem on Balaramas banner (tladhvaja) to further substantiate his theory. In the Rigveda, Indra is invited to drink Soma like a thirsty wild ass (gaura) drinking in a pond of salty soil (iriNaRiNa-debt;nri-king). But Dr.Parpola has not taken into account the fact that pana(Malayalam term) for palm(pana-taala) which is a pun for PaNa (hand,praise,money,wage,value or price,trade,barter,gambling,house,copper;pan -pun-speak) denote patra(parNa-leaf) which indicate bhadra(Bharata- king,auspiciousness,fire) or nripa (king) etc.He has also forgotten the dictum in RV.3.53.23 which states : Pasu manyamaana (considered like an animal the basis of money or worth) and na garddabham puro asvaannayanti-(the ass is not led before the horse). The Vedas considered at least 5 kinds of pasu (animal) as money (vasu-wealth) as men(purusha-manbhadra-bull,golddrava-fishdruugold;gaatrakarsha) ,

),horse (unicorn AV.11.2.9)

bullelephant , , water buffalo , goat and sheep .To these were added mulesand asses(garddabha.Mbh.6.135)

and camels and dogs (AV.3.10.6) . Probably Dr. Parpola has overlooked this also You restrained 10000 robbers for me. They gave me wealth 100 asses,100 sheep,100 dasas,noble nishka. RV.8.56.3 .The ass is money itself.This money as seen in the inscription was used by none other than the Harappan vedic Bharats as stated by the Rigveda itself.Note the garja(karsha,karaja,kharaja,garta) of the ass(khara,hara) and the Tiger(asva,simha,suura,vyaaghra,saarduulasara-5,duula-tola) indicated by the karsha(scratch) on the body which justifies the asvakharaja(mule;avasa-garta/karsharoyal throne).The dogs and goats are alsomade into garta and karsha as shown above.

parna(leaf,vasana-green leaf;vasna-money) nripa(king,bharaNarule,VaruNa-god) RiNa(debt)varna(letter) pana (palm patra-leaf,writ

Malayalam patta-leaf )bhadra(paadaraaja)-bull,king,gold,girl,auspiciousness; pana-palm of hand and the treepaNa( vasna-vasana cf. )-money ,Vishnuvana-tree,house;taaladaana-donation;saala-a house Saala the Saala tree-the abode of Vishnu. Balaraama being an avatar of Vishnu(Saala) got taala(palm) for his flag and siira(hala-plough,hana-kill,kara-hand,hara-fire,gaNagroup) for his weapon as Vishnu is suura(the sun,a tiger,a lion,a warrior).

Bala (


hand,tax,ray , , )Raama(nri-king,naama-mark on forehead,name) is hence paNa(paNaVasna-Vishnu) Raama(naama) . From kara(hand,kri,krii,kraya,traya,traa,srava,drava,bhadra) we have kal(count,sound-to count is to sound -whence count of sapta and sabda),kalagharsha-harsha--kalasa-kanaka(hamsa,simha,linga)-khala-gala-gal-gamgaN,gaNa-gaj,gaja,gara,gira,ghana,tul,tulaa,nakha-naada,paN-paNapaNasa,panca,vasna,pala-vaN-vana-sana(saasana,daana)hala,hana,hara,hari,hasta,panca, ,ashta,asta,dasa etc. .The hand is bent like the phaNa of the snake to form a paNa whence we have the bent bars of paNa . Kara(paNa-hand,tax) is pada(paada,paasa,bhaaga,bhaaj,bhadra,paNa,raaja cf.Gr.pous-foot,Sumer.kas-trader,has,penu-thigh cf.paNa and vedic

has(gaja)-ta,bhuja -kara-hand;hala-plough, agree) and haraNa/ caraNa(cf.L.crus-foot,crux-crosskarsha-garta-throne) is karsha.Hence both indicate values of 5 or 10 and Karsha or kreta(kraya).Deva(bhadra)-paada
, , , , , , , , , , etc. can indicate ,


kings majesty or bhadraasana(the throne or tribute to the throne).Paadavandana(obeisance by touching the foot) is shown by paadabandhana(binding the foot) in this script.Paada(deva,raaja,pa=ra or

P=R=bhadra-king and unicorn bull-elephant) is also the wheel

wheel + sha-man=karsha

,foot or column,foot as a measure=12 angula, a fourth part or quarter etc.Kara paNa (hand) is girvaaNa(praise),sara(arrow) paNa(phaNa-snake,baaNa-naaka-arrow) , sravaNa(ear) ,svarNa(gold)

etc.Pada(foot) is also bhaj(to divide,distribute,apportionto,share with;grant,bestow,supply,to obtain as ones share;put on garments etc. and is the counter part for
bhadra,aksha(gaja) which is also linked with such symbols as ,.sarpa,aksha


raksha-rakta-traata-tRita Tra kara + satraata/trita karsha(kara-hand,hara-ass;sa-snake,god;tatail garta


cf.Sed /wolf tail of Egyptiansghasra-Siva-the


Three horizontal lines of kshaara(raksha,bhasma-vasna) +yellow sandal (bhadra)+red circle(raksha) indicate the rising(udaya) sun mark applied by Hindus as the bindi on the forehead. The Sumerian has(thigh cf.cash),penu(thigh cf.paNaham) agrees well with the hind leg and palm(pana) scripts.

In the Harappan seals the fish

,the cross/swastika

, the


etc. symbols indicate paNa(Sumer.face-it is the face of the king;karsha is kahead of raaja-king.). PaNa is also Vishnu,money,copper-Kubera,parasuaxe,gopaala-king cf.
, go-(cow,arrow,eye)+bhaara(bera,baaNa,bhaama,viira)

Kuberagopaala. Cf.Indra, VaruNa, Kubera, Yama, Marut,Suurya,Agni etc.denote the king as per Manu.7.7.Money is the king.God is the king.Hence god is money and it is worshipped by touching

the netra-eyes to indicate the king) . Arka(the sun,copper) is argha(price) as

shown in the seal karsha(paNa Gr.chrysos-gold-garta-throne-svarNa,Gr.phainesthai-to appear,Lat.crus-foot,cornu-horn,crux-cross;Mal.,Pers.sarkaargovernment,Grk.keras-horn;Heb.heres-the sun)garta(throne;ka-head,raajakingkiriita-crown,sikhara-peak,harshaerection)bhadra(king,gold,bull,girl,elephant,star)panca (five)Daksha(prajaapati-king,a year) vasna(price,house,cloth)sankha(conch,shell)hasta(hand) haraNa(hand) hariNa(gold,deer/ibex) nakra(nose,upper timber of door frame ) .Hasta being Daksha (sakta-strong,sa-like,1;gaja-elephant) and panca,the unicorn is the figure of the hand itself with the four fingers forming the four feet and the thumb forming the single horn.In H-182 hence five(panca) bhadraasana ( tiger,garta,svastika,maasha,karsha,cakra) symbols are employed along with a



symbol. Bhadra(piita-yellow,piitha- aasana-a seat) is the colour of gold,lion,tiger,sandal,turmeric etc.and was considered auspicious(bhadra).

Viirabhadravaara(tail ,Gr.ouraa-a tail,Lat.auris-ear bhadra(gold,srava-karNa-ear,hariNa-gold) indicates gold

,Lat.aurum-gold)itself .

The ear is the ear of man/animals and the ear of corn also. Gardhabha (mule,ass) got its name not from the salt it kicked but from its

garja(cry, bray,roar.Hence raasabha-crier,brayer as given by Monier Williams. In Numbers 22:22-41 "The Lord opened the mouth of the donkey" (vs. 28) and it spoke to Balaam( , palm,paNam-praise). .Raasa-sound is raajaking.Hence sound symbols like the elephant, bull, tiger, lion, ass, ibex, trumpet,drum etc.indicate the king) .The Malayalam term kezhuka( to cry) and the Tamil term azhutal(cry) have links to the name kazhuta . Pan(palm) is to praise(cf.palm Sunday) and vaN is to sound.Hence animals that make vaNa(sound) by their garja(roar or cry or gira-speech or girrr.. like the elephant,tiger,lion,ass etc.) are symbols of paNa(praise of garta and price of goods cf. an invoice has the voice of a bull-bill) by the karsha (akshara,raksha,rakta,laksha)or maasha(naasa,naada) of suvarNa-svarNagoldsuparNa-Garuda).The bold karaja(claws or nails)of animals also indicate garta (cf.H-94),karsha or sankha(sa-like,with;nakha-nail). The garddabha(karsha,karshaka) on the Tiger(hari,bhadra,simha) is a symbolic representation of the garuts (wings) of the bhadra(tiger,bull,lion) or the kaparda (bun-paNa cf.M-308 where a man with six locks of hair(kesaraaja) on the bhadra(head) tames two tigers(bhadra-karsha) to make it a bhadraasva(viirabhadra-sacrificial victim) or the bhadra(bull,king,price) aasana(seat,aapaNa-market) also.The vartaka aasanas(hoofed/bronze seats)too, like the kaparda,indicate the garta/bhadraasana(throne).The palmpatra(leaf ) also indicate parna(wing) like that of suparNa(Garuda or garta-throne,king-wing-simha-lion) .Note the vulture(Garuda) seated on the back of the Apis(asva) bull to indicate bhadraasana(throne) .Purusha(man) bhadra(bull,elephant- the unicorn,noble,a virgin,gold),purusha vrishabha(bull ),purusha vyaaghra(tiger),purusha simha(lion) etc. are epithets for men of valour ,nobles and godkings and they were portrayed as half beast and half man like ardhanaariisvara( Siva as half woman and half man ), Narasimha(Vishnu as half lion and half man),Ganesa(half elephant and halfman) ,Apis bull,Sphinx,Pegasus,Griffin etc. Garddabha(bhadra-vaking like;prataapa-affluence;kara-tapataxburden;hara-padathe word ass cf.Heb.pered-a mule;parad-part,scatter indicate bhadraasana-bhadra amsa/asma-royal part/tax or stone itself) is used to indicate garta(throne)-pa (ruler,va-bull,tiger) or the king(bhadrabull,kingraasabha(raasa,naada-sound,raaja-king)-assRishabha-bullraajakingpraata-dawn;va-tiger+va-assvaa or vaana or naava or paNaprice,praise) as was done in the Bible where Jesus was praised(paNapalm,vaNa-kkam-praise) as the king(nripa,bharaNa-rule,parNa-leaf,wing) riding

a donkey (Matthew :21.5) on the Palm(taala,pana) Sunday to mark prataapa (glory,majesty) and prabhaata(dawn).The palm is the rising sun(baala arka-Bala Raama) with his rays like the taala leaves. The asterism of Asvini is called Dasra ( cf.Dasra festival when the sun transit the sign of Virgo;rajata-silver;dasa-ten) and dasra is an ass also or the ass is the asva(cf. the names of the Asvins are Naasatya and Dasra). Asva(avasa-king,the sun,uksha-bull,usha-dawn) is aasana(seat,body).Aasana(seat) is aasa(seat, face

cf.ass),asana(food,eating ),azana(throwing cf.M-312 where the bhadra-buffalo performs azana of panca(5,vasna=paNa) purusha-5 men to indicate bhadraasana-5 puruda or 5 gold). .A garta is the bhadr-aasana(royal/golden throne) or simh-aasana(lion/tiger throne) itself(bhadrasimha). Hence the ass(garta) is shown on the Tiger(bhadragold,king,suura-tiger,the sun/hari-Indra,Vishnu,horse,lion,gold, va/bha-suuratiger,Varuna) . Suura is cuuda(kuuta-crest,crown or saala/vaara-roof cf.Judah also is Bharata.).CaraNa(netra-king,sacrifice,eye,paadathe hind leg,bhadra paada-the holy feet,venerable bhadraasana(garta,karsha)bhaaraweightnaanaka-naaNaya-money cf.paada-foot,deva-god vaajafood,sacrifice,hampaNa cf.Ger.hamme) indicate hariNa(svarNa-gold), dharma(duty,righteousness cf.Dharmaraaja ) , netra(king,sacrifice),sraN(to grant; aja-ass+caraNa-legasasraanat = to grant,give,present ;with tiger it is a kings grant or grant of Tiger cowry money or karsha paNa . ) The tiger and the ass both being symbols of raaja(raa-sa king) it can indicate an endorsement of the kingship or a samraat(raaja-tama king of kings) also. Garja(roar) is gaja,kaca(kesa,kaasa)etc whence the suura(svara-Tiger) or the gardabha(garjabha,va,pa) can indicate Kesava(Vishnu;kaasa-light,pa-lord). Foot(Hitt.gir,Lat.crus,Bharata.raaja-raaga-rex-king,caraNa-feet) being bowed to touch is king and god. Food being bowed to eat is king and god.Eating food is eating the king(cf.Sed) and eating the god(cf.Holy Eucharist). Hood being phaNa(hood,paNa-vishnu,patra-wing) and naaga(raaga-raaja-king) is king(cf.Pharaoh) and god.Wood being patraasana is king(bhadraasana) and god.



Hari(tiger,Vishnu,Indra)+hara(ass,fire,Siva) Harihara( a personal name, name of a place of pilgrimage etc.) kara-hri (tax-collector?) dharana(scale cf. from paatra/paana-jar and patra/parna-leaf/wing as paNa and carana (hariNa-karsha-Lat.crus-foot,crux,cruciscross has four feet like

the garta-throne,crusta-shell)as dharana(Sarama a dog )we have ,the sun,grain,weight of ten pala(cf. thigh weighs.Ham is pan of balance etc. cf.Balaramas hala and a pala or paNa weight), saraNa(refuge), sreNi(vedic group of traders),carama(death), srii (dignity,auspiciousness,riches) , aasana(seat,buttocks) etc.cf.Sumer.sag-head,has-thigh,kas-trader Mal.gajaelephant,kaccavatam-trade,aksha-karsha. Interestingly the holy ca-raNa (feet;sa-RiNa- with debt or loan;sa-god,nriking;paada-deva,bhaasa,bhaata ) is matched by the ha-raNa(hand/palm/paNa)

as can be seen from this seal also (svarNa karsha)


where bhadraasana (raajadhaana-throne,palace)is shown by the vartaka(hoof,trader)of the bull for the seat and paNa by the crown vana(tree) and the paNa( finned hand) which form a sa(cross,bolt) across the kara ( hand,sara-arrow,five ) to indicate paNasa(trade) and karsha(money) by the harsha(bhrish-bristling ) of the hair . On the left hand

there are 8 paNa(cf. valaya ban-gle) and on the right there are 7 paNa making 15 karsha paNa.The inscription is Karsha (left to right ;hariNa-gold) and svarNa(gold;right to left). There are various aasanas(seat,posture) like the padmaasana,bhadraasana, vajraasana,viiraasana,svastikaasana,simhaasana etc. of which the bhadraasana is the most common in the inscriptions. In II Samuel 14:26, we read "shekels by the king's stone [b'even ha-melech cf.bhadra-aasana,asma ,asma-stone,mountain,sky]," that is, shekels stamped by the royal treasury as proof that they are perfect.The tiger-ass combine(bhadraasana) indicate the same. A DharaNa was reckoned variously as 10 palas=16 silver maashakas= 1 silver puraaNa or 1/10 satamaana=19 nishpaavas=2/5karsha =1/10 pala=24 raktikas etc. Hence this seal indicates dharana grain bhadraasana paNa .

Bhadraasana ( , etc.)indicate aasana(aasa-seat=ass) of bhadra/Bharata(the priest god king);asana(anna-food) of bhadra(rice or king cf.dharaNa);amsa(part,portion) of bhadra(the king cf. tax); bhadra(gold,stone)asman(precious stone,the sky);bhadra(king)aajna(order),bhadra(king,bull,gold,a virgin)-daana(saasana-sana-donation), patra(writ)- ajina(skin,hide) etc. Bhadra(stone,dasa-ten)-amsa(portion=tithe) or as aajna(order) like the ten commandments written on stone(bhadra cf.petra) slabs to make it the god kings orders),patra(writ)-aajna(order), bhadra(virgin)-aasana(sexual union cf. portraits of bull or man mating with a bhadra-young virgin shows bhadraasana) etc. The palm (taala-pana- vana-paNa) leaf symbol at the left end indicate money (paNa)or barter (paNa) or the material of the bulla( gold or copper or hide bill - bull or bulla). Taala is daana(donation) and saala(house).Patra(leaf) is patra(writ),bhadra(king,bull,auspiciousness,elephant etc.) . The Tiger can be the sacrificial fire Tiger(Jaatavedas or Varuna) or Bharata bhadra(the king) by

virtue of the bhadra(yellow or gold) colour and the palm patra mark(stripe) on its body . Thus this is a royal seal of karsha paNa weight probably stamped on packages of grain weighing a dharaNa and given as tax(paNabali) or sold from the granary or a shop. The tiger(suura-svar-the sun,sunshine;tulaa-balance,measure,a weight;harikrii-purchase,saardula - tulaadhara-trader,garta-throne,garja-roar,karshapaNa) is bhadra(Bharata or viirabhadra) or suura(tur,dru,asur as in Asur Bani Pal etc) or va (auspiciousness,Varuna,water cf.watermark on the rupee notes).With pada(paada-leg,holy feet;deva-deity,vasa-own,vaajasacrifice,food;vaaca-word) it make Turvasa( in the Rigveda),Drupada( in the Mahabharata),Varuna deva etc.Gardabha(hara-ass,kara-paNa-hand) is garta (throne) the basis for Indian karsha paNa(karaja-fingers,5 cf.Hitt.kessar-a hand,). The Palm( nripa- king cf.palm Sunday is kings Sunday .cf. Hyrcanus II issued lepta or half perutot bearing the palm-branch/flower . ) is paNa(praise,price) or bali(kara-tax,sacrifice cf.palm praise before the sacrifice of Christ the king.). In South India even today we can see people receive paNa(money) with their right hand(paNa -paaNa-paaNi-paana
, , etc.) cf.the

, holding the right elbow with the left hand in the paNa(flag,price,prize,praise form) and then touching both netra(nayana-naanaka-naaNya- manya eye,money,king,sacrifice) with this money (paNa)to indicate praise(paNa) of the king who issued the netra(paNa-money). Hence this can be read as Turvasa(Drupada,prabhaata) garta(bhadraasana-throne,king)/karsha paNa(money,praise)/nripa(king) also. Sice garja is pan/van it can also be understood as
paana-cup is the cup/hood/roof/hoof of the hand as in

Turvasa(Drupada)-paN(garta,van)-taala(palm,daana) also .Drupada was the king of the Pancaala kindom according to the Mahabharata. Drupada van-dana ( praise cf.bandhana-fettering by Arjuna on the orders of DroNa -throne) is worship /praise of the king / dawn. Hari (man,gold,sun,moon,bird,lion,tiger) is naaga(snake,elephant) and bhadra(gold,girl,bull,king etc.). Tiger itself is garta(karsha-paNa-money,haritiger,lion or hariNa-goldhari-natiger like or tiger gem-kings wealth).

Let us now examine a few terms for the ass in different languages: O.E.-assaarsaersears*ors(hind quarters,buttocks,seat.The hind leg of the seal agrees with this cf.Gr.auros-tail,aurum-gold also leads to bhadraasana as aurum=bhadra=gold/king/bull),O.Celt-as(s)in,Ger-esel,Goth-asilus,Lithasilas,Lat-asinus,Gr.-onos,Sumer-ansu .We have the word anus at the bottom or buttocks of the body.

The Bharata term aasa-na ( ) indicates a paatra(jar),bhadra(seat,king,a maiden),bhaarata(fire,kingdom of the Bharats) or vadana( face,vasna-price) and aja(mesha-ass) is a ram.Brass is bray-ass.Gunja is kamsa(kalasa,karsha,garta,camasa,cashaka,sankha-shell,sanghagroup,sankhya-count,number) .Gunj ( gurj,guj,gaja cf.
, , , ,

is to buzz or hum or sound.Naada-sound is

count.Naasa, nose is naaka-elephant,snake,the sun,king,arrow;nagnanaked,ganana-counting,maasha-count ,paada-feet , bhaara- weight of gunja,vaaha- bearer,river,bull,hand etc).Gunja is also guccha(bush,or bundle, a sankha-conch/pearl necklace of 32 strings,puccha-tail,gucchaka-bunch of peacock feathers.Panca(vasna,vacana-five) is puccha-tail and hasta(ha,gaj,ta-tail,sa-god,bird,snake).The tail is the hand.Viirabhadra(vaara bhadrased,bulls tail) indicates the number 5.Garddabha is hasta(hand,dasah-ten)va(hand) is 5 or 10(cf.das-ra,dasa-ten). The elephant-bhadra,bull-bhadra, lion-bhadra/simha,tiger-suura/bhadra,wheel-cakra,hand-hasta,headmasta,fish-matsa/miina etc.denote garja,harsha ,gunja and maasha(maanameasure). A seat being naaga(a ram,elephant,snake,sky whence the seat of Vishnu is the thousand hooded Sesha naaga as aakaasa-the sky is aga-the sun,snake;aasa-seat.) . In M-1186,the ass is replaced by the aja and the tiger(bhadra,suura,svar) is replaced by the man(puruda-purusha-suura-druugold,tree) on the treepot(bhadraasana-patraasana-druu-tree,gold;paatrapatra-bhadra-gold). Aasana is also the amza (shoulder,amsa-part or portion) of the bull or horse or the elephant.Hence bhadraasana is indicated by the patra(leaf) mark on the aasana(amza) of the bhadraasva( tiger or elephant or bull ) in several seals. Aasana (seat,naada-sound,daana-donation,gift,naasa-nose)is asva(bull,elephant,king) or vacana(speech,word,voice) or pada(word) or

paada(feet). Hence the tiger(garta-karsha) ass(asinus,onos,ansu) is garta aasana or bhadraasana itself. Rishabhauuru (thigh)-pada(foot) hind leg Ham-thigh-weigh,paNa-pan of tulaa-dhata- balancesama-equal;Mal.tutathigh.The thighs weigh or balance the body.

From the Tiger(karsha,bhadra/simha/hari/nri),ass(aasana,hara-ass,karatax),leg(pada,bhuja) and kara(hala,kala,gaNa) we have bhadraasana-pushkara ( the sun,one of the 5 Bharats) or bhadraasana pushkala( a measure=8 Kuncis=64 hand fuls;a particular weight of gold,alms to the extent of four mouthfuls of food etc.).Hari(Tiger)+hara(ass) Harihara(a name;Indra/VishnuRudra)

palm/olive/cinnamon branch(vasana)

indicate paNa

(prize,praise,money) whence in the ancient Olympics,the winner was greeted

In an archaic Athenian foundation myth, Athena won the patronship of Attica from Poseidon with the gift of the olive. The olive was sacred to Athena(paNa-the sun) and appeared on the Athenian coinage(paNa) to indicate paNa(money;vana-tree,leaf;pa-leaf,natwo,gem). The leafy branches of the olive tree - the olive leaf as a symbol of abundance, glory and peace - were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody wars(cf. viiraali pattum valayum. -ornamental shawl and bangle given by a king to a hero -is the equivalent of present day medals and certificates.ParNa(leaf) is karna(ear),karaNa(deed,writ),bharaNa(rule,nripaking),Varuna(godking) and varna(colour,alphabet,caste) etc. Patra-leaf is vastra and writ or certificate.)As emblems of benediction and purification, they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures; some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. Over the years, the olive has been the symbol of peace, wisdom, glory, fertility, power and pureness. The olive tree and olives are mentioned over 30 times in the Bible, in both the New and Old Testaments. It is one of the first plants mentioned in the Bible, and one of the most significant. For example, it was an olive leaf that a dove brought back to Noah to demonstrate that the flood was over. The Mount of Olives east of Jerusalem is mentioned several times. The Allegory of the Olive Tree in
with an olive branch medal(patra-leaf,writ;bhadra-king,gold).

chapter 5 of the Book of Jacob in the Book of Mormon, refers to the scattering and gathering of Israel. It compares the Israelites and gentiles to tame and wild olive trees. The olive tree itself, as well as olive oil and olives, play an important role in the Bible. The olive tree and olive oil are mentioned seven times in the Quran, and the olive is praised as a precious fruit.

The hali( kala-hala-plough;Kali is kaala-year also.) also agrees with this.cf. Kaliyuga raayan paNam of Kerala.Kaliyuga is hari(lion,tiger)-yuga(two). From the Tiger(bhadra,hari),ass(aasana,hara-hari),hind leg(paada=1/4) and hand(kara-hala-pala-a weight of 4 karsha or 1/100 tulaa) we have bhadraasana1/4 pala which is equivalent to a karsha paNa of gold which agrees with the karsha bhadraasana paNa reading. A hand(hasta-aksha-uksha-daksha =5 or V) has four horizontal fingers(digits
, cf.tetra drachm),the palm body and the thumb placed on it at right

angles to the fingers when open.The closed fist with the open thumb(stambha-pillar) is the number 1.The fingers form the 4 feet of the bull,the palm its body and the thumb the unicorn1.Its count is five(fingers=na,ha,bha;body=ba,pa,va,sa; the thumb=sa,ra whence hasta=panca=nripa=VaruNa etc).The buffaloe has its horn(thumb) down and its count is four.The double horn is formed by cupping or coupling or clapping of the hands either with overlap digits (dos-dasa-ten cf Roman numeral ten

)or without overlap of the

(hasta-ashta-8). Hence the double horned bull(mahaa-great,vaaha-bull,hand )has a count of 10(the horn is bent as the thumb has two phalanges). Kara(hand,trunk

of elephant,tax) is gira(word,hill).Athari(finger) is adri(hill).PaNa(paaNi,paN,vaN,kaN,vaaNi ) is count and sound.Capeta(the open hand=4+2=6 ) is

sabda(sound,sapta=7).Interestingly capeta is also the 6th lunar day of the bright half in
the month of Bhadrapada( pata-cloth, bhadra=bull,pada-foot patala-roof, patara-ray,

pada-foot whence hasta pata,hasta patala etc) . In the Holy mass the

priest crosses his raised hands holding gaatra(piilaasa) and rakta(kaasa) to produce gaatra-raksha and garta/bhadraasana/paretaasana/sa-vana bhadraasana in the following seals , . Note the




In k50ac a bhadra(va) is fixed as the aasana of the kanaa(na,maata-maasha) and the kiriita(karsha/garta/kreta/Heres) is made a vana to indicate paNa.In M1186 the bhadra(svar-suura) is replaced by the 7(svara) kanaa(woman;maatri,maata-mother;maatra-maasha-measure,netra-nayanaeye, nagna-naked;cf.gunja-nagna,nayana- has the form of the eye) and a purusha(puruda,bhadra) is seated(aasana) on a paatra(paana-paNa) with patra(leaf,wing;bhadra) to indicate bhadraasana and along with a naaga(mesha-maasha) and a bhadra(head,king,gold,girl,bull) is placed on an aasana to indicate bhadraasana. In H166a the bhadraasana is shown by the patra(bird,patri,syena,sasaadana saasa-aasana or bharadvaaja;bhadra) itself. In the Hindu temples Ficus trees(asvattha-patraasana-bhadraasana) and statues of bulls(bhadra aasana) are planted to indicate bhadraasana, a tradition started in Anatolia and matured through IVC. Hasta(hand,ass;ashta-8) being dasra(dos-hand,karsha-paNa-money) is ashta(8) and dasa(8+2=10) also.In counting the five fingers of a hand give panca=five=vasna=paNa=bhadra=patra.Four digits + 2 segments of the thumb=6. From two hands 6+6=12. 6 counted by the 5 digits of the other hand=30 and twice this is 60. Adding the 3 divisions of any one digit to the 4 fingers gives 7. The 4 digits of one hand added to the 4 on the other hand is 8 and the 5 on the other with one thumb up and one down as in is 9. Hence bhadraasana(paNa-nava) is also 9.Four digits counted twice by the two phalanges of the thumb gives 4x2=8 and twice this from both the hands is 16. The 4 digits of one hand counted by the four on the other hand also makes 16.16 counted by 5 is 80(cf.the Harappan system of weights and the karsha paNa/maasha etc. conversions where the 16,80 etc.units are made use of).The addition of all the fingers on both hands gives ten.The three phalanges of the four fingers counted by the thumb gives12 and with two from the thumb it is 14 and the two hands give 24 and 28.The 12 phalanges counted by the 5 digits of the other hand is also 60 and the 14

counted by the 5 digits is 70. Most of these numbers find mention in secret lores hence. The terms like cakriivanta(karsha,garja-roar;paN,vaN-to sound or pancafive),baaleya(paNya-trade or price;aalaapa-speech),raasabha(vrisha-bull,gartathrone,bhadra-bull,naada-sound,raasa-sound,raajaking),garddabha(karsha,garja;khara-ass,pada-word,paada-foot,a fourth part or a quarter,bhaaj-to divide),khara(gira-speechrava-sound) etc. indicate the bray of the ass or cowries or the prayer of a person also.A donkey or a Duncan boasts a tongue.Thus we can see that the vedic garddabha does not come from the Tamil Kazhutai as postulated by Dr. Parpola.

Garta(bhadraasana ) is karsha(garja-roar,grasa-graspswallowing;grassum=treasure) and sankha(cowrie).Hence it can indicate the karsha of Tiger cowries or karsha of gold (bhadra/hari,svar). From the bhadra(Tiger-karsha,king,writ), paada(leg,foot,1/4), garddabha(garta-karsha) and vana(leaf,paNa),we have the indication kings writ-1/4- karsha- paNa (8 ruttee). Naanaka(money) is aanana(aasa-vadana-face) and anna(grain,food

).Aasa is pada(paada-foot),vaaja(wing,food)

and aja

(ass,ayas,aes). A look at the ass (aya-fire,gold,a die,the number 4;ja-

born,sa-like,a bird as ayas-gold;auris-ear cf.bhadra-gold or bull is srava-ear,aurum-gold,ouroswild ox cf.tetra drachmadraviNa-goldsrava,sravaNa-ear,drava-fish = paNa=palm=haraNa=nakra) or paana ,dru-tree cf.

(paana=paatra=jar,paaNa=paNa=hand or

cup of palm=

(cf.patra-petal -betel) symbol indicate that it is

naaga(snake,elephant,sky,arrow,the sun) from which it is nagna,mesha,maasha,kanaa(bhadra),gaNana,naanaka,nigama,niyama,nayana,mahaa, vaaha,vaaja,hema,sa(bird),vi(bird) etc.Draghma or dram is paNa(fistful,phaNa-hood) itself from drakon(dragon) and drachme or drassesthai to grasp with the hand as in or

.The hand is the hood whence aksha(snake,wheel,eye) is the number five(aksha-hasta-hand) also.Aksha is karsha,panca and hasta.When the two hands

are cupped together we have the paNa

saasa-na(raa,daana-grant) figure of



or naaga(king,nagna-naked,kanaa-girl,gaNana-count,nigama-market

place cf.H-3305)also.Interestingly the jar,fish,the palm leaf etc. indicate paNa itself in different symbols or glyphs. Kara(vakra,va=sa=C) + sa karsha/garta/karaja/cakra/raksha/rakta etc.indicate king and gold.

Kara +

: : aya


traya(three,srii-surya-the sun-harta-

karsha.Heb.Heres) drava(fish)

raya(water,rayi-water,wealth;ravi-the sun)

rama(Raama,kaama,srii,wealth,nri-king) bhadra(bull,girl,gold,king,elephant) patra(writ,bird,word)srava(karNaear) Kara+na karaNa(lunar phase,a deed or writ) kreNa(purchase) ghraaNa(nose)


hariNa(a deer/ibex,gold) .KarNa patra(ear

lobes)indicate kreNa patra(purchase deed) or hariNa(gold) bhadra(gold,king). Raaja(king,raaj-to shine,raas-to sound) is raa(gold,sound,ra-fire,the sun)-aja(ass,ayas-gold,sagod,bird,snake),aasa(seat,face).Hence he is the sun god incarnate and has a golden throne. By allocating values of Tiger(karsha,mahaaraaja,simha, svar, gold, -sa),ass(aasana,aasata),leg(vada,vasa-pa,va),palm(paNa-na) it can be read as mahaaraajasa(of the king) paNa(price,money,praise,house,dice), simhaasana (saasa-king,garta-throne,karsha-gold money)paNa,svarNa(gold) paNa,sata(100) paNa etc.

Let us now examine the following bhadra(paNa-bull,patra-paNa-phaNaking,wing,writ,bill,hood;hari-Indra,lion,horse,gold,the sun)asva(horse,king;Yadava;aasana-seat;vasana-house;vasna-price;vaca-speech cf.AUM in vedic in mantras) depictions.

From Harappa.com


A Harappan unicorn. Note the garja(roar) on the horn (keras)and the gala/kantha(neck/throat) indicating kala(cal-culation,count) of karsha(pinda,count, pound,sound) and the salya(thorn) of gaNya(count) in the

script.Compare with m303 bhadra gaja(aksha)15 paNa, bhadravrishabha(bhadragarddabha,bhadranaaga,nagna bhadra), Bhadraasana karsha/bhadra kshatra or vritra paNa . The unicorn is the bhadranaaga(the king/gold/throne).Note the bhadra(horn-kiraNa-harina) which is the royal scepter of the priest king . Also note the patra(leaf)-symbol on the aasana(amsa-shoulder of asva-horse / bull/ass, elephant,king/the sun) of the asva to show bhadraasana(bhadraasva-samraat/viraat-emperor). A garta (mahaaviira- sacrificial vessel,Vishnu,garuda,lion,a white bull or horse)placed before the bhadra make it bhadraasana again,which is again endorsed by the semi circle of bhadras or dots to make it bhadraasana paNa(paNapaanajar).. Note the sisna (linga-phallus;saasana aajnaorder,daana-donation,gift) at the beginning of the inscription and the patra( bird,palmleaf ,bhadra-circle ) at the end of the inscription to make it a saasana(royal order or gift)-patra(writ,bhadra-king,gold,bull,elephant). Compare this with the worlds oldest (12,000-year-old ) erotic portrait of an erect penis from the Temple at Gobekli Tepe. The scorpion(druuna ) indicate druu(gold,dru-tree,horn)-na(gem) and DroNa(Bharadvaaja,throne).Aasana( headless body) on patra(bird) indicate bhadraasana-royal throne , bhadra saasana-royal order and bhadraasva(subha bhadra,siva bhadra,subha patra-best wishes).

The kingdom of the Bharats(bhadra-king,light) or Dronas(throne) were called Meluhha ( cf.semitic melukaah-kingship,royalty) by the Akkadians and the Sumerians.

From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

Gobekli Tepe erotic portrait . The scorpion(druuNa-Drona-sroNa-throne ) which is headless agrees with the kabandha or sroNa/sroNi-a headless body indicating aasana or throne on patra(bhadra-gold,tiger,king,elephant,girl,wheel) or hamsa(sankha-conch ) / simha(lion,tiger) or linga(phallus/palace).Gaatra(the body) and Harsha(sikhara-erection,crest) is hamsa/ garuda/ garta.In another portrait the erected phallus is held in the hands to indicate harsha, garta ,harta and karsha. VishNu(hamsa-the sun bird) is traditionally portrayed with a conch , wheel,club etc.also.This indicates the reach of the Anatolian Aryans in the Indus valley probably by 6000- 4500 B.C. as indicated by B.B.Lal.

From. Harappa.com

www.harappa.com/indus/27.html A zebu bull

A Harappan zebu bull with the inscription ekacakra( the only king,eka karsha=one karsha) -Rishabha (bhadra)naaga(aasa,maasha)- garta(karsha) vasna(paNa-bali= price,money,tax,weight,panca-five) Rishabha naaga is bhadraasana(royal throne).

From Harappa.com

www.harappa.com/indus/28.html A Harappan bison

bhadraasana panca karsha(bhadra,laksha=karsha) paNa ashtaapada

Rishabha-karsha-paNa or bhadraasana-paNa (stop/eka-one) cakra(ekacakra as in the previous seal) paNa(bhadraasana) Hala (kala =gala=paNa=phaNa= nava=raaja=aasa=aasana) karsha(daksha,raksha) hasta(daksha-paNa-vasna;muula-root,muulya-value) srii(spider,krii-buy,hari-gold,vasu=gold,8=vasna-value,pa-traa-sana) Bhadra(raaja,svarNa,paana,paNA,hala,gaNa,gala,kala)aasana(saasana,daana,naaga,nakra,asva,agna,aksha,daksha,bhaaga,vaaha)rishabha(bull)-ksha(field,lion,farmer)-paNa(barter,trade) or Rishabha( a name)kshapaNa(a nagna mendicant,whence nagna bhadra - rishabha is indicated). Bhadraasana(nava-9)- karsha(nakra,nagna,hariNa) paNa-vasna uurNanaabha(RiNa paNa or uurNa paNa-trade of wool;srii-krii)

bits and tips

3 liksha =1 raaja-sa-rshapa(black mustard)

3 raajasarshapa =1 white mustard 6 white mustard =1 barley-corn

3 barley-corns

=1 krishnala(raktikagunjakamsa)


+ na

: := gunja,panca,hamsa,kamsa,kunta,kantha-kamdhaa-neck-nishka
=1maasha(bean) =1suvarNa
bean = paNa ?

5 krishnala 16 maasha

4 suvarNa

=1 pala

=1 nishka(sankha,kalasa-shekel)

10 pala




Silver 2 krishnala(of silver) = 1 maashaka(silver) 16 maashaka = 1dharaNa(puraNa) 10 dharaNa = 1 satamana

Copper 1 karsha = karsha paNa or PaNa The lowest amercement = 250 paNa The highest amercement =1000 paNa

Karsha(gunja=amsu=angu=panca=vasna)=aksha= 12 or 16 maasha(digit=maaaasha,sha-she =barley corn)=80 ratti 4 digitx3=12x2=24 see 24 phalange =kara-ja of the angula karsha=aksha=agasa=aakaasa=aga-ja 4+4=8+2(thumb)=10,the thumbs lock to give roof or horn .Hence roof=ten as in fish +x+roof

The thumb makes it five as pan(4 cf pana-fin;fin-gerfin-kara Hence numerical value of paNa=4 as in harsha-garja) and fish

) + sa(1,



indicated by the karsha

( scratch.) . Hence paNa is often accompanied by the 4 dot or aya mark to make it paNya or tetra drachm. 7 paNa=gaNa Count with thumb on same hand=4x3=12 add2 of thumb=14(1+4=5=hand=v or fish) =hasta=caturdasa .Hence 5 digit=14 phalanges 4(digit) counted by 4 digit =16 x 5(hand)=80 =ratti in a karsha paNa Angana or angaNa =yard,court,area,woman =gaNana=kanaa=naaga=maasha=vaaja Tiger = va,sa,ha Bhadra(va-bull,Risha-rada=Rishabha) + vaaja =bha-rada-vaaja Anka=a hook,RV.1.162.13,curve esp.of women(anganaa = naa with anka) where cildren are carried=lap/breast,the body;anka =a number,cipher a figure or mark branded on an animal,any mark,line,stroke,ornament,stigma Cf.the marks on the neck and shoulder of the animals in the seals Aksha=balance,die,collar bone,snake,axle;104(1+4=5) angula=16 maasha=karsha=shodasa=sudaasa garta Ansa=part(cf.ounce),share,portion,inheritance,earnest money,stake in bettingRV.5.86.5 cf.phalangepaNa-ansa ANSU= thread, a minute particle,a point,end, cloth Ansa-shoulder,angle or corner of a quadrangle^ or paNamaashaansa portion deed bhadrapart bhaagavaaha(bull hand Sarakara^tax Dhanyadhaanya ) patrabhadrapatrawrit


ayasaadana,dhana,paNa,sana +ayadaanyasuunasomatanayason,dhanya,dhanasasaadhanasaasanadaana Aasana(seat)amsa(part,ounce)Panca(5 cf. + pancama,vandana,bandhana,vancana etc.)paNasabandha(barter) bhanj(bhanga-break,ruin cf.the palm broken into fingers) manca-cot ,paryanka(pari-anka cf. , )


manjaa( a she- goat,blossoms,a shoot or plant cf. cf.manjarii )

vis=man,vaisya =vis-aya ,vishaya,vidya vis=fish,pat-foot,vasa,vid feast=fist=beast Man being vis, the dvi-ja=dvi=vis(man)-sha(man) is made frm man and dvi as dvija,vis-vis saadara,satra,daatra,visvasta vispati Vish-to work as a servant vis-vavisva=full,wholevis-va Bharata vis garta or panca


VIS=SETTLEMENT,HOME VISASPATI-LORD OF THE HOUSE =kshatra,bhadra,rudra,vastra,vasna Camara bushy tail of Yak from which caamara(a royal insignia )is made Camara tamara-tin ,lead taamra-coppercaraNa-footcarama(death) Dharma(Yamagod of death) Sarama(a dog of death) srama(rest) mrita(dead) carma(skin,shield) samara(fight) Camuu(army,2 or more receptacles of soma ;Muusa-Moses) Camasachalice or ladle for drinking soma matsa(fish,soma,soNa,suuna)masta(head) kamsa(pot,jar;paana-bhaama-sun-paNa) gunjakarshasanga(sex)


kamja(hair,lotus) kanaka(gold) sankha(pearl)

sandha(agreement=paNa cf.Mal.canta-marketplace) simha(lion,tiger) hamsa(swan,the sun) harsha(bristling,sexual excitement or erection,palpitation) Kara(hand,tax) sara (arrow,water,five)nara(man,horse)paNa(barter) vana(tree,house,water) hara(fire,ass cf.nakra is a hara of fish or paNa) hari(lion,tiger,horse) nari(naari-lady) Saya(sex,hand) paNa(hand,money)

bits and tips

Karsha paNaSUNHeb.Heressuuryamuulya

svar(the sun-paNa ,sound-count,garja,cakra,harsha,garta,karsha) -Na(Mal.maNibell-money)


svar(the sun,sky,sound;vrisha,bhadra


svar=suurya(the sun)=paNa

(the sun,value,money) muulya(value) ,bearer/office

dhuriiya(dhurya-Vishnu-the sun-paNa,bull bearer ,plough

,dhurandhara-an office bearer,a noble man)

tulya(tulaa-equal) ,baaNa(arrow)

paNa(barter,money,Vishnu-the sun) paana(jar)


svarvrisha(Indra,bull,mouse) , pritha(palm) Fr.prise(grip,capturecf.prize,price,praise by hand grip and shake)karshakaasi (the sun, fist, handful paNa-xhandful,barter,money,the sunbhadraasana(throne,kiriitacrown ,crest,Lat.krista-Christ-the king,the xaviour-the church founded on the , peacocks crest

rock of Peter)sikha(sikhara;tuft on the cown of the head or comb,plume ) karaja(fingers,claws)


: :kretakiriita(

crown,bhadraasana-throne , ;pareta,pretacorpse cf.pyramid-pramiita-a corpse indicate the crown for worship)garja(roar;gaja,tiger,kan,gan,pan,van-to make sound) , gras(grip,grasp) harsha(hair raise)

haras(grasp,grip,beverage) harija(horizon) harit(bull,horse of the sun) harita(yellow,green) harta-the sunsvara(the sun-paNa,sound-count)

bhadra(bull,king,gold,mountain,elephant,maid wheel,eye,naaga-snake,gaja,5) agna

) aksha(bhadra,

(bharata,bhadra-fire,word cf Heb.daabar-to speak,taberaa-fire;Arab. badr-full moon Heb.beriyt-covenant,treaty,agreement cf.Mount Sinai;beredrain )agna(Heb.ankaeka(one) aksha(gaja,ksha-narasimha-king) agnaankakanaanagna kanaanakranaaga(naasamaasameshamaashanaazaraaga haraNahariNa(rugma,nishka) .Thus elephantgoatsnake

nakra , agna,aasana udra Mal.motiraring) na+ a,cipher)

ka+ ra





naaNakanayana(eye-go-cow,arrow bhaaraKuberacoppercobra
sa bird,snake

whence -naaga


.Also nahu-man-sha,da,ra

Nahusha-snake,a personal name,Heb.nehusaah,naahuscopper,bronze,made of bronze) cf.Kuberas navanidhi is paNa(copper,money) nidhi itself.Nava nidhis are padma, Mahaapadma, sankha, Makara, kacchapa, Mukunda,Nanda,Niila and kharva which are symbols of paNa(Lakshmi). bhadraakshagajakasakajakacaksha bhadraasanapatradaanabhadra amsaamsa patra


=ma KarshasargataarakagartakristaChrist(king)raksharakta(red,copper)


naga +





cf Mal.raaja vempaala(king cobra)


cobra, cobra is king,he is Kubera

Bhadra(bha-sun,star;tra-three,dhara-hill;sara-arrow,water,5;sira-head;kaasarabuffalo,bull;gaatra-body,garta-throne,garja-roar,harsha-hair raise;karsha ),paatra(pa-water,leaf;dharabearing,hill),kalasa,kanaka(gold;ka-head,naaga-king,elephant,snake) , paana, kamsa (gunja,hamsa,simha),

maana(gunja bhaga,bhadra),

sakala(potsherd,part,little),salka sankha



+sa =gaja,kas,naaga,kanaa,,nagna , paksha,kshaNa,








,krii,hari,Kuru,hara,hala,sara cf. the arrows,lion or tiger,plough etc.attached to the , , , , , )

hands to show garta/garja/karsha as in

arka(sun,copper)arghakala hala


jala(cf.jala kaNa) nabha(svar)


kara(hand)gajakala(mark,kalcalculate,laksha,raksha,rakta)gaNanagaharasarahala na-kara nakra nagara, makara, mriga, haraNa, hariNa(rukma,nishka),hari,kari,krii,giri,guru,Kuru,naari kshatrakshetradharmamaatramarta naagaraajagajaraajamahaaraaja the sun in the skyking on the earthbhuusurapotrihotripriestChristkrista-crest(priest king, Heb.kohen gadol)gartakarsha





, , , ) naaga , , naazanaasanaada(garja,drum,conch,bugle,shofar etc)naathamaasha meshadaana raajasaasana(order,gift)sanasamasara


Hence naada(sound cf.Mal.cuntu-lips ) indicate daana(gift) along with gaNana(count) , janana(birth cf.the census before the birth of the Christ) and snaana(bath) also.


bits and tips

na(ra) +na(ra)+ ka(sa)

naanakanaaNayanaaNyamaanyanaakanaagaraajaRaamanaama or bha+bha+rabhaara or bhadrapaada dha(bhaaratabhadrapaartha)?.

The body (gaatragartaka,sara

Bhri-gu(go) bhaara-




kaaya(body)=principal,capital,a house,body,trunk of tree.Hence god in tree is god in money and soul in body. Gaatra is kaasara,garta , karsha,raksha etc. kaayikaavriddhiinterest obtained .

nagnaagnaakshanaaga(mesha,maasha)naaNakagaNanakanaakarNa naakanakragaanakaamamahamakaramaahmaahaavaahaharaNa hariNahemagaja







karNanakrakaraNakreNakarmamakaradharmamaatramaatri svarNasvar(suura-tiger,sun,door)-na(like,two) dvaara(door)-na(like) toraNa(an arch or decoration or garlands cf.

, ,

Karsha is kola . Hence kolam(Rangoli) drawing by women in the morning to show karsha(Heres,king,husband) paNa(praise).

=svarNa paNa(bhadra-asva-paNa) .

Fence is pence(paNa,vasna,savana).

vri (pra)-maana pramaaNa(deed,document;pramaaNi-makhavan) viira-paNa

Viira paNa is simple document of money.


bhavana,bhaavana ,paavana,pavana,vipaNa,moola(angle=muulya?) aa-sa-na-daaasanda,aananda naagakariielephant,snake8 Hence the figure indicate king and number value also.

Fish as asvaking and sapta7


paaNa(hand) paana(jar,pot) baaNa(arrow) paNa(money,sun) , bhaama(the sun)

gajaaksha (karsha,tola , ) uksha(vrisha-karsha) ajakasakacacakra(karsha,Celtic-carros-chariot) Dakshasaha. Uksha and aja makes maa sound.Maa is to measure.Bhaama is bha(paNa-sun). PaNa is maa.

Hence DaksharaajaDakshiNa Sahadeva Lakshmana nagnanaaga(gaja,bhadra) DakshasaktaSakti(Bhadrakaali cf.H-3305 )


;kraya,arka,argha) griiva


hastagaja,aja(ta/sa) karakarikarajagarjagartagarut(Garuda) cakraDaksha(king,tax)harta(Heb.Heres) harsha haara haaraNa karaNa karNa nakra(nose,alligator) makara(Capricorn) kara(hand,tax)kalakalasa(sulka,shekel)galagaNagaragirapaNapaaNapaana (jar) baaNasama(tula)sarahara(fire,ass)hari(Indra,Vishnu,lion,tiger,gold) halahali,kaaLi haara(necklace,nishka) .


sma(body) +

sama(paNa,dhata-dhara-mass of gold or

heap of valuables given to Brahmanas) samaapana,maatra,dharma,daanadharma


pankaja(lotus) padma(lotus) vasna paNa

karNa patra(ear lobe) karaNa patra(deed writ) kreNa patra(purchase writ/deed) hariNa bhadra(gold) .Hasta(gaja) is daksha and paNa dakshiNa is usually placed on the

Betel (patra-aasana,bhadraasana,naaga patra) leaves(vanapaNa).Dakshina(south,sky,hastin) patra(bhadra) is Hastina(naaga,naaka,svarga,Dvaaraka) pura(bhadra).Hence the bhadra naaga(unicorn and H-3305nagnanaaga,naaka,kanaa,bhadra) denote Hastinaapura also.


sulka(laksha punch)-






vava vaaha-bull,hand

prahaara a necklace(nishka) vasna rasana(tongue,gold,chain worn around waist) Fetter bandha(paNa,vasna);sa-padasabda,sapta

Paada(foot,1/4) , pa(bha)-aasa(seat) deva(god).It is the king/sun/throne.Hence the feet is touched and worsipped.


paadabhaasabhaashapaathabhaajabhaagavaaja(food,wing,sacrifice) vaaha(bull,hand,river)

bandha(paNa,vasna,saya,raa,daa) Kalasa gala-sa sa Sankhasa-nakha =va-nakka



rava;drava,sarva,visva,visrava)krayatraya visa(a trader) SvarNa(raa

) is hariNa(gold cf.deer or hari-tiger,na-two) and is worn on karna(srava-ear;kara-

hand,na-two) as kundala(sundara-vishnu,beautiful;gunja-na-like;pandaaragarjana;gaja+dyuakshadyu-gaming,dice).

Man (purusha

) as bhadra(garta

) is va(bull,tiger) or na(nara) also.

Svar(sa,raa)-man(sha,garta) saasa(raaja-king,dasa-ten,sata-hundred) karsha paNasavanapaNasavasnaVishnupence to this day. Vyaaghra(vi-arka,argha) dravyagrasanakrisanasa-nkha NaavanaaganaakagnaapaNasavanita(kanaa)bandha Saya(sex,hand cf.Sumer.sayyamum-a buyer)paNa(hand,money,barter), Sapa; NY Cf. the man holding his phallus(palace,sisna-linga-simha-cihna-mark) to show

the king ,saasana(rule,donation;saadhana-penis,articles) paNa etc.

(karapaNavanasaya )+ sravasrii)bandha(agreement)



paNa traya kraya paNa

vasna(paNa) bandhahallowed hands,sinew,tendon= ,





kala paNa gana

ganana naaga gnaa kalaa kara






of lute) Interest Yaaga kayak y v

nri(king) nara

( man,sacrificial bull or horse) hari(horse,lion,gold) haari( a lady,trader) Vasna is yajna and panca.

Samaapa(sacrifice,sa-god,maapa-measure) You take a rod and measure the temple REV.21.15

paNa(Sumer.face,sun.God created man in his image .Genesis)sma(vadana-


vetana asmaasana













has a nabha

which is bhaala(phaala) .

=kaa + sara=gaatra,haatra,khecara,kaasara,kaarsha,saraava,sulka-paNa,garjana,girvaana Durga,Daksha


=sa+ma=sma;sulka,kara,karaja,karsha,raksha,rakta,gaja,Rik,raya,sva,sma,rava,sava,paNa, nava,naga,sana

naama(maana,daana),sam-pat(suvarNa) san(naasa,sama)-pat(bird) bhadradasa san-pat =ardhodaya=san-pat

Naasanaada(sound) maasa(volume) bhaara(weight)

The Cupped hand(yoni,phana,saadhana) receives the sceptre (linga,simhadonorsuurya) paNasaya




ka,va,sara(arrow),yajna(bali,head having given to the kingasvasava)


na ,bha=Rishabha saa-sana(naanaka) vasna(saravaNa-svarNadroNa-druuNa-throne)bhadraasana paNa daa-sana or dasa harana Rishabha dasa hariNa or Rishabha(bharata) saasa(desa,dasa) paNa cf.purusharshabha

Garjanakrisana(pearl,gold) Kavarasalt,kabarii,kavarii (plaited hair,hair bun)cowrie kara(hand,tax) kaasi(the sun,handful


sa(garta;tirindira,drughNa) garjagaja(kaasi) cash



Fish eating(asana,azana,aazana,aajna,saasana,sasana,hana,paNa,bali alligatoradri,atri,krisana(Krishna),grantha,girvaaNa,grasana(krisanapearl,gold .Sankhamukha is alligator),karsha paNa Cf.paNa(hand,haraNa) grasana(graaha-nakra-alligator)

Sira +paaNa girvaana compare with Kalibangan(k-50,k-65) sulka durga or vana durga or kanyaa sulka. VanapaNa(money,sun,house)naava gardabha paNa fishpaNa khara+ paana is shown as makaraasva fish eating alligator krenavacas Note the paNa symbols on the gala to make it girvaana.


=Na,naa,raa,va,u ;




paNaraaja paNa


bhadraasana paNa =


Saptaasvastava matsasatamana satamana 7 hence with shat(6) also shown. Pa(va-2)-tra(tri-3) being bhadra(king) the sixth portion was given to the king.Raaja being dasa(ten,desa-country) sometimes this is a 10th part.
SimhasulkaDurgaarghacakra catur sulka or catur kaarsha patravaahana





Naaga(kaama-desire,sex;raaga-king,red;gana-group,counting,,gaana-song;gaganasky;mahaa-great,buffalo;naanaka-coin,paNa-money,praise;phaNa-hood;nabha-sky;samaequal;saya-sex;jaya-the sun,victory; sava- a corpse;zava-water,sacrifice;hana-killing;hala-plough) Bhadraasana(aasana-seat on bhadra-maiden) is saya(sama,paNa,sava).

A naaga(snake,elephant,arrow,sky) ha s phaNa(hood)

and a kanaa(woman) has a patra(paNa,vana,phaNa;female organ)

Patra(pa,bhadra,Bharata,panca) raaja- panca-paNasa-vasna-aasana Bhadranaaga paNa panca(vasna,vanda,bandha) Panca bandha(bond) paNasa(commodity for sale)

Naaga is also the male organ(sisna) or sesame(tila-gingelly;sira-head

(sesamum indicum)



sreni paNa traaNa(dharaNa,dharma,marta) paNa Tanka(kanaka) sankha(cowrie)sangha(sreNi)sanga(sex) paN is saya.

bhaara,raaja,bhadra paada(holy feet) is bhadra naaga .Paada(foot,1/4) is naaga(snake,elephant cf.paada-foot-phaNa-hood) .Hence naaga is four.Bhadra(kanya,kanaa) is paada(four,1/4,feet).Cakra is karsha. Paada cakra is karsha=4 maasha.

kaaya=principal,capital,a house,body(gaatra),trunk of tree .Hence paNa(god) in vana(tree) is gold in money.

kaayikaa=interest obtained

kaaya + na =haayana,nishka,sana,saha

bhaajya(aajya,aasya)vaisya,bhaagyaentitled to a share,luck,good fortune Bhaajya(vaisya) to be shared or distributedvaisyapaNyapaaniiya(drink) Tolaka (sulka-tax Mal.cunkam)=80 ruttee=karsha itself. Dehabhaaratulaabhaara in temples. Sata-paNa is satamana(100 ruttee). Dasaraaja is ten kings or one king of desa(country).

Aadyamaasha is aasya(face)-naasa(nose) .

bits and tips

Kaakinisan-kha shell cypraea moneta= PaNa(patra , ) weight of copper used as a coin 20 maasha 4 kaakinii 4x5=20 Kaakini=20 kapardas or cowries 80 kaparda1 paNa ,author RV.1.160.1 Kaaka=a crow, tilaka

braided and knotted hair(bun), Rudra and Pushan

,a measure( cf droNacrow)

, or

, or

, or

Compare these Egyptian symbols with the IVC bird in cage, roof and patra-bhadra (birdbull). Vana is house(paNa) and pot(paana). Vaana is a triangle / leaf hollow made on walls .

Ribhu=property,wealthRV.4.37.5,Indra,agni,aadityaRV,arrowAV.1.2.3 Artists,builderRa(fire)-vi(bird) bird bull paatrapaanapan +jaala= Panjaala paNis or traders Philistines na+na+ya+nanaanayanaanakanagna cf H-3305 Also daana saasanasaadhana(sex organ) maanapa(penis) + na(vagina) shellsalkashekelkalasa Pa+napaNavala,avana,apna,aapaNa Patra panji(almanac,ball of cotton from which thread is spun),panjika(record book) etc. Vi(bird)+jaala(net)visaala (spacious); Visaala was a son of Ikshvaaku who founded the city of Visaala. It is also Sara(jala-jaala)-svatii. Na+ya(a)+nanayananaaNyamaanyapaNyavanya

Hence sara(leaf,bird,bull,cipher,king)sa,ra;netna(netra) Netra-patrapaNa(praise,price,house,phaNa,paana)patra(writ,king) vipaNasavanasaasana(daana) etc.

bits and tips

Naasa or aasa or aja

(avi-ram,Lat.avis-bird) is saakha or vayaa

(branch).Vyaapaara-trade is vayaa-bhaara


. or bhaarata or paartha.

Daksharaaja(with face of ram) is the year.He is devaraaja(Indra,Mitra-mudra) ,LakshmaNa (Daksha-maana,naama) etc.Raama(nri-mana) is the king and lakshmaNa is his face seal (paNa)or money.LakshmaNa rekha(lekha-writ) might be a money bulla.cf.maana=name of the Father of Agastya-the family of Maana;a building or house,an altar,measure,standard dimension,size,length,height;krishnala/raktika;2anjali(vol);100raktikas(cf.satamana and

(shat-dasa-sata)=5palas or paNas.Hence 20 raktika



bruupaNpaNa(suurya) sama(tulya-equal

suurya-the sundhurya

(Vishnu,bull,office bearer,ploughshare

) turiiya


fourth parttulya-equalsuunya-cipher) maa(to sound,bellow,roar,bleat cf. sound-count;to measure,mete out,mark off,to measure across,traverse)maanamaasha(bean)asma(stone) mesha(ram) naaza(nose) daanasaasanasadanasanasamapaNa mastabamadbaha.The pyramid or a tomb is the altar / residence of god.

saamaka=principal of a debt saamagri ka te saamagri

=sulka(tulaa) grantha(ghraana+da=grantha)=maashavarta

mukha is paNa(Sum.pana-face) whence vadana is vasna /Vishnu.

daa(to give,grant) pradaa(to give) pramaa(to measure,mete out,basis,foundation)



vartaka-horse shoe,a quail(sa-bird)

Srava(ear) dravya(wealth,gold) ; hence three lines-tra+vayaa

druvayaa. Traya is sa-raya and kraya.

dravyaa or

dra-vya-vasna or bhasma ;bhadraasana,vaahana;bhaajana,paavana,pavana etc.

dravya-maanavyaaptavyaa-abja-pada bhadraasana dra-va-na

asmai,Vyaasa,savya, ,gavya,vyaana,vyaaja,ravi ,maasa,maasha,maana,maagha

asmabhis,navya ,naaga-na

asmatra,dravyaa paatra maatradram




paNabalinetragharkratusacri-fice vana durga(k-50)paNa sulka rakshagartagarja(Mal.cinnam vili-simham vili-roar,loud cry)karshacakravrishavarsha akshaukshauktakakshapakshabhiksha

karaja(finger,claw,nail) is karsha.4 karsha is one pala.100 pala is one tulaa bhadra,pajra cf.Heb.seber,ka droNa,


paNa,na nishka

or trade(paNa) of DroNa(4 aadhakas) pajra(srava-rice) .


bits and tips

Gold Mohur (cf harina-gold,nakra-makara-capricorn or alligator)

The word 'Mohur'(cf.rukma-gold) or 'Mohor' is derived from Sanskrit word 'Mudra(mukha-face,sankhamukha is alligator.makara-mutala-mudra and the fish eating alligatorrukma paNa)' which means 'symbol', 'seal', as also 'ring' (as finger ornament cf.Malayalam-motiram-ring). Ancient rulers used to seal their documents and acts with their ring dipped in wax or ink. Also, when paying someone, a golden 'mudra' used to be granted. Centuries later, the word remained in use for currency in spite of the form changing from ring to coins. A Dam ( sansa paNataam-ratama)was a small Indian copper coin. The coin was first introduced by Sher Shah Suri during his rule of India between 1540 and 1545, along with Mohur, the gold coin and Rupiya the silver coin. Later on, the Mughal Emperors standardised the coin along with other silver (Rupiya) and gold (Mohur) coins in order to consolidate the monetary system across India. Dam sama cem-red sanadhana taamra=copper Samaradam makaramohursorna(gold) Su- parnaGaruda gold bhadrasu-patra Patra(writ)saasa-na(writ) hence sasa(hare) on copper plate. Sasa-na aaj(aja)-navasa-na(house,price) vaca-na(word) Kara(hand) paNaMal.vaLa(valaya-bangle-paNya mandala(circle,vyaaghranakha cf.H-94)
Aya=a die RV.10.116.9,the number 4,good luck paNa+aya paNya/bhadraasana

) vala(jaala-net)



jaya(good luck),daya,panta-ya(gambling) cf.caturbhuja(Vishnu=paNa)=caturbiija=caturbhadra

paNa-saPaN-da bandha = , , , , , , , , etc. Maan-yanaaN-yanayananaanakanagnanaaNamaanasaasana

saadhana(article,sex organ) Cf.maNi,patrasex organ,maanam nudity etc. The combination of symbols indicate changes in meanings.Thus
paNa(house=vana=bhavana) , , =paNa

bhadraasana, garbhagriha of a temple,hearth of a

house etc.

Sansana(eg. Aarbhavam samsati, Vaisva devam samsati )

praise,recitation,report,announcementpaNa Tri-pabhaarata,paartha,bhadra naaNayanaaNiya money,honour,integrity. naaNaka = a coin or anything stamped with an impression naaNaka pariiksha-the testing of coin naaNaka pariikshin=coin-tester

El is La Indra and Ra-Agni- the fire god of the Vedic Harappans.Israel is Indra and iisvara(god)-el(La,Ra) . Dvipatrasubhadra leaf+triangle Leaf +triangle seen from early times with bull+leaf

Kari KaraNa Cf.




mixed caste, the occupation of this class is writing and accounts

= writer, scribe


Tra +


The Sumerian poems, Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta and Enmerkar and Ensuhkeshdanna, report about the mysterious land of Aratta (Kramer 1959). In I.M. Diakonoffs (1983: 169) opinion, the town of Aratta was between Elam and India. This is probably another name of Harappa or Bhaarata(Aratta). Naasaraaja Haatra kedaara Kapilasya kedaara kapilabull? kaaLahala?MBh.3.6042 kapiape cf Apis

Kapila RV.10.27.16 cf brown cow kapikaaviravi-the sun hence saffron clad monks or sun kings. Matangasya kedaara matangaelephant Proto-Indo-Aryan sa means one (a prefix or a postfix), cf. particles s in the IndoEuropean languages, Indo-European *sem- one. Cf.ra=sa=ka=1

grihya =to be taken, grihyakreya Four yellow (bhadra- manjal-turmeric) dots on the four corners of invitation cards to indicate mangala or aya patracatur bhadraayaya bhaagya


paNya,catur bhadra paNa

trikaaya srii haya krii kaya grihya to be taken hridayahari-dvayatrikaaya graavanstones for pressing out the somaBrahman

Gala patrasilaa patra


sam-gala(kala),san-kara ,pa-tra,trigala,tri-kaala


mushkasulkasuuryaDurga naaka na-na-ka elephantunicorncoin Aksha(5,snake)astaashtauksha(bull) paNa hasta

janapadasamapadasana(jina,sara)padasampat(wealth) samvatmiinasamaa(year) saama pada sampadaccord,acquisition,possession sarajanasana sam-pat=to fly together

sampad (possession)

bhadraasana ( ) bhadrana

ja-nasara(5) cf.panca(5) janaasthe five racespanca krishtayas

bits and tips

karavana(vaLaban-gle) navapaana baaNa bandha,panca

BhadraHiraNya rajatam-hiranyamsilver sasa-netra=sasa-atreya RV.5.21 Argh=value ;arh=be worthy of ,counter balance

Varaaha argha

Argh ghar Vyaaghra AVlion simhasunaka sama arghasimhasulka,vyaaghra,rishabha,sinhasulka Vyaaghravikraya=sale

mudraaksha5 10+5 15mu(three)-kara(sara=5) 15
anna-da=giving food,Siva,Durga Krayin =buyer,purchaser =name of rudra=bhadra(bull,elephant)=vartaka(trader) Hence the bull&elephant seals indicate rudra , a trader and trade. Paana=paN (kri cf.van-kri as in =gana,kala =bhadra(bhaarata,vaasra,paNa= ) and sapta=aasana , , , , )

Bhadraasana (karsha) paNa

sanda(sandhi),pancaadasa=50 or sapta=7,satva visvaasa,vaaca, vaa-sa,panasa,savana,panca,bandha=sandha,dasa saasana=saadhana(item) Argha(vakra,kraya) gaNana= kalasa( a measure-drona,a man RV.10.32.9)=karna= =gnaa= =svarna=sulka=shodasa= =naaka


vaana baaNa

vipaNa,karsha,panca, paNa(paNa=house,money)/aakarsha . Also sa

=a,sa,vi whence


=raa(gold)= aja(gold)




pa-na paNa

The text accompanying the fish eating gharial(krisana pana or pana grantha) Dasa saadhana gaNana / dasa hema paNa Hema vasna paNa saasana(paalana) bhadraasana paNa kara bhuja Pushkara(naaga,pushkala=64 mushti,4 urula bhiksha=bhaksha sa,paNa,patra,maasha,bhadra,netra vasna saakha,sankha,paNa,sasana vi,vana,sva,dva,su,du,sara,sra,sabha=tarpana, saadhana,sulkadolaka(shodasha)=sulka aasana(aajna),dolaalitter,hammock,palanquin,swing, aajnaapana,tolaka(16 maasha),soma pushkala(with dot) ,bhana,pana kara,pana, pushkala,



pa ,bhi sa ,ka ka,ma,sa =bhasma,vasana maatra,druma,mitra,Rudra,sulka,svar


tolaka=16(shodasa=sudaasa) maasha=sulka=

tosadistilling RV.3.12.4,granting 1.169.5 tosa-tama cf.dos Mal.dosa

Vc "speech" is called the "mother of the Vedas cf.the mother goddess in H-3305" (BM, M-1186 bhaaga bha= ,ka= = =ear as in =bhaa-ka =sankha-ra or candra or paNa or vancana,pancama,vandana,mukha,mu-sa,sana,jina,raaja

sana kar na =

=sulka=srava=kraya=bhaga=bhaNa hence man=ga,na and the bull=

Bha-dra =rudra or bha=rava= ru karNa =kraya=srava=vikraya



Or karnapatra =krena patra or daana patra or 50 or bandha- na or vandana cf.holding ears During vandana. Or pancake(group of five as the count of the sankha) Saazana=desa-na=Sazana=chedana=daasana=dasama=daana=yasna=yaacana=yatna=asana=anna=ahna Daa(ta=tail= na(haraNa=hariNa=na)

Asta-house=ashta=-8 =hasta=hand,a star Asva=yasna=anna as a=ya, sa=ta,va=na

va =

=8 va=tiger,hand,house


= tree =bha-vana,bha-ka


=bhanasa=bandha,palisa,panTa,vanita,vanija,panca,sevana,savana,varta,svarna(na=p a cf paana,vana) =bhaa-ra-sa Sulka =sanga(sex)=sankha(zankhya-number,cowry) =panca=paNasa=bandha=vanda=vana(tree,water)-sa(bird,fish) =vanita(woman)=manusha(man)=gaa-tra=kaasara=haatra Sangamajangama

Jangama =sangama=san-gama(gong)

=drava =paNa=pa(water), bandha=paNTa

na(gem,kana)=vana(water)=nu =multiple bodies=

Ghraana(krena,graama,kraana,kurvaana) =graaha=nakra =fish eat alligator krena pana,traana paNaKRAANA=WILLINGLY,SPEEDILY RV.1.58.3,139.1;5.10.2=KURVAANA kravana=worshipping=RV.5.44.9 cf.kurbaana . japa=yava =girvaana


Bird in boat nava=boat,crow,praise,celebration =


nu-sara=mudra,ashta,sulka,rudra,soma = nava,vana,paNa+

nu(sanga=sankha) ,

=rudra,trina,mudra =karii,hari,kri,hri,gri

Vritra= Mitra=mudra=Krisana=yasana =yatra

ushtra-bull,dhaatri-bearer,druhu-name of a man or people;mukha=mudra=bhadra=bha-k-sana,sanga traya=sankha-traya=trisankhu Created by visvaamitra,sulka,sankha,krisana,tridasa,sriikara,vikraya,girvana,kriipaNa,

trisata=300 RV.1.164.48;AV.11.5.2

= tri-


bhiima =bhaanu=ruupa=



,ruupa,panda, pandaara

=vandana=bandana =pana patra =dravina=dravya=gold

=dos=panca=paNasa =bhaas,Vas,dasa,grantha,gra-nthi=krisana,kraanti =girvaana=krisana


raka +da=rakta ,krisana = vasna paNa =dasa bhasma,dasa panca,dasa paNasa Deva(dasa,sasa) vacana(asana) or pava maana



,griiva bandha=mriga=griiva=kraya ,krena,nagara,karana bandha

Karana bandha ( agree-ment=a-krii =griiva ) OR bhagavan =pavamaana=maghavan Graaha-hire-hri

PaNadhenu daana bali bandha

kettu(panta cf bhandaaram-paattam)

karam paNa

Thus the scripts were used as the scribe wanted at his will. refer krii ka kari





paNasa,griivavikrii sarapaNagirvanakrii-paNa sulka

Tar pana sara(panca)-pana

Tra(sara=five)- sara=kara=24 thumbs,kara=trunk,hand,crab=sara=2=5 kara+tra=sara=5=krisana=pearl fishpancasvamtvam saamagriikrisana kaa te saamagrii? What means have you at your disposal?
Sva=own tvam,tam Svar=(* the sun,sunshine,luster,,heaven)-na=gem,like=sun like

Cf.Barter sama-samavarta

paNapaanakalasa salkalaksha(mark)

Laksha is karsha. Maanama-aana or aana is ma

Paanabhaa-aana,bhaa-na bhadraasana paNa Nagara bhadraasana paNa

sa(laxmi) akshaasva

vaa-to procure garddabha garta-vaa(procure)


dharaNa triNacaraNasvarNa maasha sa-ka-raunicorn dharana=netra= horizontal bar is raksha always hence =ra+ka+sa=tri


suulasulkatulyacaraNa Shem(Genesis)jana(people)

: : bhadraasana
=Bha-ra-sa,sarva,sarpa,Sabara,svarNa. Thus Sabara(Bhaarata) is svara(the sun) and Agni/Indra destroyed his cities. bhakasa,vaasas,paksha bhaasa,sabhaa

bits and tips

Profit-gain-kanya Loss-nose-noose Two eyes with nose in between division sign
Daily subsistence of a family of three.

bha va-na paNa bha-va-na bhuvana paNa apnaaapaNavasnapanca PaNasa = article of trade or commerce PaNaarpana = making an agreement,contract PaNasthi and paNasthika = Cypraea moneta,a cowrie PaNataa,tva = price,value,stake PaNa = treaty,agreement,wages,hire,reward

karshapaNa saha(with) sara( ,aa) is sahasra(1000),aapaNa(market),aapana(receipt,pepper) etc.

bits and tips

gnaa=naaga vaa gnaa aaya -vyaya

vikatu- saarduula,dviipi,vyaaghra=vyayaargha=vikraya=vyaaghra jnaa=to know,acknowledgeAV.9.5.19



Samaajnaa =H3305=samjna=wife of the sun Snaa-to bathe

panca-gnaa jnaa =


Panca jnaa =savana jnaa savanna=panca =janapada

Fish or man +jnaa =savana

agna=tapana agna


= pancaagna =savanna

naga =paNa=nakai=mahaajanapada


=mahaa janapada

radi (elephant) =ratti =16 ratti suvarna=1/2 karshapana

rada=tooth ,tusk32 van-ita =mani-ta=panca=manuja=matsa=hasta=the four fingers form the fin and tail and the thumb is the pupil.Thus tetra and panca is shown by the fish.Tetra drachma =drughana(cf.the thorn glyphs)=drona=darsana=fish



Aga=naga a=na

Dravinam(ravi-na)=sravana(ear,srava-na),drakshana or drangshana=a tola or tolaka=sulka =mudra=bulla Dravina=money,Dravinas-vat karsha=karma=sravana=dravina Cf.deer goddess of kalibangan tulaka-kings counselor cf.sulka,tilaka
, , , ,

trisulpaNafish tail- ghar+ca-wheelpaNakarsha =

gaatraghasra(day,the sun,kumkum) haatrakarsha paNa


PaatrahaatrapaanapaNa sama

vrishakarsha +paana karsha paNA

mesha,maasha,hiraNya,svarNa girvaaNa



ka ,va,sa,gaja,kaca,vaca,saka,saha + raksha hiraNya + traya




dvija,raaga,naaga,raaja,hiraNyaaksha ;


Apna matsapaNavaahavaasa Suurya =su-raya ;tulya turvasa=suura+aja

Kaashta hastakesita Gen.33.19 gajacashhastacash,paNapaaNa and paana Panca=pana-sa=savana=bandha=vanda Pana=V=panca cf Roman=1/2 dasa=X HENCE pana is sa and pan paNa=paana=baaNa=sara=panca=1/2dasa=5.Hence jar=fish=5=hand Matsa=dasama=mina=siinai=dina=aksha=ahas=akta Fish=gir-vana =svaana=suuna=soma=girvanas
girvanas= girvana=dasama= =girvanas=vimsat=sankara

Aarakuuta,riiti = bronze

apna,bhadraasana paNa(vana-water cf.watermark)

Viirabhadravedapatravedic writ AsvidvayaAadi-TyaAsva-ToyaWaterbuffalo Toya Toy-to bathe(TAMIL) naava,naaga,kanaa,kalaa,nagna( as in H-

svar-Na .Hence

na +

ka,va,go +



Vaahana,vanakkam(va-tiger,kanaa-woman as in


.The tiger being va and lady being na it becomes vaana-baaNa-paana-PaNa also.) Since nama and kasa it is also naaza(nose),maasa,maasha,naasa(ruin),naasika(nose,nishka ) etc.


bits and tips

Aureousaurossvarnagoldhari Drumara drunakha kantaka- thorn,kantha-throat

bhadra paada bhadraasanagartakarsha Paadaraksha (footwear) is devagarta(kings throne).Hence one has to remove the sandals (cf.Exodus.3.5.Take off your sandals for the place where you are standing is holy ground) from the feet before worshipping the god(king) as trampling the sandals is trampling the god. This seal shows a vedic boustrophedon style of writing . bharga-bhaga(the sun,vulva,majesty,good fortune)-bhaaga-paada-bhagavat(holy)vaaha(10 kumbha or 2 prastha);bhuja(vaaha),bhoga,pramaaNa,praNaama. Hence it can be read as karsha-svarNa-raaja pra-maaNa.PramaaNa(bulla-bill) being the king itself deserves pranaaMa whence the pada(foot,word;kara-hand,gira-word;sira-head;Hitt.girfoot;deva-king,Lat.crus-foot,Celtic-carros-chariot) of the daatra(donor) was to be touched to get money and the nayana(netra-eye,king) of the taker was to be touched with the money(naaNya,maanya) to show praNaama(aadara-adoration) Shodasa(16,Sudaasa) karsha(garta)-suvarna-maapana(pramaaNa-standard). This shows a royal decree fixing the value of a suvarNa as 16 karsha. The paatra(kings jar) being measure of pratha(volume) is bhadra(king).The bhadra( kings stone) being measure of bhaara(weight) is bhadra(king).

kalasa -Scale Latin scala ladder leader- netra(king)

is raaja pramaaNa(royal decree/deed/bulla/bill). kalasakarshagarjagartaSukra(gold)

.Karsha being garta

sukla(silver) sulka(tax,price)

Central hole of coin = paNa NayananagnanaaNaka(sulka paNa) naagagnaagaNana PaNapamavawaterbhadrapatravana Hence waterkmark even today on rupee notes(bills). Nishka(golden vessel cf.paNa is paana)

patra( bhadra ) PrakarshaNa indicates drawing furrows,excellence,realizing by the use of a pledge more than the interest of the money lent upon it etc.Pra-garjana is pro-clamation.Hence we have Nishka-pra-garjana bhadra(king)/patra(writ/bulla).



kumbha(pot cf.prabha)


is another




is another reading.

PancakarshakarnaparnavarNa Panca sara is kaamadeva.

maa= aa = | or parNaparamabharaNabrahmabharmanripa Kara-kala-kana-gira-gala-jana-jala-sara=water,head-hala-gnaa-gnaa-ganana-pana-bhanaraya-vana(vasna=house,water,tree,leaf) All indicate money. bhuj=bent hece bent bar Na ganayaami tam trinena=I do not value him at a straw Kaaca=gaja=gana=gaja=ga-ganesa,going,sa-god,mountain Kalasa=kal-sa kal=to sound,to

count hence count on kara and gala Kalasasalkashellsulka Graahakaragaragiragrii(swallowing)girisriiswallowing, drink,beverage Griiva gri(to sprinkle
,ghri-to burn)

graava one who handles

the soma stone Graavan= originally two ,then 4 cf.graamani,girvaana,gram(gramme Fr.gramme , Lat.gramma,Grk.gramma a letter,a small weight.The IVC karsha paNa-weight -carry the same sense and the weight is denoted by letters/glyphs)
kalasakamsakarshacamasagunjasalkasulka sankha



soma,droNa(raaja),aasana,daana,saasana,sana,traaNa,kreNa na,naa(man cf matsamarta)


paNa , maana

kalasasulka karsha nishkaNaaraayaNa(VishnupaNa) krisana(gold,cowrie) paNakarsha-raajamaanaNaaga raaja- paNaMahaa-raaja-paNaMahaadaana paNa.

Naaga gnaa gananajanana,alligatorhand


Cf iiccha(fly)=iisa(god,goddess)ii(lakshmi)-sa(vi=bird)

sa-bird,god;snake,wind,Vishnu,Siva,Lakshmi,Gauri ,a carriage road,a fence sa- procuring,bestowing.Hence the figure of Lakshmi on coins and karshavarta(trade) agrees. H 3305 sa bhadra ii-sa sa-bhadra sa(procuring ,bestowing,laxmi) patra(bhadra) savitri(the sun) suuryatulya
drachm)dhuriiya(bull/unicorn) Shodasa suvarNa-maapana turiiya(fourth cf.tetra

paNa(trade,barter,the sun)

Sudaasa(shodasa)-suvarna -pramaaNa cakracaraNa(cf.hind leg),carama,dharma,Sudaasa Hence it is dharma cakra (Dharma raajaraaja dharma-duty of the king)also. Sudaasa deva-carama-pra-maaNa Sudaasa-deva-dharma-pramaana(braahmana) Sudaasa-deva-karana-pra-maaNa Shodasa-suvarna-paNa-maana(manaa) SuvarNa is name of a Deva gandharva, a particular weight of gold=1 karsha,=16 maasha=80Raktikaas=about175 grains troy Shodasa-maasha-suvarna-bhaara(ribhu=wealth RV.4.37.5 cf.ravi) mana-suvarNna-hari-upia compare with hari-ubhaya seals or pingala(simha-na) JAR=sata(shat,sasa,saasa) mana(paNa) Hence the bar is bent to make it manaa=moon=soma=sona(gold)

Hari(tiger,lion,snake,bull)-ubhayaHariupiaHarappa wheel,snake ubhaya

bits and tips

Turu-vasa(RV.2.15.5;4.30.17;5.31.8) Durvasa RV.5.2.6 Dru-pada(MBh) prabhaata(Dawn) Hari(tiger/lion)-ubhaya(two) cf.M-308 Hari-bhuuya(birth;bhuu-jabhuuta-born)praataBhaarataHarappa puru gurukuru hari-upia Kuru-kshetra(bhuuya)

BhujamKambusamkhasamkya Kambhukam-bhuugana-bhuu

paNa + aya

paNya Vanya


: :ayakraya

: :Graava,graaavansoma stone 4 nos kraya

maasha-vardhaka, smasru-vardhaka=carpenter vardhaki hasta=a carpenters measure of 42 inches. Varta=subsistence or allowance ,livelihood vartaka =existing,living Vartishnu=staying

Proto-Indo-Aryan ka or ga(cf.Tamil.kaaya) mean grain; wheat, kana grain, godhuma (suuna)

cf. Old Indian

annakaama(desirous of food RV.X.117.3) annatejas(having the vigour of food RV). Dhvasani(sprinkler ) =a cloud RV.1.164.29
dhvansayati=sparkle(agni RV.1.140.3) Dhvaanta=covered,veiled=night RV

Sasa-Atreya RV.5.21 The fish sign is often associated with the shad(six,sas-grain,corn) mark to show that is sada(Sed,rice) or Sasa( is corn or grass as per RV.cf.sasya-plant).Sasa is also the name

of an Aatreyar-author of RV.5.21.Sasa bhadra is rebus for Dasa

raaja(RV),Dasaratha(Raamaayana) etc.sasadasadesa(region,place,nation)

maasha(a bean,aweight of gold,a Rishi gana associated with RV.9.86.1-10)

aasanaasana(food) amza(shoulder) daana(saasanadonation) ansashare,earnest money, a lot,stake in betting RV.5.86.5

bits and tips

Saha-sra kalasa 1000

Karsha=weight of gold or silver=16 Maasha=80 Rettis=1/4 pala=1/400 of a Tulaa =176 grains troy;in common use 8 Rettis are given to the Maasha and the Karsha is then about 280 grains troy)

svar(the sun-iisvara,rakta,raksha,bhadra,vrisha,varsha,karsha,garta cf.vakaca)ra bha naNa svar-Na (nishka,rukma)




cf.bhaaravaaha -bhadra-baaNa


Mahaadhana-gold Mahaadruma-palmtree,Fig tree Mahaadhanu-siva Mahaanasa(kitchen) mahaaraaja-anaasa-araaja Woman-ka ,va+ka+va=vaaha,bhaaga,gaatra,karsha

H-3305 ,Ka +naaga Man=sa ,da,na


Sara=sa(god,bird,snake)-ra(fire) =raaja Kara=sara=raya Mahaa(magha-buffalo,festival,sacrifice,cow) paNa=sama=sana=dhana=phaNa naamaka=naaNaka paNa-sana=vasna=vasana=kshaNa vrika-karsha-garta-mriga-nripa-bharga


+ sa



cf.Dholavira sign board



THE APIS BULL http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apis_%28god%29 http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/bull.htm


Egyptian Apis(Hapis or asva or Hapi-ankh ) bull,30th dynasty,Louvre.

Apis in hieroglyphs

, or

, or

, or

cf.Harappan , , , , etc where the house(vasra,paNa,vana) symbol is associated with the price(paNa,paNasa,vasna,argha,vrisha Fr.pris,L.pretium,E.worth)- bull.

Note how the bull(bhadra-asva) is associated with a house(vaasravaasavasasva) and a bird (patravisasva) symbols! Asva is avasa(the sun,king,protection),aksha(eye,wheel,axis,five), ahas(day),vaasa(house,dress) and vaca(speech). Apis bull( asva bhadra) was pictured with his head facing up toward the sun(asva-avasa-the sun king,hari-the sun) and on his forehead he had a white triangle(patra , , bhadra).On his back was a figure of a vulture(patra,garta,garut-wing cf.Garuda,sasaadana,bharadvaaja,hari,hamsa) with outstretched wings(garut,garta), his right side had a crescent(vakra-bhadra) moon(soma bhadra,garta cf.bhadraasana), his tongue had the image of a scarab( graaha-

nakra-haraNa-kara-hand,gira-speech,a bulls head ), and finally, the hairs on his tail (kesin,vaara,viira,raaja) were doubled(harsha-garta). He is usually featured as a black statue, with a sun(bharata,avasa,asva) disk on his head. His horns curled around the sun disk holding it in place. Apis was always featured having a long fluffy tail( Note the tail of the unicorn bulls also .cf.viirabhadrabhadraasvasacrificial bull or horse;viiravaara-tail,roof,count), with extra detail around the tip. Indras horses are called muura RV.3.43.6(suura-tiger,the sun;muula-root,nriking,mri-death) and the Malayalam muuri is a breeding bull(asva-uksha).

(kara,keras,cornu,sekhara,horn, ka-K,va-V,U,sa-C C) +


(sana,tama,sama,na,bha,ma,va,raa) =naaka,kanaa,karna,naagara,karabha,Bharga, vaaca,vaaja,vaasa,bhaaga,vaaha etc.Va-tra is paatra (paana)or bhadra(deva,veda).Thus deva bhaasha is veda bhaasha .It is Bharata and it is devanaagara. Kara(hand,ray) is gira(speech) and sara( arrow,head,5;jala-water) .Gira is bhaasha.Bhaasha is bhaasa(light).

Kara(gira) is vaaha(river,hand,bull). Hence Kara-pati(the sun) is sara-pati

and gira-

pati.It is Sarasvati or Giishpati .She is a nadi(river ,dina-day, jina-the sun) also.Thus the goddess of speech is the sun and the river Sarasvati and the Bharats lived on the banks of this river.

7.DNA study deals blow to theory of European origins

August, 24 2011

From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

BBC A new study deals a blow to the idea that most European men are descended from farmers who migrated from the Near East 5,000 or 10,000 years ago. The latest research indicates that most of Europe's males trace a line of descent to stone-age hunters. Patricia Balaresque and colleagues at the University of Leicester published a paper in 2010 showing that the genetic diversity of R-M269 increases as one moves east reaching a peak in Anatolia (modern Turkey) suggesting farmers spread westwards from the area that is now Turkey, bringing with them a new economy and way of life.

7 .Into the Stone Age With a Scalpel: A Dig With Clues on Early Urban Life
September, 09 2011 From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

New York Times At the Catalhoyuk Research Project, archaeologists are excavating a 9,000 year old Neolithic village where they came across a

painting with deep reds and reddish oranges thought to be made with red ochre and cinnabar. Rakta(raaga-red,blood,love,king ;Daksha) being raksha(protection,raaja-king) this shows a protected area or area of a chieftain/ king or kshetraaltar/temple.PaNa(hand,Daksha) is the sun god.Aruna(Varuna) is red and arunodaya is dawn.It is Iisa(si-Siva-subha-usha-sava or bhadra-praatar).It is miina(niNa-blood).It is the field of blood-Akkaldaama(agna,arka-the sun,daama-domos-house)-the Potters fieldwhere king Sudas ushas won the battle of the ten kings,the devas won the ten battles against the asuras,Judas-ushas-committed suicide etc.

It shows that paNa(hand,house) or vana is house and hand.Kara(hand) is ghar(ghouse) cf.

, , .The palm form the floor,the fingers the pillars and the thumb the roof .

of the house whence a count of 4 or 6 is also achieved as in

Catalhoyuk - people occupied mud-brick houses from about 7400 B.C. to about 6000 B.C. - is 60 kilometers, or 37 miles, southeast of Konya in central Turkey. Their houses were uniformly rectangular, and entered by holes in the roof rather than front doors. Each had a hearth and an oven, plus platforms that seemed to have been used for sleeping. When a new house was needed, it was built atop the old one. The houses also served as cemeteries: The dead were buried beneath the floor. Cf.the Harappans followed this and the Keralites do this even now.PaNa(hand) is praise,the sun,a house and piNa( kunapa-sava-a corpse). Another find this summer was a row of 11 handprints inside a house and above a burial platform. Still another was the discovery of a young calf's head(bhadraking,auspicious,fire;it can indicate fire or the king like the peepul and its leaf) that had been painted red(raaja-raksha-rakta-red,hence rakshaa bhadraprotected,pareta-dead,praatar-dawn;the red rising sun) and installed in a house, above a platform that covered nine burials. The beginning of modern religions can be traced to these signs.

Compare this with the cross with the R.I.P later.The cross is raaja-king,rakshathraa-protection,salvation and sa(si)rass-head itself. Sava(corpse,asva-horse,avasa-king) subha(auspicious) siva(auspicious,Sivagod,deva-god) usha(dawn;udaya-sunrise;u-Siva,saya-sex;jaya-the sun;iisaana-the angle of Iisa-Siva is the northeast indicating dawn.It is miina-Pisces- whose symbol is two fish in sex;aayudha-weapon) pada(foot,deva) praatar(dawn) bhadra(king,bull) bhaarata(fire) pareta(dead) pramiita(dead,pyramid- a meta / harmya/ palace/ house of the dead and pyre-fire).The Christians believe that the Christ(the sun god) resurrected from the dead(pretapraatar-dawn). A Tau(sava-taya-saya-salvation) cross is a sava garta(cross,throne,tomb). The sava(pareta,bhaarata) on the cross is the bhadra(deva) on the garta(throne). Ayudha-weapon being udaya-rise ,it was kept with the pareta to lead his soul to the heavens with the rising Sol.The Hindus perform the Aayudha(udaya) puuja(worhip)/Mahaa Navami/Dasra with great festivities even today when the rising sun of the day or Devi(ravi-the sun) is in the sign of sunset(KanyaVirgo,sandhya-dusk). Vishnu is shown with a gada(aayudha),Raama with a baaNa(aayudha),Muruka/St.Thomas with with a vel(spear-aayudha) to show udaya. In the Asvamedha the sacrificed sava(deva-king)s jaayaa(wife,saya-sex) had to perform saya(sex,haya-asva-horse cf.the bull mating with a woman in the Harappan seals showing asvamedha as in Mackay1943:pl.51:13) to give him(the sava) taya(salvation,moksha-the heavens) by udaya..The udaka(water,udayasunrise)-kriya(act,kriya-Aries-the sign of sunrise) where the burnt ash of the dead is flown through rivers also ensures the same.The Egyptians built the great pyramids with the same idea to worship the sava( the dead king)and thereby jaya( the rising sun) and usha(dawn).At dawn and at dusk the sun appears as a red dot (raktarudhira-blood;Rudra-Siva;rud-red,ra-fire,the sun;Ra-Egyptian sungod)surrounded by yellow light(bhadra-king,bull,gold,Siva-Rudra) in the bluesky emerging from or merging into darkness. This is portrayed by the tilaka/bindi of three grey finger lines of bhasma(vibhuuti-holy ash) with a sandal(bhadra- yellow) circle encompassing a kunkuma(sinduura-rakta-red) bindu or dot at the centre to form tripundra. Rakta(red)is raksha(taya) and garta.Bhadra is auspicious,king;praatar-dawn;paartha-king etc.Bhasma (savam- a corpse) is bha(light,the sun;pa-water,king)-sma(face,snaa-bathe,aasanaseat);pacana(fire);bhajana(worship), padma( a lotus); vasana(dress,house),vadana(face),vand(praise) etc. Kara(the hand) with paNa(the two circles) is girvaaNa(praise).Bhasma being the aasana(seat) of pa(king) is bhadraasana or it is garut(wing) of Garuda(garta-king) .Thus the raktabhadra in the bhasma is the bloodsmeared corpse of the Christ on the cross(bhadraasanadawn,hearth,throne) or the bhadraasvas(sphinx,lamassu,griffin,unicorn etc.) themselves. Vishnu worshippers apply a bhadra(sandal-candan) mark on forehead like a U or , Siva worshippers apply holy ash in the form of three horizontal lines, Devi worshippers apply a red dot of kumkum and so on on the phaala( forehead,paala-

king,bhaata-dawn,bhaasa-light,paada-feet) in the place of the Aajna(aasana,sma) Cakra(bhadra,garta). Thus



saving,excelling,crossing,passage,magical spell) eka-raaja(bhadra,bhadraasana) paatra,paana,paNa


( deer hooves cf.four dots indicate 4 claws or 4 fingers) in

, , etc.

the sealscripts as in


Bhadraasana is the foot/ hoof/claws of the bhadra(asva,hariNabull,tiger,elephant,deer etc.) or the patra(bhaga-vaaha-pudenda ) and

aasana(buttocks) of a bhadra(maiden or barley.cf.yava-barley,yamatwo;gird,girth,girl-garta) etc.Vartaka(hoof of bull/horse) also indicate a trader, Bronze etc. RV.7.18.19 mentions siirsha(heads) of asva(bull,king,horse;the kings head is money) as bali(gifts,tax cf.paNi a tax collector? RV.10.108 portrayng them as demons watching over treasures indicate this.Being tax-collectors they were tormentors or enemies of the people.) to Indra(netra-king). Hence the jar(paatra-bhadra-formed from a pair of legs of the bull) is shown with two(split hooves or claws) or three hoof marks (the hearth is the hoof of the bull-bhadra or bhadraasana).

The paintings seem to be concentrated around burial platforms intended to protect people from the dead, or to protect the dead from people. The people kept their houses very clean."(cf.IVC) Archeologists are trying to understand why they chose this spot to live;why they were so interested in bulls?;why they were using certain geometric designs? etc.(cf.IVC)

8.Ancient Middle Eastern stone structures revealed by Google Earth

October, 30 2011 From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

The National In the 1920s, Royal Air Force pilots flying airmail routes from Cairo to Baghdad noticed in the lava fields of Syria, eastern Jordan and Saudi Arabia

work of the Bharatas?

Is these the

thousands of elaborate stone wheels, measuring up to 70 metres wide and visible only from the sky. The structures, classified into sub-categories including wheels, rings, pendants and cairns, differ slightly across the region but most share striking similarities. Wheels(bhadra-preta-pareta-pramiita-pyramid-dead) are "large circular or subcircular enclosures, usually with thick walls, often with one or more internal partitions of equal thickness that resemble the spokes of a wheel"; while rings are small versions that can be internally divided or not. Most numerous are the pendants, consisting of a head(bhadra) and a tail(bhadra has a vaara to indicateviirabhadra, bhadraasana and paretaasana).

In the Jeddah sample no kites(patra,pareta, Egyptian ka number in the hundreds in Jordan, were found.

cf bhadra-patra-kawhence the unicorn bull and winged bulls is ka-sa,ksha-narasimha,gaja-elephant), which

No one knows what they were for. The kites' function is largely guesswork. They might have been large traps for corralling oryx or gazelle.

"There are three wheels(cf. ) at Wisad which are really bizarre.The burials are made at the same time the wheels are.cf.the wheel is the cross of R.I.P

Compare this with H-182 from Harappa.





10),raa,daabhadraasana(saasana-daana-suvarNa) karsha paNakarshapaNa netra(2) 55 paNa(tiger) karsha(drummer)paNa dasa raaja paNa

Dasaraaja is desa raaja,Dasaratha,dasra-aja(rising Indra) etc.

karsha(svastika)paNa(netra, ladder-leader) bhadraasana Patra(bhadra,netra,paNa,ka,sa,vi)-raaja(naaga,naga,raaga,saaza) panca ( vasna,paNasa)-garta(karsha) or visaakha/kanaka-panca-karsha or panca karsha gaNa patra(writ) . Patra(vi,sa)-saa-ka,savisaakha,patra-saaza;ka-naka,kalasa(gold,sankha);kretagraasapaNa cfgraahapaNa Heb.sua sva Sva(sua)-stika(asti,vasati) maana(mansion,palace),maasha or svastikaasana Bhadra(patra)-naagakanakagold,gunja,hamsa,simha,sankha etc.



-garta-karsha garja

Garja is shown by the tiger(va/ka-bhadra cakra


) and the drum(throne,paNavapaNakarsha-garta-throne

, )


The drum arrow ,


crab ,spider,

karsha,garta)druuna(bow and

aasana) druuna(scorpion

throne ) gaatra gartakarshaka/sa ? =

The tiger,elephant,lion ,drum etc make svar(garja,sun-paNaHeb.Heres,Lat.crus,Gr.Keres-karsha-harta-hearth paNa/karsha. -cross ) and indicate

Bhadra(patra , , , praata,bharata,pareta,preta, paatra

) -Gr.petra cf.Hindi pattar is stone.Asma- stone is sma(sava-corpse) . Silastone is jina-the sun. The worship of the dead bodies or the cross bearing the dead body of the Christ is the worship of dawn and the rising sun. Samaadhaana-peace is smasaana(cemetery) marked by the
or RIP which sign the Christian priests show during the Holy Mass announcing peace be with you. This cross is the Tau or sava (sva cf. Heb. sua ) or taya or saya or jaya cross(cakra-Heres-garta-karsha-harsha-hearth) .

9.Solving the Mystery of a Megalithic Monument in the Land of Giants

November, 01 2011 From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

Popular Archaeology Archaeologists are about to resolve the mystery behind the puzzling megalithic concentric ring and tomb(cf.caramadolmen) complex called the "Stonehenge of the


, Grk.pi

Traditional Indian Bindi

Bha(sun,star),ra(fire Grk.pyr cf.bha-rava-ra-vi-srii-raaja-hari) house) tra

pr( Egy.Great

srii (hari-the sun ) pra-bhaa(light)bhaasa(light)bhaata(dawn) pada(foot,word,sava- a corpse,siva-subha-auspicious;rava-ravi-the sun,sound;zava-sacrifice) paada(feet,deva-god,veda-gods pada) vaaja(sacrifice,wing,food)

vaaha(hand,bull)bhadra(king,light)patra(writ,leaf) paatra(jar) vrisha(bull,Indra)varsha(year)harta(the sun cf. hearth) harsha(joy) harita(green) harija(horizon-where the sun rise and set)hrid(heart cf.the navel + the breastsresemble the stones of a hearth) Heres(Heb.the sun)karsha(ploughing,agriculture,16 maasha)garta(throne)cakra(wheel) kara(hand,tax) arka(the sun)argha(price)

Like stonehenge, its stone construction is concentric with a tumulus of stone 65 feet in diameter and 15 feet tall. Many writers believe it was a place of worship, where ceremonies were held during the longest and shortest days of the year. Others maintain that it was simply a monumental burial site for an important leader or it was a place to conduct astronomical observations One new theory, however, stands out from the rest, and takes into account not only the archaeological evidence at the site, but also the cultural contexts of ancient Chalcolithic practices and the surrounding Chalcolithic archaeological sites. In an article published in the November/December, 2011 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review, Dr. Rami Arav has proposed that the site was built for both funerary purposes and as a means for "excarnation", the removal of flesh from the bones of the deceased for placement in ossuaries, or bone boxes, by the ancient Chalcolithic inhabitants of the area. Arav supports his argument with a reference to research that suggests that the Chalcolithic people of the Levant originally migrated from the ancient Anatolian region of present-day southern Turkey. Studies of the material culture show remarkable similarities between that of the Chalcolithic Levant and that of southern Turkey, and excarnation is thought to have been practiced in southern Turkey during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods. As one example, a "vulture shrine" (cf.Garuda)was discovered at the famous Neolithic site of Catalhoyuk in southeastern Turkey. The shrine featured a mural wall painting of vultures swooping over headless corpses(cf.bhadraasana-throne), interpreted as a possible excarnation scene.cf.branches of the Anatolian Bharatas migrated to Europe, the IVC etc. and created the Indo Anatolian IVC inscriptions also.

Jina- sun Sumer.samsum/utusila-stoneasma-stoneyasmastoneaasana(seat,cf.garta,naasa-nose,naada-sound,paada-feet,pana) asana(food cf.the eucharist/purodaasa) sama(equal) sava( a corpse) sma(face) Zana(saasana-daana-gift) zava(sacrifice) devagod,king);bhadra-stone,king,girl,elephant bharata-fire(worship)praatadawnpreta-corpsepareta-dead terms are utilized in such constructions.In the weight system the bhadraasana /sun/indicate bhadras asma(stone,aatma-soul)

or the treasury weight/kings stone( Heb.ha kodesh/beven ha melech). A dolmen(dol-table,men-stone) is carama(death),dharma(god of death),tulana(dharaNa-scale,the sun),smasaana(cemetry), and suur(sol-the sun)mana(maana-paNa-house, sun).Pareta(preta-corpse) is praata(dawn).Dawn is the house of the rising sun.It rise and rise upto noon which is indicated by the increasing height of the circles.The dolmen with two vertical stones supporting a horizontal stone is a bhadra(Gr.petra,Hindi pattar)-aasana(seat) and the

equivalent of the T-shaped limestone slabs of Ancient Anatolia Harappan scripts

, and the

, , , , , etc. indicating bhadraasana(throne,crest-Krista-Christ,praatar- bharata -aasanadawn,preta-paretapramiita-aasanadolmen,pyramid,crucifix).cf.

Bhadra(bull,king,elephant,girl,cipher) is aksha(wheel/circle,uksha-bull,ushadawn,aja-Aries),gaja(elephant), garta(throne,garja- tiger) and patra(wing,leaf cf.pyramid or spear shape as shown above).The sphinx or narasimha is naratunga(king) or nritunga(king of kings- a samraat- cf.Dharmaraaja-Yudhishtira as in


Bhadra(aksha) is panca(five,pa-king,bha-the sun,ansa-part,pacana-fire,bhasmakshaara-ash,cuurNa-dust,kuurma-tortoise,puurNa-full,suurya-the sun).Hence the cirles are five as seen in the picture.Sava(siva,zava-the sun,sacrifice) is pada(foot,devagod),paNa(praise,Vishnu-the sun,Mal.piNa- a corpse;nu,naava-praise;naa-man) and japa(prayer).Interestngly in theHindu festival of the aayudha puuja,the concentric bindi (Hindu-vindu-learned ;cf.Sarasvati devi the goddess of learning and ravi-devithe sun)with bhasma(holy ash), bhadra(golden yellow sandal paste) and rakta cakra(kumkum-samsum/sinduura-jina-suura) of the sun is applied on the bhaala(forehead ,bhaata-dawn,bha-sun,aana-face)and aayudha(tools) to indicate garta(throne,raksha-protection Heb.Heres,Gr.keres) and udaya(sunrise.The sun at dawn appears red,yellow and then white in the grey ash sky.).Bhasma(kshaara-raksha-raktagarta) is applied by three fingers of the kara as kara/kari/tra/hara/hari
sun . is the

10.The Ancient languages of Asia minor by Roger D.Woodard http://books.google.co.in/books/about/The_Ancient_Languages _of_Asia_Minor.html?id=J-f_jwCgmeUC


Figure 2.1 The seal of Suppiluliumas I NA4 KI S IB m S u-up-p -lu-li-u-ma LUGAL GAL UR.SAGDUMU m Du-ut-ha-li-ya LUGAL GAL UR.SAGSeal (of) Suppiliuliumas, great king, hero,Son (of) Duthaliyas, great king, hero.cf.viirabhadra,mahaabhadra,mahaaviira etc.ofIVC. The inner eld in hieroglyphs shows t he royal emblem of the winged sun, correspondingto the title D

UTU SI for D SAM SI my sun, over the signs right and left MAGNUS REXgr eat king (hieroglyphs are conventionally transcribed in Latin) anking the three signsof the name: PURUS.FONSma/i for Suppi-luli-(u)ma (PURUS = Hittite u s i p - pure,sacred, FONS = Hittite luli - pond, spring, with phonetic complement). Under the nameas space-ller is the (cuneiform) Sumerogram TI life, upside down.

The Lycian alphabet

TableTTHtThe 5.1 The Lycian alphabet

11.No Family Plots, Just Communal Burials In Ancient Settlement

June, 30 2011 From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

Live Science Archeologists found that the people buried beneath the floor of each house were, in general, not related to each other. With the possible exception of one building, this occurred throughout the entire site for as long as the settlement existed. Even children as young as 8 were not buried alongside their parents or other relatives at the site called atalhyk 9,000 years ago.

When archaeologists first dug up the site in the 1950s and '60s, they found that the settlement contained no streets. Its plastered mud-brick houses were bunched up against each other, and the inhabitants entered them by way of a ladder on the roof. Inside the homes, the people drew art on the walls and created spear points and pottery. They also buried their dead (up to 30 of them per house) beneath the floors(cf.kerala burials.Keralites are sometimes called smasaanavaasi-residents of burial ground hence)..

12 .Digging up Turkeys past. Totally stone age: James Mellaart at Catalhoyuk

February, 24 2010 Fromhttp://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

Todays Zaman In the May of 1961 British archaeologist James Mellaart began his work at Catalhoyuk.

Compare these with similar objects from IVC,the OXUS etc. Catalhoyuk is a settlement mound in ancient Anatolia. What excited him most about Catalhoyuk was that whilst other sites were usually overlain with much later Bronze Age, Greek, Roman and Medieval remains, at Catalhoyuk all the occupation layers in the mound appeared to be Neolithic, or New Stone Age ( 9,500-4,500 B.C.). The world's first city? The excavators, under Mellaart's direction, finally unearthed around 200 flat-roofed, mud-brick houses, so densely packed together there was no room for alleys and the inhabitants almost certainly entered their homes via holes in the roof. Mellaart's excitement knew no bounds when he discovered a section of wall plaster decorated with a scene of hunters in pursuit of deer -- the first such painting discovered on a manmade (as opposed, say, to a cave wall) surface. The houses he uncovered were all built to more or less the same, flat-roofed, rectangular design. Inside each was a dome-shaped clay oven, positioned underneath the same roof hole he assumed was the door. Benches lined the walls, under which the diggers began to find skeleton after skeleton. The bodies had clearly been ceremoniously buried there, males often with weapons such as stone axes and knives made of obsidian -- a hard, glass-like black volcanic rock very useful to early man as it could be chipped to a razor-sharp edge. The women, on the other hand, were buried with adornments such as shell and bead necklaces and, remarkably, mirrors made from obsidian. In fact, Mellaart theorized that Catalhoyuk may have been a matriarchal society, based on the evidence that although he turned up many small statues of mothergoddesses (best seen at Ankara's Museum of Anatolian Civilizations) and other female figures, there were no male counterparts.(cf.IVC use of shells as bugles whose sound is AUM,the necklaces called nishka and many small female statues

etc.) At Catalhoyuk , man, around 7,500 B.C., had banded together to produce something which was remarkably akin to a modern city.(cf.IVC)

13.Archaeologist argues worlds oldest temples were not temples at all

October, 08 2011 From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

EurekAlert Archaeologist Ted Banning of the University of Toronto argues that the buildings found at Gbekli Tepe may have been houses for people, not the gods. The oldest of the structures at the site are immense buildings with large stone pillars, many of which feature carvings of snakes, scorpions, foxes, and other animals. Banning goes on to argue that the population may have been housed in the purported temples themselves. The templesmay have been large communal houses.

16.9,000-year-old ancient figurines were toys not mother goddess statues are discovered September, 10 2009 From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

Daily Mail Nearly 2,000 figurines have been unearthed at Catalhoyuk in Turkey - the world's oldest known town - over the last few decades They were carved out of stone and squeezed out of clay 9,000 years ago.. Now archaeologists say these astonishing Stone Age statues

could have been the world's first educational toys.(cf.Compare these with the IVC figurines).

.. Made by Neolithic farmers they depict tiny cattle, crude sheep and flabby people.cf.bhadra-pajra-patra-paatra-auspicious,supposed to bring prosperity like the happy man of nowadays. In the 1960s, some researchers claimed them to be "mother goddess". Now archeologists say that these "mother goddess" figures - buried among the rubbish of the Stone Age town - are unlikely to be have been religious icons. Archaeologist Prof Lynn Meskell, of Stanford University, said: "The majority are cattle or sheep and goats. They could be representatives of animals they were dealing with - and they could have been teaching aides. "These are things that were made and used on a daily basis," she said. "People carried them around and discarded them." Catalhoyuk is one of the most important archaeological sites in the world. Established around 7,000 BC, it was home to 5,000 people living in mud brick and plaster houses. ( cf.Mehergarh in IVC). Their buildings were crammed so tightly together, the inhabitants clambered over the roofs and used ladders to get into their homes. The town dwellers were early farmers who had domesticated a handful of plants and kept wild cattle for meat and milk. Cattle horns were incorporated into the walls of their homes.(IVC continued to pay much importace to cattle horns). The town contains the oldest murals - paintings on plastered walls. Unlike later towns,

there is no obvious hierarchy - no homes for priests or leaders, no temples and no public spaces .(In IVC we can see special homes for priests and halls for sabhas and samitis or courts and assemblies denoting the establishment of religion,kingdoms and rulers) The dead were buried in spaces under homes, rather than in cemeteries. Some researchers believe it was an equalitarian society(cf.the IVC where rhis trend was continued in the early stages). The town survived for around 2,000 years. It is not known what happened to its inhabitants( Probably they moved into the Indus-Sarasvati valley and created the IVC beginning with Mehrgarh around 6000 B.C.).

14.The earth mother of all neolithic discoveries From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

December, 11 2011

Independent UK French archaeologists have discovered an extremely rare example of a neolithic "earth mother" figurine on the banks of the river Somme.

The 6,000-year-old statuette is 8 inch high, with imposing buttocks and hips but stubby arms and a cone-like head. The Somme "earth mother" appears to have broken into five or six parts while she was being fired between 4300 and 3600 BC. Compare her with the IVC H-3305,the dancing girl, the mother deity figurines etc.

15. Maasha bean(Vigna mungo)

vigna-nagna-naaga;bean-paNa-baaNa cf.black gram-black buffalo-black elephant Urad-udara-vrisha-daru-taru From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vigna_mungo Vigna mungo

Dry urad beans

White lentils

Vigna mungo, known as urad, urad dal, udad dal, urd bean, urd', urid, black matpe bean, black gram, black lentil is a bean grown in southern Asia. Black gram originated in India, where it has been in cultivation from ancient times and is one of the most highly prized pulses of India. The coastal Andhra region in Andhra Pradesh is famous for black gram after paddy. The Guntur District ranks first in Andhra Pradesh for the production of black gram. Black gram has also been introduced to other tropical areas mainly by Indian immigrants. It is an erect, suberect or trailing, densely hairy, annual herb. The product sold as "black lentil" is usually the whole urad bean or urad dal. The product sold as "white lentil" is the same lentil with the black skin removed. Vigna mungo is used in traditional Indian(Ayurveda) medicine. Pharmacologically, extracts have demonstrated immunostimulatory activity. Cf.vigna mungo vigna-vaNik-vaNija-vanita;mungo-manka(vanita-vanija)nagna-naaga-mesha-maasha According to Manu ,

1 Maasha(wt.)= 5 Gunja(

retti wt.)

(5).Hence the long stroke may denote maasha and the

small stroke may denote retti while counting?.

16 Maasha(80 retti) = 1SuvarNa(gold karsha-garta-garut-two parNa-two wingstwo pans of a scale) =karsha , , sara-raaja-nri karaja(finger) harta(the sun, Heb.heres) Karsha =2 tola whence karshaardha=tolakasulka Hence 8 Maasha =1 tola
4 suvarNa=1pala=1nishka(naasika-nose money) naagaraagarakta-copperarkataamra-copper cobra Heb.naahas,nehusaah-copper,bronze,snakeKubera Mal.muurkhan-cobra Heb.melekh(king cf.Pharaoh and naaga) Cf.ayas-fire,gold,bronze,4;kamsa-bronze,hamsa-swan,bird;kamala-lotus,Lakshmi,copper Kaja-lotus,fish = gaja =kaca(kesa-hair)=kasa(whip)=kas-to sound=to count

sara sira )maasha

+ tra

dhara naaga

kara hema



Paatra(measuring jar) and bhadra(weighing stone ) of garta(king) were the standards of volume and mass. Maasha maasa(moon)mesha(ram)medha(sacrifice) saamadaana

16. Goat
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goat Domestic Goat

Conservation status Domesticated

The domestic goat (gosa;go-sa; go-aja;ghosha;chaga-chaaga,Capra aegagrus hircus cf.capra-carob,abrus,crab;hircus-karsha) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the Bovidae family and is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over three hundred distinct breeds of goat. Goats are among the earliest animals domesticated by humans . Goats have been used for their milk, meat, hair, and skins over much of the world. In the twentieth century they also gained in popularity as pets.

The Modern English word goat comes from the Old English gt which meant "she-goat", and this in turn derived from Proto-Germanic *gaitaz (cf. Old Norse and Dutch geit "goat", German Gei "she-goat", and Gothic gaits "goat"), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *ghaidos meaning "young goat" (cf. Latin haedus "kid"), itself perhaps from a root meaning "jump" (assuming that Old Church Slavonic zajc "hare", Sanskrit jihte "he moves" are related). To refer to the male of the species, Old English used bucca (which survives as "buck"cf.buck is money and fuck,counting by the index finger is fucking.Compare to bhaksha,bhiksha etc.also.) until a shift to he-goat (and shegoat) occurred in the late 12th century.

The most recent genetic analysis confirms the archaeological evidence that the Anatolian Zagros are the likely origin of almost all domestic goats today. Another major genetic source of modern goats is the Bezoar goat, distributed from the mountainous regions of Asia Minor across the Middle East to Sind. Neolithic farmers began to keep goats for access to milk and meat, primarily, as well as for their dung, which was used as fuel, and their bones, hair, and sinew for clothing, building, and tools.The earliest remnants of domesticated goats dating 10,000 years before present are found in Ganj Dareh in Iran. Goat remains have been found at archaeological sites in Jericho, Choga, Mami, Djeitun and Cayonu, dating the domestication of goats in western Asia at between 8000 and 9000 years ago. Historically, goat hide has been used for water and wine bottles in both traveling and transporting wine for sale. It has also been used to produce parchment.

Goat(kola-horn) is called kolaatu in Malayalam.kolaeda(aja).Kola =horn=kosa ;eda(edaka-goat). aadaka( a measure)

which is the horn of mesha.

Kola tola(8 maasha) or weight of two maasha

Kola(soma-hiraNya-gold) is often linked to the symbols employed in the inscription.

aksha symbols to make

hiraNyaaksha(7maasha).The actual count of the gold weight has to be deduced from the

aviavika vi

Domestic Goat
aasanaaja -nasasa- na aza-naaz(happen,live,exist,throw,cast,shoot )adataathaaga(aksha-snake , sun ,water

at,azanaa-a missile



,7)agna(fire) eka(sa-

bird,snake,god)iisa(Durga,Gaayatri,Usha)usha(aja-sa-bird cf.Gayatri is a bird)uksha vasvisa(man,trader) sas(to jump) saz(to kill) zaz(to sleep) saya(sleep,hand,bed,couch,snake,lizard,chameleon,measure of length) saaz(to bless,to censure,to rule,to command) The horn (shofar-svar)of the goat or ram is the AUM of the sankh/conch .It is garja

or karsha or harsha and is linked to the maa as its wings or ears as to indicate maana,nama(homage,veneration,pasture ground) and naama (name,gift) . The goats crest gaja(elephant) aja svar(the sun,the sky)-Na aya( gambling die,good luck, the number is the god(king)s crest or garta/kiriita/karsha.

ajaaksha(eye,wheel,snake,paksha,bhaksha,bhiksha) arkaargha(price) kara(hand)


hiraNyaaksha karsha bhadraasana paNa


aksha(naaga,eye,karsha,tola,die,5) bhadra(patra) naaga(gaja,paana,paNa,paksha,bhiksha,parNa),maasha,maana,naama,maa,ka,sa




paana,maa- Mal.manna,mannava-king Heb.Manna-food,Bh.anna-food,Hence king as food in Sed -mananaganana-naaga sra-paana vaana


vaana dra(sara,karsha)-baaNa(paNa) draviNa(svarNa,suvarNa-gold,suparNaGaruda-garut-garta-garja-cakra-karsha), droNa,druma,sroNa,saravaNathrone karsha akshapaksha bhaksha(food)bhiksha(gift)

prajavrajavrata(command,rule,pramaa,pramaaNa)vrishavrikasvar(a akaasa,the sun)aksha(aakaasa-svar) karshagarja(svara-sound,count)

Aja(Brahma,Vishnu,Siva,goat)ac(to request,beg)aj(to shine,to speak,to throw,to go)ad(to bind,toeat) ada(this,that) atha(auspicious,beginning,doubt)as(to collect,to get,to eat)az(to throw) aazaushaud-aya ud-ajajayadaadaasadaa-ajayajaraaraaja ra-ajavasvasavasta(chaaga-goat) sayazavaza(god,bird,snake) Thus aksha ajagaja garjanaaga kanaagartasasaa

Cf.osti(Holy Eucharist) vastaajaas(eat)ad(eat)az(be) Mal .ashti(food),ashthi(rock cf.Tell these stones to become bread Matthew.4.3 ) asthi(bone) asti(exist) Aksha svarNa karsha suvarNa Aksha svarNa pancabhuja(bhuuta).

17.Pyramid Exploring Robot Reveals Hidden Hieroglyphs From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

May, 28 2011

Discovery News A robot explorer sent through the Great Pyramid of Giza has begun to unveil some of the secrets behind the 4,500-year-old pharaonic mausoleum as it transmitted the first images behind one of its mysterious doors. The images revealed hieroglyphs written in red paint that have not been seen by human eyes since the construction of the pyramid. The pictures also unveiled new details about two puzzling copper pins(cf.rakta-copper;raksha-garta-throne) embedded in one of the so called "secret doors." Written in red(rakta-garta-raksha cf.Catalhoyuk hand) paint, the symbols may help Egyptologists figure out why mysterious shafts were built into the pyramids.

18.Big Question for 2012: The Great Pyramids Secret Doors From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

December, 20 2011

Discovery Built for the pharaoh Cheops( Khufu), the Great Pyramid is the last remaining wonder of the ancient world. Will the mystery over the Great Pyramid's secret doors be solved in 2012?

Archaeologists have long wondered over the purpose of four narrow shafts deep inside the pyramid. Two shafts, extend from the upper, or "Kings Chamber" exit into open

air. But the lower two, one on the south side and one on the north side in the so-called "Queen's Chamber" disappear within the structures, deepening the pyramid mystery. Widely believed to be ritual passageways for the dead pharaoh's soul to reach the afterlife, these 8-inch-square shafts remained unexplored until 1993, when German engineer Rudolf Gantenbrink sent a robot through the southern shaft. After a steady climb of 213 feet from the heart of the pyramid, the robot came to a stop in front of a mysterious limestone slab adorned with two copper pins.
raksha). Aja-aga(sun,snake,tree,hill)-khufu-bhaga-vaaha-aja-ayas-arka-cakra-rakta-copper cf. The pharaos naaga on the forehead. cf. , garta(rakta-

Researchers got a clear view into the chamber beyond -images of 4,500-year-old hieroglyphs written in red paint (garta-rakta-raksha-raaja) became visible to them.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheep

Sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals typically kept as livestock. Like all ruminants, sheep are members of the order Artiodactyla, the even-toed ungulates. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleece, meat (lamb, hogget or mutton) and milk. Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, and has been fundamental to many civilizations. As livestock, sheep are most-often associated with pastoral, Arcadian imagery. Sheep figure in many mythologiessuch as the Golden Fleeceand major

religions, especially the Abrahamic traditions. In both ancient and modern religious ritual, sheep are used as sacrificial animals.

Domestic sheep

aja aazaaazananaazanaadadaanasaasanasana

In religion and folklore

In antiquity, symbolism involving sheep cropped up in religions in the ancient Near East, the Mideast, and the Mediterranean area: atalhyk, ancient Egyptian religion, the Cana'anite and Phoenician tradition, Judaism, Greek religion, and others. Religious symbolism and ritual involving sheep began with some of the first known faiths: skulls of rams (along with bulls) occupied central placement in shrines at the atalhyk settlement in 8,000 BCE. In Ancient Egyptian religion, the ram was the symbol of several gods: Khnum, Heryshaf and Amun (in his incarnation as a god of fertility). Other deities occasionally shown with ram features include: the goddess Ishtar, the Phoenician god Baal-Hamon, and the Babylonian god Ea-Oannes. In Madagascar, sheep were not eaten as they were believed to be incarnations of the souls of ancestors. There are also many ancient Greek references to sheep: that of Chrysomallos, the golden-fleeced ram, continuing to be told through into the modern era. Astrologically, Aries, the ram, is the first sign of the classical Greek zodiac and the sheep is also the eighth of the twelve animals associated with the 12-year cycle of in the Chinese zodiac, related to the Chinese calendar. In Mongolia,

shagai are an ancient form of dice made from the cuboid bones of sheep that are often used for fortunetelling purposes. Sheep play an important role in all the Abrahamic faiths; Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, King David and the Islamic prophet Muhammad were all shepherds. According to the Biblical story of the Binding of Isaac, a ram is sacrificed as a substitute for Isaac after an angel stays Abraham's hand (in the Islamic tradition, Abraham was about to sacrifice Ishmael). Eid al-Adha is a major annual festival in Islam in which sheep (or other animals) are sacrificed in remembrance of this act. Sheep are also occasionally sacrificed to commemorate important secular events in Islamic cultures. Greeks and Romans also sacrificed sheep regularly in religious practice, and Judaism also once sacrificed sheep as a Korban (sacrifice), such as the Passover lamb . Ovine symbolssuch as the ceremonial blowing of a shofarstill find a presence in modern Judaic traditions. Followers of Christianity are collectively often referred to as a flock, with Christ as the Good Shepherd, and sheep are an element in the Christian iconography of the birth of Jesus. Some Christian saints are considered patrons of shepherds, and even of sheep themselves. Christ is also portrayed as the Sacrificial lamb of God (Agnus Dei) and Easter celebrations in Greece and Romania traditionally feature a meal of Paschal lamb. In many Christian traditions, a church leader is called the pastor, which is derived from the Latin word for shepherd.

maa(garja-karsha-harsha-bleat-pleat-fleet-plead-please-paNa) samaashamaa-aja(bleat of goat-garja-karsha) maasha cf.H-3305 maa-tra


The folds or pleats of skin or clothing also indicate maa-maana-paana-maapana etc.

maa +



maa +


maana,maapana(leaf =pa=pan of maapana)






pramaa(to measure) ,


The bhuj(hand-fish,bhoga-snake,aksha-snake,eye) is haraNa(hand,gold;nakranose,gharial,kara-hand,tax) and hasta whence it is gaja(aksha,kara,kaca,kesa) also. Hastaashtanastanashtapancamatsamastastana Aja(ram,Indra,Rudra,Agni,Maruts)aasa(dik-direction;desire)aaza(mouth,ash,immediately) aasya(mouth),aajya( clarified butter for sacrifice),aadya(first cf.aadyamaasha) eka iisa(ram faced god ajamukha-Daksha eg.DK-13013,Hnaaga(snake,ram,elephant)


gaja(elephant,garja-roar cf bleat) gaNanameshamaashamaatra(measure,netraking,eye,sacrifice)maatri(measurer,mother) maata(mother,measured) mit(to measure,mitimeasure)naasa(nose) netaa(leader) maa(measure,mother,bleat;mahaa-great) naa(man) naagaaksha-sara-kara-5(single hand fingers forming a cup-pritha or paNa or phaNa) hastaashta-8(from both hand forming a cup-anjali or paNa or phaNa). Raaja is ra(agni,raa-gold)-

aja(ram,aaza-face seat).Hence the ram faced god is the golden face king or Daksha(year,with Aries face) or the rising golden sun having the aja(Aries)-usha-uksha(Taurus) face..





aksha(5) maasha panca panca

karsha panca or panca karsha panca maasha or bhadraasana maasha of the inscription.

.The karsha is written to the right and the maasha to the left

A nagna has a bhaga or bhaaga or vaaha whence the nagna is shown with the naaga(ram,nagna-nude) face or horn to make her usha or aja as in H-3305,H-178B etc.

20.Abrus precatorius
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abrus_precatorius


Scientific classification Genus: Abrus Species: A. precatorius Binomial name Abrus precatorius

Abrus precatorius, known commonly as Jequirity, Crab's Eye(cf. ,carob seed), Rosary Pea, John Crow Bead, Precatory bean, Indian Licorice, Akar Saga, Giddee Giddee or Jumbie Bead in Trinidad & Tobago, is a slender, perennial climber that twines around trees, shrubs, and hedges. It is a legume with long, pinnate-leafleted leaves. It is also known as Gunja in Sanskrit and some Indian languages and Ratti in Hindi. The plant is best known for its seeds, which are used as beads and in percussion instruments, and which are toxic due to the presence of abrin. The plant is native to Indonesia and grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world where it has been introduced.

abrusbhadravrishacrab grabhgraahanakrahariNa paNabhargabhadra(rakta)-pritha(palm) sarpa(abrus) bhadranaaga(unicorn) gunjakamsa



White variety The seeds of Abrus precatorius are much valued in native jewelry for their bright coloration. Most beans are black and red, suggesting a ladybug( , cf.liksha,laksha), though other colors are available. Jewelrymaking with jequirity seeds is dangerous, and there have been cases of death by a finger-prick while boring the seeds for beadwork. However, it has long been a symbol of love(raaga-red,love) in China, and its name in Chinese is xiang si dou (Chinese: ), or "mutual love bean". In Trinidad in the West Indies the brightly coloured seeds are strung into bracelets (raksha-protection,raktared,blood)and worn around the wrist or ankle to ward off jumbies or evil spirits and "mal-yeux" - the evil eye(the seed being itsef eye shaped and red). The Tamils use Abrus seeds of different colors. The red variety with black eye is the most common, but there are black, white and green varieties as well. The seeds of Abrus precatorius are very similar in weight. In Older times Indians used to measure using these seeds and the measure was called as Ratti Grams
, ,

.This was used to generally measure gold and 1 Tola (11.6


) = 100 ratti;12 or 16 Maasha

; 1 Maasha = 5 or 8

Ratti Hence 12 x 5=60 x 3=180 grains or 16 x5 =80 x 3= 240 grains. cf.shekel = 8.3gms?

Abrus precatorius has different names in various Indian languages Sanskrit : Gunja ( ),raktika,krishNala - cf.karsha Hindi : Rati; Gaungchi; Gunchi; Gunja ( ) Bengali : Kunch; Koonch Gujarati : Gumchi; Chanothi Kannada : Gurugunji Kashmiri : Shangir Malayalam : Kunni; Gundumani Persian : Gunchi; Chashami-Khurosa Punjabi : Mulati Tamil : Gundumani; Kunthamani-cf.kunta-karsha-L.contus-kuna-muna-kantaka Telugu : Guruginia ( ) Marwari:Chirmi Marwari:Kaincha Grah,hri,vah-to receive,kanyam grah-toreceive a girl, Daa,pradaa,prayam,upapad-togive Karsha-kamja-produced from head=hair,fromwater=lotus,kam=ka=head,water, Hence karsha on head,horn etc.,particle,drop,spark,cumin seed,pepper Kana=grain of corn,a grain, kaN-to sound,to wink,to become small

kaNt-to long for,to desire

kaNtaka-thorN,point of a pin,anything pointed,prickle,sting,fish bone,finger nail,the erection of the hair of the body=kantakita=harsha sampat=sama-pada,pata=sam-pad kiila-point,dart
=pasas,daana,daara,raada,netra,Indra,sraN,saasana,dasra,bhadra,aasana,aajna,aa sana,vacana,asva etc.

Bright red seeds of A. precatorius are strung as jewelry.

Gunja has a gaatra(body) of rakta(blood,red;raksha,raaja,karsha,garta) and a bhadra(king,head,bull,circle) of krishNa(black,krisana-pearl,gold).

Abrus precatorius leaves & flowers cf.

Gunja is hasta(panca-five )

Abrus precatorius flowers


=humming,,abunch,bundle,nosegay,cluster of blossoms;a mudra,marta,marda,maatra),smallest weight of =3 or

kettle drum(

jeweller,weight of 1 5/16 or 2 3/16 grains=1/5 Aadya Maashaka 2 barley corns


=4 grains of rice

=2 grains of wheat


physicians 7gunjas=1Maatha(maasha; gunjakanya,kanaa,naaga,jangha,jaghana,sangha,sanga,hamsa,simha,garta, karsha,kamsa , kulisa(axe) cf.the 7 kanya in M-1186 denote sapta maatri or maatha or maasha of gunja;with lawyers 7 Gunjas)

Gunjakrit is a bee -



L.contus, Mal.-kuntam-spear;kantha-gala-throat =kala(gala)kanaka=nakaa,naaga,raaga , ,karsha-ratti-rati,mahaa, ,sankha ,




, , , , , =su-varNa(aurum-gold,auris-ear,karshagunja- kantha-karNa-nakra-haraNa-hariNa)=1karsha of gold,karsha being garja and svar sound symbols(kantha,gala,vadana,bhasna,bha,paNava),toraNa , , , etc.indicate ,

svar(the sun,sound,door,7)-Na (gold) or karsha or karsha paNa(bhaara) as in etc..

horn=paNa==vaLa=vakra=bent,makes sound and has a garta-kiriita shape.

Cf.maasha=7 or 8 gunja Panca-maasha cf.H-182 ma+aa+sha(sa)=na + aa + ga =ratti=radi=rati Matanga=asvatha=ficus religiosa=elephant=asva

Gold and copper currency stamped with seals were used by the IVC traders. Their weight was certified by the royal officials using standard stone weights.

21.Carob bean seeds

Copyright 2006 The Royal Society The seeds of various plants were used as weights because their mass reputedly varies so little. Carob (Ceratonia siliqua), which has given its name to the carat(Ar.qiiraat,Grk.keration-a carob seed used as a weight cf.karsha-svarNasuvarNa-hariNa-gold Lat.cornuu,Grk.keras-horn ) is particularly famous in this regard. According to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED 1989) the word carat first appeared in 1555 but its weight varied from place to place prior to its standardization at 200mg in 1907 (Zhengzhang 1991). The average mass of seeds from female trees (200.52.47mg) is very close to the metric carat (200mg) while seeds from hermaphrodite trees are lighter (175.87.1mg) .The karsha indicated the gharsha(laksha

) made during counting and the garja of the conch/horn(aum) to

kara + sara,sha,naa

announce it by sound.cf.



22.Tola (unit)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tola_%28unit%29

Silver rupee coins, issued by the British East India Company, were a practical standard for the tola.

400 tolas The tola (Hindi: ; Urdu: ; tol. from Sanskrit: ; tolaka), also transliterated as tolah or tole, is a traditional South Asian unit of mass, now standardised as 180 troy grains (11.6638038 grams). It was the base unit of mass in the British Indian system of weights and measures introduced in 1833, although it had been in use for much longer. It was also used in Aden and Zanzibar: in the latter, one tola was equivalent to 11.398 grams (0.9772 British tolas, 175.90 troy grains). The tola is a Vedic measure, with the name derived from the Sanskrit tol meaning "weighing" or "weight One tola , was traditionally the weight of 100 ratti (ruttee-gunja;kunta-suula-praasa-spear;kamsa-kuNta-pot) seeds, and its exact weight varied according to locality. However, it is also a

convenient mass for a coin: several pre-colonial coins, including the currency of Akbar the Great (15561605), had a mass of "one tola" within slight variation. The very first rupee (Urdu: ; rupay), minted by Sher Shah Suri (154045), had a mass of 178 troy grains, or about 1% less than the British tola. The British East India Company issued a silver rupee coin of 180 troy grains, and this became the practical standard mass for the tola well into the 20th century. The tola was the legal weight of 19th-century Indian coins: the silver rupee (cf.bhruuruup-silver paNa) and the gold mohur . Cf mudradrumamakaramohur).In India, in 1956 the tola weight was standardized as as exactly 0.011 663 8 kilogram. In Zanzibar the tola is slightly lighter, 11.398 grams. (UN 1966) tl, s.m.=tul, and tulya, q.v. tol, taul. Weighing; weight or quantity measured by the balance; standard weight or measure of weight:taul-tl, s.m. Weighing and measuring. tol s.m. A weight of 12 (or 16 cf . dvaadasa 12 shodasa 16shashti 60 sudaasasu-raaja .Hence these multiplications were used by the kings while issuing standard coins) mshas (esp. of gold or silver), the weight of the Sicca rupee, or about 179 grains; (the tola is reckoned in books at 16 mshas of 6 grains each, and weighs therefore 184 grains Troy; in practice, however, it is calculated at 12 mshas, jeweller's weight, and weighs nearly 210 grains);a weigher of coins, &c.; weighman . tolak, s.m. A weight (see tol); a weighman. toln, tauln v.t. To weigh; to balance; to ponder, deliberate; to judge, estimate; to confront one another (as two armies). tl, s.f. Cotton; the wick of a lamp; a weaver's fibrous stick or brush; a painter's brush or pencil, or a stick with a fibrous extremity used as one; &c. (=tul, q.v.). cf.the brush is the lance to spear a buffalowrite a bulla. :tol-dr, s.m. Weighman (=tol).

taul, = tauliy, s.f. A vessel used by Hinds (orig. applied to a copper vessel, syn. with tambiy; but now also applied to an earthen vessel).cf.karsha-kalasa-shekel-salkasakala tauliyat 'to assist; to govern', s.f. Appointing (one) as governor, deputy, or superintendent; setting over; the superintendence (of any business); trusteeship:tauliyat-nma, s.m. Letter or order appointing one a superintendent, &c.; deed of trusteeship. tauld 'to bear children', s.f. Procreating, begetting; assisting at a birth, doing the work of a midwife; generation, birth; production; growth. tomn (prop. toman or tuman), s.m. A myriad, ten-thousand; a sum of money equal to ten thousand Arabic silver drachmas (which are about one-third less than those of the Greeks); a sum of fifteen dollars and a half; districts into which a kingdom is divided (each being supposed to furnish 10,000 fighting men). Cf.suura(simha- lion ,bull, tiger,archer) suulatola satamanakarsha16x5=80 rattishekel11.3 grams Silver Karsha16 maashaka=16 x 2=32 ratti 3.6 grams. Gold karsha16 maasha=16 x 5=80 ratti 9.04 grams Maasha of gold=5 retti Maasha of silver=2 retti Tola 16maasha80 ratti9.04 grams

Tolatulsuulsoma(gold equivalent)suuna(grain ) Muulyasuulatulaatola tulyasulkakalasakosa Kaasiclenched fist ,father of Bharata cf.drachm/paNa Syr.doc. kaasu =gold,a coin

kaazu=vel(spearcf.spear money) Mal.aal kaasu,vilkaasu,villitta kaasu -a ducat the smallest copper coin Kaasutaali=necklace of a Brahmin woman


suula=tola cf.Tola-judge of Israel.

Tola (measure), Indian unit of mass Tola, a son of Issachar. Tola (Judge of Israel), one of the judges of Israel

23.Coins, Weights, and Measures of British India

James Prinsep


The seer Thirty five seers would be precisely equal to seventy two pounds avoirdupois. The maund= 100 English troy pounds The tola= 180 grains English troy weight

The Mun , has been hitherto better known among Europeans by the name of Bazar Maund, but upon its general adoption, under regulation vii. 1833, for all transactions of the British Government, it should be denominated the British Mauno, (in Hindi, Ungrazee Mun,) to distinguish it at once from all other weights in use throughout the country. The Maund is 25 to 85 pounds avoirdupois.

The Pusseree(bhuj-seer-siira-suura-suula) , is, as its name denotes, a five-seer weight, and therefore should not form an integrant point of the scale ; but as its use is very general, it has been introduced for the convenience of reference.

The Seer(siira-2 lbs) being the commonest weight in use in the retail business of the Bazars in India, and being liable, according to the pernicious system hitherto prevalent, to vary in weight for every article sold as well as for every market, is generally referred to the common unit in native mercantile dealings, as, *^ the seer of so many tolas,*' (or siccas,barees, takas, &c.) The standard or bazar seer being always 80 tolas. The Chitak is the lowest denomination of the gross weights, and is commonly divided into halves and quarters, (called in Bengalee, kacha ;cf Harappan aksha) thus marking the line between the two series, which are otherwise connected by the relation of the seer, &c. to the tola.

The Tola , is chiefly used in the weighing of the precious metals and coin ; all bullion at the mints is received in this denomination, and the tables of bullion produce (as seen in the foregoing pages) are calculated per 100 tolas. It is also usual at the mints to make the subdivisions of the tola into annas (sixteenths) and pie, in lieu of mashas and rutees.


, ruttees , and dhans , are used chiefly by native goldsmiths and jewellers. They are also employed in the native evaluation by assay of the precious metals; thus 10 mashas fine, signifies 10.12th pure, and corresponds to lO-oz. touch" of the English assay report or silver. There is a closer accordance with the English gold assay scale, inasmuch as the 96 ruttees in a tola exactly represent

the 96 carat grains in the gold assay pound, and the dhan, the quarter grain
. The Eng-lish assay report is generally "so much worse or better" than standard, but the touch is easily known thereform, the standard being 1 1 oz. for silver and 22 carats for gold ; or 11 mashas Hindi reckoning. The correspondence of the Indian system of weights with the troy weights of England, and with the systeme metricale of France, may be best shown by a table. The coincidence with the former is perfect : in the latter the masha nearly accords with the gramme^ and

the seer with the kilogramme.

French Weights,grammes. The accordance of the mun weight with the 100 lbs. troy of England, affords a ready means of ascertaining its relative value in the^Standards of other countries employed in weighing the precious metals, since tables of the latter are generally expressed in lbs. troy. The following are a few of these valuations for the principal weights of Europe, &c.extracted from Kelly's Cambist, page 222. The

weights in troy grains have been converted into tolas by dividing them by 180(cf.standard tola is 180 grains).
1 ounce troy 2.667 tolas, or 2 tolas 8 mashas. Conversion of Tolas and Pounds Avoirdupois. One example may be advantageously given as applying to all the tables hereafter constructed on the same principle: # Required the equivalent of 57353 muns, 35 seers, 6 chitaks, in avoirdupois pounds.

Taking the numbers opposite to 57, 35, and 30 respectively, and removing the decimal point, in the first three places to the right hand ; in the second, one place to the right; and in the third, one place to the left, we have 57000 muns = 4690286. 350 = 38800. 3 = 246.857 37 seers = 76.114 6 ^Mt. = .771 lbs. 4719409.742 = 12 ounces nearly. Since 35 seers are exactly equal to 72 pounds avoirdupois, the follow, ing simple and accurate rules for their mutual conversion will be found equally convenient with the table. Rule I. To convert Indian weight into avoirdupois weight. 1. Multiply the weight in seers by 72, and divide by 35 : the result will be the weight in lbs. av. ^ 2. Or, multiply the weight in muns by 36, and divide by 49 : the result will be the weight in cwt. av. Rule II. To convert avoirdupois voeight into Indian weight. 1. Multiply the weight in lbs. av. by 35, and divide by 72: the result will be the weight in seers. 2. Or, multiply the weight in cmts. by 49> and divide by 36 : the result will be the weight in muns, or maunds* One ton=27,222 muns, or 27^ mun nearly. One mun=9Qj lbs. avoir, exactly.

For converting New Bazar Muns (or Maunds ) Seers and Chitaks into Avoirdupois Pounds, and decimals. I. Deduct one-eleventh from the weight in factory maunds, seers, or chitaks.The result will be the weight in British Indian (or bazar) muns, seers, and chitaks. II. Add ten per cent, to the price per factory maund, &c. the result will be the price per British India (or bazar) muns, &c. For the conversion of Bengal Factory weights into new Standard muns and decimals.

Madras and Bombay Weights. In the Madras and Bombay Presidencies, the weights of commerce have been long since made to conform with the avoirdupois system, by assuming the nearest approximation in pounds to the local maund, and adjusting the latter to it. Thus at Madras the maund is assumed as equal to 25 lbs. av. :.and at Bombay the more convenient equivalent of 28 lbs., or one quarter cwt. has been adopted for the standard maund. The seer at Madras contains 8 palams of 10 pagodas each, so that like that of Bengal it has the sub-division into 80 parts. In the Malabar system, also used at Madras, 2^ palam (fanams) make a seer, and the tolam occupies the place of the maund; it is equal to 23.192 lbs. The seer at Bombay is divided into 30 pice, or 72 tanks, of 72 troy grains each. The conversion of the Madras and Bombay maunds into the bazar mun of Bengal requires another table. A practical estimate of their relative values may, however, be held in the memory by means of the following simple ratios : Ten Madras maunds = 3 muns, 1^ seers, Bengal, nearly. Three Bombay ditto = 1 mun, 1 seer, nearly. The readiest practical method of reducing the Indian into the English system,where the utmost accuracy is not required, is derived from the equation, 300 muns = 11 tons. Hence we have the following rules III. Add a tenth to a sum of muns and divide by 30 : results, the weight in tons. IV. Multiply a sum in tons by 30, and deduct an eleventh from the product : results, its value in muns, V. Deduct one'third from a weight in muns^ and increase the remainder by one-tenth : results, the weight in cwts. nearly. VI'. Add one-half to a given weight in cwts., and diminish the sum by one eleventh : results, the equivalent in muns, nearly.

Table of weights and measures-^old weights. The mode in which this is effected for the " dry measures" of South and West India is, by taking an equal mixture of the principal grains, and forming a vessel to hold a given weight thereof, so as to obtain an average measure. Sometimes salt is included among the ingredients.* Trichinopoly is the only place where grain is said never to be sold by weight. The mercal and parah are the commonest measures ; the latter is known throughout India ; in Calcutta it is called /arraA, and is used in measuring lime,'&c. which is still recorded however in mds. wt.

Of the origin or antiquity of the Indian weights it would be out of place here to institute an inquiry ; the ancient metrology of the Hindus has been fully described by Mr. Colbbrooke, in the Asiatic Researches, vol. v.t As with the coins, so with the weights. Southern India retained most of the names and terms properly Hindu, parah, tiUa vis bhadra khari (candy ?). Throughout the Moghul empire, on the contrary, the seer and mun were predominant. The word mtin, of Arabic or Hebrew origin I, is used throughout Persia and Northern India ; but, as might be expected, it represents very different values in different places : thus the mun of Tabriz is only 6j^ lbs. avoir, while that of Palloda, in Ahmednugur, is 163^ lbs. It is probable that the seer or sir^ a Hindu weight {setak) was more uniform than the maund, since it was founded upon the (tolaka), tola

which, with its subdivision, the wassa, must in very ancient times have been extensively known throughout commercial Asia: there can be little doubt that the tale and mac^ of the Chinese are identical in origin. The variations of these weights may have been smaller, because their use wasnearly confined to the precious metals and other articles of value ; the seer is quoted at the highest denomination of this class of weights in one San-skrit work. For gross produce a greater latitude was required, and larger seers were introduced to suit the value of each article ; the weight appa-rently, rather than the price, being made variable : while to prevent the ambiguity which might follow, it became necessary to define the seeremployed as of 30, 40, 60, 72, 80, 90, or even as far as 120 tolas; The Hebrew maneh was equal to 13110 grs. tr. or 72.83 tolas. The Greek fiina to 6244 grs. or 34.57 tolas.

The maund of India may as a genus be divided into four dif-ferent species: 1. That of Bengal, containing 40 seers, and averaging about 80 lbs. avoir. 2. That of Central India (Malwa, Ajmeer, dec) generally equal to 40 lbs. avoir, and containing 20 seers, (so that the seer of this large portion of the continent assimilates to that of Bengal.) 3. The maund of Ouzerat and Bombay, equal to \ cwt. or 28 lbs. and divided into 40 seers of a smaller grade. 4. The maund of Southern India, fixed by the Madras Government at 25 lbs. avoir. There are how. ever many other varieties of maund, from 15 to 64 seers in weight which it is unnecessary to particularize. Abul Fuzl defines the mun of Akbar's reign to be 40 seers of 30 dams; each dam being five tanks. The tanK is in another place described as 24 ruttees : the masha of eight ruttees has been assumed from the weight of Akbbr's coins to be 15.5 grs. troy. This would make the

emperor's maund=:34. f lbs. av., agreeing pretty well with that of Cen-tral and Western India. The tank, as now existing in Bombay, is ^2 grains ; in Darwarit is 50 grains ; in Ahmednagar, 268 grains. Its present weight consequently affords no clue for the verification of the above estimate, however desirable it may be to determine the point In one part of the Ayeen Akbery, the dam is called 20 mashas, 7 ruttees, which would increase the maund to about 47 lbs. In the absence of better evidence, it may be safe to reckon it in round terms at one-half of our present standard maund.

Table of weights and measures. It may be generally assumed that the maund system follows the common scale, vis.16 chitaks= 1 seer 40 seers = 1 maund. 20 maunds = 1 candy or maunee. The use of a five-seer weight(cf.karsha-darsa) also universally prevails under the name of pussree* dhureeji or vis,X The dhuree from its name however seems to be properly a measure, and accordingly, while in Malwa it is equal to 5 seers, in other places it is found of 4, 5, 10, 11, and 12 seers. The terms adhola, adhelee, pao,porvah, (quarter,) adhpao, (half, quarter,) frequently occur : they explain themselves. In expressing the dimensions of the mercal, the parah, and a few other dry or liquid measures, sometimes gallons and sometimes cubic inches have been introduced by Dr. Kelly.

Karsha(Mal.cakra-wheel,money) aksha gaja cakra garja ,

Hitt. <GU.ZA> throne (cf.bhadrakaca(kesaharsha)


king,elephant,bull,girl,gold)karabha graasa
butterfly , ,

garta Garuda





cf.Sumer garash- straw( grass)

gaatra bhadra

darsa ,

varshavrisha harta

harsha maatra vanita, vasna, bhadra,

harijahimsasimhaharita haatranetra karshakaraja panca,paNasa,vaNija,

vasana,vacana,savanasimha cf.Hitt.kessar
, , Hitt.gurta-enclosed



karshakarNa karsharaksha






kiriita sakala

karshakalasa gaNitalakshasalka karshakara-dakara-sha karshakharsha

karshasangasankha Zankha Sumer.hurasham or gushkin gold Akkad.huraasugold The roaring animals,the conch,the shofar,hair etc give garja(AUM) or harsha and indicate karsha.Harsha is shown by the raised hair on the skin,garja on the throat(bali/vali) ,on the horn of the unicorn and other animals etc.,erect sex organs etc.

25. Weight of Gunja, maasha and karsha

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratti

A ratti is a traditional Indian unit of mass measurement, and has now been standardized as 0.12125 gram. It was measured by ratti seed. This seed is actually "Abrus precatorius" seed. 1 tola = 12 masha or 11.67 gram 1 masha = 8 ratti or 0.97 gram or 5 ratti = 0.60625 gm 1 karsha=16 maasha=128 ratti=15.52gm or 12 maasha(tola)=11.64 gm. Hence tola=12 maasha=karsha=11.67 gram=shekel Thus the tola is 12 masha and karsha is 16 maasha.Sometimes the tola is taken as karshaardha = 8 maasha also.

Ratti seeds, used for measuring weights in India. Gunja Seed: Common name: Coral bead vine, Rosary pea, Gunchi (Hindi), Gunjaa (Sanskrit), Gulugunji (Kannada), Gunch (Bengali), Ratti (Gujarati), kundu maNi (Tamil), Gunja (Marathi), Kaincha (Oriya) Botanical name: Abrus precatorius Family: Fabaceae (pea family) What is it? A high-climbing, twining, or trailing woody vine with alternately compound leaves, indigenous to India. Leaves alternate, 513 cm long, even-pinnately compound with 5-15 pairs of leaflets, these oval to oblong, to 1.8 cm long, with margins entire. The flowers, shaped like pea flowers, are small, pale, violet to pink and arranged in clusters. Fruit a short, oblong pod, splitting before falling to reveal 3-8 shiny hard seeds, 67 mm long, scarlet with black bases. The seeds of abrus

precatorius are much valued in native jewelry for their bright coloration. The third of the bean with the hilum (attachment scar) is black, while the rest is bright red, suggesting a ladybug. Jewelry-making with jequirity seeds is dangerous, and there have been cases of death by a finger-prick while boring the seeds for beadwork. The seeds were traditionally used to weigh jewelry in India. The measure ratti is equal to the weight of one seed. Origin of Harappan weight system from grains Wheat= 0.048 gms Barley 0.064 gms or edible seeds such as mustard or mung bean(maasha). Approximately 8 Gunja seeds(cf.ashtanaaga) would correspond to the First Indus weight ratio or 0.871 gm as defined by Hemmy (Marshal 1931).The use of the weight system became widespread during 2600 to 2450 BCE. There were two systems of linear measurements the foot=13.2 inches or 33.35 cm The cubit=20.8 inches or 52.83 cm. The first seven Indus weights double in size from 1:2:4:8:16:32:64 ( exceptions like the 8/3 ratio or 2.28 grams also exist.). The most common weight is the 16th Ratio(13.7gms).At this point the weight increments change to a decimal system where the next largest weights have aratio of 160,200,320 and 640. The next jump goes to 1,600, 3,200 ,6,400,8,000 and 12,800.The largest weight found at Mohenjo-daro weighs 10,865 grams(approx. 25 pounds) which is 100000 times the weight of the gunja seed.

26.Antiquities of India: An Account of the History and Culture of Ancient Hindustan

By Barnett, Lionel D. (Lionel David), 1871-1960 http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924023966322

Several of these weights are included in the IVC scripts which have to be located properly for a proper decipherment of the inscriptions.

27. Grain(unit)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grain_%28unit%29 In the English-speaking world, before 13th century present, the smallest unit of mass in the customary systems of weights, since 1959 = 64.79891 milligrams exactly. Abbr, gr. Its subdivisionssee moneyer's weightare largely imaginary. The grain is the common element in troy, apothecaries', and avoirdupois weight: the troy and apothecaries' pound are 5,760 grains, and the pound

avoirdupois is 7,000 grains. ( pinda-ball,head of elephanthead of unicorn Pound-Lat. libra pondo-by weight,pendere-to weigh cf.bhadraasana=
+ =Mal.pandaara- government,tresure,treasury)

Traditionally, the grain was thought of as the weight of a barleycorn taken

from the middle of the ear.

= cf.shekel

from Akkadian she(barleycf.maashamaa-to measure,she-barleymaasha bean maatamothermass cf.H-3305).The horn is the horn of corn and svar-Na and caraNa of the bhadra(king,lion,tiger,elephant,maiden,gold) .

The French grain is, conceptually, the mass of a grain of wheat, just as the English grain was conceptually the mass of a barleycorn.



The horn(Gr.keras,keratosgarta,sikhara,karsha) of the unicorn or the deities stand for the haraNa(hand- thumb,pritha-palm,vrisha-bull,vrikshatree,priksha-dotted bullgunja or maasha),for hariNa(gold) , for corn(grain,karna ) and caraNa(netra-paada-deva-veda-sava-zabha-zavataapa-laabha) of the king(deva.King is the god as stated by Manu).

Rice (from wikipedia)

Rice(from wikipedia) to karNa(ear) and kantha

Note the application of svar(the sun,sky)-Na

whence it becomes nishka.It is applied to the caraNa( feet ) by the bhadraasana(paada-devabhadrasvarNa,aasana-seat) ie. by sitting or standing on tip-toes as in

etc. Uttaanapaada- a son of svaayambhuva ,uttanapat-plants and trees, sampatwealth,ardhodayaasana,bhadraasana,padmaasana-special yogic postures or positions .Muulikaa(female genitals,muulya-price,value) is sulka(price,tax;simha-lion,cinha-symbol).

Comparing H-3305

nagna(naaga,kanaa) bhadra with H-182

We can see that the bhadra(girl ) agrees with the bhadra(karsha,va,tiger paNa ) and the patra(bird,writ,leaf )and the

in the two inscriptions also agree.The five svastikas(su-asti,vasati) form

bhadraasana(karsha).Karsha being karaja(5 fingers) and sara(5)-sa(bird,god),there are 5

birds(garta-Garuda-garut-karsha) .Panca(5) is karsha.This also agrees with the 5 men hurled

by the bull (bhadraazana) in M-312

.The naked bhadra in

H-3305 shows up her aasana(sronii-throne-garta-karsha) and her saadhana(genitals) to show bhadraasana saasana .She stands on her toes and raises her hands to show the state of harsha(erection of hair/sex organs) and thereby karsha( Heb.Heres). The figure of the naked woman has several harsha(karsha) scripts in it.The raised hands show karaja-harsha ,the raised feet show crus-harsha the raised genitals show

harsha(erection of sex organs or hair)-harsha

etc. Bhadraasana being raised feet or

bhadra(siras,siirsha-head) aasana also whence,this feet mark is raised up to show siirshaasana

with the head down siirshaasana) or

(cf.crucifixion of Peter shows bhadraasana as . The aerial roots of the asvattha do the same(root-foot-paada in

heaven.Muula-root in heaven is suura-sun in heaven).The aasana of bhadra(head,king) is gala(neck,kala-laksha-mark,hala-plough) and kalasa(paatra-paana-paNa) is gala-sa or ka(head,water)-las(join,shine) or gal-aja(ass,ram;aasa-face,seat) .Venus/penis is bhaNa/phaNa/paNa by the shape. The tiger and the drum(paNava) show karsha paNa by garja.

(bhadra)+ (naaga,nagna,va,gaja) a) sa (na,va,raa,10) patra(bhadra,nri,paNa,bhaNa,vrisha,sarp

H-3305 bhadra(svarNa,patra)paNa

H-182 sraavaNa,svarNa

Bhadra (girl,bull,king) , naaga(elephant,snake;cobra-copperKubera) is the unicorn.It is taamra saasana(copper tablet writ).With this only the double line
10,kala,kara,paNa,gaNa,vaaha,bhaaga etc. is left..Hence both

indicate bhadranaaga(raaja patra-kings writ/bulla) karsha. Cf.Narmer palette from Egypt

28. Narmer palette of Egypt http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narmer_Palette

Reverse and obverse sides of Narmer Palette, this facsimile on display at the Royal Ontario Museum, in Toronto, Canada . The Narmer Palette, also known as the Great Hierakonpolis Palette or the Palette of Narmer, is a significant Egyptian archeological find, dating from about the 31st century BC, containing some of the earliest hieroglyphic inscriptions ever found .Note the bhadra(king,bull),patra(bird) and naaga(raaga,sarpa,patra,bhadra) etc.indicating Narmer.(Cf.Narmara.RV.)

Sumer.gal-king,Bharata: kal-count,gala-neck,naagasnake,gana-count/group,hala(plough)-karsha(harta-the sun,Heb.heres)-garta(throne)garut(wing)-Garuda(patra-bird,bhadra- king ,bull;ushtra-bull,camel).The gharsha(fight)na(fight) of the camels show garta and karsha(Heb.heres-the sun) Contemporary 3000 BC cylinder seal of Uruk displaying similar serpopard motif, Louvre. Compare these with the bhadraasana of winged bulls(lamassu)

and the bhadraasana unicorn seal


bhadraazana seal M-312

. or

the bhadraasana paNa symbol in




garta)- nar(nri,rNa)dama(tama,daana,paNa,sva) or nartana(nritnaatrasiva,praise;netra-king,maatra-measure) svarNa karsha paNa.The dance of the ushtra(Narmer,Uruk) or bhadra (dancing girl of IVC or Bhirrana) indicate praise to guests or the king.Bhadraasana(amsa-uncia-ounce) svarNa karsha(garta) paNa(money,praise) is praise to the king and price by the king/kings measure.

29. Manus weights http://www.hindunet.org/manu_smriti/index.htm

For gold 8 trasarenu =1 Liksha(cf.nishka) 3 Liksha =1black mustard grain 3 black mustard grain=1 white mustard seed 6 white mustard=1 barley corn ( cf.grain) 3 barley corn =1 krishnala(raktika-gunja ) 5 krishnala =1 maasha bean 16 maasha=1suvarNa(cf.karsha) 4 suvarNa=1 pala=1 nishka 10 pala=1 dharaNa For silver 2 krishnala of silver =1 maashaka(silver) 16 maashaka=1dharaNa(silver) or puraNa 10 dharaNa(silver) =1satamana Thus gold weighs 2.5 times that of silver. For copper 1 karsha of copper =karsha paNa or paNa cf.copper- Kubera- cobra(naaga) Hence bhadranaaga naaga patra-copper tablet/writtaamrasaasana

Naaga(cobra Heb.naahas-snake,nehusaah-copper,bronze) has a phaNa which is the paNa.PaaNi(hasta-bhuja-bhoga-aksha) is paNa. 1 Pana(cf.vana-tree with taara-star) or Varana equalled 16 tara (silver coin, with the 1 Tara to 3 copper Jital. ... The copper Duggani ... External links : karsha. org/ListRulers. ... Cf.tara and taara on vana tara tra paNa tarpaNa 111 + paNa Cash -Sanskrit karsha - " a weight of silver or gold" equal to 1/400 tula . Tamil kaasu . . Moolah is supposed to have originated from the Sanskrit word 'Muulya' . karsha, (krish), the act of drawing, dragging ; (with and without halasya) ploughing, agriculture Yajn. ii, 217 ; 'anything scratched ... A karsha from the root, 'karesh' (Per. kashidan, to draw) means 'a trench or a furrow.' Kamsa known as ganza (Tamil kam.sa), was imported either in the form of broken vessels from Canton or as the coins known as cash (Sanskrit, karsha) from Yunnan. ... Cash: Etymology: from Sanskrit -karsha, a weight of gold or silver but akin to Old Persian karsha-, a weight. a unit of value equivalent to one cash ... Pala weight = 4karsha=12 kazhanju=10Rupee=1/2 Raatel 100 pala=1 Tulaa(32 lbs)

30.Troy ounce
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Troy_ounce

A gold bar weighing one troy ounce

1 troy ounce coin example (1 oz.) (Platinum Eagle)

A Good Delivery silver bar weighing 1000 troy ounces

1 troy ounce = 31.1034768 grams

The troy (srii,suurya,dravya,3,droNa,throne cf. ) ounce (ozt,amsa-part) is a unit of imperial measure. In the present day it is most commonly used to gauge the weight of precious metals. One troy ounce nowadays defined as exactly 0.0311034768 kg = 31.1034768 g. There are ca. 32.1507466 troy oz in 1 kg. One troy ounce is equivalent to ca. 1.09714 avoirdupois ( pound=16 ounce;vrishabha-bull; Fr.aveir de pes -to have weight;Lat.habere-to have,de -from,pensum- that which is weighed)ounces. The troy ounce is part of the troy weights system derived from the Roman monetary system. The Romans used bronze bars of varying weights as

currency. An aes grave , , weighed equal to 1 pound (sound,count). One twelfth (cf srii-raasi-suurya12troy) of an aes grave

was called an uncia(amsa-part,amsu-sunbeam) or in English an "ounce". Later standardization would change the ounce to 1/16 of a pound (the avoirdupois ounce;count,sound), but the troy ounce, which is 1/12 of a troy pound (note that a troy pound is lighter than an avoirdupois pound), has been retained for the measure of precious metals. At 480 grains, the troy ounce is heavier than the avoirdupois ounce, which weighs 437.5 grains. A grain is 64.79891 milligrams (mg); hence one troy ounce is 31.1034768 grams (g) (exact by definition), about 10 percent more than the avoirdupois ounce, which is 28.349523125 g (exact). To maintain purity standards and common measures across time, the troy ounce was retained over the avoirdupois ounce in the weighing and pricing of gold, platinum, silver and gunpowder. Likewise, the grain, identical in both the troy and avoirdupois systems, is still used to measure arrow and arrowhead weights in archery along with projectile (bullet) and propellant (powder) weights in ballistics. The troy ounce and grain were also common to the apothecaries' system long used in medicine, but have been largely replaced by milligrams.

The term "Troy" ounce probably originated in early Middle Ages as a weight unit used at fairs of Troyes, Champagne, France. The Troyes fair was one of the most famous trading places in the world (at the time) with merchants from many different countries attending -- see Champagne fairs. The name is therefore most likely not a reference of ancient Troy of Anatolia, ancient Greece, however it is interesting to note that the Roman pound was also divided into twelve equal ounces of (approx) 27.264g.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carat

Carat or karat may refer to: cf.karsha

In the gem business: Carat (mass), a unit of mass for gemstones, equal to 0.2 gram Carat (purity) or karat, a unit of purity for gold

From,Akkadian dictionary Association Assyrophile de France

1 2

uru : [Nature Metals] gold cf.karsha kutmu : [Professions] goldsmith 3 4 kuttimu , arrapu : [Professions] goldsmith , jeweler paallu : [Nature Minerals] (a kind of) gold

copper 1. (w)er : [Nature Minerals] copper ; :cf.Kubera 2. assammu : [Feeding Drink] goblet , drinking vessel (of copper,silver or cedar wood) , jug ?) ; 3eperu , epru , ipiru : [eperu a kupri]: earth yielding copper (ores) 4nappa er : [Professions] coppersmith , copper worker ; 5napp er : coppersmith / redsmith / brazier ; 6ptu : [Army Weapons] a copper axe (carried by a deity) , an adze of copper carried by a deity cf.parasu 7qullu , qlu : [City Buildings] a large door-ring (of copper or silver) 8qulm : [Army Weapons] kind of axe (of copper or iron) , model axe held by a figurine

bronze 1. dal (1) : : a bronze bucket for drawing water . 2. nappa siparri : [Nature Metals] bronzesmith 3qulliu : : (a vessel of bronze or clay) , a jug , a pitcher ; 4siparru : [Nature Metals] bronze ; bronze items ; shackles bull 1. Al : [Sky Astronomy Constellations Zodiac] Taurus (Bull) 2. apsas : [Animals] sphinx ; bull-colossus 3.garu : to be strong , to be robust (D) to be very powerful (Dt) to bully 4.l : [Animals] bull 5.mru : 1) a young animal , a young bull , , a calf , a foal (of a donkey or a horse) ; " young animal of the waters" , (an insect) ; 2) (transferred) : king ; cf.Mal.muuri-young bull 6rmu : [Animals] a wild bull , an aurochs ; 7ipassu : clay sealing, sealed bulla 8ru : [Animals] bull cf.suurya

horse 1. akkannu : [Animals] 1) a wild ass , an onager , a wild donkey ; 2) (Nuzi) : (a breed of horses) ; 3) : ( a bird) 2. atikittiu : [Animals] (designation of) a horse 3. dnu : [Numbers] single , singular , lone (horse) , isolated ; 4. allu (1) : [Human Body] 1) (men / women) : the crotch , the upper thigh cf.Mal.kaal

5. arbakannu , irginu , tunu : [Animals] (breed of ) horse 6. lu : [Humanities Geography] way, (physical) road ; course (for horses) ; journey / voyage (ship) ; 7. ipu : [Science Natural sciences] 1) a membrane (after birth, intestines ...) , placenta ; 2) a film (on oil) ; 3) blinkers for horses ; 8. ipardu , iperdu , ipar : [Army] : horse-bit 9. kallpu : [Army Military] an armored horseman , a n outrider , a knight (?) 10. kartappu : (animal) driver -especially of horses- , coachman , equerry (?) , riding instructor (?) , wagoner (?) 11. kilidar : [Animals Domestic] : 1) (a horse) ; 2) name of a horse ; 12. mr nisqi * : [Animals] war-horse 13. mrnisqu : : 1) a select / prime choice young animal ; 2) war-horse , steed (?) ; 14. mrniqu : [Animals] 1) Parpola : a stallion ; 2) a select young animal ; 3) a warhorse , a battle-horse ; 15. mru : 1) a young animal , a young bull , , a calf , a foal (of a donkey or a horse) ; [mr m] : " young animal of the waters" , (an insect) ; 2) (transferred) : king 16. muarkisu : [Animals] horse-collector 17ptallu : [Animals] riding horse ; coll. : cavalry

From Ancient scripts.com http://www.ancientscripts.com/luwian.html Quick Facts Type Logophonetic GenealogyUnrelated Location West Asia > Anatolia Time 1400 BCE to 700 BCE Direction Variable

Literacy appeared during the Bronze Age in Anatolia (which corresponds to modern-day Turkey) in two very different ways. On one hand, the Cuneiform writing system of Mesopotamia was adopted to write the Hittite language. On the other hand, an indigenous writing system was invented to write the ancient Luwian language. This script was originally mislabeled as Hieroglyphic Hittite, because it was discovered in the archives of the Hittitle capital of Hattusa (modern Boazky), but its decipherment eventually led to the conclusion that the language recorded was not Hittite, but a related language called Luwian. Hittite and Luwian both belonged to Anatolian subgroup of the Indo-European language family. According to Hittite sources, the Luwians were their neighbors, and they formed a kingdom called Arzawa in western and southern Anatolia where Luwian hieroglyphs likely originated. The Hittites adopted both the Luwian language and script for their own use. Hieroglyphic Luwian was used in the Hittite Empire between 1400 and 1200 BCE in addition to their cuneiform script. After the fall of the Empire, no evidence of Luwian existed for two hundred years. Then, at around 1000 BCE, new "NeoHittite" city-states appeared in Southern Anatolia and Northern Syria, and they left many Hieroglyphic Luwian inscriptions between 1000 and 700 BCE as the rulers of these cities were in fact ethnic Luwians but were related by blood to the Hittite aristocracy. Ultimately, the Assyrian Empire destroyed these city states and the Hieroglyphic Luwian tradition came to an end. However, the Luwian language endured, and possibly evolved into Lycian (although it is also possible that Hittite gave rise to Lycian). The signs of Hieroglyphic Luwian can be divided into two categories: syllabograms which represent sounds, and logograms which represent words and morphemes. Some of the syllabograms are illustrated in the following chart:

Note that /z/ most likely stands for the affricate sound [ts]. As you can see, the script has a lot of homophonous signs, that is, signs with different appearance but sharing the same phonetic value. To distinguish homophonous signs while transcribing Hieroglyphic Luwian, diacritical marks and numeric subscripts are used. Hence, the acute and grave accents do not represent stress of any kind, but instead represent the second and third homophonous signs for a particular syllable. Subscripts start at 4 and represent the fourth and subsequent homophonous signs. For example, sa, s, s, sa4, sa5 and sa6 all represent the same sound.

In addition to syllabograms, the Luwian script also used a set of logograms to represent words rather than sounds. These logograms are highly pictographic in that they resemble the words they represent. One peculiarity of the system that scholars invented to represent Luwian logograms is to transcribe a logogram using the Latin word of the same meaning. Therefore, for example, the word /wawis/, which means "cow" in Luwian, is transcribed in scientific papers as BOS, the Latin word meaning "cow". Three logograms are transcribed with their actual Luwian phonetic value because they have no Latin correspondence.The following is the list of Luwian logograms. Red text is the Latin transliteration, blue text is English meaning.

Very often a logogram is written with a phonetic complement, which is one or more syllabograms following the logogram elucidating the pronuncation of the logogram. Also, Luwian is an inflected language like Latin and Sanskrit, where different endings attached to the "stem" or basic form of a word modifies the meaning of the "stem". Hence, the logogram represents the "stem", and phonetic complements are used to spell out inflectional endings. Some examples of phonetic complementation:

But it is also perfectly possible to spell these same words without logograms but instead completely with syllabograms:

The previous examples also illustrate a few spelling rules. As a syllabary, Luwian has no single-consonant signs to write consonants at the end of words or syllables. To write a single consonant, ancient Luwian scribes would use a syllabogram with the proper consonant, and by convention the vowel of the syllabogram is not "read". In transcription, parentheses are placed around the vowel to indicate that it is silent. In general, consonants not immediately preceding a vowel is written using syllabograms with muted vowels. This applies even for long sequences of consonants, such as istris above. The one exception is the consonant /n/, which is not written at all, such as the word "boundaries" which is spelled i-r(a/i)-hi-zi which should correspond to irhitsi but in reality is pronounced as in irhintsi. Luwian was also written in a cuneiform script.

35.Hittite Online
From http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/hitol-0-X.html

Base Form Dictionary

Jonathan Slocum and Sara E. Kimball <anna-> mother -<anniya-> do, work -<antuwahhas> human being, person -<-anza> (indicating nominative singular animate participle) -<ass-> settle -<aswar> fold -<ska-> gate, outside -<ssu-> good, dear -<ssu-> goods, possessions -<-asta> (indicating completed action) -<-asta> (indicating continuing action) -<-at> (indicating 3rd person singular preterite) -<-at> he, she, it -<ABI> father -<ABI> father -ABU> father -<ABU> father -<ANE.KU.RA> horse -<ANE.KUR.RAME> chariot fighter -<ANE.MUNUS.AL.LAL> mare -<ANU.KUR.RAHI.A> chariot troops -<ARAD> slave, servant, vassal -<ARAD> slave, serve -<A.> field -<BAL> make sacrifice -<BD> fortify -<BE-L-> lord -<BLU> lord, master -<BI> in -<d-> take -- [Pokorny d- : d-, also d-u- : du- : du- :: to give, donate] -<-du-> you -- [Pokorny t :: thou, you] -<DAM> wife, marriage -<DAM.GR> merchant -paNa(trade,house) , , , dam-house+kara

<DIM> Stormgod -<DINANNA> Inanna --

<DINGIR> god -- cf.Sankara-Siva <DINGIR.MAH> presiding deity, Mother Goddess -<DINGIRME.ARAD> servant of the god -<DU> Stormgod -<DUMU> son, child -<d-> eat -<egw> drink -<pp-> take, seize -<s-> be -<s-> sit -- [Pokorny s- :: to sit] -<EN> lord --nii-lead <ERINME> army, infantry -- cf.raNa-war <> house -<.GAL> palace -<.GU> cow barn -<GAL> chief, great --

<GAAN> lady --cf.gajam and inscriptions with lady

, ,

and elephant

symbols . <GIM> when -<GI> wood, tree -<GIAPIN> plow -<GIDAG> throne -<GIKIRI> orchard --cf.srii <GN> shekel -- GN -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative plural cf. <GN> shekel shekels cf gaja,naaga , <GR> knife, dagger -<GR> foot -- cf.kara-hand <GU> cow -- go-cow,bull <GUL> strike -- hana,hara-destroy <GUNNI> hearth -- agni-fire,kanya-virgin <GUKIN> gold -<GU.ZA> throne --cf.garta,gaja <halient-> palace complex -<halki-> grain, barley -<har-, hark-> have, hold -- [Pokorny areq- :: to lock, guard, protect] -<harsauwar> cultivation -<hs-, hass-> give birth, beget -- suu-give birth <hassann-> family -- aasana,vasana <hassnna-> family -<hasstar-> family -<hassuwezziya-> become king --

<hatri-> write -- cf.bhadra,patni

<hazziya-> strike, engrave -<hekur> rock sanctuary -- [Pokorny agro-, egro-? :: first, highest; apex, beginning] <huppar> bowl -<hu-u-up-par-as> vessel -<Halmasuitt-> deified throne dais -<HUR.SAG> mountain -<-> go -- aya-go <ish-> master -- [Pokorny esu-s : su- :: good, able] -<ishil> treaty -prosper, succeed, etc.] -<istanna-> altar table -<iya-> do, make -<iya-> go, march -<IBILA> male heir --baala-boy <IM> clay -<INIM> word, matter, affair -<ITAR> Ishtar --cf.Indra <D> river --nadi-river <k-, k-> this -- [Pokorny ko-, ke-, with the particle ke, k(e)i-, k(i)io- :: this; here] <-kan> ... -- [Pokorny kom :: at, by, cum, with, alongside] -<ks> behold, look -<ksa> behold, lo -<kst-> hunger, famine -<katta> down, downwards -- [Pokorny kom :: at, by, cum, with, alongside] -<katta d-> take, capture -<-ku> whether, or --ka,va <kui- kui-> whoever, whichever, whatever -- [Pokorny kuo-, kue-, fem. ku, kuei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)] -<kuisa> whoever -- [Pokorny kuo-, kue-, fem. ku, kuei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)] -<kuisk-> any/some one/thing -- [Pokorny kuo-, kue-, fem. ku, kuei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)] -<kuit> because, since -- [Pokorny kuo-, kue-, fem. ku, kuei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)] -<kuit imma kuit> however -- [Pokorny kuo-, kue-, fem. ku, kuei- :: (indefinite/interrogative pronoun)] -<kuitman> when, while -<kuitmn> until, while -<kussan> fee, price -- cf.Sumer.kas,Bharat.aksha <-KA> your -<KAM> a measure of time --ka-time <KARA> troops, army -<KA.TAB.ANE> donkey -<KI> earth, world -<KUR> land, territory --

<KUR.KUR> lands -<KR> enemy -<K.BABBAR> silver --K.BABBAR -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as genitive singular of <K.BABBAR> silver -- of silver

<llu> prosperity? -<lutti-> window -<-LIM> deity -<LIM> thousand -<-LI-NI> our -<LUGAL> king -<-LUM> deity -<L> man, person -<LKR> enemy -<LSLA.SU.DU.A> cupbearer -<LSANGA> priest -<-ma> but, and -- [Pokorny sme, sm :: really, truly (emphatic particle)] -<mahhan> as, how, when -<mi-> grow, prosper, ripen -<mhur> time -<mekki> greatly -- [Pokorny meg(h)- : meg(h)- :: big, much, great, major, mega-] -<mma-, mmiya-> say, speak -- [Pokorny 3. men- :: to think; mind, spiritual activity] -<mmal> meal -<-mi-> my -- [Pokorny 1. me- :: me (1st pers. sg. oblique pronoun stem)] -<-mu> me -- [Pokorny 1. me- :: me (1st pers. sg. oblique pronoun stem)] -<-MA> so, thus -<MAMTU> oath -<MANA> mina (paNa-vana;pama) -- MA.NA -- noun; Sumerogram functioning here as accusative singular of <MANA> mina -- mina # The Sumerian mina was a unit of
measure for precious metals. Coins had not yet been invented.cf.paNa-money,the sun,price

<M.GAL> he-goat -<M> one hundred -- cf.maa <MU> year -<MUNUS> woman -<MUNUS KU> sister -<MUNUS.LUGAL> queen -<MU> snake -<npis> heaven -nimbus; water] -<-nnas> us -[Pokorny 2. enebh- : nebh-, embh-, mbh- :: wet, damp; cloud,

<nu> and -- [Pokorny n- :: now] -<nwa> still, yet -- [Pokorny n- :: now] -<NADNU> give -<NAM.RA> captive, colonist -<NI-I DINGIRLIM> oath -<NIN> sister -<NINDA.GUR> thick bread -<NIR.GL> strength -<NUMUN> seed, descendant -<-pa> ... -, <pahhas-> protect -- [Pokorny p- : p-, and p-t- : p-t- :: to feed, graze, pasture] <pi-, piya-> give -<pankus> advisory council -<par handandtar> divine might, power -<par iya> prosper? -<pars-, parsiya-> break, crumble -- [Pokorny 2c. per-, per- :: to sell, impart] -<parsdu-> leaf, foliage -<parssni-> squat -- [Pokorny persn, persn-, persno- :: heel] -<-pat> ... -- [Pokorny poti-s :: host, husband, lord, master, owner] -<pat> himself -<pr, parn-> house -- cf.parNa,paNa <purut> mud, soil, earth -- mritt-earth <PANI> before, under -<qab> speak -<-ri-> (indicating dative-locative singular) -<RIKILTU> treaty -<-sa> (functioning here as nominative plural animate) -<sakuni-> spring -<sakuniya-> spring -<sakuwasaran> right -<salli-> big, great -<sani-> one, the same -<sankunni-> priest -- cf.Mal.Sankunni <sankunniya-> serve as priest -<sar d-> offer, take -saraasa-waterjar <sarra-> break, transgress -- [Pokorny 4. ser- :: to insert, line up, put/bind together] <sli-> grain pile -<sipnt-> make a libation, sacrifice -- [Pokorny spend- :: to offer a libation] -<-sis> his, her, its --

<sius> god -<siya-> shoot, hurl --cf.saayaka-arrow <-smas> they -<-ssan> (indicating upward motion) -<-ssan> on, over -<-sse> he -- sa-he,she , ,, <-sse> his -<-ssett> his -<-ssi> he, she, it -<-ssi> his, her, its -<-ssi-> he, she, it -<su> and, but -<SA> of -<SAG> head -<SAG.DU> head, human being, worker -<SE> brother -<Siusummin> our god, our Sius -<SIG> good, well -<SILA> lamb -<-U> his, her -<U> hand -<UKUR> spear -<UM> name -<-U-NU> their -<abtu> seize, take -- cf.sapta-seven <BATU> seize, take -<-ta> you -- [Pokorny t :: thou, you] -<ta> and -<t-, tar-> declare, promise -- [Pokorny tor-, toro-s :: loud, distinct, audible] -<tuliya-> council -<tuppi-> tablet -<TI> life -<TUPPI> tablet -<TUPPU> tablet -<TUPPU> tablet -<TL> spring -<TR> sheepfold -<k> I -<unatalla-> merchant -<-us> (indicating accusative plural animate) -<-us> (indicating nominative singular animate) -<-us> them -<utn-> land, country --

<UDU> sheep -<UDU.NIT> ram -<UDU.SG.MUNUS> ewe -<L> no, not -<L> not -<UR.BARRA> wolf -<URU> city -<UTU> Sungod -<R> limb -<> and -<wtar> water -- [Pokorny 9. au(e)-, aued-, auer- :: to wet, flow, sprinkle; water, river, etc.] -<wk-, wekk-> demand, ask -- [Pokorny uek- :: to want, wish] -<wete-> build -- [Pokorny 3. uedh- :: to tie, bind, attach] -<wtt-> year -<wewakk-> demand -<wiya-> send -<-ya> and -<-YA> my -<zahhiya-> battle -<ZAG> border, boundary -<ZZ> wheat -From http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/eieol/hitol-BF-X.html

36. Is Sumerian an Isolated Language?The Influence of Bharata on Sumerian Sumerian

agar irrigated field, common land garash straw grass gur wheels guru high, deep guru to encircle, besiege igi eye, igisi to see milla mountain hill shur/sur to flow, drip ahe arm bila son, heir bir to be hot en dignatory, lord

khala field, ghar -cross sara grass (cf.trash,tulaa-balance) va-kra(curve), ca-kra(wheel,ghar) gira(hill) ,guru (grave)

vri(to cover)
akshi (eye)

saila(hill) cf.Tamil malai-hill

sara(water),dhaara(flow) vaha -hand baala -boy ravi the sun nii-to lead

esh shrine gis/ges man, penis gud war yud gun/gu land, region, district gur copper sickle isimu/isim offspring/descendant kala/gala store-pit, cellar kar to take away lamma/lama female spirit of good fortune limmu/lim four lu man men crown, tiara

vas-to shine,as pasas-penis ,sis-na -penis ku - earth hala-plough ,kara-hand suunu a son khala-field har to take away,destroy sam-happiness anu -man maana-honour ,naama mark of honour

mush snake, reptile sadur low-lying end of farmer's field shagan/shakan large jar for oil shar/sar to enter sedur caterpillar cocoon sisa straight su to stand, set up sukur spear, lance ud sun, light, day ugu to give birth un people uru/iri city, town, village, district kala/gala store-pit cellar . umu nurse. ganba market place cf.Mal.kamboLa du heap buru crow, raven cf.Tamil praa-dove,parava-bird ara to shine, blaze alim wild ram, bison, aurochs, powerful

nahusha-snake catura square,kshetra-field kalasa -pot tar to cross citra salabha-butterfly sat -truth ud-to rise suula-spear,cakra- weapon of Vishnu ud-aya - sun rise, svi -grow suu -to give birth anu -man pur town cf.Tamil uur-native place khala-field

paNa-market place da-hill patra-bird

ra-fire asva-horse

ag =fire kia =earth anna =air badur =water ezinu = goddess of grain ahu =arm

aga(naga,agna)-the sun ku,bhuu-the earth soma-the sky pa=bhadra-water,king cf.the leaf well of IVC suuna-grain ,soma-the moon vaaha,baahu -hand

puhrum/ukkin =assembly

puram -town

gur =big sippar =Bird City uri =blood ne =blow kud/hu =clan manu =count agu or aga =crown parasu =cut kaspam (money)=Currency ud =day apsu =deep water zazu =divide kashi =drinks (beer) ki or gi or kia =earth akalu or ikul =eat masalu (to make equal) =equal asar =eye kila =excavation pana =face gud =family abum/ad =father dal =feather hamsu =fifth eqlum =field kua =fish hamsum =five akalum =food sepu or gir =foot

guru -big patra-bird Bhaarata vaari-water na-fight kula,got-ra =clan gana-count,man-to think,maa-to measure ka head aga=gira=mountain parasu-axe karsham-money udaya-sunrise,ahas-day ap-water ched-to cut,sas-to cut,slaughter kasa-spirituos liquor cf.Kasyapa ku -earth aahaara-food sama=equal,tula=equal asru -tear hala =plough

phaala-forehead, paNa =money=paana,aana=nose,face kula,gotra -tribe ja,taata father,amba-mother dala-petal panca-five khala -field ka (pa,ma-water)=fish =go=cow=pasu(animal)=vasu(ray) panca-five,simha-fifth sign aahaaram-food pada-foot

rebu =fourth igisum = gift nadanu =give ilu =god (a god) dingir =gods ilati =goddess

ravi=suurya=turiiya-fourth dakshina-gift daanam-gift la(indra),ra(agni),deva dinakara-the sun devi-goddess

hurasham or gushkin =gold (money) harina,purata,puruda-gold

seim =grains
qatu =hand sag =head agaru =hire

hasta-hand sara-head,ka-head,kesa-hair krii-purchase,argha-price

esharra (home of the ruler/prince) =home vaasra-house si =horn/Twisted srii-horn(srii- horn,naga-hill=sringa- peak) sisu = horse asva-horse,sas-to jump,sasa-hare ni =I sarrum =king pa =leaf na=we netra,raajan-king pa leaf,water,ruler,egg jiiva-life

shi =life (breath of life; soul) sikkuru =lock


belum//en/nin =lord nii-to lead,paala-king bel =lord of paala-king

lu =Man anu -man uga =Master ka-head,yahva-lord zabar (gleaming double metal) = metal = bhadra/svar(na)-gold warhum/itu =month varsha -year

nanna = moon soma-moon ummum =mother amba-mother sadu or shadu or kur = mountain gira,da-mountain

pu/ipusma/ka =mouth tisu =ninth na =no, dont la or ul =Not sud =nurse

pa-drink dasa-ten na-not na-not suu-bring forth,suuti-birth

maqlu or maklu (burnt offerings) =offerings dahana-fire isten/sag/as =One shammu =plant/grass/hay eresu =plow eka,sa-one suuna-grain

vrisha,karsha cf.Tamil erudu-bull .From hala-plow of Bharata they have kaaLai-bull

mimmum or makkurum =property

maana(house,measure;apnaproperty) cf.miina(fish) + makara(alligator) in the IVC seals indicate house property or measure of property or money

harrani =road


ta =root


absanu =rope paasa -rope barag (inner sanctum) =sanctum bharga-the sun,garbha-sanctum izzakkara =saying akshara-alphabet kunukkum (sealed document) = seal karaNa-document,ganana-count

nadinum =seller

daana-giving aga,naaga-snake sapta-seven go - cow,money

azag (great serpent) =serpent sebet =seven

kaspum/kubabbar/ku =silver (money) sessum =six


maru/dumu = a son qabu =speak dim= spouse mul =star

suunu-a son vac-speak dam-wife,sama=equal suura-suurya-the sun,muulya-price ud(rava-the sun)- ay(go)=sunrise kratu-sacrifice,Durga-goddess of sacrifice

utu = Shamash- the Sun God = star sharaku = to give a present or offering

edubba (house of scribal tablets) =tablets


esrum =ten dasa - ten dingiru (the god ten,cf.ten commanments) =ten dinakara-the sun sibutum =testimony salsu =third sina =two Water =mu or a sabdam-voice,sapatham-oath suula-trident,traya-three sama-equals,yama-two ma =water mudra =mu(water)sara(water)=ma-tra=maa-sara =carama=maatra =
=netra,paatra ma=pa=na=sa pana=satra=savana

utukagaba (light established at the gate of the waters) =water udu-water ur =wolf mi =woman vrika-wolf ma =mother cf. sama=sa(she)ma(mother)=maata(mother)=
nose,maasha-measure =naaza-

akitu =year (New Year) niru =yoke NUMBERS 1 = dili 2 = sini/min

ahas-day,abda -year siira- plough

srii=sa-ra=1 nayana=sama=yama2

4 = sha/nig/gar

ghar = = or x =4;

tulya-sama-equal+tulya =

8 = ussu 20 = man

turiiya-four =suurya =samsum-the sun ashta=eight vim-sa=20

Terms like Rudra = lu(man)-sira (head,raaja-king) =king ,nu(praise)-sira,mudra(seal),pana(face) ,paNa(money,barter) etc.may be examples of this kind of sprachbund coinings .

For the Sumerians the sun = sam-sum= or utu (power in the sun =vasu-rays) =u-kha(pot or kum-bha=pot=kalasa-pot=sul-ka=price=bhaga-the sun,the vulva,prosperity;bhaaga=part-bart;go-the sun,king,cow,eye)=maghavan(Indra, munificent)=kha(the sun)= paana(pot)=naava(praise) = naaka(snake,elephant,king,arrow
king,svarna-gold maasha-measure etc.) , whence = =dharana-scale,netra-

king,svarna-gold=Dharma-maatra-measure. Naaga-king=kings measure, Dharma Raaja- a

Thus price=praise =purchase=truce =vrisha(bull)=bhadra(bull,king)= patra(writ,veda)= varta(barter=trade) =Bharata(a people who were trade kings in the ancient world)

Am-people Melekh-king,maalakh-to rule cf.Meluhha Salom-peace ner-light aahas-to take hold of el-god aasas-be strong uur-oor-light

iis-man,lord yaada-to know yaasa-to protect daud-to love mehiir-price kaane-measuring rod kokhaab-star hothaam-mudra hag-festival suur-stone sames-sun ben-son cf.baaNa yidad-to count eben-stone yaasa-to protect cf taya

kayiin-kenaa-kaanaa- to earn,to save cf naaga,kanaa kenaa smith gebar-strong,male yaada-to know baarakh-to bless bath- a measure baanaa-to make,baaraa-to create cf.paana-pot baal-lord cf.paala

maakiir,maakhiir-trader ;maakhar-to sell cf kreNa-purchase,makara

mii-who ke-like


as in



aakeb-sole of feet; bhaaga,vaaha saakhar-to hire/rent cf sikhara,karsha sem-name saama-to hear suur-rock cf suur-bhadra=kings stone seben-to buy ram-noble cf.nri-king

keren-horn; kiraNa,karsha sua-prosperity cf.sva seba-agreement cf.vaca,pada sar-king cf.raaja dam,daam-blood cf taamra kiryaa-city

arba-four cf.aya,paada,vara,bhaara maanaa-to divide Debora-beetle,bee Paaniim-face


Bethaanya-bethnyaa-house of palms cf Bethal-house of emptiness Bethel-house of god




Berot-wells Diin-justice cf deen Haar-mountain Daabar-to speak cf.bharata,svar(the sun,sound,heaven.Hence sound belongs to the element-aakaasa) Tabera-fire- bharata-bruuhi-Hebrew-Braahui Sene-thorny bush Een-river Aaden-to enjoy Ednaa-sexual pleasure cf.Eden Gath-mill,semen-oil Sadad-to plough Taaliithaa-girl Par-bull,sor- bull,ros-head , saar-captain cf svar,suura,suula Saarap-to burn Saaraab-parching heat Saatar-officer baar- to light a fire cf.par daabar to speak heres-the suncf.karsha =paNa=sun=harta-the sun peter-first born cf.pitri seba-seven seber-grain saabar-buy grain or food visraanana-sale

seqel-shekel-unit of weight Nimrod-Drona-taruna(youth,yudha-samara-taamra Sopaar-trumpet cf.svara Mayim-waters Ses-six,sixty Taberaah-burning Ros-head


ah-sa or

Iys-man cf.sha-man El-god cf la Anu(we) cf. anu-man,na-we Oniy-ships cf nau-ship,yoni Ariy,aryeh-lion cf.hari Nehusaah-copper,bronze Naahus-made of bronze Num:21.9 Naahas-snakecopper,bronze

38. Manusmriti: The Laws of Manu http://www.hindunet.org/manu_smriti/index.htm

VII 1. I will declare the duties of kings, (and) show how a king should conduct himself, how he was created, and how (he can obtain) highest success. 2. A Kshatriya, who has received according to the rule the sacrament prescribed by the Veda, must duly protect this whole (world). 3. For, when these creatures, being without a king, through fear dispersed in all directions, the Lord created a king for the protection of this whole (creation), 4. Taking (for that purpose) eternal particles of Indra, of the Wind, of Yama, of the Sun, of Fire, of Varuna, of the Moon, and of the Lord of wealth (Kubera). 5. Because a king has been formed of particles of those lords of the gods, he therefore surpasses all created beings in luster; 6. And, like the sun, he burns eyes and hearts; nor can anybody on earth even gaze on him. 7. Through his (supernatural) power he is Fire and Wind, he the Sun and the Moon, he the Lord of justice (Yama), he Kubera, he Varuna, he great Indra. 8. Even an infant king must not be despised, (from an idea) that he is a (mere) mortal; for he is a great deity in human form. 9. Fire burns one man only, if he carelessly approaches it, the fire of a king's (anger) consumes the (whole) family, together with its cattle and its hoard of property.

10. Having fully considered the purpose, (his) power, and the place and the time, he assumes by turns many (different) shapes for the complete attainment of justice. 11. He, in whose favor resides Padma, the goddess of fortune, in whose valor dwells victory, in whose anger abides death, is formed of the luster of all (gods). 12. The (man), who in his exceeding folly hates him, will doubtlessly persh; for the king quickly makes up his mind to destroy such (a man). 13. Let no (man), therefore, transgress that law which favorites, nor (his orders) which inflict pain on those in disfavor. 14. For the (king's) sake the Lord formerly created his own son, Punishment, the protector of all creatures, (an incarnation of) the law, formed of Brahman's glory. 35. The king has been created (to be) the protector of the castes (varna) and orders, who, all according to their rank, discharge their several duties. 37. Let the king, after rising early in the morning, worship Brahmanas who are well versed in the threefold sacred science and learned (in polity), and follow their advice. 38. Let him daily worship aged Brahmanas who know the Veda and are pure; for he who always worships aged men, is honoured even by Rakshasas. 41. Through a want of humility Vena perished, likewise king Nahusha, Sudas, the son of Pigavana, Sumukha, and Nemi. 42. But by humility Prithu and Manu gained sovereignty, Kubera the position of the Lord of wealth, and the son of Gadhi the rank of a Brahmana. 47. Hunting, gambling, sleeping by day, censoriousness, (excess with) women, drunkenness, (an inordinate love for) dancing, singing, and music, and useless travel are the tenfold set (of vices) springing from love of pleasure.

48. Tale bearing, violence, treachery, envy, slandering, (unjust) seizure of property, reviling, and assault are the eight fold set (of vices) produced by wrath. 50. Drinking, dice, women, and hunting, these four (which have been enumerated) in succession, he must know to be the most pernicious in the set that springs from love of pleasure. 54. Let him appoint seven or eight ministers whose ancestors have been royal servants, who are versed in the sciences, heroes skilled in the use of weapons and descended from (noble) families and who have been tried. 62. Among them let him employ the brave, the skilful, the high-born, and the honest in (faces for the collection of) revenue, (e.g.) in mines, manufactures, and storehouses, (but) the timid in the interior of his palace. 63. Let him also appoint an ambassador who is versed in all sciences, who understands hints, expressions of the face and gestures, who is honest, skilful, and of (noble) family. 69. Let him settle in a country which is open and has a dry climate, where grain is abundant, which is chiefly (inhabited) by Aryans, not subject to epidemic diseases (or similar troubles), and pleasant, where the vassals are obedient and his own (people easily) find their livelihood. 70. Let him build (there) a town, making for his safety a fortress, protected by a desert, or a fortress built of (stone and) earth, or one protected by water or trees, or one (formed by an encampment of armed) men or a hill fort. 71. Let him make every effort to secure a hill-fort, for amongst all those (fortresses mentioned) a hill-fort is distinguished by many superior qualities. 75. Let that (fort) be well supplied with weapons, money, grain and beasts of burden, with Brahmanas, with artisans, with engines, with fodder, and with water.

76. Let him cause to be built for himself, in the centre of it, a spacious palace, (well) protected, habitable in every season, resplendent (with whitewash), supplied with water and trees. 78. Let him appoint a domestic priest (purohita) and choose affiliating priests (ritvig); they shall perform his domestic rites and the (sacrifices) for which three fires are required. 79. A king shall fire various (Srauta) sacrifices at which liberal fees (are distributed), and in order to acquire merit, he shall give to Brahmanas enjoyments and wealth. 80. Let him cause the annual revenue in his kingdom to be collected by trusty (facials), let him obey the sacred law in (his transactions with) the people, and behave like a father towards all men. 82. Let him honour those Brahmanas who have returned from their teacher's house (after studying the Veda); for that (money which is given) to Brahmanas is declared to be an imperishable treasure for kings. 85. A gift to one who is not a Brahmana (yields) the ordinary (reward; a gift) to one who calls himself a Brahmana, a double (reward); a gift to a well-read Brahmana, a hundred-thousand fold (reward); (a gift) to one who knows the Veda and the Angas (Vedaparaga, a reward) without end. 86. For according to the particular qualities of the recipient and according to the faith (of the giver) a small or a great reward will be obtained for a gift in the next world. 87. A king who, while he protects his people, is defied by (foes), be they equal in strength, or stronger, or weaker, must not shrink from battle, remembering the duty of Kshatriyas. 88. Not to turn back in battle, to protect the people, to honour the Brahmanas, is the best means for a king to secure happiness. 96. Chariots and horses, elephants, parasols, money, grain, cattle, women, all sorts of (marketable) goods and valueless metals belong to him who takes them (singly) conquering (the possessor).

97. A text of the Veda (declares) that (the soldiers) shall present a choice portion (of the booty) to the king; what has not been taken singly, must be distributed by the king among all the soldiers. 111. That king who through folly rashly oppresses his kingdom, (will), together with his relatives, ere long be deprived of his life and of his kingdom. 114. Let him place a company of soldiers, commanded (by a trusty facer), the midst of two, three, five or hundreds of villages, (to be) a protection of the kingdom. 115. Let him appoint a lord over (each) village, as well as lords of ten villages, lords of twenty, lords of a hundred, and lords of a thousand. 116. The lord of one village himself shall inform the lord of ten villages of the crimes committed in his village, and the ruler of ten (shall make his report) to the ruler of twenty. 117. But the ruler of twenty shall report all such (matters) to the lord of a hundred, and the lord of a hundred shall himself give information to the lord of a thousand. 118. Those (articles) which the villagers ought to furnish daily to the king, such as food, drink, and fuel, the lord of one village shall obtain. 119. The ruler of ten (villages) shall enjoy one kula (as much land as suffices for one family), the ruler of twenty five kulas, the superintendent of a hundred villages (the revenues of) one village, the lord of a thousand (the revenues of) a town. 120. The affairs of these (officials), which are connected with (their) villages and their separate business, another minister of the king shall inspect, (who must be) loyal and never remiss; 121. And in each town let him appoint one superintendent of all affairs, elevated in rank, formidable, (resembling) a planet among the stars. 124. Let the king confiscate the whole property of those (officials) who, evil minded, may take money from suitors, and banish them.

125. For women employed in the royal service and for menial servants, let him fix a daily maintenance, in proportion to their position and to their work. 126. One paNa must be given (daily) as wages to the lowest, six to the highest, likewise clothing every six months and one droNa of grain every month. 127. Having well considered (the rates of) purchase and (of) sale, (the length of) the road, (the expense for) food and condiments, the charges of securing the goods, let the king make the traders pay duty. 128. After (due) consideration the king shall always fix in his realm the duties and taxes in such a manner that both he himself and the man who does the work receive (their due) reward. 129. As the leech, the calf, and the bee take their food little by little, even so must the king draw from his realm moderate annual taxes. 130. A fiftieth part of (the increments on) cattle and gold may be taken by the king, and the eighth, sixth, or twelfth part of the crops. 131. He may also take the sixth part of trees, meat, honey, clarfied butter, perfumes, (medical) herbs, substances used for favouring food, flowers, roots, and fruit; 132. Of leaves, potherbs, grass, (objects) made of cane, skins, of earthen vessels, and all (articles) made of stone. 133. Though dying (with want), a king must not levy a tax on Srotriyas, and no Srotriya, residing in his kingdom, must perish from hunger. 143. That (monarch) whose subjects are carried off by robbers (Dasyu) from his kingdom, while they loudly call (for help), and he and his servants are (quietly) looking on, is a dead and not a living (king). 144. The highest duty of a Kshatriya is to protect his subjects, for the king who enjoys the rewards, just mentioned, is bound to (discharge that) duty.

182. Let the king undertake his march in the fine month Margasirsha, or towards the months of Phalguna and Kaitra, according to the (condition of his) army. 183. Even at other times, when he has a certain prospect of victory, or when a disaster has befallen his foe, he may advance to attack him. 192. On even ground let him fight with chariots and horses, in water bound places with boats and elephants, on (ground) covered with trees and shrubs with bows, on hilly ground with swords, targets, (and other) weapons. 193. (Men born in) Kurukshetra, Matsyas, Pankalas, and those born in Surasena, let him cause to fight in the van of the battle, as well as (others who are) tall and light. 201. When he has gained victory, let him duly worship the gods and honour righteous Brahmanas, let him grant exemptions, and let him cause promises of safety to be proclaimed. 202. But having fully ascertained the wishes of all the (conquered), let him place there a relative of the (vanquished ruler on the throne), and let him impose his conditions. 206. Or (the king, bent on conquest), considering a friend, gold, and land (to be) the triple result (of an expedition), may, using diligent care, make peace with (his foe) and return (to his realm). 213. For times of need let him preserve his wealth; at the expense of his wealth let him preserve his wife; let him at all events preserve himself even by (giving up) his wife and his wealth. 224. But going to another secret apartment and dismissing those people, he may enter the harem, surrounded by female (servants), in order to dine again. 225. Having eaten there something for the second time, and having been recreated by the sound of music, let him go to rest and rise at the proper time free from fatigue.

VIII 1. A king, desirous of investigating law cases, must enter his court of justice, preserving a dignified demean our, together with Brahmanas and with experienced councilors. 2. There, either seated or standing, raising his right arm , without ostentation in his dress and ornaments, let him examine the business of suitors . 131. Those technical names of (certain quantities of) copper, silver, and gold, which are generally used on earth for the purpose of business transactions among men, I will fully declare. 132. The very small mote which is seen when the sun shines through a lattice, they declare (to be) the least of (all) quantities and (to be called) a trasarenu (a floating particle of dust). 133. Know (that) eight trasarenus (are equal) in bulk (to) a liksha (the egg of a louse cf.laksha,raksha,karsha), three of those to one grain of black mustard (ragasarshapa), and three of the latter to a white mustard-seed. 134. Six grains of white mustard are one middle-sized barley-corn, and three barley-corns one krishNala (raktika, or gunjaberry); five krishNalas are one maasha (bean), and sixteen of those one suvarna. 135. Four suvarNas are one pala, and ten palas one dharaNa; two krishNalas (of silver), weighed together, must be considered one mashaka of silver. 136. Sixteen of those make a silver dharaNa, or puraNa; but know (that) a karsha of copper is a karshapaNa, or paNa. 137. Know (that) ten dharaNas of silver make one satamana; four suvarnas must be considered (equal) in weight to a nishka.

138. Two hundred and fifty paNas are declared (to be) the first (or lowest) amercement, five (hundred) are considered as the mean (or middlemost), but one thousand as the highest. 139. A debt being admitted as due, (the defendant) shall pay five in the hundred (as a one), if it be denied (and proved) twice as much; that is the teaching of Manu. 140. A money lender may stipulate as an increase of his capital, for the interest, allowed by Vasishtha, and take monthly the eightieth part of a hundred.
149. A pledge, a boundary, the property of infants, an (open) deposit, a sealed deposit, women, the property of the king and the wealth of a Srotriya are not lost in consequence of (adverse) enjoyment.This indicates that female slaves were pledged like other property by persons borrowing money.Thus the Pandavas diced with money borrowed with Draupati(their wife) as pledge.In several Harappan seals women were portrayed with roaring(garja/karsha) animals to indicate paNa.Kanyaa sulka itself indicte that kanyaa is sulka or money. From the above it is clear that for, Gold the smallest unit trasarenu(1/8 liksha) is a conceptual one.A liksha is the practically measurable weight.

http://www.hindubooks.org/scriptures/manusmriti/ch8/ch8_191_200.htm for laws Refer Manu 8 regarding financial transactions of the times.Manu is Hammu Rabi for the Assyrians,Musa(Moses) Nabi for the Hebrews or Ur-Nammu, a Mesopotamian king who ruled at Ur about 4,000 years ago and developed a set of laws centuries before Hammurabi's more famous code from 1780 B.C. .

39.The Bharats and the Pharaohs

Harappan asva tied to the asva-ttha(Ficus) tree. The close relation of the Bha-ra-ts to the Pha-ra-ohs(cf.th) will be clear from the similarity of these asva bulls to the Apis bull and the symbols employed.I have already shown the close relation of Egyptian to Bharata in Bharata the Language of the Harappans and latest studies show that the languages of HomoSapiens originated in Africa.cf.www.Archaeologydaily.com April16,2011. Africa the Birthplace of Human Language, Study Says. (1) "Phonemic Diversity Supports a Serial Founder Effect Model of Language Expansion from Africa," Science, April 15, 2011, Vol. 332, p. 346. (2) "Phonemic Diversity Supports a Serial founder Effect Model of Language Expansion from Africa," Science, April 15, 2011, Vol. 332, p. 348. Note bhadraasana(Mal.pandaara-treasury,government) from the harina(deer,gold) patra(leaf,bhadra-gold)-aasana(aasa-seat,face, hind part and hind legs) of the bhadra(king,bull,gold). Aasana (seat) or amsa(part,amza-shoulder) gave asva(ass),whence we have the ass meaning buttocks/anus also. GoNa (koNa or trikoNa-triangle,soma-bull,gold,madhu,kola-ananta bhadra) is an ox,a kind of grass(cf. shown before the hare in the copper tablet),a cow,a sack(cf.kosa), a measure of 4 dronas etc.The druma(droNa) is shown with 4 leaves(fingers) on either side and a single leaf(thumbs) at the top to indicate the cupped hand and a rectangle( 4) is placed by its side to indicate the count.

The triangle pa(patra,pa-tra,bhadra,trikoNa,koNa,soma,saadhana) can be seen by its placement on the patra (bhadra-head,king,gold,Bharata) along with bhadras(bulls).The tree is patra-aasana(seat of leaves;bhadraasana-the king/treasury) or muulii(having muula- roots dru-tree or price;muulikaa-bhaga-pudendum).Vrisha bull is vrata

( worth/price/praise/rule/command. Price was decided by the order of the king) and aasana is aajna(vrata-command) itself.The same idea is conveyed by the unicorn

(bhadravrishabha) and the mahaaviira(paatra-aasana) placed before it.

40. Asvattha (Indian Fig tree)

Asvattha is the king(asva-bhadravata) of trees from asva(avasaking,the sun;agna-fire)- ta(tail,virtue,Laxmi,crossing;stha-seated) . Vana(tree) is paNa(Vishnu,praise cf.M-1186 where the tree god is worshipped or praised king,treasury,kings writ ).Patraasana(tree) is bhadraasana(the ). Indra or Vishnu in the asvattha is

Christ(avasa-the sun) on the cross(ta,sa,garta, Heb.Heres). The Symbol of the Cross Ttreeta(sa-god). Hence the wooden cross chosen for the crucifix which is the sign of bless-ing or pluss-ing as in the svastika which is su(good,well)-vasati(house)or su-adhika(plusbless). The goddess in the tree is Srii Laxmi(saa or kaa-Sarasvati + +).
The asvattha (ficus religiosa), the holy fig tree(dru-srii), is said to be born from Indra(avasa-ja,sa) and is considered to be the best of trees. The eternal tree of life with

its branches below (in this world) and the roots above (in god) is called as asvattha(avasa-ja,sa;aakaasa-stha as roots are in the air;avasa-deha-king body). Childless women worship it and circumambulate it in the hope of being granted children(patra-bhadra-bharta-putra-vrisha-vriksha-praja. Falling patra of the tree is putra granted by bharta ) . The araNi (nara,nri,hara)for preparing the sacrificial fire is made from its wood.

cf.kanya sulka

Asvattha(azvaztha- with trembling leaves) is the king(bhadravata) of trees from asva(avasa-king,the sun)- ttha(saa-Laxmi,sta-seat,deha-body) or it is bhadraasana(seat or body of the sun and kingcf.Sumer.gistree,penis,scepter;ensi-ruler,Heb.adonai-lord) itself.Asvattha is vata(bhadra-great-garta-karsha,hill,fire,bull cf Hindi-bataa-great,big.It is like a mountain or a bull or a king of the trees.Whence it is shown with bhadra-bulls tethered to it,which are the patra-leaves themselves.).A tree(dru, druu-gold, srii-the sun,drava-fish,srava-ear) by itself is patraasana(seat of leaves) and hence denote bhadraasana(palace,phallus,foliage). Leaves of Asvattha with the long pointed tips is again phallic(palace cf.the Fig leaf well of IVC)..Vana(tree) is paNa(Vishnu,money). Naga(tree,the sun,mountain) is gaNa(count) and jana(people). Seat on jana is kingship

and authority .Worship of the tree is worship of the sun,of the king,of money etc. Religious significance

Queen My giving birth to the Buddha. In Hindu tradition the sal tree is said to be the abode of Vishnu. It is also known as Ashvakarna(asva-avasa-the sun,bull,elephant), Chiraparna(cirapermanent;siira-suura-the sun,srii-the sun) and Sarja(dasra-gardabha).. In Buddhist tradition, it is said that Queen My of Sakya gave birth to Gautama Buddha under a sal tree in a garden in Lumbini, in south Nepal while grasping its branch.

Pana(leaf,house,Vishnu) pana(kaasi -



Vishnu cf.cash,trade,fence,wall,dice cf.four dots enveloping the fish) saalagraama FishsaaladravadruMal.caaLa(sardineVishnu(suuryasulka) Taala+bhadra taalabhrit Balaraama Saalabhritdaanabhritking

Saala(caala-roof,blue jay with golden crest dhaaraNa-agreement



Money tree and bull(bhadra-bull,girl-hariNa-karsha)

Money(king) is tree(vriksha) as paNa(money,praise,Vishnu) is vana(tree,leaf,house). Vriksha is vrisha(bull,Indra).Varta/vrata is patra/ bhadra/putra.

A tree(dru,druma) is druu(gold),druuna(scorpion), Drona(Bharadvaaja,throne),vana(paNa-Vishnu,money).It is also patraasana( seat of leaf bhadraasana-royal throne or amsa-part or aajna-order.cf.vrisha-bull is also vratacommand and varta-trade,barter). Asva(uksha,gaja,vaca-word) is tied to the Asva-ttha(tadrutree) to make it Asvattha(Fig) or visvastha(reliable) like the avasa(king). A vri-shabha(bull) denote nri(king,hari-gold)-sabha(council cf.vedic sabhaa/samiti-royal councils) and prabhaata(dawn).A vriksha is brih-sa(god,sha-man) or vri(pra)-gaja(elephant cf.kasa,ka is the bull as Buchis and sa is god),kasa(sound),kaasa(shine). The ancients believed that the powerful bull(bhadra-asva) represented the personality of the king(bhadra-avasa); slate palettes dating back as far as 3100 BC even show kings as bulls as bhadra(asva,tiger) is the king and the bull. Simha(king) and patra(visbird;wing king) also indicate the king.

41.Divine Cults of the Sacred Bulls

by Anita Stratos



Another bull cult was the Buchis (cf.pasu-asva) cult, which lasted until about 362 AD. The Buchis bull was the representation of the gods Re(cf.Ra-agni,vi-bird,horse;ravi-the sun) and Osiris(usra-bull,the sun,varsha-.year,vrisha-bull,Indra,a mouse cf.the mouse of Ganesa-the elephant god.) .

Mnevis (mnaanaamaname,miina-pisces;Visasvasa-god,bird,snake) was the sacred bull of Heliopolis, and although it was associated with the sun god Re, it has been suggested that it was also identified with Min Cf
asva(bull,horse) avasa(the sun,king) bhadra(king,bull) miina(fish) maana(house,measure) maapana(scale) maa(measure)-paNa(money,wealth,barter) maanava(body of) man . Hence martya(man) matsya(fish) as seen in this anthropomorphic figure of karshapana( gaatra bodykarsha,garta-throne;hasta-hand


Karsha paNa;sana-jina-sanaadhana 42. Solving the Mystery of a 35,000 Year Old Statue December, 11 2011 From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

Spiegel Online Archeologists have discovered previously unknown fragments of a figurine known as the "Lion Man," and are piecing it back together. Could the 35,000 year old statue actually represent a female shaman? Scientists hope to resolve a decades long debate.

Cf.nri(king)-hari(lion,Indra,srii-the sun),Viirabhadra, Narasimha,garta etc. of IVC.sitting on Tiger skin or wearing tiger skin shows bhadraasana(throne-garta-

tiger).cf.compare with IVC


The Lion Man is standing on tiptoes(bhadraasana-garta) cf. ardhodayaasna of the deities of Harappa.He, too, seems to be dancing.

and the

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphinx

The Great Sphinx of Giza, with the Pyramid of Khafre in the background

Perhaps the first sphinx, Queen Hetepheres II from the fourth dynasty (Cairo Museum)

Avenue of ram-headed sphinxes cf. dynasty .

at Karnak in Luxor dating to the eighteenth

A sphinx (Ancient Greek: /sphinx) is a mythological creature that is depicted as a recumbent feline with a human head. Generally the role of sphinxes is associated with architectural structures such as royal tombs or religious temples. The oldest known sphinx was found in Gobekli Tepe, Turkey (shows the common link of the Harappans and the Egyptians to Anatolian Aryans) and was dated to 9,500 B.C. Perhaps the first sphinx in Egypt was one depicting Queen Hetepheres II, of the fourth dynasty that lasted from 2723 to 2563 BC.cf. the Mature Harappan period agrees with this. The largest and most famous is the Great Sphinx of Giza(cf.gajaelephantraaja-saasa-king).

The spinx represented the local sun deity of that period, Khepera - R Atum or the powerful solar deity, Sekhmet(cf.simhakingwing), a lioness.

Purushamriga or Indian sphinx depicted on the Shri Varadaraja Perumal temple in Tribhuvana, India

Male purushamriga or Indian sphinx guarding the entrance of the Shri Shiva Nataraja temple in Chidambaram(Tamilnadu).

Agnesa(agna-fire,iisa-god) nagesa(naga-the sun) mahesa(Siva) the unicorn the elephant-bull(bhadra=elephant,bull) the leaf of the asvatthaGanesanarasimha bhadraasva bhadraasanapatraasana .Ganesa is often portrayed in leaves(patra) as he is bhadra(bull,elephant).Lamassus have five feet the trunk+four legs.For the unicorn the fifth foot has become the uni-horn. This tradition continued as the unitusked Ganesa or Agnesa. Bhadraasana is shown by the patra(bhaga-female organ from the leaf shape) of a bhadra (female-she has a garbha paatra),head of Bhadra(bull,elephant,lion,sarpa-snake) etc. in temples door(garbha griha),placing of the idol on an elephant in temple processions,worship of elephant,bull,lion etc.

44. Griffin
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Griffin

Griffin fresco in the "Throne Room", Palace of Knossos, Crete, Bronze Age.Compare the Griffins patra(wing,leaf;bhadra-king,auspicious,girl,gold;aadara-honour,respect) on the aasana(amsa-shoulder,seat;aajna-order) with the unicorns patra(bhadra


Statue of a griffin at St Mark's Basilica in Venice. . The griffin, griffon, or gryphon (Greek: , grphn, or , grpn; Latin: gryphus) is a legendary creature with the body of a lion and the head and wings of an eagle(cf garta-simhaasana-throne,garut-wing,Garuda- vikite,gardabha-aasana-asva-ass).

Griffin rampant wearing the mural crown of Perugia

Bevan family crest

Heraldic guardian griffin at Kasteel de Haar, Netherlands

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pegasus

Bellerophon riding Pegasus (1914)

In Greek mythology, Pegasus (vaaha-bull,asva-horse; Greek: , Pgasos) was a winged horse sired by Poseidon .

Pegasus, as the horse of Muses, was put on the roof of Pozna Opera House (Max Littmann, 1910)

Parthian era bronze plate depicting Pegasus ("Pegaz" in Persian), excavated in Masjed Soleyman, Khzestn, Iran.

Bellerophon on Pegasus spears the Chimera, on an Attic red-figure epinetron

46. Lamassu (bull-man) or du

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamassu From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A Lamassu from Khorsabad(Louvre). Human-headed winged bull, otherwise known as a edu or Lamassu(cf.namasobeisance): Ancient Assyrian or Babylonian protective demon with a bull's body, eagle's wings, and a human head. The endless knot(ananta bhadra) and the unicorn(bhadraasva) serve the same purpose to indicate bhadraasaqna,and bhadra-vaac(vacas). The du is a celestial being from Mesopotamian mythology. He is a human above the waist and a bull below the waist. He has the horns and the ears of a bull(bhadra-king,bull,lion,tiger) and frequently has wings(patra). Statues of the bull-man were often used as gatekeepers(bhadra-bulldvaara-door) cf.

M-318 a door keeper bull from Mohen-jo-daro.



-svarNa,hiraNya -bhadra(naaga)



-svarna -traya





Bhadra(bull,paartha-king,dvaara-door) makes bhadra(auspiciousness,beautiful maiden,king,elephant). Beautiful maidens are used to welcome guests even today . cf.Gan-dharva( kan-to sound,dharva-svara-sound;kanaa-woman,naaga-elephant;bhadrabull,maiden,elephant,auspiciusness,Siva;svar-the sun,heaven,dvaara-door) guarding the heavenly soma. A bhadra ( bull, elephant or a maiden) is a guardian.Rudra(Siva) is Bhadra(siva-auspicious).

To protect houses the du were engraved in clay tablets, which were buried under the door's threshold. At the entrance of palaces they were often placed as a pair. At the entrance of cities(cf.Dholavira sign board,a board is a patrawrit of a bhadra-bull,king,auspiciousness) they were sculpted in colossal size, and placed as a pair, one at each side of the door of the city.

The Sumerian word lama(cf.naama mark on the forehead of the Hindu Brahmins

of today and as seen in the Harappan signs , etc.), which is rendered in Akkadian as lamassu, refers to a protective deity, who is usually female. She(cf.Svasti devi in H-3305 of the Harappans and welcome by women carrying lit lamps/full pots to indicate paNa by their paana-jar,paaNi-hand and phaNa-the female organ) is often represented as a standing figure that introduces guests to another superior god(cf.bhadraasvabhadraauspicious,king;asvavaca-speech). So she is actually a servant. Her male counterpart is called alad (cf.aadara-respect) or, in Akkadian, du (svastiwelcome cf. Hebrew ed ). In the sed festival of the Egyptians welcome(wellfull-bull come,bhadra is full) was given to the new sun at the winter solstice.

Lamassu namas(reverential salutation,adoration),namaste, namuci,namovaaka, namasya, namaskaara (uttering namas RV), namaskrita (worshipped,food,gift,donation,adored), nam(to raise ones hands above the head or cross the hands on the chest and bow to)
.Aasamsa(well- wishing,greeting) is aasana(seat)-sa(god,bird,snake) or

paNa(praise).Lamassu(va-vandana,mangala,house,hand,Varuna etc.) Bhadra (bull,king ,virgin,auspiciousness, cipher , circle,full) patra(bird) bard(one who eulogise) word .Vac(speech) is vi(Lat.avis-bird,arrow) and asva(bull,horse).

Namas (paNa-praise)Saaman(wealth,property RV.10.90.9) (saamaka= principal of a debt;;saamagrii=goods,furniture)

Usually, the Lamassu have five legs(cf.the five fingers.Vandana-salutation is pancama-five.Bhadra is panca.Bhadraasana is bhadrapada/panca paada). The Lion(simha)-bodied protective deities are usually called "sphinxes".These monumental

statues were called aladlamm ("protective spirit") or lamassu. Female lamassu's are called apsas(cf.asva-bull).

Coin of Panormus (!!) Lammassu's are also known from the palaces of the Achaemenid kings. It would be interesting if we could establish a link between the Asian bull-man lamassu and the Greek bull-man Minotaur, although the first one has a man's head and a bull's body, and the Minotaur has a man's body and a bull's head.

Winged lion in Venice

Flag of the Republic of Venice

47.Garuda the naagaasana.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garuda (cf.naaga-snake,elephant,naaka-the sky,asana-food,aazana-seat) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Garuda (Sanskrit/Javanese/Balinese/Indonesian: garua, "eagle"; Pli garua; Tamil: karutan; Thai/Lao: khrut; Malay: geroda; Mongolian: garid.Heb.Heres-the sun,Hitt. hara - an eagle,garta- royal throne;garut-wing) is a large mythical bird or bird-like creature that appears in both Hindu and Buddhist mythology.

Garuda, the Vahana of Lord Vishnu .Bhadraasana (throne) of the king(sun-Vishnu) is bhadra(bull,tiger,lion,elephant,girl) or patra(leaf,bird,wing) aasana(seat,foot).The naaga in the neck,the paatra in the hand,the patra on the amza(cf.the peepul patra-leaf on the unicorns amza ie.patra-wings of the bhadraasva-winged horse/bull) ,the kiriita/sekhara on the bhadra-head etc indicate this.

In Hinduism

Vishnu and Lakshmi riding on the Garuda - Painting in LACMA from Rajasthan, Bundi, c.1730 In Hindu religion, Garuda is a lesser Hindu divinity, usually the mount (vahanam) of the God Vishnu. Garuda is depicted as having the golden body of a strong man with a white face, red wings, and an eagle's beak and with a crown on his head. Garuda is known as the eternal sworn enemy of the Nga serpent race and is known for feeding exclusively on snakes. Various names have been attributed to Garuda - Chirada, Gaganeshvara, Kamayusha, Kashyapi, Khageshvara, Nagantaka, Sitanana, Sudhahara, Suparna, Tarkshya, Vainateya, Vishnuratha and others. The Vedas provide the earliest reference of Garuda, though by the name of yena, where this mighty bird is said to have brought nectar to earth from heaven. The Puranas, which came into existence much later, mention Garuda as doing the same thing, which indicates that yena (Sanskrit for Eagle) and Garuda are the same. In the Bhagavad-Gita (Ch.10, Verse 30), in the middle of the battlefield "Kurukshetra", Krishna explaining his omnipresence, says - " as son of Vinata, I am in the form of Garuda, the king of the bird community (Garuda)" indicating the importance of Garuda. Garuda plays an important role in Krishna Avatar in which Krishna and Satyabhama ride on Garuda to kill Narakasura. On another occasion, Lord Hari rides on Garuda to save the devotee Elephant Gajendra. It is also said that Garuda's wings when flying will chant the Vedas.

Winged sphinx(simha-king-wing-fin-paNa-praise,price) from the palace of Darius the Great during Persian Empire at Susa (480 BC). A scrutiny of the above portraits will reveal that the term asva was initially used for the bull itself and it began to be applied to the domesticated horses much later after the Harappan period. Grantha(Krishna-krisana-karsana-garjana) patra(paNa-bulla-bill) The bha-dra(king) or his pa-tra( writ,bulla) is denoted by the winged(patra) bull(bhadra-asva).

Bhadra-asvas lam-assus pega(vaaha-bull,hand)-ssu(sus)s


vaa(two va) + ha(na-fish)

patra(leaf,writ) Paatra(vessel) Bhadra(king,gold,auspicious) varta(trade) Bharata(king,pitri-father)


vaaha(bull,hand,4 bhaaracf.fish-bhujhand-paNa)


Trayiimukha is a Brahmana and sriimukha is the 7 year in the Prabhavaadi (Jupiter) cycle of years.Srii(tri)-kantha(neck) is Siva and Kurujaangala(a nation to the northwest of Hastinaapura).


is sacrifice and Srii vrisha is Indra.Bhadra

being paada(1/4) and vrisha being karsha it can indicate karsha(24 ruttee) also.cf.Ashta naaga/gaja/pada/vasu = 8

as in

.Ashtapada/vasu is gold.Ganana(naanaka) being naaga

(elephant,ram),the eight digits make 8 naagas(elephants). The patra(leaf,writ) on the amza of the unicorn is replaced by bhadra(bull,bulla) to indicate bhadraasana(throne) and bhadra amsa(kings share-tax) and amsa patra(partition deed). Sringa(horn) is tri(three)-naaga(bull,elephant,king).

35. Seal, Mohenjo-daro.


Square seal with multiple headed animal depicting three

important totemic animals: the bull, the unicorn, and the antelope. All three animals are seen individually on other seals along with script, but this seal has no script. Mohenjo-daro, DK 7734 girvaaNa (praise)bhadraasvakarsha(ka-tra;ka-head,tra-tri-sira-ka) dravya(gold) sravya(to be heard)

Bactria was the home for the Oxus(bhadra-Bharat) civilization . It has a vaaha(hand,bull,river)-tria(tri-three) in it. Did this dra(sira)-vya(vaya-branch) go to Bactria ?

The bull(bhadra-king,gold;sarabha-hariNa-deer,gold) is the palm(paNapraise,price,king).With bowed head and clasped hands(anjalii)


guests were given a w-arm welcome namas (vaNakkam,namovaakasalutation,obeisance;namsa-acquisitionRV.1.122.12).The fish(paNapraise,hasta-hand,masta-head) and the multiheaded bulls show bhadraasva(king,auspicious speech) or bhadraasana(throne) or dravya(gold;sira-head,vayaa-branch,twig) paNa(money,praise) and tri(three,srii-prosperity)-bhadra(full) or simply bhadra(va-tra three vas;va=reverence,auspiciousness,Varunaaadara-reverence)




kraya(krii purchase) kari(elephant) hari(lion,tiger)

bhadraasva (bhadraasana)saraa(heads)-va(measure) saraava(a measure) sarabha(deer)bhaaratabhadra bha(va)-dra(tra or tri ) cf ashtapada,mahaa-skandhin,a deer,a youg elephant (cf.unicornelephant ) . Fish(fist) is antelope also cf.makaramatsya and harina(deer,gold;harana-hand;makara-nakra- alligator.Hence fish eating alligator - a hand shake or agreement or paNa seals also seen.)

http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/me/g/go ld_model_chariot.aspx

A golden chariot(bhadraasana) from Persia.cf.BharataPersiaPaarthya etc.The original habitat of the Bharats included the present Turkey,Iraq,Syria and Iran where the hunter- gatheres became farmers.

48. The Bhadra(patra,pitri, mudra) Asvas(vacas-bullasbulls)

The vedic asva was the bull and not the domesticated horse as can be seen from the above figures.For the Hebrews it is the aleph(aleph-bull;ls),for the Sumerians, Akkadians and Assyrians it is the assu(assu-asva-bull),for the Egyptians it is the apis(apis-asva-bull) etc.Probably it is with the Greeks and Persians that the term asva began to denote the domesticated horse.

Saasana(daanadonation,rule) being sisna(pasasphallus


contus,cunt,count;during counting the index finger is raised from the fist like the erected phallus and moved in and out as in coitus so that gaNanacounting is gamana-sex , janana-birth and snaana-bathing cf.the census that preceded the birth of the Christ),saadhana(things,sex organ), naanaka (naaNyamoney)being maana(honour,measure,house), paNa (money,house;saya-hand,sex;Lat .manus) being phana (hood of a snake, vana-leaf,patra-leaf,wing) and female sex organ(cf.muulii,yoni

,money)being patra(phaNa

) ,sex is money.The Mal.term

peN(womanhen,paN-to have sex,bandha- sex,agreement etc.have the same indication.Sanga(coitus) is sangha(group),sankha(cowrie), sankhya(number),kanaka(Mal.Tanka-gold) etc.Sisna(saadhana,saasana) has a counterpart in sesame(tila) which also was used as a counting unit.

The word sesame is from Latin sesamum, borrowed from Greek ssamon "seed or fruit of the sesame plant", borrowed from Semitic (cf. Arabic simsim, Aramaic shmshm), from Late Babylonian *shawash-shammu, itself from Assyrian shamash-shamm, from shaman shamm "plant oil".




ElephantMaa-Sankha maapaNa-scale)

PaNaNaaga(arrow,snake Bhadraasana

bhadranaagaBhadra(0)-Agna(1) 10


Gaatra ga-sara,caragartaaasanakaserachair MaapaNa(libra-scale)


hiraNya paNa(bhadraasana) raajasaraarishabha caramadharma(bow




sun,tiger,viira-hero,raaja-king.Heb.ros-head,sor-bull,par-bull,thread of




Hence daanadharma also.

SadaRevenue,Unhusked grain(suuna,soma)SedShad,Dasa,Sata

Cf.Heb.seber-grain,saabar-buy grain


Six( kara,karsha-shad,6) strokes usually attached to the fish(sada;bhuja;hastaha,pa,bha-water,light;sta-seated,shad-six

from four

fingers and two parts of the thumb=one handful=paNa=bali=Mal.piti=to grasp=

) to show the sixth(shad) part of sada(revenue) levied as the thraaNa

paNa by the kings . The sixth part , having formed from the kara(paNa-hand ),kara is hand and tax.It was also levied as the tenth part as shad=dasa=dos(hands having ten fingers). Sakala=Potsherd,a piece,salka(scale-Libra cf.matsa-fish has scale and fin,hasta-bhujahand has hair and fin-ger) Krisara=TILA+RICE: Krisana=gold,pearl; Krisala=Hair; Krishaana-Farmer; Krisanu-archer,Rudra Vriksha(vri-gaja,Sumer.gis-tree,penis,sceptre)vrika(wolf,kshatriya-king-nripa)-ta(tail,sa-god) Egypt.Sed(bulls tail),Wepwawet(wolf god-the king himself)





paNasapanca(five) bandhavand(nam)


cf.Sumer. manu-to count;seim-grains(dhaanya)


, cf.Sum.sina-two

Sana sama-yama-tamajinanabha(dyu) paNa


Aksha(karsha,tola,tolaka,Sum.azag-snake,sag-head) cakra


money,gurus-sledgefrom gur-wheel,us-to stand upon whence gur-us= cf.Lat.crus-foot. Rukma karnanakraharaNahariNahorn(sound-count-



Sumer.qannu-horn Mal.kannu-buffalo/cattle



Karka(thorn,white,crab,water jar,fire)



cf.kas-to sound,kaas-to shine. Sum.zag-shine

Hittite hassus-king(gaja-bhadra-bull,king,elephant,gold)

Sum.has,penu-thigh(cf.paNa cf.M-290a ,hind leg + tiger + ass ),kas-trader,gis-tree cf.vri-ksha has a gis gaja in it whence asvatha is the gaja among the vrikshas and

asvatthama is an elephant and note the vriksha in the gaja


gis-penis,scepter,guzza-thronebhadraasana(throne,Sum.ensi-king, garzaoffice,duties,rules;zabar/anbar-metal).This shows the close relation of

Bharata to Sumerian and the application of this in theIVC seals.

Bhadranaagabhadranaagabhadranaada(garja-AUM trident/snake/A and kara/gaja/UM making

note the naaga-

garja/garta/nakra/uksha/usha/udaya/vanakka/namas/welcome)-naagasvaramahaasvara(great sound).Bhadranaada is the sound of the king or auspicious sound.It is the sound(aum) of the conch/shofar/bugle sounded by the priestking at dawn(usha) indicating sunrise(udaya) or to start a war(yuddha aayudha udaya).




hand,bull,tiger,varuNa,auspicious). u (siva-subha)






chair)-sadana-satra-patra-bhadra(gaja,bull,king,girl,cipher,circle,gold,Bharata)viira(hero)-vaara(tail)-baala(hair of tail as in the unicorn or Apis bull,girl cf.karsha)paala(king cf.Balabhadra)-pa(water,leaf,king,egg) .Hence girl,wheel,hair etc.indicate king and karsha.


-daa(to give)-raa(to give,gold)

kari(gaja-naaga-bhadra-elephant,hari-lion-krii-to buy;patra-leaf,bird,writ) aasana-aatma(soul,self)-tanaya(son cf. Mbh.) Hence soul(sol) is son(sun).Bhadraasana is Bharata(fire,petra)- aatma(self,soul). Ka(soul)-kha(sun,cipher)-ha(sky,cipher).Hence the sol is cipher.The priests played on the pun

and the followers believed and believe even now. Bharata is naatya and nata(actor,dancer).The origin of bharata(bhaasha-word) is from Aangya(signs).Dancers use the aangya bhaasha . Bhadra,kanaa,naaga,raaga,aja,aasa,aaza,daa,maa(measure,mete






(karsha-suvarNa paNa)-suuna(grain cf.Mal.coLam-Great millet,suura-the

sun)-droNa-daa(maa), Soma-DroNa-Bhadra(Bharata) ,paNa-droNa-pajra(soma),ni-shka,nisva,sankha,va-sa-na








Note the

tra(tri-3)-sara(5)-kara(hand-5 digits) and the uksha/gaja

in the

va-ksha(chest) and the paNa buns. Sringa(horn,hill) Tri-naaga(three headed bull) taranga(wave) saraanga saaranga(deer,peacock,beetle,elephant,horn-bill)

zaaranga(lotus,flower,sandal wood, horn-bill, deer, elephant, swan, peacock, cuckoo, lion,horse,sankh,camphor,beetle,umbrella,cloth,bow,hair,ornament,gold,cloud,night,earth,light Danta(teeth,horn) sandhasanghaMal.tanka(kanaka) sankhaMal.canta(market). karshakarajakalasagala-jajala-jasakalasalkahala-saharshaharta(Heb.heres)

Aksha(trade,cf.Sum.kas) cf.Mal.kaccavata-trade Akshadyuu is a gambler.



Aasa(desire)aaza(face) aja(ass,naaga,mesha) paada(foot,1/4) deva(god) japabhaasha(speech)vaaja(wing,sacrifice,arrow) vaaca(speech) vaasa(house) vedasavazabhazava

Paada(foot,1/4) / deva/veda is the cross

.The veda of deva is the sabha of Chritians.

b dp .Vaaha is dos and da.Da is woman and sha is man.Shad is six or sex. Man was created on the sixth day.He is aaLu and aaNu and aaRu is six in Malayalam. Adam is a(not)-dam(woman) and so man was created first and woman was created next. Kshetra(templecf.Tamil ko-il) kshatra(go-the sun,king)kshidra(the sun)gaja-tra/dhara Hence the asva(aksha-uksha-gaja) of the sun god is the elephant.In the temple festivals of Kerala processions with elephants bearing the image of the deity and the priest ensures the Bhadraasana(bhadra-king,elephant;aasana-seat)/kshetra (gaja-dhara) for the animate priest king(cf.Hittite hassus-king) and the inanimate deity. Bhadraasanabhadravacanaword of godkingword of government Karaarkaarghagarjakarshagartalakshakalagalahalakalanasankalanasan-haraNa Bhadra(ka-head) +parda(hair) kapardavartaka dvijasvitaravi-jaravi-sasu-iisadevatabhuusura

Laksha( a mark, a lakh,kala,gala,hala,kara,kaNa,gaNa)


sakala(a piece/portion)sulka(price) raksha(protection) rakta(blood cf.blood of

lamb/lamp served as laksha-raksha and protected the Israelites in EX.12)









gala(neck)-ja(born)=head cf.

ganita(mathematics,calculation) jalaja( padma-a lotus) garja(roar) garta(throne) karsha(furrow/scratch mark of plough)gharsha(fight) harsha(sex,hair rise)gunjasankha(conch) sanku( a peg serving as a mark)

Naaga-kanaa-gaana-hema-mesha-maasha-geha(griha)-paNa(griha). Bhadra(dot,spot,pot,stop) patra(bird,leaf)pada(foot,deva-god) bhaja(praise,worship,divide,donate) . Kissing/touching the feet is worshipping the deva-priest king.Worshippers had to bathe and make themselves clean before kissing/touching the kings feet.cf.the Great Bath of Mohenjodaro.The god-king blessed them by placing his hands on their head.).Food (bhakasha-purodaasa-prasaada) was given to the bhakta(devotees) who ate the food as the godkings body.Food(vaaja-food,paada-foot cf.bhaksha-paksha-bhiksha-aksha-uksha) is god(king). Foot (bhadra-pada,paada) is god.To take the food to the mouth one bows the head .To kiss or touch the foot one bows the head.Bowing the head is namas.Namas is offered to the king(god).Thus food and foot are gods/kings. Asana(food) aazanadaananaaza naasanaadavacana vasana vasnabhadrabhasmaZaama(veda)

Paana is paNa.Raised paaNa and paana vana(tree,Vanadurga)/paNa(Vishnu,money).

is paNa(praise,price) to


The Unicorn A Bull?

We have seen that the asva(aasana,naasa,naaga) is the bull(avasa-king), soma is rice(raaja) etc.Now let us face this question.Is the unicorn a simple bull? In all probability it is not. It is the elephant bull. It is the symbol of Agna (king,fire; Aum).Its Akkadian equivalent the lamassu is a five footed bull.An uksha(ox,asva,avasa,usha,ukta,bhakta,bhaksha,bhiksha) is ugaja(elephant) and vi-saakha(Skanda,sunrise;branched,forked).An usra(bull) is u-raaja(king) . A bha-dra(king,bull) is a ksha-tra(king). A nakshatra is na(I,we;wealth)-kshatra(king). The bhadra(bull,king,elephant,maiden;patra-writ,drava-fish) asva(avasaking,sun;vaca-speech) is the bull(aleph-asva) and the elephant(aleph-asvabull,avasa-the sun,king-sama-equal,tama-greatest,dhaamaseatbhadraasanaraajadhaanasroNaDroNAthrone;daanasana-gift,donation).The five feet include the four

feet(four digits) +the trunk(the thumb or the trunk of a tree.A vriksha-tree has a gaja-elephant with a trunk in it cf.unicorns merged to tree in a


.The Hittite gis- tree and gis-dag throne also carry the

same sense. ) .The elep-hant(aleph-hand;ie.aleph with a hand or trunk) with the trunk (thumb) up is the unicorn. It denotes counting by five .Its descendant Ganesa(Agnesa-nagesa-Mahesa) is often portrayed uni-tusked with the name of ekadanta. Ekadantin is a vedaantic school bearing one staff(ekadanti-samnyaasa-vidhi).During the vedic period the Brahmins were supposed to carry a staff(yashti ) with them. The uni-horn is the

tuft of the Brahmin,his yashti and suukta (which is su-ukshabull and su-gajaelephant).

Gajaka(head,Egy.soul,ra-sun,fire cf.K R



Pharaoh head dress decorated with a cobra+karsha

pattern) + sa(god,

bird-winged bull-lamassu,

snake-Pharaoh),ca(moon,Siva)kasa,kaca,jaga,saka,saha etc. Sa(snake cf.trunk of elephant) on head is sikha of Brahmins and emblem of Pharaoh. Aksha(eye ,karsha,tola,die) A-ksha(gaja ) A(Vishnu)-

ksha(Narasimha) The aksha-eye

is the uksha-bull.cf.

Uksha(bhadra-bull,elephant,king) U(Siva)-ksha(gaja) kakshaka-ksha(gaja) cakra ca(Siva,moon;sa-god,bird,snake)-

kara(hand,tax),hara(fire,Siva) raksha/Daksha


Ra-ksha-Na(Vishnu-paNa) La-ksh(gaja,kaca,kesa)-mi Hence we have the Gajalakshmi/ Ganesa or the Unicorn.


+ aja


Hence gaja is Lakshmi.Lakshmi is raksha(raaja) or Daksha. pakshapa-ksha(gaja) bhakshabha-ksha(gaja) bhi-ksha(gaja) aksha(eye,trade,5) hasta gaja cashaka nasta gada daksha gaja-ta(ca,sa)




kantha(throat-sound) gaNita(count)vanita vanija(Sumer.kas-trader)

A cup(paatra) is a hoof (vartaka)

: :. Hence we have


Bhaarata(agni),bhadra(king cf.Meluhha from semitic meluuka-king)and patra(Bharata-writ-veda) is bhadra(bull,elephant.Eleph-ant has the aleph-asva-bull in it.).Thus the fifth foot or the horn of the bhdraasva(unicorn or winged bull ) make it more of the elephant than the bull.The elephant s kara(trunk)is kara(tax) and gira(word). Kari(elephant) is krii, gir,giri(gira,grii),vri,srii,hri and hari.Its garja is karsha and garta whence it is gaja(jaga-world;saha-power;ka-head,sagod,snake,bird).Thus it is gira-bull or bulla or girvaaNa.Elephant images are seen in many Harappan seals.The direct descendants of the Harappansthe Kerala Nambootiris- are more fond of the elephants ,than the bulls,so that the emblem of the Government of Kerala(bhadraasana) has two elephants and the Kerala temple festivals are never complete without elephant(bhadraasana) processions.The naaga(snake,elephant;raagaking,red) on the forehead of the Egtyptian Pharaoh and the

bhadra(cipher,bull,king,gold) on the forehead of the Harappan priest king both indicate the eleph-ant bull as do the unicorn.

Compare the emblem of the Govt. of Kerala with the Harappan Priestking. The elephant and lion bhadras of the Government can be seen in the bhadra(circle,king,bull,elephant ;netra-king) on the bhadra( head,phaalaforehead,paala-ruler),amza(shoulder,aasanashoulder,seat),netra(beard,king) ,patra(wing-king;bhadra) on vastra(vasana-dress,patra vasanabhadraasana-throne) etc.

Government of Kerala

Harappan Priestking

A scrutiny of the above bhadra(va-auspiciousness,bull,hand,tiger)asva(naagavanakkam-salutation,welcome) indicate that the unicorn denote the sun god and the king(cf.Manu.7.3-8) and was the predecessor of Ganesa ( vedic Agnesa-nagesa-Mahesa-the sun;janesa-kingcf.gaja-elephant Hittite hassus-king ).It is the bhadra naaga ( mahaabhadra-elephantking;naaga/hema-patracopper/gold writ/tablet ;bhadra-cipher, naaga - tail9) . This is clear from seals like H093,H096,H0168a,K085a1-1,M300,M302,M303 etc.

where the bull (bhadra) and the elephant(bhadra-naaga

) are

combined or the trunk of the elephant is converted into the uni-horn of the unicorn. Vrisha(bull) is pratha(volume), pritha(kaasi- handful,the sun,paNahandful,the sun), karsha(kara-hand,dha-dhi-seat) and karaja(fingers) . Karabha(elephant,camel,back of the palm) is bharga(the sun) and garbha(griha-paNa-bhavana-house).HiraNyagarbha (Brahmabharma-gold) is the golden rising sun who is also soma(sunpaNa,svarNa-gold).


pa-sara (bhadra gold,king;garta-throne;karsha ; Bharata ,

vajra,pajra,varta,varsha, drava,srava,hasta,Durga,sarva,sarga, etc.) naaga(king,elephant).Bhadra naaga(Mahaa bhadra) is the unicorn itself.







etc.pushkara rishabha

Karsha -rishabha-naaga

A naaga(aleph-tama; kanaa-paana-paatra-patra-bhadra-vrata-vrisha-varta-varsha-



is a gaja(elephant,kas-to

soundcount,kasa-water,garja-roar cf.Heb.naaham-roar,naahaah-to mourn) or ka(head,light,water,peacock etc.)sa(bird,snake,god,fence),ja(born).Ka(head)-ja(born) is kamja(kesahair;padma-lotus;bhasma-holy ash;vasna-house,paNa,cloth;hamsaswan;simha-lion,tiger;gunja), karaja(nail cf.of the Tiger),karsha,garta(throne),rakta(blood,red,copper), raksha(protection),harsha(bristling of hair or kesa even on gaja), kamsa(camasa-cup ) etc. These symbols are seen to be used

individually or severally in the seals .Bhadra(king,bull,maiden,head,fire) or



) is garta(throne,hearth


) or ka(head-king)-sira(head,raja-king) or kaasara( bhadra


asva viira bhadra(

cf.Heb.bar-grain,wheat)buffalo cf.horned





as garta and karsha).

Ka-the head- has karNa

patra or ear lobes as wings to make it sa(bird man



;Akk.she-barley cf sarpa-snake on Pharaohs forehead;bhadra-circle

on Harappan priest kings forehead and upper arm


sandal and rakta-sinduura-kumkum simultaneously applied on the forehead by the Hindus ).It is born(ja) grom the gala(neck,cf.Sumer.gal-

great/king) and hence is gala-ja,garta,kalasa,garja,karsha etc. ,dice,trade,karsha,tola) uksha(bull)



U(call,va-bull)-gaja(elephant) bhadra(bull,elephant,king) cf.

Ka(head) + SA(snake,god,bird cf.ka =sa =ra=vi or head = bird with the karnapatra-ear lobes- being the wings) Ksha(field,lion) gaja(elephant =ka=sa=vi-patra-bhadra-bird-bull/winged

bullcf.Sumer.has-thigh,kas-trader)hasta(trunk,hand) kshetra(temple,field) ksha(karsha-garta-garja-cakra-aksha)-tra(






sara,horse-bhadra,house-vasra) jar) ca(chatra- a parasol)


patra(bird) sa(god,cf.raa-jara,sa)

The unicornbhadra(bull,king,cipher)+ karsharoyal garta


ka +sa(bull)

kasa gaja(elephant)

1(ka,ra)+0(sa,pa) dasa(10) raaja(king) dasaraaja,dasaratha,the ten commandments etc.

tra-tra, sira,sara, dharatraatri(protector,Bhaga,Savitri,Indra. RV) trasara(a shuttle)raksha rakta(red,copper) karsha(paNa) garta(throne)





Hence the winged bull, the horned elephant,the unicorn,the water buffalo etc. are the same and denote the head or hand or body or foot or seat of the


In this sherd ,the unicorn(


indicated as

bhadra(patra,naaga)-gaja-rishabha(bhadra).Patra(bird,bard, part ,word,writ) is bhadra(bull,girl,elephant,king,gold).



gaja rasahasra



Sahasraaksha(Indra) paNa(praise). Aksha(trade) sahasra(thousand) paNa(money) Trade of value thousand paNa.

Bhadra(elephant,bull,girl,king,stone cf.Hindi-pattar-stone,Gr.petra-stone)

water(cf.litre and kilogram)





king,aana-nosekings nose,nose money-paNa )bhavana(house) Heb.beven(stone

cf.Mal.pavan-measure of gold-8grams)

maana(measure,house) naama


netra(eye,king cf.eye drops



kraya.Naaga(elephant,snake) is naaka(baaNa-



,aana-nose,face, cf.Mal.aana,Tamil yaanai-elephant,naa-





H-3305svarNa-gold) agna(fire,eka-one) anka(mark,mriga-deer,animal) .A small

mark/mole is made a mountain(bhadra-bull,hill,elephant,girl,stone;bha- a star ,the sun ,

- dri ,

,dru-tree cf.H-179 or

,srii-the sun ) in the inscriptions.

Note the raised uni-horn which is the raised trunk of the elephant in garja(roaring action) to denote karsha.The rise of the hair,feet,sex organ,hands etc. indicate harsha-garja-karsha symbolism.

From the paatra(bhadra)-aasana

,harsha on keres ,manyaa on neck,patra on

amza and the bushy vaara (viira) or va(bull)-ra(ear)-sa(horn)vrisha,bharata ,the unicorns generally indicate bhadraasana(throne) amsapatra(writ/deed of amsa or partition,amsa-adhikaari-ruler of an amsa-village/district) harsha(karsha) paNa(bullabill) The bhadraasana (paNa,maapana) symbol is replaced by other paNa(karsha,gartagarja) symbols like paNa
bhaNa(phaNa,paana) , , , = = , maapana(maanava) ,


etc. in seals like

B001a,B003,B004,M223,C017,K026, M006A,M007A,M008A,M1224B etc.




B004 pa Na 8,karsha cf.makhor-makara-bhadramihira-hariNa ;paNa-samapancama,vandana,naaga paNa

c017 svarNa paNa karsha ;maanavapaNa/maapana/maana/bhadraasana/garta/karsha is confirmed .Hence



k026 pa(patra-leaf,writ;bhadra-king,bull elephant) naaga(phaNa-paanapaNa ) or bhadranaagapaNa; vrata paNa; 8 paananaaga8


na paNabhavanakarsha



Note the bhadra

on the paatra

and the patra on the aasana(amza,vaksha-paksha-uksha) of the bull to make bhadraasana in this seal .
bhadra aasana aasana patra,bhadra






paNa(bhadra naaga)


It is replaced by the paatra(jar) and patra(leaf) aasana of the deity and the bhadra(head) on the aasana(piitha) and the bhadraa(kanaa) and aja(naaga-meshamaasha) in M-1186.

The unicorn being bhadra(paada-1/4) naaga(bhadra- 1/4) , and vrisha(bull) being karsha and vrata it can indicate karsha (1/2 vrisha or karsha16 ruttee cf.shodasa-16 and king Sudas.Hence the unicorn can indicate the Sudas series of money writs/bullas? ) also.cf.Pritha is palm of the hand(Hitt.kessaras-hand),karaja is the fingers which make the garja for the karsha and the thumb forms the single horn(Gr.keres).The double horned bull can indicate the full karsha(garta,vrisha,vrata,bruva ).cf.

note the eka(1)-aksha(gaja-aja-karsha) wheel.cf.aksha

16 maasha80 ruttee 1 tolaka

1 karsha(paNa)

The unicorn is bhadra(bull,king)-naaga(snake) or mahaa(great)-bhadra(bull,king) or bhadra(bull)-tama(greatest) which is the elephant(aleph-tama,sama).An elephant is the bhadra(bull,king) by its tusk(horn) , body and tail but is the naaga(snake) by its trunk(proboscis).The nakra(gharial,naaga-snake,naga-arka-the sun) with its long snout is another naaga and is often portrayed with the elephants in the IVC seals to show bhadranaaga(the unicorn).

The bhadra (sarpa-naaga-snake ) on the head of the unicorn is the kara(trunk) of the elephant(bhadra naaga). It is the Mal.amsavati (crosier) of the metraan (bishop,netra-king cf.patron,matron,mitre) and the naaga(snake,naga-the sun,raagaraaja-king) on the phaala(forehead,paala-bhadra-king) of the Egyptian Pharaoh(prabhu-lord).Bhadra naaga(sarpa,srava) is sarva(all) bhadra (auspicious) or

+ sana kaancanagold;naagaasana-Garuda-garta-karsha .
bhadra(king) sarva(for all).Naaga


mahanaagaasana(Garuda-eater of naagas-snakes or elephants;aazana garta-of Vishnu ) naagaazana(aazanaseat on naaga-snake,ram,elephant,naaka-arrow,the sky cf.ananta-naaganaaka-saya of Vishnu or sara-naakanaaga-saya of Bhiishmar) Garuda(paksha,patra,vi,sabird;visa-trader) garta garja gaja ksha karsha karajacakra(cf.cakravaaLa) harija harsha sikharasikhasaakhasivarudra bhadrapatra Garuda(patra,paksha) is gaja(bhadra) and is called suparNa(svarNa-puurNa-suurya cf.Anna puurNa). Bhadraasana(aasana on bhadrabull,girl,gold,simha,gaja,leaf,snake,bird throne-sroNa-





patraasana(Garuda,Ajabhadra paada

Rudra-in H-178B)

Vriksha(druma) is the aasana(seat) of patra(bhadra-king,bull,bharata-firecf.M-1186,bulls tied to asvattha etc.) or is patraasana(bhadraasana) or Rudraasana(bhadra- Rudra- patrabharata - bhaarata).A vriksha being vri-ksha has a ksha(gaja,narasimha) in it. Similarly a nakshatra( bha being naaga(gaja-naaka-elephant,arrow,sky,naga-the sun,tree,mountain)-satra(house-star) is bhadraasana(patraasana;bhadra-patra cf.H-179,M305)

Pharaoh A Dkshitar from Chidambaram sporting the Mun Kudumi(Puurva sikhaa) An Asvattha patra( Fig .The naaga(agna-naga-arka-the sun,raaga-king)

leaf )

on the

Pharaohs phaala(forehead) is replaced by the sun (akshasnake,eye,wheel;gaja-elephant;cakra-bhadra-king,circle cf.bhadra-bhatta) on the IVC priestkings phaala. Both being netra(king,Indra) are provided with netra(beard) .

50.Udupi: Ancient Unicorn Idol Found at Kalya

June, 18 2011 From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

Daiji World A very rare unicorn sculpture of Hayagajanandi (combination of horse, elephant, bull), has been found from Nagabrahmasthana at Kalya near Nitte in Karkala taluk.

This stone sculpture is claimed to be one of the rarest of the unicorn icons found in India. The right front leg clearly resembles that of an elephant. The hind leg is like those of the bulls, with hoof at the tip. The tail of the icon is like that of the bull instead of thehorse. The sculpture has the face of a horse. A single horn standing at the centre of the sculpture's head.. This unicorn sculpture happens to be the vehicle of Bermeru (cf.Brahma)Daiva (demigod) of the Nagabrahmasthana. In Tulu folklore, the demigods riding horse or such other animals are identified as 'Bermeru' or 'Jaina Bermeru'. The sculpture is estimated to belong to the 12th or 13th century AD. The sculptures with features of different animals are said to represent fertility. Thus one of the names of the unicorn is hayagaja(horse elephant;akshaya-

imperishabe,vishnu)-Nandi(bull,sandi-union,jina-the sun). In the Mahaabhaarata(DroNa parva.191.15) it was called Asva(aleph)tthaama(sama,tama,dhaama) as Asvatthaama was the son of DroNa(throne,Bharadvaaja) and an elephant owned by the king of Maalava(maanava-man,maapana-scale,measure).Thus the elephant is the symbol of bhadraasana of the samraat(raaja tama-eka raja-ekadaNda-ekadanda-unicorn) or donations or orders made by him.

51. Sikha

Head with a sikha(cuuda-kuuta-tuft), Nevali Cori, Turkey,the IVC priest king, an IVC unicorn seal and a seal with a squatting deity wearing special headdress. Sikha gajaka(head,the sun)-sa(god,snake) It indicates the head of a bhuusura(bhuu-earth,sura-suna brahmin)

Shaved head with long braided rattail (haircut). The ikh differs from the rattail in that the ikh emanates from the crown of the head, whereas the rattail grows from the nape of the neck. Also the ikh is never braided.

How it is done
Traditionally, Hindu men shave off all their hair as a child in a saskra or ritual known as the chudakarana. A lock of hair is left at the crown (sahasrara). Unlike most other eastern cultures (including ancient Egypt) where a coming-of-age ceremony removed childhood locks of hair similar to the ikh (e.g. a forelock or pigtails in China, a topknot in Thailand, a sidelock in Egypt etc.) in India this prepubescent hairstyle is left to grow throughout the man's life, though usually only the most orthodox religious men will continue this hairstyle. The ikh is tied back or knotted to perform religious rites. Only funerals and death anniversaries are performed with the ikh untied or with dishevelled hair. Dishevelled hair is considered inauspicious, and represents times of great sorrow or calamity. In Hindu scripture, Draupadi took an oath in the assembly of the Kurus( cf.Horus) after she was molested by Dushasana that she would remain with dishevelled hair until the enemies were properly revenged. Similarly, Chanakya is said to have taken an oath to leave his ikh untied until he humbles the Nanda kings who insulted him.

Tying a ikh as done in South India

The Tamil word for ikh is kudumi (cf.kiraNa,kiriita) and traditionally it is represented in two styles. The most common kudumi (called Pin Kudumi) is identical to the ikh, with a knotted lock of hair on the crown of the head and the rest of the hair shaved off. Mun-Kudumi is a style where the hair is grown long in the front and knotted to the forehead. This hairstyle was popular among earlier Brahmin migrant groups to South India, such as the Chozhiya, Dikshitar, and Nambootiri. The Nair ruling class of Kerala, though not Brahmin, also sported this style. The technique used to tie the hair into a Kudumi is as follows: The lengthy hair can be tied with the help of left thumb and index fingers. You roll up the lock of

hair over the left thumb and index fingers put together by your right hand till you reach the tail end. Then hold the tail end of hair by the left thumb and index fingers and pull out the fingers with the tail end of the hair. You get the knot. After some little practice you will get a tight and neat knot.(Mal.kettu-knot cf.Egyptian Khat head dress of the Pharaoh.

Significance of ikh in Hinduism

The ikh(cf.sikhara-crown,kaasi-the sun cf.bhuusura-sun of the earth) reportedly signifies one-pointed (ekanta) focus on a spiritual goal, and devotion to God. It is mandatory for all Hindus to keep ikh and the first three twice-born or dvija castes (brahmins) to wear yajnopavita (sacred thread), also called janeu, pool nool, or paita. It has been said that the ikh allows God to pull one to heaven, or at least from this material world of maaya (illusion), as it reads in the Caitanya Caritamrita: "While there was much roaring and crying at the Bhattathari community, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu grabbed Krishnadasa by the hair and took him away." As Krishnadasa was a follower of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu (an incarnation of the god Krishna), he most likely would have kept the Vaishnava ikh hairstyle, so the idea of God using hair as a handle is a Hindu concept, it seems. The ikh was one of the few symbols of Hindus that transcended caste, language or regional barriers. Although there were variations of the style of sikha amongst communities, it was obligatory for all males.

52. Pharaoh
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

After Djoser of the third dynasty, pharaohs usually were depicted wearing the Nemes headdress(kiriita,sikhara), a false beard(netra-beard,king cf.the priestking of IVC with a beard), and an ornate kilt Pharaoh is a title used in many modern discussions of the ancient Egyptian rulers of all periods. The title originates in the term "pr-aa" which means "great house" (cf.mahaalaya in the Dholavira sign board) and describes the royal palace. The title of Pharaoh started being used for the king during the New Kingdom, specifically during the middle of the eighteenth dynasty.

The Pharaoh title

Pharaoh, meaning "Great House", originally referred to the king's palace, but by the reign of Thutmose III (ca. 1479-1425 BC) in the New Kingdom, had become a form of address for the person of the king. The term pharaoh ultimately was derived from a compound word represented as pr-`3, written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr "house" and `3 "column "cf. .

Scepters and Staves Scepters and staves were a general sign of authority in Ancient Egypt. One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos. Kings were also known to carry a staff, and Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so called mks-staff. The staff with the longest history seems to be the heqa-scepter, sometimes described as the shepherds crook. The earliest examples of this piece of regalia dates to pre-dynastic times. A scepter was found in a tomb at Abydos which dates to the late Naqada period. Another scepter associated with the king is the was-scepter. This is a long staff mounted by an animal head. The earliest known depictions of the was-scepter date to the First dynasty of Egypt. The was-scepter is shown in the hands of both kings and gods. The Flail was later closely related to the heqa-scepter, but in early representations the king was also depicted solely with the flail, as shown in a late pre-dynastic knife handle which is now in the Metropolitan museum, and on the Narmer Macehead.

The Uraeus The earliest evidence we have of the use of the Uraeus(bhadra naaga -unicorn) a rearing cobra(naaga-raaga-raaja-sa) is from the reign of Den from the First dynasty of Egypt. The cobra supposedly protected the pharaoh by spitting fire at its enemies.

Crowns and headdresses

Narmer Palette

Narmer wearing the white crown

Narmer wearing the red crown

The red crown of Lower Egypt the Deshret crown dates back to pre-dynastic times. A red crown has been found on a pottery shard from Naqada, and later king Narmer is shown wearing the red crown on both the Narmer macehead and the Narmer palette.cf. Narmara, in theRig-Veda (II.13.8). Narmara, in theRig-Veda (II.13.8). It comes from Proto-Indo-Aryan Nera M .

The white crown of Upper Egypt the Hedjet crown(cf.karsha,garta) is shown on the Qustul incense burner which dates to the pre-dynastic period. Later King Scorpion(druuna-DroNa-throne) was depicted wearing the white crown, as was Narmer.

The combination of red and white crown into the double crown or Pschent crown is first documented in the middle of the First dynasty of Egypt. The earliest depiction may date to the reign of Djet, and is otherwise surely attested during the reign of Den. The khat and nemes headdresses

cf. The khat headdress consists of a kind of kerchief whose end is tied almost like a ponytail. The earliest depictions of the khat headdress comes from the reign of Den, but is not found again until the reign of Djoser. The Nemes headdress dates from the time of Djoser. The statue from his Serdab in Saqqara shows the king wearing the nemes headdress.

During the early dynastic period kings had up to three titles. The Horus name is the oldest and dates to the late pre-dynastic period. The Nesw Bity name was added during the middle of the 1st dynasty. The Nebty name was first introduced towards the end of the 1st dynasty. The Golden falcon (bik-nbw) name is not well understood. The prenomen and nomen were introduced later and are traditionally enclosed in a cartouche. By the Middle Kingdom, the official titulary of the ruler consisted of five names; Horus, nebty, golden Horus, nomen, and prenomen for some rulers, only one or two of them may be known. Nesw Bity name The Nesw Bity name was one of the new developments from the reign of Den. The name would follow the glyphs for the Sedge and the Bee. The title is usually translated as king of Upper and Lower Egypt. The nsw bity name may have been the birth name of the king. It was often the name by which kings were recorded in the later annals and king lists.

Horus name The Horus name was adopted by the king, when he took the throne. The name was written within a square frame representing the palace, named a serekh(cf.garta). The Horus name of several early kings expresses a relationship with Horus. Aha refers to Horus the fighter, Djer refers to Horus the strong, etc. Later kings express ideals of kingship in their Horus names. Khasekhemwy refers to Horus: the two powers are at peace, while Nebra refers to Horus, Lord of the Sun. Nebty name The earliest example of a nebty name comes from the reign of king Aha from the 1st dynasty. The title links the king with the goddesses of Upper and Lower Egypt Nekhbet and Wadjet. The title is preceded by the vulture (Nekhbet) and the

cobra (Wadjet) standing on a basket (the neb sign). Golden Horus name The Golden Horus or Golden Falcon name was preceded by a falcon on a gold or nbw sign. The title may have represented the kings divine status. The Horus associated with gold may be referring to the idea that the gods bodies were made of gold. The gold sign may also be a reference to Nubt, the city of Set. This would suggest that the iconography represents Horus conquering Set. Nomen and Prenomen The prenomen and nomen were contained in a cartouche. The prenomen often followed the King of Upper and Lower Egypt (nsw bity) or Lord of the Two Lands (nebtawy) title. The prenomen often incorporated the name of Re. The nomen often followed the title Son of Re (sa-ra) or the title Lord of Appearances (nebkha).

53.Site hints at Asian roots for human genus

June, 16 2011

From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

Science News New finds in the Caucasus suggest a non African origin for ancient Homo species . Early members of the genus Homo, possibly direct ancestors of people today, may have evolved in Asia and then gone to Africa, not vice versa as many scientists have assumed. The new Dmanisi discoveries point to an Asian homeland for H. erectus, the scientists propose online June 6 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Researchers have abandoned the long-standing view that a small-brained hominid from East Africa known as Homo habilis, which first appeared about 2.4 million years ago, evolved into H. erectus.

54.Ancient Egypt was destroyed by drought, discover Scottish experts

August, 09 2011 From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

The Scotsman The fall of the great Egyptian Old Kingdom may have been caused by drought. Researchers from the University of St Andrews have confirmed that a severe period of drought around 4,200 years ago may have contributed to the demise of the

civilisation.(cf.decline of Sumer and the IVC also around this time due to droughts.). Using seismic investigations with sound waves, along with carbon dating researchers were able to locate the t period of drought, which was during the 90-year period at the end of the Old Kingdom, which caused its demise. "There were great riots, and anarchy breaking out as a result of it." Historical records have suggested the region was hit by a drought spanning several decades, forcing people to extreme measures with some writings even suggesting people were forced to eat their own children. This drought has now been confirmed by information collected by the St Andrews team, along with colleagues from the University of Aberystwyth.

Bhadra(mountain,bull,elephant,king,maiden,gold;patra-wing,bird) is aasana(seat,naasa-nose,daana-gift,saasana-sana-gift) or asva(elephant,bull,horse) as bha(pa)-dra(tra) is sapta (saptagiri,saptaasva) as in





pa 3

aa +



aasana naasa

bhadraasana garta(devaratha,throne)

garut(wing,food,swallowing cf.atri-a devourer RV.2.8.5 or the vedic sage ;adri is the number

7,a hill,a tree,the sun etc.)

etc.indicating karsha-

paNa-money,sankha-cowrie,sanga-sexual union,zangha-sreNi-trader groups etc.

The Assyrians had the winged bull -Lamassu, or sedu to guard the entrances to the king's court. Lamassi were sculpted with five legs so that four legs were always visible, whether the image was viewed frontally or in profile. Compare the Lamassu with the IVC Unicorn and other winged bulls of the ancient world and the Lion(simha-king) Capital at Sarnath(sar-raaja-king,naathaking;bhadraasana-throne;raasa-naada=gardabha;sriinaathaVishnu;raajadhaani-palace) of Asoka the Great.

Note the four lions(one hidden from view like the fifth leg of the lamassu;cf.simha-king) positioned back to back,the wheel(cakra-raksha-raaja,bhadraking,bull,lion,elephant,gold;pa-ruler,bha-the sun),the horse(asva-horse,avasaking),the bull(bhadra-king,bull), the elephant(bhadra-elephant,king) and the bell shaped lotus(padma-lotuspaadam-footvasana-house,vasna-moneypatraleaf,bhadra-king,auspiciousness;padmaasanabhadraasana cf.caraNa hind leg) . The motto 'Satyameva Jayate' inscribed below the emblem in Devanagari script means 'truth alone triumphs'.

Hindu Goddess of wealth Gaja(naga-the sun,tree,mountain;naaga-elephant,snake maha-light;mahaa-great;naga-the sun)-Lakshmi(Srii-the sun,light;Ceres-the goddess of plenty) . 55. Sixth century stone sculpture of Hindu goddess discovered in Kashmir http://www.arheologydaily.com/news September, 05 2009

An ancient sculpture of Hindu Goddess of wealth Gajalakshmi which

dates back to the 6th or 7th century has recently been discovered at Nagbal Lesser village in Jammu and Kashmir .It' s of brownish colour and from the perspective of craftsmanship, it is finely chiselled out.The statue, measuring nine inches in height and five inches in width, is seated on the lotus throne(padmaasana) placed between two lions(padmaasana and simhaasana or bhadraasana).. The main sculpture is enclosed in a stone frame, the top of which projects the shape of elephant motifs towards the head of the deity. The idol holds a lotus in her right hand and cornucopia in her left hand. The other end of the drapery covering the lower body of the sculpture does not go behind its shoulder but is wrapped around in pleats beneath the chest of the deity. As far as its art is concerned, this art form connects it to the Gandhara School of Art. founded in the first century BC. The theme cultivated by Gandhara artists later reached Kashmir. The costume we get to see in this sculpture shows a confluence of Greek and Indian art forms

Srii Lakshmi(dru-srii-tree)Asherah Astarte Istar or Sacred Tree ( A vriksha or tree has a gaja or elephant in it.Naga is a tree and the sun and naaga is an elephant) was an important deity, one who was both mighty and nurturing .Gaja(elephant) kaasa(light) saha(light) saakha(branch) mahas(strength,light) .The tree(cf.Vana DurgapaNa sulka) goddess is potrayed on Harappan seals like K-50,K-65 etc.Bhadraasana(garta,karsha) is shown by the bhadra(garja-gartatiger,svar) at the aasana of the bhadra (maiden,naa).The aasana(throne) of bhadra(king) had to be of bhadra(svarNa-gold).Karsha(garta,Sumer.garzaoffice,duties,rules;Heb.heres-the sun) is shown by the harsha(kamja-hair bristling ). PaNa (Vishnu,praise,price) is shown by the vana(tree) on the head.Vriksha is prakaasa(light);vri(to cover,krii-purchase)-ksha(Narasimha-Vishnu as seen in the figure;a field,kshama-earth-a tree is the roof for the earth) etc. Karsha-4 indicate four karsha PaNa or a pala.



PhoenicianCoin2A.jpg (400 400 pixels, file size: 26 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Note the karsha(garja,paN) bhadraasana(paNa by naava,naaga),bhadraasva(asvahorse with patra-wing and vaara-tail of fish to show viira hero,king,juice as bhadraasva is viirabhadra .Thus the fish(bhuj-hand,food;pasas-phallus
bhadra,asva , viirabhadra ,bhadraasva ,paNa(kara, )etc. is

56.Company digging mine in Afghanistan unearths 2,600 year old Buddhist monastery
December, 01 2011 Did the Harappan religion evolve into Budhism?Did the awakening or enlightenment of the Buddha represent a rebirth of the Harappan religion?

From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news Mail Online A Chinese company digging an unexploited copper mine in Afghanistan has unearthed ancient statues of Buddha in a sprawling 2,600 year old Buddhist monastery.

Archaeologists are rushing to salvage what they can from a major 7th century B.C. religious site along the famed Silk Road connecting Asia and the Middle East.

57.Gautama Buddha
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Siddhrtha Gautama Buddha

A statue of the Buddha from Sarnath, 4th century CE Born c. 563 BCE Lumbini, today in Nepal c. 483 BCE (aged 80) or 411 and 400 BCE Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, today in India Shakya

Died Ethnicity

Known for Founder of Buddhism Predecessor Kassapa Buddha Successor Maitreya Buddha

Siddhrtha Gautama (Sanskrit:; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha (P. sammsambuddha, S. samyaksabuddha) of our age, "Buddha" meaning "awakened one" or "the enlightened one." Siddhrtha Gautama may also be referred to as Gautama Buddha or as kyamuni ("Sage of the kyas").

How can the Buddha finds in Afghanistan match with these dates? Did the Harappan religion evolve into Buddhism?.Buddha is bhadra(Rudra-king) and putra(son of god cf.Ganesa,Subramanya,Saasta,Christ etc.) . Mahaabhadra(Bhadra naaga-bhadraasva-unicorn gaja cf.Nalagiri the elephant kneeling before the Buddha is nri-hari or nara-hari ,ie.king the lion or lion among men) is the predecessor of Mahaayaana(mahaa-ina/jina/naaga/raaja) itself. The Buddha is often portrayed in the upadesa mudra (
),with a chatra(parasol )

above the head( ) , with ushniisha (crest,flame of knowledge on the forehead cf.Pharaohs snake and the IVC priest kings wheel and band),seated in the padmaasana(cf.the IVC yogic postures) under the bodhi(asvattha-bhadra naga-bhadra naaga-paNa-bhadraasana-god in the trees in IVC.Aga-the sun is aja,aga,jaya,naga , naaga saya and sa ) and supported by kneeling men at the four corners for the svastikas(kneeling men-raksha) or or or raksha guarding the garta.The Deer Park of Isipatana(Sarnath) also has a hariNa(gold,deer;nripa-king) element in it as seen in several IVC seals.


58.The different meanings of a glyph is indicated by different marks added to the glyphs.

Thus fish(drava) paNa(paaNi-bhuja-hasta-hand;bhoga-snake,food,sex pa,na) bhadra(bull-Rishabha,gold,mountain,king,elephant,head,maiden) patra(leaf,bird,writ) pada(word,paada-foot) Bharata(veda,word) svar(sound,count,the sun,sky) svarNa(gold) Varta(paNa-barter,trade;vrisha-bull) vrata(command,rule) argha(price) arka(the sun) kara(hand,tax)

As house(paNa) it is given a roof


kuuta-house,crest,tree;dasa-10,sata-100) .Kutava

is a measure,kutapa is the

Here the paNa gets the roof by the thumb.A Brahmin has a cuuta ( a tuft of hair at the crest of the head) and so is a sacrificial brick.

As dice(aksha,aya,paNa) it is given four dots

to make

akshaya,paNya, maanya etc. and paada(raaja,deva),bhaaj(to divide),bhaaga(division),gaja,sabha,karsha,rishabha(bhadra) etc. Gaandhaara

Similarly naaga(gan,karsha,garta)-tra(dhaara)

gan-tra ,tar-paNa

Note naga in several of the names of the 16 vedic kingdoms as king is naaga or naga(the sun).

59.Ancient City Mysteriously Survived Mideast Civilization Collapse

July, 29 2011 From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

Live Science Why did Tell Qarqur, a site in northwest Syria, in the Orontes River Valley, grow at a time when cities and ancient civilizations across the Middle East collapsed and were being abandoned(cf.IVC) due to a global drought about 4,200 years ago?

Tell Qarqur was occupied for about 10,000 years, between 8,500 BC and AD 1350 . One of the most interesting excavated finds is a small temple or shrine made out of stone that also dates back 4,200 years. The team also found large standing stones(cf.bhadraasana linga simhaasana of IVC), bones from baby sheep, cult stands used for incense and decorative figurines(cf.IVC) etc. Global climate change Environmental data gathered from numerous sources, including ocean sediment cores and plant remains, suggests that there was a climate event that rocked the Middle East and much of the planet 4,200 years ago. [10 Surprising Results of Climate Change.cf.Drying up of the Sarasvati and the collapse of the IVC also happaened at this time.] "At 4,200 years ago, there was an abrupt climate change, and abrupt drying, and abrupt deflection of the Mediterranean westerly winds that transport humid air into the eastern Mediterranean region," Harvey Weiss of Yale University told LiveScience. "That deflection of those winds reduced the annual precipitation across western Asia for about 300 years," he said, with rainfall being reduced somewhere between 30 and 50 percent. This meant that cities in the Middle East that depended on rain-fed crops had a difficult time surviving. The intense drought extended nearly globally, Weiss noted. Along with the Mesopotamian and eastern Mediterranean societies that met their demise, Old Kingdom Egypt, a civilization that built the Great Pyramids, collapsed. Why did Tell Qarqur survive? "The Orontes River is fed by a huge underground chamber of water, which is called a Karst," Weiss said. "That huge underground source of water continued to flow and to

feed the Orontes River during this period when rainfall was diminished."

. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur (Akkadian: Assryu; Arabic: Ar; Hebrew: Ar, Aramaic: Aur. God is the king or the nation.cf.Bharata(atharva): suur-svar-suurya-the sun god .Bhaarata is fire. During the Old Assyrian period (20th to 15th centuries BCE), Assur controlled much of Upper Mesopotamia and parts of Asia Minor Cf.Deva-asura yuddha(war) of the Mahabharata ;DevaHarappa,AsuraAssyria?

Relief from Assyrian capital of Dur Sharrukin,(cf.Sur-the sun;pur-town- shown by bull,tiger,lion,elephant etc.) showing transport of Lebanese cedar (8th century BC)

61.A special jar paanapaatrapaNapatradeed of barter/trade) paatra-jarbhadra-bull,king,maiden,goldpaana-jarpaNatrade,money,gambling,Vishnu,house,bartervartabarter,tradevarsha(year,place)

A jar(paana-jarpaNa-money,praise) found at Lothal depicts a scene in which two birds( yama-sama-na, patrabird,wing,leafsa;bhadraasana-royal throne or order,patra sana-bulla-paper- paNa-money) are seen perched on a tree(vanatreepaNa-money,agreement,Vishnu) each holding a fish( paNa girvaana krisana-cowry paNa cf.fish eating alligator) in its beak(cf. droNacrow). Below it is an animal with a short thick tail(vrikshavrika-wolf,kshatriya) which can be a wolf /fox(hari-jackal,lion,tiger,snake;hari is krii-purchase or hri-taking away;vanya jiiviwild animalpaNya jiiva- a trader) or a dog (sunaka-dogsulkashekel) . The presence of few fish(drava-fish,vart-barter,trade;paNa-bhaNa-money,vana-leaf) on the ground indicate paNana-buying and selling(paNasa-commodity panca-five savana-sacrifice sevana-servicebandha-agreement) by the fallen leaves(patrapaNavana-leaf,tree) . The glazed Harappan pottery is the earliest example of its kind in the ancient world.. Perforated pottery with a large hole at the bottom and small holes on the wall was probably used for straining liquor(soma).

62.Tamil Brahmi script found at Pattanam in Kerala

. March, 13 2011

From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

The Hindu A Tamil Brahmi script on a pot rim, reading "a ma na", meaning a Jaina, has been found at Pattanam in Ernakulam district, Kerala, establishing that Jainism

was prevalent on the west coast at least from second century CE (Common Era).

a mana aa-pana apna Tree =dru(sra,dra);deer(hariNaharaNa-hand paNa(praise,house,price;vana-tree,water,house) = sramaNa,saravaNa,svarNa(draviNa),bhadraasana,hartri(bearer,imposer of taxes-king),traaNa(protect) Deer(horn;hariNa-deer,gold;haraNa-hand) = a, tree = paNa = vana = mana;amana amara(god,deva) apna(property) avana(salvation) amana-paritraaNa(hari-traaNa) AUM Hence this can be a request to the king to protect the bearer Jaina. The script can be dated to circa second century CE. The three Tamil-Brahmi letters are followed by two symbols generally called Megalithic graffiti (cf.the Harappan writing). The Tamil word "a ma na" meaning a Jaina was derived from Sanskrit Sramana via Prakrit Samana and Tamil Camana, said Mr.Iravatam Mahadevan. The two megalithic graffiti, following the three Tamil-Brahmi letters, could not be identified by him. It was for the first time we are getting direct evidence relating to a religious system or faith in Kerala." The pot might have belonged to a Jaina monk. I have,in my earlier articles already pointed out the Kerala Nambuutiri bhuusura(bhuu-devabhuu-sriipotri;potri-naamaNambuutiri)s as the direct descendants of the Harappan Bharata(deva) potris(priests).

63.The Harappans and the Anatolian Aryans.

The Neolithic period, meaning the "new stone age", started in Anatolia about 11,000 B.C., where the people of Nevali Cori, Gobeklitepe, Catalhyk and Hacilar, among others, were the first to leave their caves and start living in "houses" and small cities. The most significant feature of the Neolithic period is agriculture and pottery. Following the Neolithic, came the Chalcolithic period which marked the appearance of metal tools. These two very important periods came to an end with the discovery of bronze, a mixture of copper and tin. Thus, the Bronze age begins, considered to be one of the biggest revolutions in the history of mankind.

Gobekli Tepe has the answer

64.Worlds Oldest Erotic Picture


February, 26 2011

From Archeologydaily.com German Herald Scientist's found the world's oldest erotic picture - an image of a 12,000-year-old erect penis.DruuNa(scorpion) is taruNa( a youth).Compare this with the

Kalibangan seal K- 65 where the druuna is replaced by tarunii and druma.

. The image was found carved on a stone(bhadra-petra-Bharata) by a German team digging in Turkey at the world's oldest temple- the Gobekli Tepe temple- that pre-dates the Stonehenge by seven thousand years - and shows a headless man with an erect penis romping with mythical creatures. Jens Notroff, a spokesperson for the German Archaeological Institute, said: "In the picture you can clearly see on the carving a man's body with an erect penis."The erect penis shows harsha(erectiongarta-thronebhadraasanathronekarsha) which is also shown by the aasana(seat) on the patra(bird,bhadra-gold).

There is also a giant vulture(Garuda-garta) and a scorpion - and a strange disk that could be the sun(paNa-praise,prize,price,Vishnu cf.pasa whence pada-caraNa-foot;bhaanu,bhaama-the sun,maapa-scale).. Images of naked women(bhadra-patra-phaNa-paNa) believed to be fertility symbols have been found that are of a similar age but this is believed to be the first showing a naked and aroused man.

The scorpion(druuNa

),the bow and arrow(druuNa,bali ,paNA

),the peepul

),the tuft(cuuda,kuuta), tiger-lion-svar (suura),the tree(druma),

the unicorn(bhadraasva or bhadra vrishabha) etc. point to the Bharadvaaja(Bharata-DevaDroNa-throne) clan and its spread from Anatolia to the IVC .

Ganesa of Nevali Cori?sa+bhadrasavitra

Garuda and soma katir(ear of wheat/rice) garut(wing) Garudagarta(throne). karsha

Wheateatadasana, vaaja(food), paada-four

, ,

Barley yavayama(sama-two)

Rice Domesticated Einkorn wheat at Nevali Cori 40 miles northwest of Gobekli Tepe ... oilismastery.blogspot.com

cf. soma svarNa(gold) suuna (grain) and wheat( go-dhuuma)/rice(sroNa,soma). Thus the West enjoyed soma(madhu-alcohol,soNa-blood,fire;it introduces fire/spirits into the body) of wheat, barley and grape and the East had soma of grape and rice.Draaksha(grape) is rakta(red cf.red wine) and raksha(salvation cf.the Holy Eucharist).

Note the similarity to the Harappan sa+bhadrasavitra

script pada(sava,taya,sabha,Tau ,bhadra,patra etc.).Panagranthi is a market .Bhadra(asana) is throne(stone).Bhadra (petra-stone) is aasana(asna-stone) itself..Druuna(scorpion,bow) shown on it is taruNa(youth) or Drona ( Bharadvaaja.).Bhaara(weight)-dha(seat,wealthpotters rest) is bhaarata(agni-fire

cf.RV.) and sa(god/king).

Patra(bird) is Bharata and bhadra(bull,king).Hamsa(swan,svana-sound-count)-aasana is simhaasana. Patra(bird) as varta(barter) is trade.Penis is paNa and count.Saya(hand,sex ; rati-sex-srii-dru-tree) is sa(godTaTgod,the cross).Patra is bhadra(a woman) and the female sex organ(bhaga) also..Linga(sisna-penis,phallus;saasana-daana-gift) is Simha(Tiger,Lion,the suns sign) and Hamsa(swan,the sun) as seen on the limestone monoliths and in some Harappan seals. The headless body is aasana(seat) or gaatra(body,garta-throne,karsha-money). Gaatra as garta is corroborated by another headless body of a druuNa(scorpion) Indicating sroNa(aasana-seat),DroNa(Bharadvaaja,throne.)

Note sijqs.exe he top right end. Sanliurfa museum, God of Reproduction, a human statue of 2 meters high carved out of limestone rock and eyes of obsedian was discovered in the Balikligol in 1993, Sanliurfa excavations. This is believed to be the oldest human figure ever to be discovered to date and it describes a male looking down to his genital organ seized by his both hands. This may indicate panasaasana from paNa(hand,agreement,praise,price,barter,money) and sisna(penis paNa and saasanagift,Mal.paN-to have sex).Saya is sex and hand indicating paNa.PaNa+sayavandya(honourable,respectable),Sanjaya(a name),sancaya(heap,hoard) etc.Harsha(erection of the penis) is garta(throne),raksha(protection,rakta-red,raaja-king cf.the red royal scepter is the replica of the penis itselfand the gunja seed. A palace is a phallus-penis!)The penis is the symbol of the counting index finger and the fist(mushti,mushka-scrotum).

T-shaped limestone monoliths The T (Tau ,Ta or Sa-protection,god;bhadraking,auspicious )symbol is seen in the Indus inscriptions several times(pada,deva,bhadra,bhadraasana,Bharata,vis). There are many mounds located on a crescent surrounding the antique city of Harran at a distance of 30-40 kms. These are Gbeklitepe, Goktepe, Grctepe, Sefertepe, Karahantepe, Hamzantepe and Balikligol which is an important settlement of Neolithic Ages. Nevali Cori located in the vicinity of the town of Hilvan, Kumartepe near Saskan village(Bozova) and Teleilat Hoyuk(Birecik) and many more around Harran are among the many mounds not yet excavated. According to the archeologist, Klaus Schmidt, the site is 5500 years older than the earliest settlements of Mesopotamia and 7000 years older than the well known Stonehenge in Britain.

etc. carry a common indication of bhadraasana(garta-throne,rakta-blood,red;Lat.crus-foot,crux-cross; paNa- tax). Bhadra(tiger,lion,bull,maiden,rock;deva-god;patra-leaf,bird;paatra-jar,sarpa-snake)aasana(seat,jaghana-loins) is for puuja(worship) and bhoga(food,sex) .Bhadraasana is palace(vasana-vaasa-vaaja-phallus-paasas sisna- saadhana-linga-simha-hamsa etc=throne).The god and the godking in it had to be worshipped and pleased with an th th amsa(part,cf.1/6 ,1/10 etc,amza-shoulder,aasana-seat) or paNa(bali-sacrifice,tax;vasnabhadra-price) and eaten/enjoyed(eating the bull was eating the king cf.the Sed,somayaaga,the eucharist etc.) as prasaada(prakaasa-light).

sa+bhadrasavitra-the sun;bhadra+aasanabhadraasana(bhadra-petra-Peterrock;aasana-asna or asma-stone RV.8.2.2 cf.Peter(bhadra)s seat(aasana) is the garta-crux-cross which is seat of the god(Christ-garta-the king,kratusacrifice;Lat.krista-crest) and the godking- the pope.) . Bhadra being pareta(dead,cf. royal or ceremonial burying of the dead),preta(corpse cf worship of the mummies) and praata(praatar-dawn,the aasana of the rising sun king) were worshipped.Burial sites were marked with

rakta(blood,red) and raksha(cross-the aasana of bhadra or Peter) to make it garta (kratu,Christ-the aviour)and give raksha(protection).Thus the Anatolian tradition is continued even today . Wild animals onT-shaped limestone monoliths bhadraasana(simhaasana of fire tiger jaatavedas ,bhaarata-fire,praatar-dawn) .A torch(Mal.tiippantam) of fire has a shape like this. Sila-rock is jina-the sun.Hence idols of sila(jina) are worshipped in the temples. The research carried out by the Norwegian scientists proved that progeny of many crops: wheat, barley, pea, lentil, chickpea, flax and of the kind were found in this fertile zone known today as the golden crescent. The wild Einkorn wheat found in Karacadag (largest mountain close to Diyarbakir) region was domesticated at Gobeklitepe and spread to the world from here.

To date 20 temples were discovered .

http://www.harappa.com/indus/26.html Head with a sikha(cuuda-kuuta-tuft), Nevali Cori, Turkey. Yadus of Central Asia and Siberia wore the sikha. Note the single horn of the unicorn and the sisna(phallus) symbol in the seal.Sisna is saasana(donation,order,sceptre) .Asvattha patra is the emblem of the Bharata kings.

Asvattha-Fig patra- leaf ) dru(srii) worship , , , Bhadra(head,king,bull,circle,water ) is pa(leaf,ruler,water,wind),sara(arrow,head,water,5) and patra(leaf,writ,bird).

. Bhadra(king,head,circle.Note the circle-bhadra-patta-on the forehead of the priest king cf.bhattatiri Brahmins of Kerala).Nripa(Varuna-king) is parNa (patra-leaf,wing)..Patra is pa-tra(tri-three,trefoil).Hence a bhadra wore the bhadra(patta) on his forehead and clad himself in royal attire (nirnija) with the bhadra(trefoil) marks.

He dwelt in a vaasra(house,bull) or maana(house)called the bhadraasana.He drank bhadra(water) from a well marked by a patra of asvattha( Fig or unicorn-elephant).

65.Bridging those gaps

July, 16 2011 From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

Al Ahram Weekly Mohamed El-Beyali, the director of Aswan and Nubia monuments, said that the Naga AlHamdulab cycle of images probably dated from about 3200 BCE, corresponding to the late Naqada period. This was the time between the Scorpion King (owner of tomb Uj at Abydos), the first king of Dynasty Zero, and Narmer(cf.nri-king,nara-man), the first ruler of the First Dynasty..

66.Archaeological discovery provides evidence of a celestial procession at Stonehenge

November, 28 2011 Fromhttp://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

Art Daily

Stonehenge T shaped monoliths

Archaeologists led by the University of Birmingham with the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection have discovered evidence of two huge pits positioned on celestial alignment at Stonehenge. Shedding new light on the significant association of the monument with the sun, these pits may have contained tall stones, wooden posts or even fires to mark its rising and setting and could have defined a processional route used by agriculturalists to celebrate the passage of the sun across the sky at the summer solstice. Positioned within the Cursus pathway, the pits are on alignment towards midsummer sunrise and sunset when viewed from the Heel Stone, the enigmatic stone standing just outside the entrance to Stonehenge. Stretching from west to east, the Cursus is an immense linear enclosure, 100 metres wide and two and a half kilometres across, north of Stonehenge. The perimeter of the Cursus may well have defined a route guiding ceremonial processions which took place on the longest day of the year." It is possible that processions within the Cursus moved from the eastern pit at sunrise, continuing eastwards along the Cursus and, following the path of the sun overhead, and perhaps back to the west, reaching the western pit at sunset to mark the longest day of the year. Observers of the ceremony would have been positioned at the Heel Stone, of which the two pits are aligned. Dr Henry Chapman, Senior Lecturer in Archaeology and Visualisation observes: "If you measure the walking distance between the two pits, the procession would reach exactly half-way at midday, when the sun would be directly on top of Stonehenge. This is more than just a coincidence, indicating that the exact length of the Cursus and the positioning of the pits are of significance."

. The team has also revealed a new horseshoe of Stonehenge .

arrangement of large pits north-east


Altyndepe (-, the Turkmen for "Golden Hill") is a Bronze Age (BMAC) site in Turkmenistan, near Agabat, inhabited in the 3rd to 2nd millennia BC, abandoned around 1600 BC.Golden bull's head(H7.5cm,bhadra-bull,gold,king) from Altyn-Depe, horns made of silver wire covered with gold foil. On the forehead and in the eyes are turquoise inlays (excavation #7, priest's tomb, room #7). Compare this with the Harappan priest kings (bhadra-king,bull) bhadra mark on the forehead and the upper arm and the bhadra marks on his dress and compare with the other bhadraasana(hoof,hearth,harta-Heres) images.

41. "Priest King."

Note patra(leaf) on bhadra(bull) to show bhadraasana(throne,king) or aajnaapatra (Royal order/ writ).The inscription reads Raama(Raana,raaja,saama) DroNa(Soma) Bharata (Bhadra-Bhatt-Naaga) or sata(100 / vimsa-20) sankha(kamsa,kalasa,nishka) raa(gold,give)-nishka(paNa) etc.

(asvattha patra-Fig leaf



Pipal-leaf shaped well, Lower Town


This unique well and associated bathing platform was discovered in the course of building a catchment drain around the site. It was reconstructed on the ground floor of Mohenjo-daro site museum. What does the Oxus(bull;vaaha-river,hand,bull) river of Bactria,Barada(water) river of Western Syria ,the asva patra(pepul leaf ) well at Harappa,the Tunga bhadra(water) river in Karnataka(South India) and the Bhaarata(water)-ppuzha(payas-water) river in Kerala have in common? Barada Sumerian badur water,pa-water; Heb.berotah-well, berot-wells, bered-freezing rain;Hittite watar-water;Harappan bhadra-water from pa-(water)sara(jala-water) ;Bhaara(load,vaara-water,tail)-ta(tail,ja-born,sa-god)varsha(rain,place;vaara-ta) and Bharata bhadra(king ).

68.Bhadra River
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhadra_River"

Origin Basin countries

Chikmagalur district, Karnataka India

The Bhadra River (Kannada: India.

) is a river in Karnataka state in southern

The Bhadra originates in the Western Ghats range, and flows east across the Deccan plateau. It meets the Tunga River at Koodli, and the combined river continues east as the Tungabhadra(Tunga bhadra simha bhadra cf.Tigris king bhadra,bhadra is king), a major tributary of the Krishna, which empties into the Bay of Bengal. Kerala has its counterpart in the Bhaarata-puzha( river) which flows into the Arabian sea.

Tunga bhadrasimha bhadraking bhadra.Tunga

as tanga(kanaka) is gold (cf.Barada of Syria known as golden stream ).

Bhadra(go-pa;bhuu-pa;paartha) is king,gold and water(pa,va,sara-water).Bhadra is patra(paleaf,water,king).Hence the Harappan kings well (kuupawell;bhoga-snake,sex cf.Pharaohs forehead snake bhaalaphaala-paala-gopa-bhuja-bhoga cf cob-rabhoga-ragopa-

raking cobra;bhadraasana-: :,hoof ) was made into the asvattha(avasa-deha kings body) patra(leaf,bhadraking).
Garta being great,the great tree,great bull, great animals are chosen in the seals.Atiger being greater in size to the lion,the tiger is preferred to the lion. Viira bhadra(king) had a Cf.

beera(bor Heb.well)patra(leaf).

Ganga(the river)gagana(the sky)simha(Leo)tunga(peak)hamsa(raajahamsa-a swan)king (bhadra).Hence Gangaasuta(Mbh.son of Ganga-Kaartikeya,Bhiishma) is the son of the king(bhadra) only.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barada

The Barada (Arabic: , Greek: Chrysorrhoas) is the main river of Damascus, the capital city of Syria. Its source is Lake Barada(cf.the peepul leaf well of the Harappan priest king).. At Damascus, it divides into seven branches(sapta sindhava). The 'Barada' name is thought to derive from 'barid', i.e. 'cold'. The ancient Greek name means 'golden stream'. cf.bhadra- Grk.chrysos-gold. Bhadra(pa-jala,sara=water,tra-three cf.Bactria and Oxus river) is water and gold. Vaara(water)-da(giver,sa-god) is Bhaarata(agni,praatar-dawn). Sarasvati is sara(jala-water)-pati(lord).Ganga is kam(ka-water)-ga(going) and gagana(the sky cf.aakaasaganga from ga(going,ka-water,kha-sky)-gaNa(group,kaNadrop).Aakaasa(the sky) is gagana.

Barada is identified as Abana (or Amanah, classical Chrysorrhoas,cf. vana-water) which is the more important of the two rivers of Damascus, Syria and was mentioned in the Book of Kings (2 Kings 5:12). In the Bible, Naaman exclaims that the Abana and Pharpar are greater than all the waters of Israel. What does the Barada(water) river of Western Syria ,the asva patra(Pepul leaf ) well of Mohenjo-daro, the Tunga bhadra(water) river of Karnataka(South India) and the Bhaarata(water)-ppuzha(river,payas-water) river of Kerala have in common? Barada Hitt.waatar-waterSumerian badur water. Harappan bhadrawater(pawater , sara = jala=water)

Barada river 1868

Bactria vaaha(hand,bull,river)-tria(three) triveNiprayaaga etc. Oxus civilizationbhadraBhaarataBactriaPersia

AsvatthaAsva-saasa,aakaasa-tata,asvata(tail,virtue,Laxmi,crossing;deha-body).Asva(avasa-the sun,king) is bhadra(vata).Hence bulls(asva) were tied to it/rested under it to give it the name Asvattha.Indra in the asvattha is Christ(avasa-the sun) on the cross(ta).The goddess in the tree is Laxmi(Saa). The Symbol of the Cross Ttreeta

The Tree as World Axis is the true meaning of the symbol of the cross. The vertical line represents the axis and the horizontal forms its branches (R.Guenon; The Symbolism of the Cross). The Hebrew Kabbalah has their Sephirothic Tree of Life. Bharata-bhadra(king,water,circle,bata-vata-Fig,Hindi.bataa-great,large)patra(leaf,wing)-pa(king,leaf,water)sara(water,head,arrow);kuupa(hole,well,RV.1.105.17 cf.hoof)gopa(RV.10.61.10,bhuupa-king,the number16-shodasa desa-16 kingdoms,SudaasaKing of the Bharatas;16 karsha-1maasha;karsha-garta-throne;Jupiter-Savitra,Subhadra or pitri,subha-dra-the king of planets- is said to give a sudsa-good period- of 16 years;16 shodasa,1+6=7sapta) The king(simha-lion) is not only given wings(sphinx,Lamassu etc.) even water for him had to come from a well identified by a leaf of Asvattha(avasa-king,staseat,deha-body)

70.The Oxus river Civilization: the Bronze Age of central Asia.

Central Asia is dominated by the two great riverine systems that drain the Hindu Kush: the Syr Darya and the Amur Darya. The Amur Darya, referred to as the Oxus River (vaahabhadrariver,bullvaahavaasa-vaasra-house,bulloxukshabullushvas-to live in a house,asu-life,asva-bull,horse) flows from east to west through the region the Greeks called Bactria(vaaha-triathree bulls/rivers cf.TriveNi-Prayaaga-the confluence of Ganga,Yamuna and Sarasvati. The Bronze Age settlements of this river valley is known as the Oxus Civilization (2100-1800 BC).

The Asvakas are a very ancient people of north-east Afghanistan. They find mention in the Puranas, Mahabharata and other ancient Sanskrit and Pali literature. Sanskrit term asva , Iranian aspa and Prakrit assa means horse. The name Asvaka or Assaka is said to be derived from Sanskrit Asva or Prakrit Assa and it litterally denotes someone connected with the horses.Hence: a horseman, or a cavalryman. The Ashvakas were especially engaged in the occupation of breeding, raising an ... ashvaka asmaka=bull people as bull(asva)=stone(asma)=elephant(naagagaja)=naaga

Panthera(hari-carii-Gr.theron-beast) because they can roar(rava-sound,the sun-paNa-gaLa-kala;garja-karsha).Roaring is made possible by a special two-piece hyoid bone in the throat. cf.Pancaala,Gandhaara etc. kan,pan,van,svar etc means to sound and han to kill(cf.himsa-killing,simha-lion,tiger. SvarNa coin has to make svar by the dvaar in it.A naagas(snake,elephant) roar is its siilkaara(hiss).Naaga(8) bhadra(gold,part,patra-writ) is 8 karsha of gold or 8th part of a karsha(32 rattee/80 rattee=4 rattee/10rattee). Alternately

Bhadra naaga(gaja,hema) nagna(naaNaka) bhadra cf.H3305nayana bhadranaaNya/maanya bhadra/patra

Note the karsha/garja lines on the body and neck,the karaja(claws) of the feet ,the large garja horns(AUM) etc.indicating karsha/garta/tiger.

(Tiger bull-karsha gold)Viirabhadra karsha




karsha or


tiger,garta-throne).Hence the script match the bhadraasva or tiger bull or unicorn(gaja).



Naaga(agna=1) bhadra(cipher=0)=10 paNa(trade,money,gambling) etc.

The picture depicts bhadra(king,tiger )+bhadra(bull,king )=king of kings Raaja raajasamraat.Raajatama is bhadra tama or the unicorn elephant.Bhadradvaya is Bharadvaaja (Bhadraasva) . Bhadra(tiger)asva(bull)bharadvaaja(viirabhadra) bhadraasanabhadra naagabhadra patrabhadra paNa or palabhadrapaana bhadra paala Karsha patra sa(ka)-patra(a-ka) aksha(5),savitra(the sun god). Bhadra is shown by the patra(bhadra-gold,yellow,cf.butterfly) stripes of the Tiger(garja-roar;harta-hinsra-killing;hari-yellow,lion;harit,sahari-the sun,lion,tiger-it is the asva of the sun and Indra;siighra-quick;garta-pandaarapanther-throne). bhadra(10,gold) naaga(8,bhadra)mahaa(hema) bhadra 10+8=18 or 10x8=80 bhadraasva(dvi-bhadra8) =bhadraasana,bhadrapaada(deva),bharadvaaja , 10 paana(jar),ashtapada(gold) etc. Viira bhadra or Jaatavedas(fire tiger) is raajavacas (royal command or speech).Viira is the wife and a son of Bharadvaaja. Viira is also the wife of karam-dhama(cf.Asvatthaama). Viira is rice-gruel(soma). Viira bhadra is a great hero or a horse/bull fit for the Asvamedha sacrifice.He is also a form of Siva(Bhadra/Rudra).In the vaayupuraaNa he is said to have been created from the mouth of Siva(jaatavedasraajavacas;the sun rises from iisaana-the angle of Siva) to spoil the sacrifice of Daksha(the year).He is described as having a thousand heads,a thousand eyes,a thousand feet,is clothed in a tigers skin and bears a

blazing bow and battle-axe. Sages /greatmen sit on tiger hide to ensure bhadraasana. Bhaarata(fire) is sa(saha,sam,sama-conjunction;sha-man) - bera(body) and ayas( gold,bronze) and the palm(the fingers and the palm have cross lines as on the tiger and the thumb or angushta forming the bulls head with the nail as the horn) is saya(union,hand,snake,mat,chess) also.Kamsa(bronze-alloy of copper and tin ,ayas-Lat.aes,Pers.birinj,pirinjcopper) is a misra(mix,alloy) of copper (ku-bera, bhadra, paNa,udumbara,varishtha,taamra,sulba) and tin(viira,kastiira,piccata,trapu,ranga,vanga) and denotes gunja and aadaka ( a measure of grain;aadakaedaajaayas). PaNa as barter was weight of copper or gold given as vasna(price) in exchange for the goods purchased. Bronze or bell metal by its kan/gan/pan/van/han was suitable for the garja(roar) of the karsha/garta.

71.Electrum http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrum

Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver, with trace amounts of copper and other metals.Can Viira(tin/silver)+bhadra(gold) =electrum ?

Cf.Early 6th century BC Lydian electrum coin (one-third stater denomination). Since soma(svarNa) was extracted from electrum a possibility is there.

72.Vedic kings -Battle of the Ten Kings

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Ten_Kings

The Battle of the Ten Kings (darj) is a battle alluded to in Mandala 7 of the Rigveda (hymns 18, 33 and 83.4-8) and it gives an account of the kings of the time. It is a battle between Aryans (Vedic Indians) (an "internecine war", as the 1911 Britannica puts it, as opposed to the more frequent accounts of Aryans fighting Dasyus). It took place as Puru tribes, allied with other tribes of the Punjab and guided by the royal sage Vishvamitra, oppose the Trtsu (Bharata) king Sudas in battle, but are defeated as was celebrated in a provocative hymn of Sudas' poet and priest Vasistha (RV 7.18). Belligerents
Further information: Rigvedic tribes The Trtsu(srii-sutason of the sungodking;tridasa-deva,trisada-300) are the tribe led by king Sudas. Sudas himself is included in the "ten kings", as the Trtsus are said to be surrounded by ten kings in 7.33.5. But it is not made explicit how this number is supposed to be broken down: if of the tribes mentioned in 7.18, the Turvasas, Yaksuss (pun for Yadu), Matsyas, Bhrgus, Druhyus, Pakthas, Bhalanas, Alinas, Shivas and Visanins are counted, the full number is reached, leaving the Anavas (7.18.14), the Ajas and Sigrus (7.18.19) and the "21 men of both Vaikarna tribes" (7.18.11) without a king, and implying that Bheda (7.18.19, also mentioned 7.33.3 and 7.83.4, the main leader slain by Sudas), Shimyu (7.18.5), and Kavasa (7.18.12) are the names of individual kings. The Bharatas are named among the enemies in 7.33 but not in 7.18. Alinas: One of the tribes defeated by Sudas at the Dasarajna, and it was suggested that they lived to the north-east of Nuristan, because the land was mentioned by the Chinese pilgrim Hiouen Thsang. Anu: Some place them in the Paru (Ravi) area. Bhrigus: Probably the priestly family descended from the ancient Kavi Bhrigu. Later, they are related to the composition of parts of the Atharva Veda (Bhgvgirasa) . Bhalanas: Fought against Sudas in the Dasarajna battle. Some scholars have argued that the Bhalanas lived in the Bolan Pass area. Druhyus: Some align them with the Gandhari (RV I 1.126.7).

Matsya are only mentioned in the RV (7.18.6), but later in connection with the lva. Parsu: The Paru have been connected by some with the ancient Persians. Purus: one of the major tribal confederations in the Rigveda. Panis: also the name of a class of demons; later associated with the Scythians.

Hymns 7.18 and 7.83 are dedicated to Indra and Indra paired with Varuna, respectively. They thank the deity for helping Sudas to defeat his enemies, while hymn 7.33 is addressed by Vasistha's descendants to Vasistha, praising him for moving the gods to take Sudas' side by his prayers (Indra preferred Vasistha's prayers over those of Pasadyumna, son of Vayata, 7.33.2). They describe him as a son of Mitra and Varuna (7.33.11). The hymn stresses the importance of the priests (Vasistha is named along with Parashara and Satayatu) in winning Indra's favour; they had invoked Indra while they had moved away from "home" (grht, 7.18.21) The situation leading up to the battle is described in 7.18.6: The Turvasas and Yaksus (Yadu), together with the Matsya tribe (punned upon by the rishi by comparing them to hungry fish (matsya) flocking together) appear and ally themselves with the Bhrigus and the Druhyus. Their confederation was further increased by the Pakthas, the Bhalanas, the Alinas, the Shivas and the Visanins (7.18.7), while the Trtsus relied solely on the help of the "Arya's Comrade" (ryasya sadham), Indra.

The battle
The battle itself took place on the banks of the Parusni (Ravi). The warriors of Sudas are described as white-robed (shvityanca), wearing hair-knots on the right side of their heads (daksinataskaparda), having flying banners (krtdhvaj) (RV 7.83.2), while the ten kings do not sacrifice (yajyava). It appears (7.18.5) that Sudas managed to cross the Parusni safely, while his foes, trying to pursue, were scattered by a flood and either drowned or were slaughtered by Sudas' men: 7.18.9 As to their goal they sped to their destruction: they sought Parusni; e'en the swift returned not. Indra abandoned, to Sudas the manly, the swiftly flying foes, unmanly babblers. 7.18.9 They went like kine unherded from the pasture, each clinging to a friend as chance directed. They who drive spotted steeds, sent down by Prsni, gave ear, the Warriors and the harnessed horses. (trans. Griffith)

Kavaa and the Druhyu were "overwhelmed by Indra" while still in the water (7.18.10). The slain warriors of the Anu and Druhyus are numbered 6,666 (7.18.14;cf.666 of the Antichrist in the Revelations). In the aftermath of the battle, the Bharatas under Sudas (7.33.6), received tribute from the Ajas, the Sigrus and the Yaksus (= Yadu, 7.18.20), and Indra destroyed the seven fortifications of the enemies, and gave the treasures of Anu to Sudas (7.18.13). 7.18.17 stresses that this was a victory against all odds, compared to a ram defeating a lion.

73.The Citadel
Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were planned cities. The city of Mohenjo-daro could be divided into three parts-the Citadel, the lower town and the small huts on the outer limits of the city The citadel was the raised part of the city. It has been described as a fort or administrative block.. It consisted of important buildings like the Granary and the Assembly or Town Halls, the Great Bath etc. The houses were one or two storeys high. All the houses were made of baked bricks of uniform size. The Bharata Aryans-the people who inhabited the valley- were not roving pastoral tribes as claimed by some scholars(this applies more rightly to the Dravidian tribes!) but lived in organized society , ruled by kings mentioned by names like Ikshvaaku(RV.10.60.4 cf.Isaac of Genesis:21),Santanu(RV.10.98.1) etc. Kings resided in Purs with a thousand columns(RV.2.41.5,5.62.6) and a thousand doors(RV.7.88.5) and they sat on a throne (garta cf.gardabha for the Christ and in the ass seal for the bhadraasana-garta-royal throne) surrounded with ministers(vesasa),spies(spasa),heralds,courtiers and messengers.(RV.1.25.10,13;,10.123.6). The kings were clad in state robes(RV.9.71.1cf.nirnija Refer the priestkings state robes with circle and trefoil

marks indicating Bharata bhadra pa-trathree leavestrefoil king cf.Semitic melukaah-kingship and the name of Meluhha for Bhaarata.).Kings were autocratic and their anger was dreaded(AV.6.40.2).The stone castles(RV.4.30.20) and stone walls (AV.5.10.7) were not rock but brick as brick(cf.ashthi-rock,asthibone,ishtika-brick,adri-rock,bhadra-rock) is rock[cf. the baked brick is still called cem(red)-kallu(stone) in South India.].The wooden pillars had figures of unrobed girls(RV.4.32.23 cf.the dancing girl and the nude deity inH-3305 indicate the same trend).Ayas(Iron) mentioned in the veda (Aayasiipura RV.7.3.7,7.15.14) refer to copper and gold as born from ayas(fire.cf.bhaarata-

fire).Chariots decked with pearl(krisana RV.1.35.4 cf.

) and

gold(RV.1.66.3) were driven by asvas(RV.4.37.4 asva=bulls ,buffaloes and servants and not the domesticated horses as understood by Dr. Parpola et al. Similarly ushtra of the veda is also the bull and not the camel in some cases.).Kings had several wives(RV.7.18.2,AV.2.36.3 cf.mahishi ). Vadhri(castrated menRV.1.33.6) guarded them (cf. the men with vetra staff- as in

can be such guards also apart from

the indication of Bharata -Brahmins,RiNa- debt,paNa- barter money etc.). Kings had royal priests (RV.7.18.22).Kings were elected by the people(AV.3.4.2 cf.Samiti and Sabha-the vedic royal councils- and the Great Halls of IVC) and consecrated by the priest standing on a tigerskin(AV.4.8.4 cf. the Tiger seals like H-94,M-308 etc. and the limestonemonoliths of Gobekli Tepe-indicate bhadraasana).The king then gave the abhiivarta oblation to the gods(RV.10.174 cf.M-1186).Kings levied heavy tributes(bali AV.3.4.3) from the rich.Kings(maghavaa) were called raajaka, raaja,samraat etc .based on their grade. Names of some of them are Duhsiima

Prithavaana, Raama (cf.M-1186),Vena,Taanva,Paarthya,Maayava etc(RV.10.93.1415). The city was well administered by a class of wealthy merchants and priests(cf bharata=priest,actor;varta-ka trader). There was some kind of municipal organization .It took care of sanitation and regulated trade. It probably collected taxes in the form of grains and also maintained law and order in the city . The bulk of the people were poor and borrowed money and repaid in instalments (RV.8.55.10,8.47.17;AV.6.46.3). Famines were there often(RV.3.8.2;3.53.15 ).

The chief occupation of the people was agriculture(Cf. from Anatolia through Mehergarh till the present it is the same). The 7000 BC site at Mehrgarh, Baluchistan, provides the earliest evidence for wheat and barley-the two main food crops- farming on the Indian subcontinent. Peas and dates were also grown. Sesame and mustard were grown and used for oil.. New study and earlier archaeological data suggest that the Indus civilisation may have picked up rice cultivation from Eastern India/China.

The Indus Valley civilisation had influences from the west and from the east - it was not a one-way west-to-east flow," said Vasant Shinde, an archaeologist with Deccan College, Pune. He said archaeological excavations had pointed to rice cultivation near present-day Gorakhpur in around 7000 BC - the same period of wheat and barley farming in Mehrgarh. Remains of burnt rice from sites in Haryana and Rajasthan, dated to between 4000 BC and 3500 BC, and signs of rice cultivation in the Indus Valley region around 2500 BC suggest an east-to-west flow of rice cultivation.( Calcutta Telegraph April 06,2010,Archeologydaily.com Dec.02,2010 )

74.Filipino scientist discovers rices ancient origins http://archeologydaily.com/news

May, 05 ,2011 GMA News Prof. Michael Purugganan of New York University has co authored a study that indicates that all of the world's domesticated rice varieties may have originated from just a single place in China thousands of years ago.

Did japonica and indica rice share a common origin? Prof. Purugganan's team weighed in favor of a single origin because computer-based genetic analysis showed that the two subspecies are more closely related to each other than they are to any wild rice species in either India or China.

Rice and life of IVC farmers

The people cultivated rice as early as 1800 BC in Lothal. They ploughed the land with a plough(siira RV.10.101.3 cf.rice or laangala AV.2.8.4 , ,. cf.karahand,hala-plough) .The ploughmen were called kiinaasa(RV.8.20.19).The fields were watered by means of irrigation canals(kulya RV.3.45.3; RV.8.49.6 irinaa AV.4.15.12, surmi(sara-jala-water,nii-tolead RV. 8.69.12) from wells or lakes(AV.1.3.7,3.13.9;RV.3.45.3,7.49.2,10.43.7) or by drawing water

using a bucket and pulley (asmacakram RV. sickles(srinii

).They reaped the fields with

AV.3.17.2RV.10.101.3,parsuAV.12.3.310).They left three sheaves for

the Gandharvas who guarded the fields(AV.3.24.6cf.H-182).Threshing floors(khala and winnowing baskets (sthivi

) were used(RV.10.27.15) and grain was transported in

carts to the homes(RV.1.9.8) and stored in granaries(RV.2.14.11 cf..the granary in Mohenjodaro).

The Harappans were the earliest people to grow cotton.

The measure for grain was the khaarii crossed hand,



price,a collection of 20 (fingers+toes=20,vimsahimsasimha-

lion,tigerbhadra-price) pearls having the weight of a DharaNa cf. important profession was cattle- rearing. Cattle were kept in

).Their next


RV.2.23.8),vraja (cf.vrisha

go-tra bha-dra

=elephant,bull,gold,a virgin,a king ) and goshtha(AV.3.11.5,4.21.1) .Cow-herds(gopa) took cows out to pasture daily(RV.10.19.45). Water troughs called prapaa(RV.6.28.7),drona(RV.5.50.4)or prapaana (AV.7.75.1) were provided for them(Note the drona ,prapaa or prapaana before the Unicorns) .Professional milkers were called godhuk.(AV.7.73.6).Draught oxen were castrated with claspers(sleshamaana AV.3.9.2) .

The Indus people had domesticated a number of animals such as cattle,oxen, buffaloes, goats, sheep, pigs, asses,dogs and elephants . The camel was rare and the horse was probably not domesticated (cf.note the glyphs like

).Rams were cooked

(RV .27.17) .Wool was collected (RV.1.126.7). Dogs guarded cattle and houses and barked at thieves (RV.7.55.3 cf.dogs in the Harappan seals. ).

People developed the arts of weaving

carpentry and metal work.

Carpenters made chariots and carts.The wheels were of solid wood (RV.7.32.20).Boats and ships were built(RV.10.101.2 cf the boat amulet


naava-boat and sea travel indicated in RV.7.88.3

).They used equipments like mallets(kuutam AV.8.8.10


AV.18.4.5),cups(upabhrit AV.18.4.5



camasa RV.4.35.2cf.masta-head



cf.pati-lord,bhadra-king,dasa-10 cf.Mal.pattu-10,suula-tola-a weight and vasu-

wealth in glyphs like


svadhiti RV.1.162.10),lances(rishti


),axes(parasu,RV. 7.104.21),quivers(nishanga





RV.7.67.10),ploughshares (sunaaRV.4.57.5),pots(gharmaa RV.5.30.5),goads(ankusa RV.7.17.10),needles(suucii RV.1.191.7),hatchets(kulisa AV.2.12.3),arrows(ishu) winged with feathers(RV.8.66.7) and poisoned tips(AV.4.6),gold ornaments(anji RV.1.37.2),necklaces(nishkaRV.1.126.2 cf.sankha),armlets and anklets(khaadi RV.5.53.4,5.54.11),girdles(kakshyaa RV.10.10.13),chains(srakRV.10.53.9),waterewers(kalasam RV.4.32.19c.sankha),metal bowls(kamsaAV.10.10.5) and golden images of kings(RV.8.5.38 Cf.DK1909) etc.The physicians(bhishaks) employed spells and medications to cure diseases(AV.6.16,RV.10.97.6). A camasa was compared to the skull (AV.10.8.9 .Cf the jar symbol replacing the head

in the script

). Rishis composed hymns and taught boys to learn them by

rote(RV.10.103.5 . The Vedas are called srutis being kritis- written works- of rishis or raajas.cf khaga-the sun.ka(body,head,knot,bird,wealth)


) deha-body




There were male and female dancers(RV.1.130.7,1.92.4 cf. the image of the dancing girl from Mohenjodaro and Bhirrana indicate Bharata and bhadra . One of the meanings of the term Bharata is a dancer itself and bhadra is a girl . Song and dance are indicated in RV.3.53.6 also) , spies(RV.7.87.3),barbers(RV.10.142.4),usurers(RV.8.55.10),tamer of elephants(AV.3.22), soothsayers(AV.6.76.2), fishers(AV.10.4.19), potters(AV.4.17.4), spell makers etc. Indra was the war god and he was propitiated with soma and the fat of buffaloes(asva) and oxen.(RV.6.31.5,10.160.3).War were for capturing cattle and women and to punish cattle raiders.(AV.4.24.5,RV.6.22.3,2.12.3). Battles were fought for seed and offspring ,waters,kine and cornlands(RV.6.25.4),for wives(RV.4.17.16), for pastures and for houses(RV.7.56.22 ).The war of the ten kings was between the bands of the Aryas .(RV.7.84.7).The war drum dundubhii was sounded to mark the beginning of war.(RV.6.47.31) and the end of it.(RV.1.28.5 cf. the drum glyphs ).The defeated enemies were castrated and their genitals

removed(AV.4.37.7),their vitals pierced (AV.5.8.9),arms chopped(AV.6.65.2) and the bodies of the slain were thrown into a pit (vailasthaanam .RV.1.133.1).Thus it can be seen that Harappa reveals the vedic life itself.

The most important tribe of Rigvedic period was the Bharatas, after whom India has been named in the Constitution. The two most important rulers of Bharatas were Divodas(cf.David ) and Sudas(cf.Juda,Jesus,tejus). Sudas is famous for his victory in the Battle of the Ten Kings. The standard unit of value in Vedic period was a cow, but necklets of gold (nishkaneck,ganita-numbers) also served as a means of exchange.cf. seals with special marks on neck of animals. The early Vedic religion has been designated by the name of henotheism or kathenotheism (a belief in single gods, each standing out as the highest). Father Dyaus, the shining god of heaven, and mother Prithvi, the earth goddess, are among the oldest of the vedic deities.

The taxes collected from the people in the later Vedic age were referred to as bali and sulka.

75.Food , clothing and Ornaments

Wheat , barley , rice ,beans and sesamum were the staple food of the people. Besides these, they consumed milk, ghee,meat, fish, fruits,vegetables and dates. Intoxicating drinks produced from the soma(rice) plant and sura from barley were offered to the gods and consumed.

The people ate both animal and vegetable food.Horses(AV.6.71.1), bulls(RV.1.64.43),buffaloes(RV.5.29.7),rams(RV.10.27.17), goats(RV.1.162.3),fish, birds ,milk products and honey were eaten. Men wore two clothes(AV.4.7.6,9.10.7,8.2.16. cf. refer DK1909).The clothes were of cotton or wool(RV.5.44.11.as seen by archaeologists.) .Some shaved their beard.(AV.6.58).The priests shaved their head leaving a tuft worn in a knot(cf.M-1186). The Vasishtas wore this knot on the right(RV.7.33.1.cf.note the tuft of the seven priests attending the sacrifice in M-1186.The unicorn bhadras single horn denotes the tuft of the Bharata also.) and others on the left. The Vasishtas

wore white clothes(cf.the meaning of the name vas-ishtha is similar that of the name Pharaoh-great house.The Egyptian and Christian priests wore white robes) ,but others wore red or blue clothes.(RV.7.33.1). For evidence of woven textiles at Harappa from the Ravi phase ,dating to 3300 B.C.visit

. Cf. Weaving in cotton and wool was done by men and women(RV.2.3.6,10.26.6,1.61.8,10.130.1-2). The warp was called tantu and the woof was called ota and the shuttle was called tasara (RV.6.9.2,10.130.1-2).

The women wore a short skirt. It. was held at the waist with a girdle. They wore necklaces bangles, bracelets, earrings, hairbands and waist bands. These were made of gold , silver, bone, stone, ivory and shell. Men wore a lower garment like a Dhoti. They had an upper garment like a shawl. Some wore turbans and grew beards .Men had also adorned themselves with ornaments like armlets. The rich wore gold and silver jewelry. The poor used shell, copper and silver ornaments. The women combed their hair.

. From Harappa.com

Note the dress pattern of Harappan men with upper and lower garments. Women wore a short skirt ,waistband and ornaments .These are clearly vedic as described above.
Women wore vasas (under garments), nivi (dress worn at the waist) and athivasas (the upper cover.cf.vasana=paNa). Dresses were made up of cotton and wool. . They wore gold ornaments(anji RV.1.37.2),necklaces(nishkaRV.1.126.2),armlets and anklets(khaadi RV.5.53.4,5.54.11),girdles(kakshyaa RV.10.10.13) and chains(srakRV.10.53.9). Chappals made of leather were also used.

76.Worlds oldest Copper Age settlement found at Plocnik

November, 15 2010 From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

Hindustan Times

A sensational discovery of 75century old copper tools(axes,hammers,hooks and needles) forces scientists to reconsider existing theories about where and when man began using metals first.Previously it was believed that the mining, extraction and manipulation of copper began in Asia Minor, spreading from there. Much more has to be learned about the ancient inhabitants, apart from the key question of how man developed his tools. The built fine pieces such as statuettes which show"They had finely combed hair and adorned themselves with necklaces."cf.IVC women statues. Ref. http://www.harappa.com/indus2/110.html One statue of a woman shows her wearing some sort of a mini skirt. Others wore long and broad scarves.

77.Interaction Networks of The Early Harappan Phase.

Trade developed through the exchange of goods or the barter system. External trade with Western Asia and Egypt was carried on. Money,called nishka(cf.golden vessel,gold,4
kalasa-jar,kanaka-hariNa-gold cf.sulka-price or tax,sankha-cowrie and shekelgarta-thronegarja-roarkarsha-ploughing or scratching.Laksha on the gala or neck make nishka.Paana-potpaNa-money,bartermanaa-moneynaanaka-coinnaaNayacoinnayana-eye) was used for trade purposes. Cosmetics, sandalwood and ivory were


the export items.

The vedic people knew of the sea and export trade as given by the words potra ( RV.Dravidian: ota),potavanik(potabanij,potavanij-a voyaging merchant) etc. In the Rig-Veda (I.112.11) the merchant Dirghasravas, Ausis son, is mentioned. Those who desired wealth sent ships to the sea (RV.1.48.3). They had trade links with the ancient Western cultures of Sumer, Akkad, Babylon, Egypt, Assyria and the Persian Gulf region. Harappan seals and other small objects used by the merchants

and traders for stamping their goods have been found in Mesopotamia. The merchandise was shipped from Lothal and incoming goods were received there. It was a vital and thriving trade centre in ancient times, with its trade of beads, gems and valuable ornaments reaching the far corners of West Asia and Africa .References to parties of merchants going on the ocean(RV.1.56.2),ships with a hundred oars(RV.1.116.5) going to distant lands for sale and barter (AV.3.15.4) etc. indicate the existence of foreign trade even with Egypt(cf.RV.6.45.31,32&33 mentions Bribu as a great merchant and note its similarity to Prabhu-lord and Pharaoh-the king of Egypt . Archeologists have discovered mummified bodies of Egyptians and Assyrians at Lothal. Though the people were divided into the four castes there was no restriction with regard to marriage(AV.5.17.8). Professions were also not restricted to castes.(RV.9.112.3).The Brahmanas claimed to be human gods(AV.3.32;6.13.1cf.kohen gadol-high priest- of the Jews and kadavul god -of the Tamils.Potri-hotri-purohitapriestbhuu-sriibhuu-sura=the sun of the earthpuujaari-a priest,one who performs a puuja or sacrifice.).The Rishis were seers who knew the secret names of the gods by which alone they could be coerced (RV.10.45.2;10.55.1 cf.compare this with the same type of belief of the Egyptians) .

The houses of the rich had four walls(AV.3.7.3 cf.

),the poor lived in circular

huts(AV.3.12.5). House hold items included cots(AV.4.5.3cf.see scripts like





6.17),mortars and pestles(AV.10.9.26) ,hanging bracket of ropes(AV.9.3.6) etc as seen in the seals. .Chariots and carts drawn by oxen (Asva-AV.3.2.5)or mules(garddabha or khara AV.8.8.22) were the chief means of transport.

The chief amusement of the nobles was chariot racing(RV.9.32.5;8.69.4) .Hunting was a major activity though agriculture was the main occupation.They hunted wild elephants(RV.10.40.4), boars(RV.1.88.5), lions(RV.5.74.1) and wild bulls(RV.4.21.8). Gambling was another area of interest.(RV.2.12.4).Gambling houses were maintained where meat and liquor were served(AV.6.70.1). They knew playing the veena. Horse(bull) racing, dicing, music and dance were their favorite pastimes.

The land was measured (RV.2.15.3)with measuriung rods(RV.3.38.3) and classified as barren(AV.7.115.4),waste(AV.7.117.1),forest(AV.12.1.11) and cultivated land(RV.8.80.6).Property was inherited. In the Rig-Veda (I.112.13) a person called Mandhatar is the owner of vast territories.

The people were very hospitable to their srotriya Braahmana guests(RV.1.128.6,AV.9.6.37) who were treated like gods(cf.gadol-kadavul.) An unmarried girl was considered as the bride of yama(cf.kanaa-kaama-yama AV.1.14.2.cf.seals where bulls mate with women.Sayana-sex is samaya-time and sa(saha-with)-yama.Maya or haya is a bull or horse.Maya is Yama-dva-two and saya-sex. He is god of time.Vadhu-wife is dva-two , vasu-gold,money and pasu-cow. A vadhu bears the yama-dva-two-bindu on her forehead.).The new born baby was washed (AV.2.10) which became the rite of baptism later.Amulets were worn to avert the evil eye(AV.4.9.6) and to ward off illness.A most powerful amulet was the trivrita

(AV.5.28 cf.trivrita is srii vrisha or Indra

).The soma oblation was often

associated with animal sacrifice(RV.5.43.7).At the time of oblations the gods were invoked by their secret names.(RV.9.95.2 cf.to maintain the secrecy the names were written in secret codes as mantras and muttered). Vishtarii offering is extolled in AV.4.34 .Pious people performed the sataudaanam where a hundred(satam)- pots of boiled rice(saadam) were given away(AV.9.9). Sacrifices were given on New Moon and Full Moon days.(AV.7.79,80,81).Fire sacrifices extending for nine and ten months(RV.5.45.7,11) and year long(RV.7.103.8) were there.The soma

might have been the body( tanu,somos) , water(su-ma),blood(soNa) ,alcohol(madhu), fire(soNa), sound(svana) ,rice(suuna),the sun(suura),the moon(somabull),gold(svarna),the sacrifice(homa),smoke(dhuuma),intoxicants like areca(kramuka= kara- moha causing delusion),ephedra(haoma=moha-delusion) etc. Seven adhvaryus(cf.sapta svara-seven notes .Soma- svana-svara-sabda-sound is saptaseven.Adhvaryu is svara.) sprinkled it with water(RV.9.10.7 Cf.M-1186.).The meat(maamsa) of the sacrificial victim was cooked and offered to the gods and eaten by the worshippers.(RV.,12cf.the eucharist).The asvamedha(avasa-medha = meat juice of the king;avasa mesha = the Aries Sun) denotes the sacrifice of the buffaloe(asva) or the king(avasa .RV.1.162.11-19).It was believed that the sacrificial victim did not die but went to the gods(RV.1.162.21,AV.9.5.8). It is said that Sunsepa(sun-deva) was tied to the sacrificial stake for being sascrificed but escaped by composing hymns to Varuna and other gods.(RV.1.24-30). The year was divided into twelve months and occasionally an intercalary month was added to make the year agree with the seasons.A month had thirty days and the year had

360 days. The day was divided into 30 parts and the night into thirty parts.(RV.6.59.6) or four yaamams(AV.6.21.2).The year was also divided into three seasons of four months and six seasons of two months each.(AV.6.55.2).The 28 lunar mansions beginning with Krittika and including Abhijit are named in AV.19.7 and Taittiriya samhita 4.4.10. Upon death the fire worshippers were cremated but others were buried.(AV.28.2.34). Before cremation a Brahmins staff or the Kshatriyas bow were taken away from their hands(AV.18.2.59,60 cf.the scripts with.staff and bow and arrow as in
, ).The dead

mans wife had to lie down by the side of the

husband on the pyre(RV.10.18.7 cf. In the asvamedha the queen performs sex acts with the carcass of the sacrificial victim to give him svarga-heaven by surata-sex.. Udayasunrise is u-sayasex.) but was then accepted by the deadmans brother as his wife and taken back home.(AV.18.3.3).A goat was killed and placed on the pyre and burnt along with the dead man to send him to heaven.(AV.18.2.4,8cf.the goat in M-1186).After the cremation everybody took a bath to remove pollution by the fire of cremation and the auspicious sacrificial fire tiger(jaatavedasCf.H-94) was invoked to bring long life to the survivors. With the fall of the IVC culture the Vedic Indra culture began to fade and the the Krishna(Sargon) culture rose in its place.The Indra Krishna conflicts(RV.8.85.16) has its counterpart in history as Bhaarata (Indus valley) was taken over by Sargon but later the Bharats defeated his descendants to reclaim sovereignty.But again the strength of the migrants increased due to the severe droughts around 2000 B.C. leading to the final downfall of the cities.

78. Rig Vedic Society

Based on kinship, the early Aryan society was essentially tribal and egalitarian. People owed their primary loyalty to their tribe, which was called Jana. The family was essentially patriarchal and birth of sons was desired. The family was a large unit, indicated by a common word for son, grandson, nephew and one word for paternal and maternal grandfather.

Administrative Officers
Potri(Purohita) Chief priest Senanii The leader of the army. Vrajapati Officer who enjoyed authority over pasture ground. Kulapati,kulapaa Heads of families led by Vrajapati. Gramanii Head of fighting hordes under Vrajapati. There was no officer for tax collection, nor we do hear of any officer for administering justice. Spies (Spasa) were employed to watch over anti-social activities like theft and burglary. The chief received from people voluntary offering called Bali.

Metals Known
Gold Hiranya,dravya,bhadra,ashtapada Copper- paNa,rakta,arka Bronze- kamsa

The Cow
The cow(go-cow,ku-earth,bhuu-earth) seems to be the most important form of wealth. Primarily a military leader, the King fought for cows(go-ku-bhuu). A kings cow is his territory or kingdom.Go-paala(cowherd) is bhuupaala(king). A term for war in the Rig Veda is Gavishti or search for cows(ku-bhuu-earth). Duhitri is a word for daughter(putri-daughter), which literally means one who milks cows. The term Aghanya(agni-king,fire) or not to be killed has been used for cow. This indicates the cows economic importance. Guests were called Goghana, which indicates that beef was offered to them. Gifts made to priests usually consisted of cows(cow and land) and women slaves. Trade existed as barter and the value of goods was calculated at so many cows. Golden ornaments were beginning to be used. Gold smiths are spoken of and Usurers are mentioned.The Babylonian minaa of gold sems to have been called maanaa in Sanskrit

Social Divisions
In the Rigvedic India, there was no prevalent consciousness of caste, nor were the professions hereditary. The word Varna is used in the Rig Veda with reference to the Aryan or Dasa having fair or dark complexionand not with reference to the Brahmana or Rajanya (Kshatriya).

The quadruple division of society made its formal appearance only at one place in the tenth Mandala of Rig Veda (Purushasukta hymn). The term Suudra is mentioned for the first time in the Tenth Mandala of Rig Veda. The Ashrama system had not developed fully till the Later Vedic Period.

Rig Vedic Polity

The Early Vedic period is known from the Rig(gira-speech,guru-great,teacher,raaja-king) period. The chief was the protector of the tribe or Jana(people). However, he did not possess unlimited powers for he had to reckon with the tribal assemblies known as Sabhaa, Samiti, Vidatha and Gana . Of these, Vidatha was the oldest. These assemblies exercised deliberative, military and religious functions.The two most important Assemblies were the Sabha and Samiti. Samiti was general in nature and less exclusive than Sabhaa. Women attended Sabhaa and Vidatha in Rigvedic times. There were a few non-monarchical states {ganas), which are described whose head was Ganapati( cf.Ganesha=king=unicorn) or Jyestha. During this period, the kingdom was tribal in character. Each tribe formed a separate kingdom.

The basic unit of the political organization was the family (kula was the head of the family. He was called Grahapati

). Father

A number of families formed a Village (graama

). Its head was the

Graamani. A group of villages constituted a large unit called clan (vis ). The head of a vis was called vispati(cf.pasupati,gopaala etc.Pasu or go -the cow is ku- bhuu-the earth also.cf.Sumer.ki,gi-earth). There were three social groups. The first group or the ruling class lived in the citadel. It comprised of wealthy merchants and the high priests(.cf. the Bhattatiris and Nambootiris of Kerala. The Harappan priest king has a bhatta-bhadra-circle on his forehead to indicate the bhattatiri or bhadra-raaja or king of kings.) .The second group consisted of petty merchants, artisans and craftsmen. The labourers belonged to the third group and lived in small huts. The first two groups led a prosperous life in food habits, dress and amusements. They were addicted to intoxicating drinks, of which they had at least two - soma and sura. Soma was drunk at sacrifices (cf.the eucharist of the Christians) and its use was

sanctified by religion. Sura was purely secular and more potent . The Aryans loved music, and played the

flute, lute and harp

, People

to the accompaniment of cymbal and drums.

also de- lighted in gambling. They enjoyed chariot races.

In the early vedic period the river Ravi was known as Parushni, Jhelum as Vitasta, Chenab as Asikni, Beas as Vipas and Sutlej as Sutudri. The Purus and the Tritsus were two of the most famous Rig-Vedic clans. The names of their prominent rulers are recorded in the Rik-Samhita. Village administration was looked after by the village councils. Taxes like bali, Sulka and Bhaga were collected from the people. The revenue was spent for the benefit of the subjects . Several clans formed the tribe (Jana ) . The raashtra (polity) was governed by

a raajan (chieftain, 'king' , ,. cf. Indra-netra-raajan- a Vedic king. Raagni,sa-like,god,snake ; ja-born.Hence king is ra agni-fire or the sun and he is born from agni.The unicorn and zebu bulls were his emblem from uni=agni=ra and bhadrapatrasa,na whence nri,sri,raaja is indicated.This shows the close relation of the Indus language to Egyptian as Ra is the Sun god and sathe snake is the mudra-symbol of the Pharaoh(raaja-raaga-naaga)..This also shows that the unicorn is the bhadra(raaja)-naaga-elephant as seen from the seals..The uni-horn is the trunk-kara(trunk,tax) whence we have the Sa with kara Sakra-Indra,Sagara(cf.Sargon),cakra-wheel-circle=king,karsha-unit of money,vrisha-bull,Indra ,vritta-circle cf.circle on the forehead of the priestking etc. in it. He protected his people from enemies(traatri-Bhaga,Savitra,Indra). He was assisted by the purohita or priest, the senani or commandant, and the courts vidhata or sabhaa and the samiti in administration.The large halls of the cities were used for the meetings of the sabhaa and the samitis. Kings(raajanRV.8.21.8) were given titles like Ekaraaj RV.8.37.3;AV.3.4.1 SamraatRV.6.27.8, Ekacakra RV.1.164.2;AV.9.9.2&10.8.7 ,ViraajRV,AV etc. Satapatha Brahmana (V.1.1.12-13), says: 'By offering the Raajasuya he becomes Raaja and by the Vaajapeya he becomes Samraat, and the office of the Raajan is lower and that of the Samraaj, the higher . The king is often referred to as go-pa (protector) as the main duty of the king was to protect the tribe . He governed the people with their consent and approval. He was elected from a restricted class of 'royals' (rajanya). Gana was the non-monarchial assembly that is a parallel one to the monarchial

assemblies of that period. The Sabhaa, situated outside of settlement, was restricted to the Vratyas, bands of Brahmins and Kshatriyas. Soldiers on foot (pattis) and on chariots (rathins), armed with bow and arrow, were common. The king employed spa (spies) and dutas (messengers) also. In the Vedic period ,initially the king's power was not well established and taxation seems to have been occasional and voluntary. The term bali,(cf.paNa-money,bullabill,paaNa-hand .Kara-hand is also tax.Matsa fish is fist or hasta-hand and indicate daana donation or gift.) originally used to denote voluntary offerings made to gods for securing their favour, later came to be applied to the presents and taxes offered to the king . In the later Vedic period, the nature of taxation changed whence the king was described as the 'eater of his subjects', (cf.fish eating alligator) .


If we compare this with the scenario in nearby Assur ,the picure is almost the same .Like many commercial city-states in history, Assur was to a great extent an oligarchy rather than a monarchy. Authority was considered to lie with "the City", and the polity had three main centres of power an assembly of elders(cf.the sabha and samiti of Harappa), a hereditary ruler(the king), and an eponym.

During the third millennium BCE, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian (and vice versa) is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence. This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the third millennium as a

sprachbund .The language of the Rigveda reveals a similar trend of sprachbund culture with the imperial(cf.Meluhha-melukaah-kingship) Bharatas extending their contacts not only with Sumer ,Akkadia,Assyria, Dilmun , Egypt , etc.but probably also with China(cf.the spread of rice farming in the IVC from China and the spread of the use of cowries as money to China from IVC).

From the Sumerian sun ( sam-sum) and Bharata suurya(the sun) and tulya (equal) we
have the sama-sama (equal) varta(barter )sign which is a

paana(pot)paNa(money,praise,price)naava(praise,boat) naaka(snake,elephant,king ,arrow



scale,netra-naaga-king,svarna-goldDharma-maatra-measure,kings measure, Dharma Raajaa king,svarna maasha- gold measure etc.)

Also note, praise prize pricepurchasevrisha(bull;vrishabhanrisabhakings council) bhadra(bull,king) patra(writ,veda) varta(bartertrade) Bharata(the Harappan people who were kings of trade in the ancient world) .

80.Economic Life Of The Vedic Harappans

The Rig Vedic Harappans were farmers, weavers, potters, metal workers, toy makers, jewellers, stone cutters and traders .Agriculture was the most important occupation and the economy was essentially an agricultural one. They introduced the use of

plough drawn by oxen and buffaloes. The ploughed land was called urvara
tri gaja-elephant gaja-sriigaayatrivrikshatreedrutrayathree.Hence vriksha-prakaasalightcandra,vritravrishaIndra,Rudra as the tree god;kshatra,garta,hartra-king,who levies

or kshe-tra(

).The main source of irrigation was rain. The land was also irrigated by wells and small canals. In the fertile soils, farmers cultivated two crops a year. Like the Chinese they also cultivated paddy . Animal rearing was the second important occupation of the Harappan Aryans. Cows and bullocks constituted the chief form of wealth. The cow was considered a sacred animal and was called aghnya (not to be killed). Animals were used to carry goods .

The carpenters were an important class in the Rig Vedic society. Other important craftsmen were barbers, tailors, leather-workers, smiths, gold smiths; potters etc.

Various types of pottery were made: (a) Black and Red ware (b) Black Slipped ware Plain Grey ware (d) Red ware Red ware was the most popular. However, the most distinctive type of pottery was the Painted Grey Ware.

Trade and commerce also flourished in those days. Most of the trade in Rig Vedic days was in the hands of the Panis.(cf.paN=to barter whence paNi- a trader;paNamoney,agreement;paaNi-hand;vaaNi-word;paana,nipa=pot;vaNik-trader; bharana-rule cf.merchant kings like Diirghasravas,Bribu etc. in the RV;pa-to rule,nii-to lead) .Trade was carried both by land and sea. Majority of the trade was carried on with the help of the barter system and the cow (uksha-vaaha- bull, ukha-pot, gava -go-cow;paanapot,paNa-paNi ) was a standard unit of exchange. Later on coins(cakra-sulka) of gold and silver called nishka(

cf.nahusha with phana or suvarna

sunaka-dog etc.),

shatamana , rajata(cf.Raaja-sa king like,of the king,dasra-ass), raupya etc. were used as currencies.
muushika-mouse,mushka-male organ,

They were skilled in the use of the potters wheel.The Harappan pottery was decorated with geometrical patterns like circles, squares, triangles etc. and figures of birds, snakes , fish,plants, trees , pipal leaves etc. which indicate rebus terms of the names of the vessels,the measurements of their volumes,the names of their owners etc.For example paatra(pottery) is pa(water,leaf),bha(star)-sara ( water,arrow,grass);patra is a leaf or bird; bhadra is auspiciousness,king ,a dancing girl or a bull;drava is fish or water; saraava is a measure ; paana(pot) is paaNa(hand),baaNa(arrow),paNa(money,barter) etc.Hence these marks appear in the seals frequently. The Harappans produced and traded in gold, silver, tin, bronze, copper, cotton cloth, wheat, peas, cattle, goats and ceramic objects such as roof tiles, jars and bricks. The bricks used to build at the Indus cities were all uniform in size. A standard brick size was developed and used throughout the Indus cities.

82.Religious Life
Another point that might indicate the vedic culture of the Harappans is the discovery of fire altars at several Indus sites. Fire rituals and sacrifices were an important part of Vedic religious practices. But what was significant about these altars, is that they were aligned and constructed in the same manner as altars of later origin. The fire altars were thus Vedic in construction indicating that the Harappan's were the Vedic people.

The Ficus tree(vana-tree;paNa-Vishnu;van,pan,nava,nu-to praise;patraasanabhadraasana) was used as a religious symbol. They worshipped Agni(Fire-the priest),Vaayu(wind),Suurya(the sun),Indra(the king),Rudra&Soma(sacrificial deities),Varuna(the god of Death,maraNa-death), and Mother Goddesses(Devi,Sarasvati,Gaayatri,Usha, Bhadra,Durga,Laxmi etc). There are no temple structures among the remains as the vedic deities were natural forces as svara(sound)manifestations of the supreme god(cf. He alone is

Agni, Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Garuda, Yama, Vaayu, Vishnu, Aryama, Amsa or Hamsa, Vaisvaanara, Brahma and RudraRV.1.164.46,2.1.3-7) -the Sun
( svar or suurya or ra-vi) itself. The mode of prayer was recitation of mantras. Sacrifice was offered to win praja (children), pasu (cattle) and dhana (wealth) .

The Indus people believed in life after death. They buried their dead in huge earthen pots along with food , ornaments and the articles used by them in their daily life (cf.the burial of the Egyptian Pharaohs in the same way).

83.Rigvedic Gods
Indra About 250 hymns are attributed to Indra. He was the Aryan warlord( Purandhara or destroyer of forts;Surendra-king of the gods) and he controlled the weather. He was the proverbial Rain God (parjanya,rains are the rays),responsible for causing rainfall. He was associated with thunder and storm and bore the thunderbolt (Vajra), with which he destroyed his enemies. He has been addressed by various names Ratheshtha, Jitendra, Somapa, Purandhara, Vritrahan and Maghavan. VaruNa VaruNa va,pa-water,ruler,tiger,leaf;Rina-credit,nri-king He was the upholder of Rta or cosmic order and whatever happened in the world was thought to be a reflection of his desire. As an administrator of the cosmic law (Rta), he regulated all activities in the world. It is he who has spread out the earth and set the sun in motion. He is therefore called the world sovereign(Varunanri-pa=king) and is also regarded as the ruler of human morality.

His worship gives the earliest signs of Bhakti. In every hymn for Varuna(va-Runa parna-leafbharaNa-rulepa-Rina panrimri-namaraNa-death.Hence he is the god of death) there is an appeal for forgiveness.

Agni About 200 hymns of the Rig Veda are attributed to Agni. He was the intermediary between Gods and men. He consumed the sacrificial offerings and carried them to the Gods. He dwelt in heaven in the form of lightning and the sun. He dwelt in the domestic hearth. Yama He is the the guardian of the world of dead. Soma The God of plants. An intoxicant drink was also named Soma. The Soma sacrifice was an important Vedic ritual(cf.the Eucharist). He is the special God of Brahamans, who referred to him as their patron deity.

Other Gods
Vaayu Wind God Dyaus Father of Heaven Maruts Storm spirits Gandharvas Divine musicians Asvins Healers of diseases and experts in surgical art Ribhus Gnomes Apsaras Mistresses of Gods. Rudra An archer God, whose wrath brought diseases

Chief Priests
The chief priests who were engaged in performing the sacrifices were a. the Hotri - the invoker, he recited hymns from the Rigveda. b. the Adhvaryu - the executor, he recited hymns from the Yajurveda. c. the Udgaatri - the singer, he recited hymns from the Saamaveda.

A Vedic (srauta) yaja is typically performed by the adhvaryu priest, with a number of additional priests such as the hotar and udgatar playing a major role, next to their dozen helpers, by reciting or singing Vedic verses. Usually, there will be one or three fires(cf.bhadraasanagartahearth ) in the centre of the offering ground and items are offered into the fire. Among the items offered as oblations in the yaja include large quantities of ghee, milk, grains, cakes, soma etc. The Nambuutiri Brahmins of Kerala are among the most famous Srauta Brahmins who maintain these ancient Harappan rituals even today .

84. Woman worship is vedic

There exists a misguiding propaganda that mother worship is Dravidian and the Aryans did not honour women .The Harappans worshipped women deities and hence the culture is Dravidian .Look into the real facts.Devi(Ravi-the sun),Amman(anna-the sun),Kula daivam (sura-devathe sun) ,Mala(bhara-fire,hara-fire)deivam(deva) , Muruka(Surya-the sun cf. Durga) ,Maari(Srii-the sun,Hari-the sun,Indra,Vishnu) are all various forms of the same vedic sun god and are not separate Dravidian deities.

Position of Women
Women held respectable position in the early Vedic society. They could attend tribal assemblies and they participated in public meetings.They took part in sacrifices alongwith their husbands. Hence it is said from olden times that the matron goes to feast and general sacrifice(RV.10.86.10). There are no examples of child marriage and the marriageable age for girls was 16 to 17 years. We also get evidence of widow remarriage and practice of Niyoga (levirate) in which a childless widow would co-habit with her brother-in-law until the birth of a son. (cf.the story of Judahs daughter in- law widow Tamar and her brother in-law Onan in Genesis.38.This shows the common cultural traits of the period.) Monogamy was the established practice. However, polygamy and polyandry were also known.Women rishis(seers) were there like Visvaaraa(RV.5.28), Ghoshaa(RV.10.39.6) etc. The 126th hymn of the first book of the Rig-Veda was revealed by a woman whose name was Romasha; the 179th hymn of the same book was by Lopamudra, another woman seer. There are other women seers of the Vedic wisdom like Shashvati, Gargi, Maitreyi, Apala, Aditi , etc.

Among the many societies that can be found in the world, the Vedic culture regarded women with great veneration .Goddesses like Lakshmi (the goddess of fortune and queen of Lord Vishnu), Sarasvati ( The River deity and the goddess of learning), Subhadra (Krishnas sister and auspiciousness personified), Durga (the goddess of strength and power), Kaali (the power of time), and other Vedic goddesses like Ushas (Goddess of dawn),

Gaayatri,Savitri, Prithivi (Earth Goddess) Aditi (Mother of Gods and the sun) Aryani (Forest Goddess) etc. manifest divine attributes. Divine power in the form of Sakti is also considered feminine. . Furthermore, in the Vedas, when a woman is invited into the family through marriage, she enters as a river enters the sea and to rule there along with her husband, as a queen, over the other members of the family. (Atharva-Veda 14.1.43-44) This kind of equality is rarely found in any other religious scripture. Plus, a woman who is devoted to God is more highly regarded than a man who has no such devotion, as found in the Rig-Veda: Yea, many a woman is more firm and better than the man who turns away from Gods, and offers not. (RigVeda, 5.61.6) Women must be honored and adorned by their fathers, brothers, husbands, and brothers-in-law, who desire their own welfare. Where women are honored, there the gods are pleased; but where they are not honored, no sacred rite yields rewards.. Hence men who seek (their own) welfare, should always honor women on holidays and festivals with (gifts of) ornaments, clothes and (dainty) food. (Manu Smriti III.55-59) In ancient India the Sanskrit words used by the husband for the wife were Pat-ni (the one who leads the husband through life), Dharmapatni (the one who guides the husband in dharma) and Sahadharmacarini (one who moves with the husband in the path of dharma--righteousness and duty). This is how ancient Vedic culture regarded women.

Examples of Great Women in Vedic Culture

Some of the women that have helped make great strides in establishing the foundation of Sanatana-dharma and Vedic culture include such women as Sati, Siita, Anasuuya, Arundhati, Draupadi, Kunti, Gandhaari,Shakuntala, Maitreyi, Gargi, Madalasa, Savitri, Ahalya, and others

Madalasa was the daughter of Vishvasu, the Gandharva king.

Sati. Sati was the daughter of Prajapati Daksha, who was one of the sons of Brahma.From the Puranas we learn how Sati would not tolerate the dishonor of her husband Lord Shiva.

Anasuuya was a woman who could bring back the life of a dead sage due to the power of her own austerity and devotion to her husband.

Siita was the daughter of King Janaka, ruler of Mithila. As related in the Ramayana, Lord Rama won Sitas hand in marriage. Draupadi was the daughter of Drupada who was the king of Panchala. Maitreyi was the wife of the great sage Yajnavalkya. His second wife was Katyayani. Gargi was the daughter of Vashaknu, and was also called Vachakni. But because she was born in the line of the Garga Gotra or family line, she was also called Gargi, a name by which she became well known.

Savitri was the only child of a king named Ashwapati, the king of Madra-desha, as explained in the Mahabharata and Matsya Purana.

Visvavara , Ghosha , women seers of Rig-Vedic times.

and Ap-ala


some leading

Hence the contention that mothergod woship is non vedic is not true.

85.A civilisation as old as Indus valley?

May, 26 2011 From http://www.archaeologydaily.com/news

Daily News and Analysis Discoveries along the Konkan coast line from Shrivardhan in Raigad to Vengurla in Sindhudurg point to human habitation and a unique Konkan culture with well developed engineering skills in existence 8000 years ago. In what could turn out to be a major discovery,researchers have found a wall-like structure, which is 24km long, 2.7m in height, and around 2.5m in width. The structure shows uniformity in construction. . Will this explain the link of the Keralites with the Harappans?. The appearance of Harappan like scripts in the Edakkal caves etc. also Indicate an extension of the Harappan/Bharata culture through the western coast as indicated earlier making the Nambootiris of Kerala the legitimate descendants of the Bharats.

86. The various sacred Agnis


From Wikipedia,the free encyclopedia.

The Aupasana Agni lit at the time of the grooms wedding is then divided into two(cf. ) in a sacrifice called Agnyadhana. One part becomes the Grhyaagni, the other becomes the Srautaagni. These two fires are to be preserved throughout the individual's life. The son's fire is lit from the father's fire at the time of his wedding . At the time of the individuals demise, cremation is done with the fires that have been preserved during his lifetime and then the deceased individual's fires are extinguished. The Grhyaagni or Aupasanaagni is used in the Paaka (fire,bhaga-the sun,vaaha-hand,bull )Yajnas; such rituals are described in the Grhyasutras, such as in the Ekaagni Kanda of the Apastambha Sutra. Normally this fire is located in the centre or north of the hall which accommodates the sacred fires. This fire may be circular or square . The rituals pertaining to the three Srautagnis are described in the Shrauta Sutras. Their performers are called Srautin. Fourteen of the 21 compulsory sacrifices are performed in the Srautagnis. They are called Garhapatya, Ahavaniya and Dakshinagni and collectively called the tretagni(


Garhapatya is circular( ) in shape and is situated in the west of the offering ground. Fire is taken from the Garhapatya and kindled in the remaining two fires.

The Dakshinagni is semi-circular( ), situated in the south and used for certain rituals, mainly for offerings to the forefathers. The Aahavaniya is square( ), situated in the east, and is used as the main offering fire of most Srauta sacrifices. The last three haviryajas and all the seven somayajas are performed in a specially built yajasaala.

87.Important Rituals
Raajasuuya: The Kings influence was strengthened by rituals. He performed this sacrifice, which was supposed to confer supreme power on him. Asvamedha: A King performed the Asvamedha(usha-dawn,mesha-Aries), which meant unquestioned control over the area in which the royal bull(horse) ran uninterrupted. The ceremony lasted for 3 days(cf.raa-tri night or three nights and the resurrection of the sun at dawn. At the equinox it is Easter.) at the end of which the horse sacrifice was performed(asvaavasa-the king or sun,usha-dawn). Vaajapeya: A King performed the Vaajapeya or the chariot race, in which the royal chariot was made to win the race against his kinsmen (cf.the Egyptian Sed festival). The ritual lasted for 17 days and was believed not only to restore the strength of the middle-aged king but also to elevate him from the position of Raaja to that of Samraat.The link of the Bharats to the Pharaohs and the Anatolian Aryans is seen in such customs also. Location of the mummified body of an Egyptian at IVC further confirms this link.

Pancha Mahayajnas
Hindu tradition has the Pancha Mahayajnas ("Five Great Yajnas", Taittiriya Aranyaka 2.10 cf. panca-fivepacana-firevasna-moneysavanasacrificeyajna-sacrificeagna=fire .Also


in H-182 ) namely:

Bhadra(hail!),paNa(barter,price,paraise,money,gambling) aa(raa,naa,10) sana(paNa,ka,sa,va) Bhadra naaga (aasana,paana,paasa,raaga,raaja,gaja,maasha,laabha,vaaha)svasti(svastika-bhadraasana) .Bhadra naaga or gaja bhadra is the unicorn(the hand) or kreNa(purchase,hariNa-gold,varaaNa-Indra,varaakaSiva,Varaa-Parvati).Svastika is a royal mansion. Aasana is shown by the four feet attached to the bhadra as in
, etc.It is the aasana( hooves) of the

is panca(simha cf.Leo,the 5th sign of the zodiac).Bhadraasana being garta(karsha,rakta,gunja) it indicate maasha=5 krishnala-gunja=1/10 suvaarNa

Hence the five bhadraasanas are shown to indicate 5 gold maasha of the Bharata king.Bhadra raaga is the Red bull.Bhadraasana panca(5,PaNasabarter,vanda praise,bandha-agreement,savana-sacrifice).

Bhadra(king,gold;varsha-place,year cf.Bhaarata varsha;vrajastation of herdsmen,cowpen-it is bhadraasana-house of the bull RV.5.6.7;sravaear,rice) patra(writ,wing,leaf)vasna(price) panca(five) paNa(Vishnu,money,price) vasna(price,house) vana(tree,house,water) Svasti(su good,asti- happen,being) indicate benediction,success,prosperity,salutation(hail!,may it be well with thee,audieu!,health!,so be it! etc.) or of sanction or approbation etc. It is a symbol of blessing(cf.the Christian pontiffs and priests use this to date ! ) , thanksgiving , welcome and farewell.

Svasti(su-asti praise cf.svastika)

paNa(Vishnu,praise,house,money) , , Tvashta(the sun cf.astahouse,ashta-eight) vasati(house) ushas(dawn-the house of the sun god ) . Ashta(8 ) shat(6) Note the paNa(house) and shat(six) symbols attached to the maana paNa. Maana(house) paNa(house)maapaNa(scale)maanava(man)miina(fish)matsa(fish)sadma(house)sadana(house)satra(house)masta (since the circle of the fish being pa,ma,na,ra ) masta(head) hasta(hand) Fish is water(ma,pa,ha) seated( sta) . PaNa(money,pawn,house,Vishnu-the sun ;SaPa-snake,leaf,god,king) maana(measure,house) maanya(money)naanya(money)naanaka(money)naaga(elephant,ram,sna ke),naaka(arrow)kanaa(a virgin) ganana(counting) Maana(house,measure) paNa(house,money,pawn)maashasvastika(house)vasati(house)

Bhadraasana bhavana(paNa-house,cf pavana-wind) paNa suvarNa(gold)suparNa(Garudagarta-throne) svarNa(gold) The paNa is the weight of one karsha of gold and to this date gold is weighed in pavans and the gold paNa was used as the pawn for goods bought or sold(panabuy or sell or barter).

The cross(Lat.crus,crux garta) bhadra(auspiciousness) svasti dvi-hasta(two crossed hands placed on the chest=dasa=10)su(dvi)-astahouse,ashta-8(2+8=10 )
(cf .Apaada

aleph=bull bhadra-gold),

ashtapada(bhadra-gold) bhadraasana. Svastika(a kind of bard who utters words of welcome or eulogy c.f lamaassu);an aasana like the bhadraasana-svastikaasana-it is the symbol of the unicorn and other bull-bird-bard-word motifs;the bhadra(cross,circle) is bhadra-bull,circle/patra-writ,leaf,wing; the symbol of the crossed legs in sexual union(cf.pranava-AUMpranaya-love making),the meeting of four roads ( pravaNa,catvara etc.The cross is also formed by crossing the arms on the breast);it is one of the auspicious marks of the Jainas;phaNa(hood,paNa) of a serpent,a mansion or temple with four wings etc. Svasti(hail!) sreni(series, guild of artisans or traders;netra-king;caraNa-hind leg;srii-prosperity,nii-to lead) kanaa(a virgin)-sa(iisa-god) bhadra(a virgin,king,auspiciousness,Siva) Ganesa(kalasa-pot,kalana-ganana-calculation)-bhadra(siva-subhaauspicious)-sreni-bhadraasana(throne,king)
Vanakkam(hail) va(hand,bull,tiger,auspiciousness)naaga(goat,bull,elephant),kanaa(woman). Bhadra vaasa=svastika or bhadra vaa ca (auspicious word) svastika sreni or bhadra paada (holy feet) svasti ,Bharadvaaja svasti etc.

88. Weights and measures

Harappans used weights and measures for commercial as well as building purposes. Weights and measures were graded to a very high degree of accuracy. Standard weights were used throughout the region. Numerous articles used as weights have been discovered. The weights proceeded in a series, first doubling from 1, 2, 4, 8 to 64 and then in decimal multiples of 16(cf.shodasaSudaasasu-raajadasa - ten) to indicate royal approval.. Several sticks graduated with measuring marks have been discovered. The Harappans were inventors of the linear system of measurement with a unit equal to one angula (inch) of the Arthasastra.Some of the weights are so tiny that they could have been used by jewellers to measure precious metals.


Weights, Harappa. www.Harappa.com

Cubical weights in graduated sizes. These weights conform to the standard

Harappan binary weight system that was used in all of the settlements. The smallest weight in this series is 0.856 grams(maashamaanamaatrameasure) and the most common weight is approximately 13.7 grams(karsha), which is in the 16th ratio(cf.karsha=16 maasha from the garta and bhadraasana).The 12 maasha(10.272grams) karsha is the shekel of the Bible. In the large weights the system shows a decimal increase (dasa-ten,raaja-king) where the largest weight is 100 times the weight of the 16th ratio in the binary system. These weights were used for controlling trade and for collecting taxes and donations. The Rigvedic names of kings(bhadra,Bharata,Bhaarata cf.varshaplace,varta-barter,vrisha-bull) like Sasa(dasa=ten), Divodaasa(dvaadasa=12,dvi-dasa=20) , Sudaasa(shodasa=16) , indicate varta(barter) counts also.cf. Exodus 30:13, "shekel by the sanctuary weight [ha-kodesh]"; and in II Samuel 14:26, "shekels by the king's stone [b'even ha-melech]," that is, shekels stamped

by the royal treasury as proof that they are perfect. Cf.karsha( garta-throne, cakra-wheel ,garddabha-ass) paNa : Karsha raksha(traaNa-protection) raaja-kingbali-sacrificepaaNihandpaNa(praise,price)

Karsha ( bhadra-aksha ) =16 maasha( paana-baaNa-paNa)=80 Rettis=1/4 pala(hala,phala,vana,pada paNa-pala)=1/400 of a Tulaa

, , ,


, bhadra-suula-suura-baaNa-

=about 176 grains troy

In common use 8 Rettis are given to the Maasha , , , and then the Karsha is about 280 grains troy . Maasha is mesha(ram),naasa(nose cf.nose money of the Chinese),paada(foot,1/4), maasa(moon),maata(mother),maatanga(elephant),maatha(7 retti), maatra(measure),naada(sound),raaja(king),vaaja(food,arrow,sacrifice) etc.Ashtapada(gold) is 8 retti of gold. Some of the scripts may be number figures .Thus man six( the basis of the Sumerian countingmaana-vamaapa-nascale and probably sixty with the cipher of the head);the jar = aya=4 or naaga-8 hand=matsa-fish,ashta-eight); hill =7 etc.;
or fish

five or eight(hasta-

elephant,snake(ashtanaaga=8, gold -ashtavasu), dasa -ten, wheel=16,60 etc, teeth=32,etc.

cross catura,catushtaya= 4 or

The count is given by either the number of marks(anka-mark, naaga-elephant,agna-eka1,gana-group,gala-neck,kala-mark,count,laksha-mark,nishka-money,sankhacowrie,sankhya-number) or by the first letter of the words forming the script or by the homophones of the words themselves.

89.The number of letters in the Harappan Alphabet

The primary scripts are three as sa(god),pa(wind,bha-light),ra(fire) is svara(the sun,sound),vrisha(Indra,bull) and bhaarata(speech,fire). The rigveda states that the vankris(ribs cf. girvaana vankri) of


sacrificial asva(vac-word,speech,bhaasha-language; saptaasva-sabda vac34.ribs (34 consonants)<<RV:1.162.18>>

voice,the sun)) has

Later it was made 35. Bharata The Bharata(svara-sabara-sabda-bhadra-patra-veda) alphabet is

formed from sa,ra, pa (3)and ga,ma,dha,ni(4) which together form the sapta( 34=7) svaras(ribs) or tapta/divasa svar(the hot/day sun). Bharata(bhaasha-veda-bhadra-king,patra-writ) of Paanini) word (at present) bhaasha (by the time

Asva is vaca(speech,the sun cf.Hindi :aavaas-voice) and adhva-ra(sacrifice cf.atharva veda). The Vedic verse referring to the sacrifice of the asva
( RV.I.162.8, YV.25.41), gives an (outward) impression that the vankri(ribs ) of the sacrificial asva(horse) are 34 in number. Rajaram (and also Kak, 2002; Frawley, 2002) quote the above verse to identify the Vedic horse with the native horse, which is said to have the same number of ribs.Vankri is van- gira or girvaaNa or paaNa gira or

written word.The 34 ribs are probably the 34 letters of the Harappan alphabet which continued into the Devanaagari alphabet as its 34 consonants.Sabda(sa-vaca,pada;svara) being sapta(7) this seems right, as 34=3+4=7.Haya or asva is the number 7 as in saptaasva(saptahaya) which is sabda as asva and one having sapta asvas(seven horses/ bulls/elephants/tigers).The birth of the asva from sa(the sun god,bird-hence with wings),pa(water,egg,leaf,wind) ,tapasa(the sun) etc. justify this. An akshara(letternetra-eye) is an aksha( , , , eye,mark,snake,abja-cowrie,karsha-16 maasha) or laksha(mark) or raksha(salvation) or rakta(blood) or raaja(king). What is the vedic asva?The answer is in << RV 1.163.1,2&3>>Oh fast going asva you were born first from the sun(avasa),then from the full waters (ap) and you have made great sound(vac) to bless your lord(yahva).and your wings(patra) are

like those of the kite(patra,vis,syena) and your legs(paada) are like those of the deer(mriga,pasu,hariNa,kiraNa)..Agna gave the asva..Oh rays(vasu) you made the asva from the SunOh asva,you are agna,you are vaayu(wind),you are the Sunyou are born of three sources, namely,vasus(rays,agni,the Sun), the Sun ,and the sky(aakaasa). Asva avasa(the sun,king) abda(year) abja(cowrie,lotus;krisanacowrie,gold) apna(property) paNa(hand,money,praise) van(sound) vaca(speech) vasu(wealth) sva(wealth) etc.Abja is born from ap(water) and sa(the sun god).Its shine is from the sun(sun-paNa-bhaanuthe sun cf sa pa).Abja bhuja(paNa vahabull,hand,river) pasu(animal) vasu(rays,wealth). Mriga(animal,hariNadeer,gold,makara-alligator) is kirana(vasu,horn) and kri-sana(san-kha sanakha;nakhabhadra 0 . cf kriipaNasanbuying/selling/barter is shown by bold nails also in the seals as in H-94). Its sound(vacaabja) is the tinkling of paNa(cowrie-money).It is bhadra(hari-the sun,goldkrii-puchase)-asva(sva-vasu) . cf.garjana(roar of

lion,tiger,elephant,gardabha,bull) krisana(gold,cowrie.This explains the use of animals to indicate garta-throne and karshapaNa) And grisana fish(paNa)- eating alligator. vankri : a rib, the rib of an animal. Vankri van(praise),paN(praise,barter)-kri(to do),krii(purchase)girvaaNa(praise)
abja(cowrie)asva(bull) 347 the 7

turns of a

sankha(conch,kasa) sabda(sound) sapta(seven). Sapta(7,sabda) is asva(abja-conch,bhuja-hand,vasu) as in saptaasva and 734 as shown below: 73+434 also.

cf.saptamarut (ma-water,dru-tree;martaman,maatra-measure,netraking,money,sacrifice,haatra-wage) Asva(aksha-abja-cowrie,lotus,elephant,snake) naaga(snake,elephant,mountain,tree) naaka(arrow,the sky cf. ) havana(sacrifice)

kanaa( young girl) na-na- ka(money-vasu-pasu)

The jar

(paatra- bhaarata-bhadra-srava,paana-

paNa) or karNa(ear, hariNa-gold,nakra-nose) symbol is gold and the fish symbol is arka(paNa- the sun,copper) and the vi(sa-Lat.avis-bird,dvi-two,ravi-the sun,vidobtain,posses)

sampat,bhaj,bhashcf.hind leg pada in seals)symbol is abja(bhaga-the sun,bhaaj-to divide,bhaaga-part,paada-feet,division; cf.Heb.aakebsole,bq- division ) and svar-Na(svar-the sun;ra-vi;sabird,god,snake;viira-hero-vaara-tail) .Hence it is

usually associated with the aksha scripts like


vimsa(20,panca-5) is hamsa(swan,panca-5) and simha(lion,tiger;panca-5). The fish itself is asva,arka,abja,paNa, vana,maana,maasha,aasana,daana etc also from its components A(aasa- seat,feet,face), pa(cipher),ka(va -kara -hand,finpaNa),ma(na-cipher,water), ra(cipher), sa(ta- tail,feet,da-hill) etc.


suvarNa(goldsuparNa-Garuda) Karsha(gartaGarudavarshavrisha) paNasasanasaasanasaadhanacanta(market) danta(teeth,horn)dasama(10 ) matsa(fish) masta(head) srava(ear) kraya(purchase) SuvarNa vistakarsha3 kazhancu36 PaNaaktika

dravasravatrayakraya(purchase) paNa (barter)

(paana,paaNa with four fingers up-shows receipt like a Female pudenda,paatra- jar,bhadra-



with four fingers down-shows a donor like a male pasas)

(haraNa- cupped double hand with the two thumbs benthariNa-gold,deernakra- alligator,nose) whence we have


With the karna (srava-ear,varta-trade)+ griiva(kan-ta=canta) a bhaNa is created as seen below.

+ ka,sa gaja(naaga-elephant,snake)ga(going)-sa(snake,bird,god)




,gira-word,hill bhaaskara(paNa-the sun,a personal name)


naatra(praise,Siva) netra(eye,king,sacrifice) maatra(measure) maatri(mother cf.saptamaatri) haatra(wages) gaatra(body) kaasara(buffalo) garta(throne) karsha sabda(sound) garja(sound) gaja(unicorn)kasa(sound)


Sumer.kas(aksha-visa-vaisya-trader) gada(club) cakranakra vrisha(bull) , vrata(command)vraja(cowpen,go-paNa-house of cows,gopana-hiding) satra(sacrifice,sadana-housecf.matsya-fish,pastya-house;paNafish,house paNa ) karsha(paNa-house,money,Vishnu) bhadraasana karsha

=ha-ri-Na ,svarNa

vri (pra)-maana pramaaNi-makhavan=var-ta-ka


Aarbhavam/visvadevam samsati etc.


Hasta is matsa(fish).Hasta(palm) is paNa.The fish sign

is the two palms cupped

together(anjali) with the thumbs extending out to form the fins.The tail is the arms.This is crystal clear from this figure. Hasta(kara)matsa(fish)masta(head)nasta(naasa-nose)dasama(tenth)

pastya(paNa-bhavana cf.
Karsha or karsha paNa.

).With the fins(wings) the kara become sa(bird) to make

7 KarshapaNa

cf. na


and paada/ma

make sapta-

cf.divasa-day), haatra-wages,namas-veneration,manas-mind and maatra-measure;maasha;dharaNa(10 palas,16 silver maashakas)

aadhaara(document cf.bhadraasanapatra



(bhakti=praise=paNa=na Sapta

) etc .

paNa (sabda is paNa-namas-praise).

Hoofvartaka-trader,bronze;gopa-king,kuupawell;sikhara-horn,peak,spiked,erection of hair of the body etc.,a particular position of the fingers of the hand etc.Note the harsha-sikhara-garja-karsha on the unicorns

sikhara-horn.Horn is karna(ear and

aasar-to help;asaaraa-10).

ear of corn cf. Heb.

aasan-to hear,

Sapta is svar. Hence 7+na(fish)svarNa.Hence it is 7

svarNa(hariNa-hiraNya-karsha) paNa.





Interestingly this text can serve as a also.

Bharata-Hebrew bilingual text

The matsa(fish) is saasana(daana,saadhana,sana,paNa/bali or donation) .Hebrew

Saasah-give a sixth part (the traaNa paNa as per Manu cf.the six strokes

usually accompanying the fish

Naadaan-gift,wages of illicit sexual favours

(cf.matsa-madana-sayanasex) and middah(measurement,tax cf.maatra-paNa) agrees with maatra(measure) and paNa/bali. Sapta(7) is Heb.seba-7/70;sepet-judgment,punishment;Shebat-

month of rains;seebet-sceptre,saabat-to rest;zabad(giftdaana/saasana).It can be a name as seen from the Bible Smith's Bible Dictionary Zabad(gift). zebed(gift) Son of Nathan son of Attai, son of Ahlai Sheshan's daughter, (1 Chronicles 2:31-37) and hence called son of Ahlai. (1 Chronicles 11:41) (B.C. 1046.) He was one of David's mighty men but none of his deeds have been recorded. The chief interest connected with him is in his genealogy, which is of considerable importance in a chronological point of view. An Ephraimite, if the text of (1 Chronicles 7:21) is correct. Son of Shimeath, an Ammonitess; an assassin who, with Jehozabad, slew King Joash, according to (2 Chronicles 24:26) (B.C. 840); but in (2 Kings 12:21) his name is written, probably more correctly, Jozachar. A layman of Israel, of the sons of Zattu, who put away his foreign wife at Ezra's command. (Ezra 10:27) (B.C. 458.) One of the descendants of Hashum who had married a foreign wife after the captivity. (Ezra 10:33) (B.C. 458.) One of the sons of Nebo whose name is mentioned under the same circumstances as the two preceding. (Ezra 10:43)

The horse is said to have 34 ribs corresponding to the 34 consonants or from the seven (34 -> 3+4 - 7)days of the week or twelve (34 -> 3x4 - 12) months of the year.

vankri -> pankti (a row); angina(patni-a wife); paNa(barter)-krii(purchase) Vankri being patni and vaari (a rib-Malayalam) being bhaarya (a wife), Eve was made from a rib(bhaarya) of Adam <<Genesis:2.21>>
R esearchers of the Harappan script tend to make the number many more

as they get confused by the compound letter style of the script which make word pictographs from the basic phonemes .Each such glyph has to be converted into its basic units to derive sensible readings of the script.

The Harappan script is regarded as logosyllabic or pictographic since its signs represent birds, fish, man etc. The number of signs of the Harappan script is counted between 400 and 600 of which 34 are basic and the rest are their variants. The variants are formed by adding up the basic letters or adding different accents, inflexions etc. Dr.Parpola and Dr.I.Mahadevan considers the script to be proto-Dravidian. Kinnier-Wilson finds analogies between the Harappan and Sumerian signs.S R Rao thinks the script as containing a pre-Indo-Aryan language of the Indo-European family. Dr. Madhusudan Mishra considers it to be the mother of Vedic Sanskrit while Dr.Kalyanaraman considers it to be mlecchitavikalpa(language of artisans). Dr.Natwar Jha says the script is syllabic with no vowels written. According to Dr. Rajaram the script is both pictorial and alphabetic. Dr.Witzel et al says the writing do not encode a language at all.

90.Regions and Kings

Eastern King Samrat,
horn) ,Raaja has a rada. Sam(tama)-raat has sama(tama)-rada(drii

Western King Suvrat(subhadra), Northern King Virat , Southern king Bhoja King of middle country . Raaja

91.List of Indian monarchs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Indian_monarchs Bharata Dynasty (c. 33001400 BC)

Sudyumna Yayati, great-grandson of Sudyumna Jain Tirthankar Rishabdev, father of Bharata Bharata, son of King Dushyanta; India's native name Bharatavarsha (Bharat) is coined after him Bhimanyu, son of Bharata Sudas Rsabha Srestha Vidura Bharata Muni Artha-Vinirnayah (until c. 1400 BC) Puru Dynasty (c. 14001200 BC) Puru-rava Aila (from c. 1400 BC) descendant of the Bharata dynasty Ayu Yayati Nahushya Dauhshanti Saudyumni Ajamidha Riksha Trasadasyu Samavarana (until c. 1200 BC) Kuru Dynasty (c. 1400450 BC) Kuru-Sravana (from c. 1200 BC) son of Puru king Samavarana, featured in the ancient epic Mahabharata Uchchaihsravas Kaupayeya Prati sutvana Bahlika Pratipeya Santanu Chitrngada Vichitravirya the last scion of the Kuru dynasty, died issueless Satyavati wife of King Santanu, ruled after Vichitravirya's untimely death Pandu son of sage Rishi Ved Vyasa (who was son of queen Satyavati) Dhritarashtra son of sage Rishi Ved Vyasa (who was son of queen Satyavati) Pandava/Gadu/Sandrocotto Dynasty (c. 12001100 BC) Yudhishtra Pandava son of king Pandu, succeeded Dhritarashtra after the Kurukshetra War Parikshit, featured in the Mahabharata as the grandson of Arjuna Pandava (a central character) Janamejaya (until c. 1000 BC), son of Parikshit Pandava Udayana

Kshemaka known as the last descendant of Yudhishtra Pandava (28th in descent from Yudhishtra Pandava) Uttungabhuja (Tunga) - son of Somendra (Sunga) and grandson of Kshemaka, moved to the Godavari area in south India. Progenitor of the Kakatiya Dynasty of Warangal Kavinda, son of Kamsa/Jarasnadh daughter, Kunti's step-son Korayvya (c. 600550 BC) Dhananjaya (c. 550500 BC), said to be a descendant of Yudhishtra Pandava (a central character in the Mahabharata) Ratthapala (c. 500450 BC), embraced Buddhism, the Kuru kingdom soon became a republic Ambhi (Omphis/Taxiles in Greek) (until c. 320 BC), descendant of the Raghu Bharat, younger brother of Lord Rama, ruled Taxila (Takshashila) in Pakistan, surrendered to Alexander Por (King Porus in Greek Chronicles) (until c. 320 BC), descendant of the Pandava dynasty, ruled Jhelum (Hydaspes) and Chenab in Pakistan, fought Alexander in the Battle of the Hydaspes River Malayaketu (c. 320316 BC), son of Rai Por (Porus), killed in the Battle of Gabiene

Magadha Kings (c. 1700 BC 550 AD)

Brihadratha Dynasty (c. 1700799 BC) Brihadratha Jarasandha Sahadeva Somapi (16781618 BC) Srutasravas (16181551 BC) Ayutayus (15511515 BC) Niramitra (15151415 BC) Sukshatra (14151407 BC) Brihatkarman (14071384 BC) Senajit (13841361 BC) Srutanjaya (1361321 BC) Vipra (13211296 BC) Suchi (12961238 BC) Kshemya (12381210 BC) Subrata (12101150 BC) Dharma (11501145 BC) Susuma (11451107 BC) Dridhasena (11071059 BC) Sumati (10591026 BC) Subhala (10261004 BC) Sunita (1004964 BC) Satyajit (964884 BC)

Biswajit (884849 BC) Ripunjaya (849799 BC) Pradyota dynasty (799684 BC) Pradyota Palaka Visakhayupa Ajaka Varttivarddhana Haryanka/Shishunaga Dynasty (684424 BC) Bimbisara (544491 BC), founder of the first Magadhan empire Ajatashatru (491461 BC) Udayin Anirudha Mund Darshaka (from 461 BC) Nagdashak (last ruler of the Haryanka dynasty) Shishunaga (412344 BC), established the Magadha Kingdom Kakavarna Kshemadharman Kshatraujas Nandivardhana Mahanandin (until 424 BC), his empire was inherited by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda Shakya Dynasty (c. 650500 BC) Sinahana Suddhodana Gautama (c. 600500 BC), king of the Shakyas, father of Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) Maya (c. 600500 BC), queen of the Shakyas, wife and cousin of Suddhodana, mother of Siddhartha Suprahuddha (c. 600500 BC), lord of Devadaha Castle, brother of Maya, father of princess Yashodhara (wife of Buddha) Nanda Dynasty (424321 BC) Mahapadma Nanda (from 424 BC), illegitimate son of Mahanandin, founded the Nanda Empire after inheriting Mahanandin's empire Pandhuka Panghupati Bhutapala Rashtrapala

Govishanaka Dashasidkhaka Kaivarta Dhana (Agrammes, Xandrammes) (until 321 BC), lost his empire to Chandragupta Maurya after being defeated by him Maurya Dynasty (324184 BC) Chandragupta Maurya (Sandrakottos) (324301 BC), founded the Mauryan Empire after defeating both the Nanda Empire and the Macedonian Seleucid Empire, claimed descent from the Shakya dynasty Bindusara Amitraghata (301273 BC) Ashoka Vardhana (Ashoka the Great) (273232 BC), considered the greatest ancient Indian emperor, first emperor to unify India (after conquering most of South Asia and Afghanistan), adopted Buddhism, granted animal rights and promoted non-violence Dasaratha (232224 BC) Samprati (224215 BC) Salisuka (215202 BC) Devavarman (202195 BC) Satadhanvan (195187 BC), the Mauryan Empire had shrunk by the time of his reign Brhadratha (187184 BC), assassinated by Pusyamitra Shunga Shunga Dynasty (18573 BC) Pusyamitra Shunga (185149 BC), founded the dynasty after assassinating Brhadratha Agnimitra (149141 BC), son and successor of Pusyamitra Vasujyeshtha (141131 BC) Vasumitra (131124 BC) Andhraka (124122 BC) Pulindaka (122119 BC) Ghosha Vajramitra Bhagabhadra (c. 110 BC), mentioned by the Puranas Devabhuti (8373 BC), the last Sunga king Kanva Dynasty (7326 BC) Vasudeva (c. 75 c. 66 BCE) Bhumimitra (c. 66 c. 52 BCE) Narayana (c. 52 c. 40 BCE) Susarman (c. 40 c. 26 BCE)

92. Chronological order of the family of Rig vedic singers

1.Gautama-Mnadala .4 (Pricipal poet -Vaama deva) 2.Bharadvaaja Mandala.6 3.Vasishtha mandala.7 4.Aatreya-Mandala.5 5.Visvaamitra-Mandala.3 6.Bhaargava-Mandala.2. Principal poet Grtsamada 7.Angirases-portions of 1,8,9,10 8 Kanvas portions of 1,8,9
Lanman considers the 8th book as the oldest while the other books are of the same age.

93.A few words of Bharata

salary vidha bhritya bhriti bharma karmaNya vetana paNa bharaNa muulya-muulii,suurya,tulya
, , ,

RiNam krito get into debt RiNam parips to call in a debt RiNam caya Name of a king RV.5.30.12,14;an Angirasa RiNam Marganasecurty,bail RiNam yaavanrelieving from debt or obligations RV.1.87.4 RiNam lekhya a bond riNadaanarecovery of a debt RiNapakarana,rinapanayana,rinapanodanadischarge of debt RiNaavanindebted RV.1.169.7;10.34.10 Muulena samah =to be bought for a sum of money ,purchasable daatum mulyena=sell mulyena grah=buy Muulya=wages paNa=agreement,treaty,weight of copper used as coin=20 maasha=1 paNa=Commodity for sale,price Pan=to honour,barter,purchase, Panya=to be bought or sold Argha=dhanaargha,mahaargha,sataargha,sahasraargha Arghya paatra the small vessel in which water is offered to the guest on his arrival. Dola =swingTola nayana netramuula money netra=silver=raja-sa=rajata=rajatam-hiraNyam-RV=whitish gold=silver MONEY-NAYANA-NAANYA-NAANAKA-COIN-GO(EYE)-NA(LIKE) Argh=value arh=be worthy of ,counter balance

anna aNa(16 aNa=1 re)

Manyaa-nerves on the nape of the neck. Hence bhadraasana manyaa is indicated by the unicorns manyaa marks on the shoulder and neck.Manyaamaalya(cf. nishka).The leaves(vasana) on the shoulder(amza) and manyaa(nerves,stripes) on the neck indicate vasna manyaa.cf.bhaara(weight)-vaara(tail,cup,roof)-haara(necklace)-paana(jar)paaNa(hand)-paNa(money,trade,chess,praise,sun,house).

Maana(the sky

,father of Agastya or Agastya

=2 anjali


maana(cf.miina)vaara(fold cf.sata-maana); krishnala or raktika 100 maanas5pala or paNa .Hence 20 maana1pala maanava
maapana(scale) maanaka








, , Pritha(patra,bhadra) is paNa.2 anjali is maana(ka).Thus the jar,fish,circle,spear indicate barter money( varta-patra- paNa).Leather(ajina), parchment (bhurja patra ) etc.were used as paNa(barter) money .


trader saarthavaaha naigama vaaNija vaNik paNyaajiiva vanyajiivapasupati as in M-304

aapaNika krayavikrayika seller vikreta vikrayika buyer krayika

kraayaka graahaalligator cf.fish eating alligator trade

vaNijya vaaNijya price,value paNa vishnu muulya vasna vishnu avakraya capital muuladhananetraroot niivi paripaNa profit phalapaNa adhika svastika laabha barter of goods

paridaana pariivarttam naimeyam

nimaya cf.naaNayanayananimayavinimaya vinimaya

goods given to safe custody nyaasa upanidhi return of goods

paridaana-pratidaana saleable kreyam goods kept for sale krayya vikreya PaNitavya paNya token advance agreement satyaapaNa sasya-vana(paNa) satyamkaara satyaakriti sale



vipaNa vi-phaNa measure


druvaya paayya

maana paana


trimaana(tri measure) tula anguli prastha measure of weights aadyabhaasha maksha karsha pala vista suvarNa kuruvista tula bhaara aacita coins

kaarshaapaNa kaarshika paNa measure of volume


cf. tri-nabhaara/paNa




vaaha nikunjaka kudava prastha divisions

=paada bhaaja bhaaga

panca-ka,bhanjaka as in H-182

vantaka cf bhaaga amsa


wealth dravya vittam

svaapateya Riktam riktham dhana vasu hiraNya dravina dyumna vibhava raa artha formless gold hiraNya cf.Hiranyaaksha(hiranyaakshabhadragold) killed by varaaha . Both were coins and can refer to coin replacements.Varaaha(Vishnu) is praata(vrisha,vrata,price) and vasna.Hana(kill,hala-plough,gala-neck) is paNa. formed gold ruupya kupya formless silver kosa cf kalasa shekel gem maNi ratna pasu

gold ayas svarNa dva-rina sa-parna sva-nri soma suvarNa tri-parna kanaka ka(sa-head) -naga(snake,elephant,tree) kalaha(fight) hiraNya

saatakumbha cf. haataka

hema gangeya

bharma parNa jaataruupa caamiikara kaartasvara

karbura kaancana tapaniiya jambuunada rukmamriga(deer,animals)

ashtaapada mahaarajata

sringi gold cf.unicorns,bulls,elephants harshayitnu silver

durvarNasur(the sun)-varNa(colour) argentum(arka-the sun) rajata ruupya kharjjura velli sveta copper arka paNa taamraka taa(saa)-mriga

sulbasuula-pa mlecchamukha

or salabha

dvyashtadvi-ashta(hasta-hand) varishta udumbara

brass cf patra bhadra(bull,elephant,girl),vrisha

aarakuuta cf.

bhadra-cipher,vartaka-hoof of bull,brass

riiti raajarishiradi(elephant)rati Brass(copper+zinc) and bronze(copper+tin) were often used without distinction. iron lohasoma sastraka tiikshNa pinda kaaLaayasa ayas asmasaara sinduuram sinduuram


With bhadra it is rakshaabhadra.With bha-sma(vasna,Vishnu,bha-paNa-sun) it shows the rising Red sun(Rudra-Bhadra) with udaya giving u(Siva)-taya(salvation) , vijaya(success) and vidya(knowledge ) by removal of night and ignorance(cf.vidyaarambha on vijyayadasami).. woolen dress meshakambaLam uurNaayu

wool of hare sasorNa sasa-uurNa(roma) sasaloma (roma-hair harehaari-paNa,trader groups,maiden cf.sreNi).Grazing hare(cf.Heb.bar-grain,wheat) and haari(maiden) with hari(tiger,gold) carry similar message.Asana(eating,food cf.hare grazing grass)aasana naasa daanaaapaNa(pasa) paNasaasana(daana,vrata)

kari(krii,bhadra)-haari(sha,bhadra)+hari(bhadra/garja/garta/karsha/aksha/gaja) +cakra(bhadra-aksha,karsha,gold) . bhagabhaNanabhavaaha Gaja( bhadra-elephant,kari-elephant,krii-buycf.Sumer.kas-trader) is aksha(bhadracipher,axis,five,trade).The first seal is a Panca paNa(5 paNa weight) seal of the Bharatas indicated by the 5 bhadra(paNa) Symbols as in H-182 where 5 svastika(house=paNa)s represent the bhadra(paNa- throne.)

honey kshaudra maakshika

Papatra(vana -leaf,feather) bhadra(egg,water,king,bull) vrisha(bull) Paana(paNa,vana) paatra(aasana-seat) is pa-king and aana(nose,face),paaNa(vaahahand,bull),bhaara,maasha,na-a-va,haana etc. Pa( water) bha(star) na(gem,cipher) ha(water,cipher) ma(water) Paanadaana; pada or pd or daa-aana,daaman=giver,donor,gift RV Daa-a giver RV.5.41.1,6.16.26.The face of the giver is the jar/paana/paatra/sthaali

Daa(paNa)-to give tra,tara sara

daa- to give,daatra(daana-donation) dhara-bear,mountain

vana(leaf,tree) vaanahole in a wall hole in a paNa(coin) paNa

baaNabaalapaalaphaalalaabhanaabhanabha(dyu) phaNa(bhaNa)

Vaana(Malayalam-paaya) a mat of straw from ve weaving Cf.va(auspiciousness,tiger) .Hence the mat is the Tiger.

paNa netra paana

94.Examples of donations described in the Rigveda.

Cedi putra Kasu gave me 100 ushtra (camels) and 10000 gos(cows) RV.6.5.37

Kasu(cf.Yadu,suka) son of Cedi(cf.desa-nation,disa-direction) gave 100 ushtra(bull) and 10000 cows RV.8.5.37 Son of Aditi, you restrained 10000 robbers for me. They gave me wealth.100 asses,100 sheep,100 dasas,noble nishka. RV.8.56.3

300 Horses(arvatavrishabha),10000 Cows(go),Tirindira (cf.triNa-Egyptian ntr-god,Indra)gave to Pajra(cf.parsha-stabakakosabhaanda-a pot,vessel,package).He gave 4 bhaara gold( =vaaha 4 bhaara,horse,hand,bull)

(catu: yuja:ushtraan , , cf.bhaarilion )and yadus(Jews?,Kasupasuvasukaasi) and thereby spread his glory in the heavens.RV.8.6.46-48.cf. DasyuJudea,Vedic PaniHamBiblical Philistines
vana paNa purabhaara

Four bhaara(bhaari4 lions, bearing camelwinged horse 4paada-feet).


) is bhaara and vaaha.

Tarani(the sun) dharaNa(the sun,scale)bhaara(Vishnu,weight,20Tulaa or 2000 palas, cf .bhaara-yashti )

Bhaara vasna


Pasu(vasu animal) vanyajiivi(wild animal)paNyajiivi(traders) Ushtra(maya,kramelaka,mahaanga)camel,bull


PajraParsha( sheaves of grain stalks) paNa gaatra paNa


kaarsha paNa .The X ghar (cf.Malayalam-paatham- rice field ) symbol is that of a cup(paatra cf. Urdarameasuring vessel of grain and khaari a
measure of grain)and wing(patra) both indicating paNa(praise ) of bhadra(king,sravarice,grain).Interestingly a Dhaanyakrit(those who fan paada(4,phaNa) symbol attached to the palm(paNa).


) also has a


is paada(feet,quarter,Bheda-a king

RV.7.18.19) , paada is bhaara and bhaara is bhadra paada bull or clawed legg as of tiger/lion) and denote a vartaka(a trader,hoof).

(hoofed legg as of

Krishana(plowing) krisana(cowri,gold ) vapana(sowing,paNava-drum cf.H-182,paNa-trade),lunana(reaping cf. naalu-4),mrinana(treading or threshing,maraNa-death) Name of buckets for drawing water(vana)kosa(go-sa) RV.6.47.23
or and paNa kosa are the same. This shows the importance of farming in the culture and the application of grain as a measure for trade by the Harappans. Water mark is still shown on rupee notes.

Indra and Sam-baras 100 city (purapaNa,sambarasuvarna,puranabhaaratasankaravarsha)and varcis 100000 RV.2.14.6 .Nagaramakara(nakra-nose,graaha-alligator)naga-ra nakarakarNakiraNakrena Varci(praci-east) vajriVajravrishakarsha gartaIndrakingsravadrava paNakarahana,kha=gha=ha=pa Indra for divodasa with his vajra destroyed 90 nagara(karnakrena R.V. 1.130.7) Indra for kutsa defeated Sushna,Asusha,Kuyava.Destroyed Sambaras 99 nagara(krena).

Heads of bulls (cf.horned deities indicate paNa RV.7.18.19 , , karsha-kara-hasta paNa or matsa-masta paNa or gaatra-kaasarahaatra-patri- paNa
bhadravartavrata )

given to Indra(netra-the kingeponym) by people of Sigru,,Aja,Yakshu

PhoenicianCoin2A.jpg (400 400 pixels, file size: 26 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)

.Naava(nau-boat,praise) paNa(Vishnu,praise,money) The winged fish horse indicate that the reading of the fish sign as bhadra -asva is correct. Fish(asvausha .It is the sign from where Vishnu rise.It is ruled by the aaditya-vishnu .The asterism of the Asvins also exist in the sign of the fishPisces).Vaara(tailpaanapaNapaatra patrabhadraviirabhadrasrii bhadraasana simhaasana four lionsbhadra paada Holy feet ,venerable as with the hind leg symbol + wild ass seal. Compare this with Saaranath,Lion capital of Ashoka also.

95. Indian coinage Money(pa-Na,paleaf,water,king,wind,na-gem;paNa-vishnu,price) involves counting and counting involves paNa(kara-hand). Kara(hand,tax)kala(cal-culate) kaNa(drop) kanaa(girl)
gana(group)gala(neck)jana(people) jina(the sun)jala(water)dhana(wealth)naga(tree,mountain,the sun) naaga(snake,elephant,goat) paNa(money,Vishnu)phaNa(hood of snake) vana(house,water)sana(wealth,donation) sama(equal)

sava(Mal.piNa-a corpse) The antiquity of coinage in India is a controversial issue. Some scholars are of the opinion that coinage was introduced into India by the Persians or the Hellenistic Greeks; others think that it is of indigenous origin. Some would like to stretch its antiquity back to the middle of the third millennium B.C. on the basis of evidence from the Rigveda(cf.the Harappan weights). The recent discovery of the bar currency without symbols in Iran and with symbols in Afghanistan is of great significance. The bent bars (Satamana , , ), the earliest coins of India,are dated to the end of the sixth century or late fifth century B.C. The bar silver soon gave way to cut silver in the fifth century B.C. as is attested by the find of silver punch-marked coins in Indian excavations.
1 paNa (80 c.) 1 tangka(axe ,cloth ,drill ;sankha-cowrie,sanga-

sex,kanaka-gold) or aNa . 1 kahan or karsha (1280 c.) 1 paNa or copper karshapaNa. 1 puraNa or silver karshapaNa (1280 c.) 1 kaakinii(equal to 20 kapardas or cowries,or to a quarter of a paNa .Kaakini is the cowrie kaakini fourth part of a paNa ,
, ,

quarter of a Maana


cubit,the fourth part of a Danda or pole


A paNa was the standard silver coin, which weighed 16 mashas.(sama) .... Suvarna maasha = one suvarna or Karsha. Fourteen units of weights in mashas were used .. Four rice grains are called one guj; five gujs, one paNa; eight paNas, one karsha; four karshas, one pala; and one hundred palas= one tul. ...
8 PaNa or vis paNa 4 karsha 1pala , karsha or ashta vasu(ashta pada) spa-ashtaspashta vasana

The cipher =bha or na naaka + na-naka or aksha=uksha paNa or netra paNa(sankha or svarNa) or bhadra svarNa hariNa svabhadraasana mudra(vritra) maasha(vimsa)

Manu.8.303. That king, indeed, is ever worthy of honour(paNa) who ensures the safety (of his subjects); for the sacrificial session (sattra, which he, as it were, performs thereby) ever grows in length, the safety (of his subjects representing) the sacrificial fee. Manu.8.304. A king who (duly) protects (his subjects) receives from each and all the sixth part of their spiritual merit; if he does not protect them, the sixth part of their demerit also (will fall on him). Cf.Shatmana M-1186 Manu.8.305. Whatever (merit a man gains by) reading the Veda, by sacrificing, by charitable gifts, (or by) worshipping (Gurus and gods), the king obtains a sixth (shad amsa) part of that in consequence of his duly protecting (his kingdom,traana , ).

The fish with

6 strokes or the human figure


or the fish +6 strokes indicate shat paNa(bali-tax) shat amsa(sixth part) as tribute.

The code of Manu(8.131-138) states that sixteen of those(maashakas) make a silver


or puraNa (suura-na,sara-na.Hence two tigers or lions or two arrows indicate puraNa); but know (that) a karsha of copper is a karshapaNa, or paNa. . Know (that) ten dharaNas of silver make one satamana... It is shad(six,sata) paNa(mana) as paNa is shad for the hand to form the handful

(paNa) the thumb is bent into two along with the four fingers.Hence 2+4=6=paNa

96.Units of measurement
The Arthasaastra of Kautilya gives us an idea of the measurement of space and time as indicated below:

Paramanu, liksha dhanusmushti rajju , ,

, yuka , yava



, , danda ,

vitasti, aratni, kamsa


etc. The details are as follows :

8 paramanus (atoms)= 1 dust particle The 8 system=hasta=ashta is harappan

8 dust particles(cf.trasarenu of Manu)= 1 liksha


8 likshas(cf.laksha-mark

)= 1 yuka of medium size yoke

8 yukas= 1 yava of middle size cf. 8 yavas=1 angula 8 angulas= I dhanurmushti 4 angulas= 1 dhanurgraha


12 angulas-=1 vitasti or 1 Chhayapurusha 42 angulas=1 kishku

54 angulus= 1 hasta 2 Vistastis=1 aratni


4 aratnis=1 danda (dhanru) 10 dandas= 1 rajju

cf.maanava (man)is maapana(measurement)

2 rajju= 1 paridesa 3 rajjus= 1 nivartana 100 dandas

( or Dhanushu

) = 1 go-ruta (garja-garta-garuda,

karshasound of cowsound of bow cakrabhadranaakanaaga)

4 gorutas(cf.garta)1 yojana

yosha-na yojanayodhana(warrior,arrow)

Another term for measuring distances found in early Pali literature is gavyuti(cf.go-arrow,yudh-war), which is stated to be equal to 2 Yojana. A Yojana (yosha-na) was equal to four Krosas (9 miles cf.cakra,garja,karsha,garta) a term referred to in Asoka's inscriptions also. The measurement of hasta (cubic) varied from material to material in the classification given by Kautiliya. Reckoning of the year During the first millenium B.C three systems of reckoning the year prevailed based on the counting of the days which varied from each other; viz, lunar (Chandra-mana) year having about 354 days, Savana year (of Vedic origin) comprising 360 days, each month being of 30 days and Solar (Sauramana) year of about 365days. For financial purposes Kautilya prescribes the use of lunar year with each month ending on full moon day (Paurnamasi) referred to by Panini also, but in some parts of ancient India, as even now, each lunar month ended in Amavasya (last day of the dark half i.e. krishna paksha). The Nakshatra system was being commonly followed by people along with tithis (days coinciding with waxing and waning of the moon cf.sthiti-position with respect to the sun) and names of the months as well as fullmoon day ( Paurnamasi ) were named after certain specific nakshatras. The lunar zodiac commenced in pre-Christian era with Krittika and not Asvini nakshatra. Each day including night( ahoraatra) consisted of 15 muhurtas or of 60 Nalikas (later styled as ghatis). The lowest unit for measuring time was a truti. 2 trutis= 1 lava(cf.rava-the sun) 2 lavas=1 nimesha 5 nimishas= 1 kashtha 30 kashtas=1 kala 40 kalas= 1 Nalika (of 24 minutes duration) 12 Nalikas= I muhurta

15 muhurta=1 Ahoratra (=24 hours)

Samaya dhaanyasayanasa-yamasamaa( samaapa(sacrifice) samaapana paNa(praise,money)

year) samaa(year)-


A Nalika was being measured by emptying one adhaka (about two kilograms) of water kept in a holed pot, which passed out through a pipe (4 angulas) attached to it in the duration of about 24 minutes i.e. one Nalikas. Time was also being calculated in Kautilya's period on the basis of variation in the length of the shadow of the human body or a sanku( an upright pole fixed on the ground). Balance (tula) was introduced in India during the Harappan period and was revived with the historical urbanization. The very idea of weighing seems to have begun with seeds of gunja ( Abrus Precatorius) i.e. wild berry and maasha ( bean or urad in Hindi cf.mass-weight,maapa-measure) as smallest units. The following details are given by Kautilya in his Arthasastra: 10 seeds of maasha ( Phraseolus Radiatus) = 5 gunjas (Abrus Precatorius) 5(cf.hand,man ) seeds of gunjas = 1 Suvarna (gold) mashaka 16 Suvarna mashakas= 1 suvarna or karsha

4 Karshas= 1 Palas

cf eggpa,suulala or phalasubha laabha

Whence subha laabha greeting.

88 White mustard seeds= 1 silver- maashaka

16 silver mashakas or 10 saibya seeds= 1 dharaNa 20 grains of rice= 1 dharana of a diamond (piece)


suvarNa has two wings or parNa

These weights show diversity in respect of gold, silver and diamond and probably these could not be very minutely standardized by Kautilya who also furnishes details about specific varieties of tulas or balances . He suggests having weights only of stone and iron. According to Kautilya heavier weights weighed differently, e.g., 16 drona being equal to one khaari, 20 dronas to 1 kumbha and 10 kumbhas to 1 vaaha(hand ,bull ,river cf.,).

Further, both Panini and Kautilya refer to coinage which around their times was of the punch(paNa,paNasa,vasna,fund) marked variety and had different weights and sizes during pre- Mauryan and Mauryan periods. 1 Silver paNa 16 mashas (with copper or iron)
ayas (copper,bronze,brass)


Ardhapana 8 mashas 1 kakini


2 mashas

tratarasara( grass,arrow,water,5) raajasrii 3or 5bhadrarudra-vritra-garta-karsha The weight system for gems, currency & gold used by the Cheras(Kerala) is provided in the ancient workKanakku Saaram . The Panam, Taram(cf. dram maatranetramitramudra), Kaasu(cf.kaasi,cash ) etc. were in use in Malabar. cf.dhara-mountain( 7 );hence 7 +fishmaadhara=dharma,maatra,maadhara(a Brahman,a liquor vendor) 1 nenmani

(Annayavarice) = 1 viisa tuukkam(weight)

and jar

4 nenmani = 1 kunni (ratti-gunja) kuru (cf.fish rice). 2 Kunni = 1 manjaati

with 4 lines as soma-

2 manjadi = 1 paNa tuukkam(weight) 10 panatuukkam = 1 kazhanci (kalanju) Though the manjaati disappeared from the weight system, they are sometimes used by diamond smiths and are a 16th(cf.Sudaas-shodasa of the older Harappan rupee system and related to the anna. A great number of paNam(coins) were in circulation in Kerala and some of them were Pon, Kaasu, KaNam, PaNam, Raasi paNam, Kaliyuga raayan paNam, Veera raayan paNam etc. The currencies used for local transactions were based on the paNam. Malabar used to have the smallest coin in the world, the silver tare( mere 1 or 2 grains.

cf.tare weight) weighing a

97.The Viiraraaya FaNam

The Viira Raaya(cf. viira bhadra / bhadraasva/suura bhadra of the Harappans)
, cf.vaara roof is viira ,paana, baaNa and paNa.Hence these glyphs indicate viira bhadra/viira raaya fanam Itself.Gaja(garja), Tiger and lion (suura,garja) also indicate karsha(viira bhadra).

FaNam (which was mostly used on the Malabar Coast of India) cf.

Various gold faNams were current in Travancore before the nineteenth century, the oldest, known as the raasi(raaja cf.kaasisvar Na-gem;svar sun), also has a sankhu or conch shell on the obverse, and is closely related to the "Viira raaya " fanams of Calicut.

paNa sky ,




tama vana(water,house,scale,ladle equal)na vani(fire,heap

) sama(=

,begging) vanii(tree,forest) phanii(snake)

Silver double rupees & Paisas were also stuck. These paisas(picepasuvasu) had the picture of an elephant( naagacf.the bhadranaaga-elephant of the Harappans). The Malabar Panam is mentioned often by many travellers such as Ibn batuta, Ma Huan, AbduRazak and later Western travellers during the Portuguese, Dutch and English times.

Ibn Batuta said that 6 golden Dinars(cf. paNa-dragham-dinarnetra-eye,king,sacrifice) were equivalent to 100 fanams whereas Ma Huan explains The king uses a 60% purity gold to cast coins, it is named PaNam. He also makes a silver coin tareh(cf.rajata-silver cf. or , ) and this is used for petty transactions. The various mentions are recorded in Hobson-Jobson dictionary under FaNam. The smallest coin, the tare or taram was reminiscent of a star(cf.bha-star in Harappan ), was cast in pure silver at Vijayanagar and Calicut which purchased in the 16th century 5-6 eggs, enough fish to fill two peoples bellies or rice for a whole day. 16 tare (cf. dhara-mountain,sara-arrowpaNabaaNa)was one fanam(compares well with the ancient Harappan system of weights). The tare had an even lower denomination which was the copper kaasu or the origin of the English word cash(cf.Harappan gaja,naaka,kaaca,sikya etc.). 16 copper kaasu (hasta,kaasi-handful,kesa-raasi-srii-the sun) fetched the minute silver tare. You could buy a monkey for 4 kaasu (.

.Some versions had a hole(vanapaNa) in the middle to make it paNa..

The tareh or taram was also called Viz (cf.star in the sky and vis-bird in the sky)and weighed one to two grains(cf.viisam) and 16 tareh = I paNam whereas the paNam dropped in value to the Rupee later going from 5 to 4 and finally 3.5. P Gopakumar states in his Hindu article - The PaNam monetary system was closely correlated with kaudi shell( cow-rygo-rayisuuryapaNa-sun). The inference is that a handful(kaasi,paNa ) of cowries is equal to one paNam . The earliest paNa coin, recorded in history, was KaarshapaNa having been available even prior to the reign of

the Magadhan emperor Bimbisaara. It was known as dharaNa(cf. dharaNa sulka or Durga cf.dharanasvarnacaraNahind leg)or puraaNa(cf.svarna) and later christened as the punch-marked coin. Karsha (gartahaatrapaatrapaanapaNabali sulka)ascribes to the act of ploughing and agriculture, indicating that the hub of weight standard, monetary system and coinage of India has been agriculture. Coin heritage of Kerala is no exception. The first non-Kerala coin which the early Keralite met with was the KaarshapaNa brought to the region by the Buddhist and Jain mendicants. Originally the rupee was divided into 16 annas, 64 paise, or 192 paise. Half a Rupee was 8 Annas (Athanni), and a quarter rupee was called Chawanni (or a Quarter). Origins of the word Rupee: The origins of the word Rupee can be traced back to the language spoken in Harappa around 6th century B.C or earlier. 6th Century Rupee: Both gold and silver coins were issued during the 5th and 6th centuries AD by the Gupta dynasty; the gold coins were called Dinars and the silver coins, Rupaka. Eight Rupakas(
, , , )were equal

to half a dinar or

16 ruupaka=1 dinar (netra-eye,king,sacrifice;Mal.nerca-offering). But curiously the widespread existence of gold and silver coins of the Gupta era almost disappeared from the seventh century onwards. There were some silver coins in south-eastern Bengal.. Indeed, markings on the Gupta coins provide information about religious rites while those dating back to Kanishkas time feature Iranian goddesses and Zoroastrian concepts, suggestive of the multicultural stands that shaped Indias cultural fabric.


Accounting existed in Vedic India

Sufficient evidence exists to conclude that art and practice of accounting, as a highly developed system, existed in India even during the times of the Vedas, Sutras and the Upanishads . There are references to kraya (sale), Vanij (merchant), sulka (price) etc. in the Rigveda. The discussions in the Vedas about matters like the system of land tenure, currency, trade,various occupations as well as the general social and economic conditions in those times are indicative of the existence of a highly developed system of record keeping.Sale appears to have regularly consisted in paNa(barter,vaNij-trader,vanitaa-kanaa-a woman) in the Rig veda; 10 cows were

regarded as a possible price for an image of Indra to be used as a fetish. The haggling of the market was already familiar in the days of the Rig veda, and a characteristic hymn of the Atharvaveda, is directed to procuring success in trade. Price was referred to as Vasna(savana,sayana merchant as Vanij.
, , , , and


, one who does paNa(trade) or has paNa(money seal) with him.

Kautilyas Arthasaastra contains details on accounts in the office of accountants .

the business of keeping up

Authors, however, generally trace the origin to times of Babylonian Empire around 3500 B.C. Some of the oldest records of commerce have been found in the Assyrian, Chaldaean-Babylonian and Sumerian civilizations which were flourishing in the Mesopotamian Valley. The Mesopotamian equivalent of todays accountant was the scribe. His duties included writing up the transaction and ensuring that the agreements complied with the detailed code requirements for commercial transactions. A typical transaction involved the following steps: The parties willing to transact sought the scribe at the gates to the city. They would describe their agreement to the scribe, who use a small quantity of specially prepared clay to record the transaction. The moist clay was molded into a size and shape adequate to contain the terms of the agreement.(cf.paNa-agreement,barter )

Using a wooden stylus, the scribe(cf.karaNa ) recorded the names of the contracting parties, the goods and money exchanged and any other promises made. The parties then signed their names to the tablet by impressing their respective seals. Men carried their signatures around their necks in the form of stone amulets engraved with the wearers mark(cf.the necks of the Harappan bulls have special markings to indicate the seal hanged on the neck or nishka money) The scribe would dry the tablet in the sun or in a kiln for important transactions which needed a more permanent record. Sometimes a thick clay layer was fashioned and wrapped around the tablet like an envelope. For extra security, the whole transaction would be rewritten on this outer crust, in effect making a carbon copy of the original. Attempted alterations of the envelope could be detected by comparing it with its contents, and the original could not be altered without cracking off and destroying the outer shell.

Read more: http://www.taxguru.in/accounting/history-of-accounting-and-accountingstandards.html#ixzz0vMIuX0Tp An arithmetical progression of some interest is found in the Panchavimsa Brahmana, where occurs a list of sacrificial gifts in which each successive figure doubles the amount of the preceding one...(cf.the Harappan weights order) Vikraya is found in the Atharvaveda and the Nirukta denoting sale. Sulka in the Rig veda clearly means price. In the Dharma Sutras it denotes a tax.Rna(cf.puraNa) meaning debt is repeatedly mentioned from the time of theRig veda onwards having apparently been a normal condition among the Vedic Indians. Reference is often made to debts contracted at dicing(paNa). To pay off a debt was Rnam Samni. Allusion is made to debit contracted without intention of payment.The trade and industry of the period were characterised by a highly developed organisation and the institution was called Sreni (netra-sreni. cf.svastikas in H-182). It was a corporation of men following the same trade, art, or craft and resembled the guilds of medieval Europe.This shows that the Aryans were not nomadic tribes as supposed by many scholars.A keen business instinct characterised the society and trade, commerce and industry flourished in ancient India to a very large degree. This extensive scale of trading operations could not have been carried on without systematic record keeping as seen in the IVC. Indeed,archaeologists have found abundant remains of the ancient commercial records.These,no doubt, do not resemble modern accounting records, but they constitute evidence that commercial record keeping enjoyed its infancy in such a civilisation.

99. Earliest writing found


124. Inscribed Ravi sherd http://www.harappa.com/indus2/124.html

Three-vaya(branch) sravya dravya(gold) 3 vana(plant) 3 paNa3 sikhara(branch) 3 karsha(paNa) The origins of Indus writing can now be traced to the Ravi Phase (c. 3300-2800 BC) at Harappa. Some inscriptions were made on the bottom of the pottery before firing. Other inscriptions such as this one were made after firing. This inscription (c. 3300 BC) appears to be three plant symbols(netra -net,eye ,king,sacrifice trinadharaNatraanasaraavapaatrapatrabhadrapaana-paNa-trayavanapaNa cf. fishhaatradaatrasatra druvayadravya-gold ) arranged to appear almost anthropomorphic.

Vana is paNa and paana and nava(new,9).TriNa is Indra. Srii(tri)-Indra(triNa)

is Tirindira

.RV.8.6.46.This agrees with the composition period of the oldest books of

the Rigveda to the third millennium BCE as shown in Bharata the language of the

Harappans.Sikhara(branch,point,peak,crest,erection of hair on the body and sometimes shown even on horns -harsha) is sekhara(head,crown),Sakra(Indra-king),siighra(rapid;Vaayuthe wind god,a son of Agni-varna etc.),garja(roar cf.Tiger) etc. indicate garta(garut-patra-wing-king-throne).Sikhara is sikhaa( a tuft or lock of hair on the crown of the head) of the BraahmaNa(brih-paNa/vana-the rising sun)s also. Hence horns and branches used as crowns of godkings in several seals.. Sikhara(branch) is cakra garta-karsha-kaasara-sakra-harsha-karaja-kalasa-shekel The price of this vessel probably was 3 (karsha) paNa. Tri-sara is trasara(a loom/shuttle for weaving) and sriidhara(Vishnu). Trayiimukha is a BraahmaNa. Sara(grass,arrow,water) being bhadra(sira-head) it is also portrayed as trisiraa(threeheaded bulls,VaisravaNa) and trisiirsha(Siva).Karsha(garta)ka(head,face)tra(three) kaasara(buffalo) gaatra(body) go-tra(tribe)Kosala

as in

Kaasara(bull,karsha) with one gaatra(karsha)

and ka(bhadra-head,bull,king,gold)-tra(three) karsha.Three karsha-garja animals can

indicate 3 karsha or 1/3 karsha also.Note the garja karsha in the gala(kantha-neck,throat) also.Kantha(throat) ,kaandha(kaaya-trunk of a tree),ghanta(Siva, bronze bell), kantaka(thorn) and sringa(horn-Grk.keras) make karsha by garja/gharsha/harsha. A(ja)-s(naaga)va(vaaha)/avasa is n(aja-naaga)-ri(ravi)-pa(king).

Sara(grass,5) is sada(plants,vegetables and fruits),sasa(hare) and sata(100)/dasa(10). Trisaratrisada Tridasa is deva(veda,bharata).

Druma is DroNa and hariNa(deer,gold;haraNa-hand).Tri druma is 3 droNa.Sara-vana is sravaNa(the asterism of Vishnu-trivikrama),draviNa(svarNa -gold) .

with the amana(sramananakednagnanaagapaNa-nava,nama-praise,price) inscription

Interestingly the potsherd from Kerala

Has a tree and deer graffiti on it.Mara-Na(death) is maram(tree,vana-paNa) and hariNa(deer,gold;hari-gold,na-ornament;kreNa-purchase).Hence it can indicate death or trade of gold ornaments also.
vi-vana is vipaNa or krii-paNa or giirvaaNa(praise). Sara(kara,hara)+sara+sarasraa(sriito boil,bake ,cook;indicate the vessel was fired) traa(to protect) raaja(king-the protector of the people).TraaNa(avana-protection cf.amana) is saraNa(refuge),dharaNa,caraNa, carama(death) and dharma(Yama-god of death).Hence this jar may have been meant for burial also.Burial urns carry sara(water,arrow)-na(like) or or hariNa(deer-tree-Mal.maan) to indicate carama, srama or

raaja(pareta or preta is praata and bhadra.Sava is usha and deva). Traa paNa(bali) was tax given to the king by the people for their protection. Vana(naga)-traGaandhaara,paNa-traya ,vana-Durga. Saraava to measure.druu-gold.sara-tara-sira. Sara(kara-5) x 3 =15. Tri-vana srii

paNa(sriidhara-vishNu) praNava(Aum)

Exclusive by BBC News Online Science Editor Dr David Whitehouse The first known examples of writing So-called plant-like and trident-shaped markings have been found on fragments of pottery dating back 5500 years. They were found at a site called Harappa
Dr Richard Meadow of Harvard University: We may be able to follow the history of signs.

The earliest known writing was etched onto jars before and after firing. Experts believe they may have indicated the contents of the jar or be signs associated with a deity.

According to Dr Richard Meadow of Harvard University, the director of the Harappa Archaeological Research Project, these primitive inscriptions found on pottery may pre-date all other known writing.

Clay tablets containing primitive words were uncovered in southern Egypt at the tomb of a king named Scorpion. cf.druuNa(vriscika-scorpion,vriksha-tree) is droNa (a jar,king) or

druu(gold)-na(ornament) or druma(tree,patraasana-bhadraasana) itself.The Egyptians got it from Harappa. cf.mummies of Egyptians and Assyrians were found in Harappa. They were carbon-dated to 3300-3200 BC. This is about the same time, or slightly earlier, to the primitive writing developed by the Sumerians of the Mesopotamian civilisation around 3100 BC. So probably we will never know what the symbols mean, Dr Meadow told
Dr Meadow: The earliest inscriptions date back to 3500 BC.

BBC News Online from Harappa. The writing can indicate saraava(volume),sraa(baking), traa(handle with care),drava(fish),caraata(caraaka,saraavavardhamaanaka,caru RV)

It probably suggests that writing developed independently in at least three places Egypt, Mesopotamia and Harappa between 3500 BC and 3100 BC.

http://www.harappa.com/indus2/101.html 101. Hand-built Pot Dating to c. 3100 BC, this hand-built pot with polychrome decoration is one of the earliest examples of intersecting circle(pa-tra writBharatabhaaratabhadrapaa-trasravadravasaraavavartabarterpaNapaanabhadraasana) motif in the Indus valley region. This motif along with others, such as the fish scale(kalasasalkasulkapaNa) and pipal leaf(patra paatra paanapaNavana;pa is sa.Hence paanadaana-donation also.)designs, continue to be employed into the later Kot Diji and Harappa Phases.Acircle

is Pa and its binding is na as in

to make paNa(praise,money).With the tra/sara/raaja/srii

symbol it becomes ,the equivalent of draviNa(gold) and bhadra(king,auspicious). For Ravi Phase Motifs of intersecting circle(phaNa-hood,paNa-trade,money;paana-

paatra-pot,bhadra-auspicious,patra-bird) and fish scale(salka-scale,kalasa-paanapot) executed in black paint on a red slip visit http://www.harappa.com/indus2/102.html

Ravi Phase Pot Bird(vi,pa,sa) + netra(net,na-bond)pa+napaNa(praise,money,paana-pot) The net (netra-vala-jaalasaalataaladaana cf. pana-vana-vala-paNa)and bird(patra-bhadra-varta-bhadraasana) motifs are found at other sites to the northwest in Bannu district, but they do not continue into the later Kot Diji and Harappa Phases. Pana(vanajalajaalanet,aanaayamaanyanaaNayanaanakamoney) + sa(sabird,god;vi-bird) paNasa(panca,vasna) Bird(vi,sa)patrabhadrasa(su)-parNAsvarNa Patra(bharata)-netra(net,king) king Bharatabhadraasana Patra(bird-vi) is sarpa(sa-snake,god,bird).The netra(net) is the parNa(wing) of the bird, bharaNa(rule,haraNa-hand) of netra(bhadra-king,bull) and phaNa(hood) of sarpa.

Jaala(net)taala(palm tree



saala(house )zaala(tree-abode of Vishnu). Patra(paNa-bird)+jaala Pan-caala(gaming house, a trader clan)pancaalapaatra Vana(wooden pot for soma),van(to buy,to love,worship) Vala(kara-pull-bull)paNA bulla PhaNa(jaala,vaara,paana) + bird(sa,vi)=paNasa,vaNija,vanitaa,vipaNa,savana , bhaarata,viirabhadra,paanapaatra etc. paasa panjara=cage,net sravana padapaada vandana(obeisance) patra bandhana(panjara) bhadra vandana(praise to the king). Baka(crane) is bhaga(paNa-sun) ,bhaaga and vaaha.

126. Inscribed mold fragment

This mold used for making large storage jars has three pre-firing graffiti signs. Such symbols canindicate the name of the owner or the measure/price of the jar.
karsha paNa(bhadraasana) 5

CandraSankarabhadraRu-draibhasivasubha kara(hand,tax,krii-purchase) Tra(three) sara(grass,arrow,water)dhara(mountain)

Saraavatwo Prasthas or one Kudava paNya naaNayamaanyanayana Tripaada is Vishnu. Inscribed sherds Kalasa(pot pan) sulka scale(fish) pa-Na(fish )paana(pot) dasa(ten cf.paatra-pot,pattu-ten) laksha(mark,a lakh) Daksharaksha(protection) karsha(money) cakra(money) vasna(money) Vishnu(god,the sun) paNa(money,barter,agreement,gambling) baaNa(arrow) paana(pot) Many sherds inscribed after firing have single geometric signs,probably to indicate the volume,the price , the name or identification mark of the owner. This collection of Early Harappan sherds from Periods 1 and 2 (c. 3300-2800 BC) show a range of geometric signs that are roughly similar to later signs in the Indus inscriptions.TraaNa(to protect or handle with care!) and saraava(a measure) is also indicated.A koNa(trianglepatrabhadrapa) goNa(bull) soma(the moon,a bull) kala(to count,gana-group) paa(leaves,to protect)-tra(tri-three,dhara-bear) paa-na(pearl) paana paatra(a chalice) .The
or is the paana(cup) , paaNa(crossed hands,agreement) and paNa(trade,weight of gold or copper) as can be seen from the figures.Paa-tra(Bhaarata-fire,varta-trade,bhadra-auspiciousness,king,superior;Pajrastrong,Kakshiivat-son of Usij and Diirghatamas cf.RV.1.126.4) is seen in the pa(leaf)-tra(trithree) figures like Kakshyaavat , , .cf.Kakshya is the inner space,the scale of a balance etc. and is a Rishi in the Rig Veda.



bhadra(full,auspiciousness,king,gold;soma)bhadraasana raaja

paNa(agreement,money,praise) This fired steatite button seal from the Kot Dijian Phase (Period 2, 2800-2600 BC) shows a unique pattern that may be an early form of the Harappan script sign that may represent a "house" or "temple." cf.V-ana(ma-anahouse,measure)phaNa(hood-house-woodfood-foot) patra(leaf,wing)Pa-Na(house,Vishnu,king,money) Pa-tra+sana =varta-sana=bhadraasana(throne,palace) Paa-tra patra
pa-traBharata(bhadra-king,varta-trade) sa(san-barter) savitra(the sun) Sa-mu(nu,vi)-dra(tra) etc.The three(tri) V(vanapaaNahand) marks make draviNa, sraavaNa etc.







Inscribed rim sherd saraasa(water jar;saarada)vaaraasa(water jar;vrishaIndra) , same as the man with bow and arrow in both handsda(ra,bha)+da(ra,bha) +sa(na,ra) daanadaasajaar(saraasa) raaja(Sudaasa) saaza paanapaala paaja(strength) maasha(5gunja)paadaBhaasabhaara(Vishnu,20tulaa)vaajasaasana bhaara

traaNa paana paNaa or paNasasriibhadracarama dharaNagraasa(drachm)

kretaa(buyer) karsha

Three signs are inscribed on this rim sherd of the Early Harappan Period (Kot Dijian Phase), dating to around 2800 BC. Two of the signs appear to be pictographs for a bow and arrow(baaNapaanapaNa), but they probably had some other meaning that was defined by the diagonal slash at the end of the sequence of symbols. The bow and arrow sign is quite common in the later Indus script
aasa(bow)-na(two) bhadraasana,bhadraasva, saasana(daana,order cf.Hittite<sar d-> offer, take -- ) .BaaNa is paana and paNa.Bhadraasana as paatra-aasana


is employed in the paatra-aasana

before the unicorns and in seals like M-1186

where the deity(king) is placed on a paatra


to indicate Bharata(bhaarata)-bhadraasana. sara(water,5;vaara-water,kara-hand)+sara(5) =

caapa(bow,dha-D) +sa,ra bowdha Dbow dasa(10)


daatra(presentsickleprizeprice,donation) cf.

paNa or daa tra paNa

Thus paatra paatra paatrabhaaratadaatra manA(feet) cf daatra being bent (like caapa or bhuja or sarpa) is paNa. dhaatrapaatra(pa-dhri,being borne or worn). paartha(king) bhaarata(fire).
BaaNa is paana,baala,paala,bhaara,paNa,phaNa,vaara etc.



135. Inscribed storage jar Patra(bird,writ,leaf) or paatra is pa + sara.Bhadraasana is aasana with patra(bird,wing,leaf).From the two Da s of the dhanus(bow) and Na of nara(man) we have daana(donation).Vana(dru-tree trakarsha).
va-hand+ va)

is paNa(paana-daana;ka-

is paNa(palm).Hence this is bhadraasana(daana) karsha paNa.

Pa(bha-palm) + tra(tri,sara,tara,15) + aasa-na bhadraasana (paretaasana,pretaasana-burial urn) bhadraasana-15-paNa(draviNa). sara(water,arrow,5,taara-star)jarsaraava saraasa(treta,kreta)pa-tra(bhadra) or kar-sha paNa or PaNasa(vasna panca-5. sara-5,tra-three kara-5) Paana(pot)-paaNa(hand)-baaNa(arrow)-pan(scales).It is the scales of maa-tra and haa-tra. Sumer.<sar d-> offer, take -Cf. (vakra-bhadra-darbha-patra) paNa tra(tur) saasa/kshe/vaaja tra Bharata.saraasa-waterjar graasa-grass


paNa or saastra paNa or sastra paNa or Turvasa paNa or

trippaada(kings foot) paNa .

Patra(writ,paatra-jar,bhadra-king,vaasara-week,darbha-grass,sarpa-snake) is pa(va-two)sara(arrow,kara-hand).

Many large storage jars of the Harappa Phase (2600-1900 BC) have writing inscribed along the upper portion of the vessel. This inscription includes a figure of a man with the bow and arrow sign in each hand cf..Maanava is maapaNa-scales.Bhaara
is baaNa

.It is impossible to shoot two bows and arrows at the same time so this is clearly not a pictograph, but rather a combined symbol used as part of a Indus writing system.DraviNa(droNa-Bharadvaaja,measure) is shown by the tra+paNa symbol. Hence it is a paNa saasana and is a form of the hind leg -caraNaand pan(scale).PaNa(baaNa)-na(two) is trading.

dharaNa netraIndra. In fact paaNibaaNapan and kara-dhara-sara(arrow,water,5).cf.Malayalam vaaLam- a bent gold bar and vala-net,vaal-vaara-tail etc.It can also indicate Dravya,SaravaNa,kraya,vikraya,kara-baaNa(girvaaNa), dro(sarava)-Na, Subhadra,suvarNa(two wings) etc. Since the body also is a sara(gaa-tra) it becomes trisara/trisira as in some seals. This can be read as bhaara -ta,sa(tra,paNa )-paNa(na,va cf.vipaNa) or vaaraasana(saraasana-water jar).Bhaarata is paartha or bhadra-the king or lord.PaNa is barter ,praise,price and money.

100. Bullas and bills

The bulla of Remesses 11

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramesses_II From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

Ramesses II, painted relief http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:RamessesII-ColoredRelief_BrooklynMuseum.png

Records of the Sea Peoples date to two campaigns of Ramesses II, a pharaoh of the militant 19th Dynasty. The Battle of Kadesh took place in the fifth year of his reign.It was the outcome of a campaign against the Syrians and allies . At home, Ramesses had his scribes formulate an official description, which has been called "the Bulletin" because it was widely published by inscription. Ten copies survive today on the temples at Abydos, Karnak, Luxor and Abu Simbel, with reliefs depicting the battle.

Bullas of the Christian Pontiffs

The letters of the Christian pontiffs of Kerala to the community members of their diocese usually begin like this: Mar(nri,sri,raama)-Name of the pontiffmetraappoliitta(metropolis- netra pura-king)-bhadraasana(throne)kalpana(girvaaNa-royal edict ,sacrifice and kurbaana-sacrifice).In this type of communication mar nri-king or srii- raaja-king is denoted by the Harappan nara(human-nri,srii) , bhadra (bull,bharata-king) or cakra (wheelbhadra, ,raaja,nakshatra) figure. Bhadraasanasimhaasanahamsaasanaroyal throne .cf.In the Lady of Lourde,bhadraasana(cathedral) church in Trichur/Kerala bhadraasana is indicated by three birds(pa-tra) in a circle(bhadra cf. on a triangular foot(paada/aasana cf.IVC

) placed

).Bhadraasana(saya,sava,siva) indications are seen in aasana on paatra(jar ) as in M-1186,patra(leaf,wing) as in , bhadra(head ,girl,gold,bull,elephant,mountain) as in the unicorn, bhadraasana yogic postures (M-1181,M305), svastika symbols ( as in H-182;bhadraasana -palace is svasti or su, subh, siv-asti), eating(asana) leaves (patra) as in M489B, C2B7copper tablet of Mohenjo-daro, double bodies(dva-asti),double lines(dva-yashti),crossed arms(dva-hasta),crossed (bhadra)legs ,squatting (bhadra) posture etc. Aasamsa(greeting cf.lamassu-namas) is aja(ram)-sma(face)


sv(subh,siv)-aagata(visitor ,welcome) is dvi-aksha (eye,wheel,fish;the fish-bhuj-hand is a welcome sign;fish-biija-seed,circle)and aakta (anointed

AV.10.1.25,the feet of the guest used to be washed) .

Bullas of The Indus valley Pontiffs In my earlier works we were dwelling mainly on the litererary and religious applications of the Indus scripts. Did they have some civil applications as was the practice in Sumer,Egypt or Akkad? A clue lies in words of the veda like girvaaNa(RV.9.64.14) or kalpa(sacred precept,law.RV.9.9.7;AV.8.9.10) for the Harappans,Korban(from sacrificial laws) for the Hebrews,Kurbaana(sacrifice) for the Syrians and Kalpa-na (law,order)for the Keralites.These sacrifices were mainly of offerings or gifts to the gods in the temples and as taxes and duties to the god kings in the palaces. Several inscriptions contains the terms bhadraasana and paNa in them apart from pictorial representations to the same effect indicating the authority of the king and praising him.






cakra panca(5,karsha)




eka cakra(karsha) bhadraasana(garta)-suvarNa(hariNa)-paNa(vasna) ekacakra-rishabhanaaga(bhadraasana)-sankha(hari)-paNa(vasna) eka(1)-bhadra(0)-rishabha-naaga-karsha -paNa Rishabha-naaga-karsha(panca)- paNa Hence this shows one karsha paNa of gold issued by the king or karsha paNa issued by the king of Ekacakra. The number of karsha is given by (a) eka bhadra =10 (b) the double bull=double hand=10 (c) the kala on the gala=10. On the other hand,if the fifth(panca) symbol karsha is read as panca ,it is simply rishabha naaga panca paNa indicating 5 paNa of gold. Karsha(garta-garja-sounding and counting) being panca(five digits) the inscriptions are usually of five akshara(karsha-raksha-laksha- marks or words). This bull shows a gir-vaaNa ( bulla) or kiirttana(praise) or varta-patra(barter writ) by the paNa(vana-leaf) on its gala(neck,cf.kala-gana-calculate) or patra(leaf,writ) on the griiva(neck,krii-kraya-purchase) .Such seals were usually hung on the owners neck(gala-griiva-kraya) for ready use as was done in Sumeria.The srinkhala(chain) on the gala(neck) is a nishka(neck ornament,RV) or sriN(daana-giving,donation)kala(count). Nishkto measure,weigh(cf.ganita-counting) Nishka1 Dinaara of 32 small or 16 large rettis,=1 karsha or suvarNa of 16 Maashas=1 pala of 4 or 5
suvarNas,=1larger Pala or Dinaara variously reckoned at 108 or 150 Suvarnas,=4 maashas,=16 Drammas;also a weight of silver of 4 suvarnas;a golden vessel cf. vessel before the unicorn etc.Nishkakantha is a golden ornament. Nishkagriiva(RV,AV) is wearing a gold ornament round the neck.(Mon Will ) Thus this ornamented bull is a bhadraasana nishka seal.

Kara-handgira-word,hillpaNa-praise,money,barter paana-cup,crossed paaNa-hands vanpraise vanatree,water,housenaava(boat,praise) Ekacakra having one wheel like the sun or governed by one king RV.1.164.2,AV.9.9.2,10.8.7.
It is the name of a Daanava and the name of a town of the Kiicakas MBh.

One of the most important sources of history in the Indian subcontinent are the royal records of grants engraved on copper-plates (taamra-saasana or taamra-patra; taamra means copper in Sanskrit and several other Indian languages cf.taamrarathamraajansamarasama-rasa-narasma-ra (cf.the copper hoards of Mohenjodaro). The earliest known copper-plate known as the Sohgaura copper-plate is a Maurya record that mentions famine relief efforts. Indian copper plate inscriptions (taamarasaasana), usually record grants of land or lists of royal lineages carrying the royal seal, a profusion of which have been found in South India. Originally inscriptions were recorded on palm leaves, but when the records were legal documents such as title-deeds they were etched on a cave or temple wall, or more commonly, on copper plates which were then deposited in a safe place such as within the walls or foundation of a temple, or hidden in stone caches in the fields. Most copper plate inscriptions record title-deeds of land-grants made to Brahmanas, individually or collectively. The inscriptions followed a standard formula of identifying the royal donor and his lineage, followed by lengthy honorifics of his history, heroic deeds, and his extraordinary personal traits. After this would follow the details of the grant, including the occasion, the recipient, and the penalties involved if the provisions were disregarded or violated.


the PaNis of the Rigveda the Philistines of the


PaNi phili(paNi) stine(staana-place) Genesis 10:13 lists the Philistines as being descended from Ham(PaNi). The Bible contains nearly 250 references to the Philistines or Philistia, and refers to

them as "uncircumcised", like the Hamitic peoples, such as Canaanites, which the Bible relates encountered the Israelites following the Exodus. (1 Samuel 17:26-36, 2 Samuel 1:20, Judges 14:3) It has been suggested that the Caphtorite Philistines formed part of the "Sea Peoples" who repeatedly attacked Egypt during the later Nineteenth Dynasty. The Rigvedic people(Israel) were attacked by the PaNis ( Philistines).So the Exodus of Israel was from Mehergarh to Egypt and on their way they met the Hamitic peoples. Israel(Indra,usra-el) jana(people) is Indran(vedic sungod) - jina(the sun). cf.Samsun (the sun or Indra ) of the Bible (Judges13-16) fought the Philistines(light,balishta-strong).Kaasa(light) being kesa(hair) Samsons strength was in his hair(rays) and the loss of his hair through his wife Dalilah(kanni-Virgo the sign of sunset accommodating the southwest direction,sariira=body,salila=water). The seven fresh thongs used to tie him to make him weak is the seven week days.(Judjes.16.7)

102 .GiirvaaNa symbols

Gir-vaaNa(paNA) symbols
, , , , , , , , , , , , ,


paatra(pot,jar) bhadra(king,bull,girl,water,gold) nava(9,new)

, etc.





ka(head)-tra(tri cf.kaasara)pa-trabha-dra

Ka(K) is the double horned bulls or double bunned mans head(cf.


The single horned bull is Ra(Ra-fire,Ravi-the sun,Raja-king,Gaja-elephant;ka-saka-viravi;vi=sa=bird,god,snake).An elephant naaga(snake,naga-the sun) also. Ka-tragaatra(deha-body)kaasara(bhadra-bull,buffaloe)garta(throne)karsha(paNa) Ka(head)-parda(bun). , and an arrow is called a

103.The kaparda- bun-paNa evidence

GirvaaNa was made two stone tablets(EX.34.1) as gira(wordgod) is gira(mountain ),kara(hand ),kiraNa(ray,the sun),

sira(head) , sila(stone), jina(the sun) and patra(writ,leaf ) is bhadra(mountain,stone,bull,king,head) and paatra (paanajar


as in

(gira,bhadramountain,word) + (patra-writ). The fin(wingpaNaking)-ger(gira) of god is girvaaNa itself as seen in the following seal fragment of a man with a double bun( kapardakabricowri paNa girvaaNa;kapardavartakatradersan-paN- bun,

kri-giri-sanaconch,gold) and tri(giri

) fingered karsha paNa




available on www.Harappa.com. Srii(the sun,light,word,wealth) is tri(three),athari(finger) is adri(mountain,aatreya-king) and karasaakha(finger) is prakaasa(light).Karabha(finger)-na(like,two) is girvaaNa.Kabri(made up hair bun)-na is also girvaaNa. Prakaasa is pra(sira-head)-kesa(hair). The Harappan gods were given trident like kirii-ta (crown;giri-hill,da-hill tri-dathree hillsTrita) also hence.The word of the priestking is the word of god or veda.In the kurbaana
, note the ghar( cross-cup) formed by the priest by crossing the paNa(bhuja) holding the kaaza(cashaka-cup) and piilaaza(paatra- plate). The money unit

Kaakinigagana(nabha-paNa) san-kha shell cypraea moneta or PaNa wt . of copper used as a coin 20 maasha 4 kaakinii 4x5 (=20)maasha Kaakini a Gunja seed,the shell Cyprea Moneta,20 kapardas or cowries or PaNa or Maana ;gunja,a cubit,thefourth part of a Danda or

Kaparda-a small shell or cowrie used as a coin 80 (16x5=8x10)kaparda 1 paNa or as a die in gambling; braided and knotted hair Kaakaa crow, tilaka ,a measure( cf. droNaa crow )

Kabandha RV,AV (a large cask or barrel, a headless body

) can be a kaparda(cowrie

whence we have

and the double buns


Kapardin RV.10.102.8 wearing braided and knotted hair, Rudra and Pushan , author of RV.1.60.1.


This is a three paNa(praise,price,prize) seal as there are three glyphs(phrase).The words may be kosala or karsha (kara+sa=karsha,Sakra) or gunja or paNa(pramaaNa,parimaaNa,maana) maasha(mesha-maata-mita-spoken,measured;naadasound-count;naaga-hema,karsha,paNa) - 12 which indicate 12 maasha(96 ratti) to a karsha. Dvaadasa

naaga(copper-cobra , ;hema-gold) vasna(paNa) indicate copper money of value 12 karsha.

The prapaana(praNava)/mahaaviira(trough) indicate bhadraasana/nishka from the bhadra(dots) placed in a vakra(kraya, curve) around it like a neck nishkaornament,patra(leaf) on the aasana(amza-shoulder) of the bhadra asva(unicorn bull)and it is corresponded by the paatra(paana-jar) and aasana(paNa-house,aapaNamarket) in the script.Dvaadasa(Tvashtaa,svastika) is twelve(cf.dvaadasaaditya-the twelve suns),but as bha-dra(haatra,netra) it is the king(Divodaasa) and gold.Nishka value is 10 karsha from the 10 dots(karsha/laksha cf.In seals like M007a,M008a etc. the drops are shown on the jar itself.Similarly the number of drops also vary in different seals.). Interestingly diva(vaara-viira-the sky cf. nabha-the sky ,paNa-vishnu,house,money) is indicated by the roof
symbol and Divodaasa is divo-raaja(the sun-paNa-vishnu-the sun king ) itself. Divodaasa(heavens slave ) is the name of Bharad-vaaja(celebrated for his liberality and protected by Indra and the Asvins (RV.1.112.14,116,18);The son of Vadhry-asva RV.6.61.5;His father is also called Bhadra-sva,Bahv-asva etc.It is also the father of Su-daasa.RV.7.18.28.It is also the name of a king of Kasi(=PaNa!) .Bhadra(paNa) is the asva(avasa-the sun,king). Sudaasa (worshipping the gods well,bestowing rich gifts) RV.was a celebrated king of the Tritsus(son of Divodaasa,at whose court both Vasishtha and Visvaamitra appear to have acted as family priests ;Sudas Paijavana is regarded as the author of RV.10.133. dhaama(Gr.domos)-site of the sacred fire and soma,law,rule RV,AV; Name of one of th the 7Rishis of the 4 Manvantara etc. is daaman(allotment,share RV) or daana(splitting,dividing,distributing food or sacrificial meal,share,possession) or saasana or sana or aasana itself.Daaman is also a rope/cord/string/garland/wreath/girdle which is another name for the nishka shown on the nishka vessel. PaNa(vasna) is a house.Saasana/saadhana is sadana(a house). Dhaama(paNa) on the bhadra(garta-cross) indicate bhadraasana/karshapaNa nishka.Dvaadasa-naaga-dhaaman indicate 12 mahaadaana or paNa/12 naaga-elephant,goat-daana or paNa/Divodaasa-sa-dana / dvaadasa maasha paNa etc.As per Manu it was the practice of kings to revise and fix the value of goods periodically.Hence this may indicate 12 maasha to a PaNa instead of 16.(cf.12x5x3=180grains;16x5x3=240grains).


http://www.harappa.com/indus/25.html This is a seven paNa seal as thre are seven glyphs(refer page 505 also). sisna tri(dasa)/srii varsha / triopanca (ashta) karshapaNa draviNa/ sravana/saravaNa/droNa/drupada patra (kundala/bhadra/bhadraasana/writ)

KarshapaNa is garta paNa(palace) or bhavana(nagna-lagna-palace) itself. Saasana(daana-gift or command,sadana-house) is shown by sisna and patra/bhadra/varta by patra at the end to show saasana patra. DroNa is indicated by the dru-tree thorn . The drona- crow may be a repeat of this as illustration or stressing. Sisna genitals
, , ,

is paasas( fish-bhuja-paNa).Patra(bird

is female

also. Saadhana (sisna/patra)is both genitals and items or articles.Hence this inscription may be written with a fish at the beginning and a jar at the end also.Fish/bhuj/vac/asva is usha/siva/saya or light/aum.Naaga is naasa/naaza/ svaasa / svaaha for the mantras. Saadhana(sisna-articles)-kraya(traya-purchase)-patra(vasna-writ,money)-karsha PaNatrayodasa(13) patra(writ,bhadra-gold)/Saravana bhadra/Bharata Saasana-sriipaNa/sriibali-karshapaNa-SraavaNa bhadra(tithi).

Patra (bird


) is bhadra and
or (bha) -

Bhadra-Rishabha(PaNa/Pala) is panca(five) or shad(6) as in

(sa) - (ra) or as in the Braille alphabet.

SuvarNa is 16 maasha(maana). DroNa is 16 pushkala. Also dru is su and patra is parNa whence droNa patra is suvarNa itself.


bha- Taaraka- is harsha and karsha. It being shad is bhadra.

maana(paNa) is measure and aasana(house,seat). Hence is bhadraasana or karsha paNa or bhavana. Hence saasana-suvarNa-karshapaNa(bhadraasana)- Drupada Bharata is also possible. Thus this is a paNa seal commemorating the third/thirtieth year of reign of king nd rd Drupada/SaravaNa.Alternately,it (symbols 2 &3 ) can indicate drangshaNa = a measure of weight.= tolaka / or sriibhadra(auspicious,Durga;sriiputra-is a bull th th or horse). Symbols 6 and 7 can indicate sankha,tunga(tunga bhadrasimha bhadrasimha patratiryanc patraamphibious animal ,birdlamassu Man.5.40;RV.1.161.12,2.10.4The patra(bird ) can

be the bird wings of the lamassu(namassu)

or can be the owl in

the Athenian owl money . An owl is a kausika ( an owl,treasurer,Indra,RV.1.10.11). ) or pingala(owl,brass). Garuda is garta and karsha.Dranga(a town,city; Bhadra is its king or pura-the city itself) etc.

The patra(leaf,trilepton) on the amza(aasana-shoulder) of the unicorn indicate it to be of bhadraasana(royal throne) or amsa(partition)-patra(deed; hence deed of partition ) or bhadra(king,ruler)-amsa(division/ taluk/district).


Papal bullas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Papal.bull.JPG

Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. Bullamudra(seal) bhadra(king,word,bull) patra(wing,writ) suutra(thread,code) surata(sex) varta(trade) The Harappan bullS were the predecessors of the papal bulls(with bullas),and the latest news bull-etins of television news channels.With the pegasus-the winged Greek
horse- the bull(asva) becomes the horse(asva =hippos).

A Papal bull is a particular type of letters patent or charter(gira-sara) issued by a pope. It is named after the bulla that was appended to the end in order to authenticate it. The term had become official by the fifteenth century, when one of the offices of the Papal chancery was named the "register of bulls" (registrum bullarum). Today, the bull is the only written communication in which the Pope will refer to himself as episcopus servus servorum Dei, meaning "Bishop, Servant of the Servants of God."

For instance, Benedict XVI, when he issues a decree(gira) in bull form, will begin the document with Benedictus, Episcopus, Servus Servorum Dei.

Sealcihna(symbol)simha (lion) hamsa(swan) himsa(medha

cf.stabbing the bull or buffalo is stamping the seal)

kakuda(kakubha- a peak,hump of a

bull,royal ensign) bhadra(bull,tiger,lion,king,auspicious) mudra(ma-trana-tra)

ne-tra(eye,king,sacrifice)pa-tra(leaf,writ) varta(barter,trade)


The most distinctive characteristic of a bull was the metal seal, which was usually made of lead, but on very solemn occasions was made of gold (as Byzantine imperial deeds often were). It depicted the founders of the Church of Rome, the apostles Peter(birdword) and Paul(bull,svar), identified by the letters Sanctus Paulus and Sanctus Petrus. The name of the issuing pope is on the reverse side. This was then attached to the document either by cords of hemp (in the case of letters of justice, and executory) or by red and yellow silk (in the case of letters of grace) that was looped through slits in the vellum of the document. Bulla is the name of this seal, which to ancient observers looked like a bubble floating on water: Latin bullire, "to boil". Peter(bhadra)+Paul(bulla-svara-saura writ of the sun)patra(writ)-bulla(bhadra-bull) Peter is also depicted with a cross (Peterbhadrabirdword) to show bhadra(king)-asva(avasa-the king,vacas-word)and his patra(writ) , varta(trade) or bhadraasana(royal golden throne) or varta(trade)-san(bestowing,procuring). In terms of content, the bulla is simply the format in which a decree of the Pope appears.. The brief is the less formal form of papal communication and is authenticated with a wax impression (now a red ink impression) of the Ring of the Fisherman.(cf.Fish eating alligator Pope of the Harappans?)

The Harappan bulls(paNA cf. vijnaa-panaproclamation) were the predecessors of the papal bullas(with bulls)and the latest news bull-etins of television news channels.



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Money

Money(paNa,nayana,nii,naaNya,naaNaka)kriikari harikrayaarkaarghagira girikaragriivagraahasravadravabalipaNa samabaaNapaanavanapaNasapanca aapaNaaasanavasnabhadravrishaprisprice (Malayalam:paricu)Lat.preciumprizedhana sanasandhabandhamaanyamaananaama naaNyanayananaaNakanaaka,naaga,kanaa,nagna gaNanagaNakalanakaNakalagalahalaha nakalasakarshamuulyatulyasuuryasvar DurgasulkasimhahiraNyasvar-Na

A thousand rupee note of Bhaarata-India.Note the water(bhadra,vana,paNa) mark.

A Syrian 100 pound note(bill-bull) with Philip the Arab.

A US twenty-dollar bill(bulla bullbun hillpaNahalakara). Note the greenpack.Patra(leaf,green) and water(bhadra) agrees with paNa(money
, , , etc.) of the Harappans.

A ten pound bill of England Word(Paul- bulla - patra) or writ(Peter -patra-bhadra-adri-rock) of the king or the government is paNa(money). The modern terms like bulla-bill-will- bun etc.have their equivalents in the Harappan terms like bhadra-patra-varta-vrata-paNa- vana etc.Bun is made vana in several seals like the seals given below to indicate paNa.

sa va-rNa ka-r-sha

karsha(4) bhadraasanapaNa

Money (paNa) is anything that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts.


A 640 BC one-third stater electrum coin from Lydia.Note the karsha-garja- garutsimha-Durga-svarga-sulka-harsha -vana marks indicating the descent from the Harappans. The use of barter-like methods by ancient cultures around the world eventually developed into the use of commodity money. The shekel (cf.scale Lat.scalascales
, ,


,Norse bowl



was originally both a unit of currency and a unit of weight. The first usage of the term came from Mesopotamia circa 3000 BC. Societies in the Americas, Asia, Africa and Australia used shell money usually, the shell of the money cowry (Cypraea moneta) were used. According to Herodotus, and most modern scholars, the Lydians were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coin. It is thought that these first stamped coins were minted around 650600 BC. But as we shall see presently, the Harappans were using svarNa(gold) and arka(copper)and kamsa(cf.ayas-kamsa brass/bronze.,tutenag .Marathi tuttinag Paanini.8.3.46,cf.Roman aes-copper) as paNa thousands of years before the Lydians. Etymology The word "money" is said to originate from the temple of Juno Moneta at Rome where the mint of Ancient Rome was located. The name "Juno" may derive from the Etruscan goddess Uni (which means "the one", "unique", "unit", "union", "united"cf.the unicorn or the uni-horn and the animals with united bodies in the Harappan seals. Hence the unicorn naaga is the Juno Moneta of Harappa. "Moneta" comes from the Latin word "monere" (remind, warn, or instruct cf.saasana in Harappan seals.) or the Greek word "moneres" (alone, unique). But the actual source for the word is the paNa(money),

maana(measure), nayana(eye),naaNya,saya(sex) etc. of IVC.The naaga/nagna phaNa is the phallus/palace paNa/bhadraasana.The nayana phana is the bhaga/clit/slit paNa.Maana indicate honour and shame signified by the sex organs.Since they are under gopana (kept under garments) they denote go-paNa(cow money).

107.A Comparative Chronology of Money


Monetary History from Ancient Times to the Present Day

9,000 - 1 BC Roy Davies & Glyn Davies, 1996 & 1999. Based on the book: A History of Money from Ancient Times to the Present Day by Glyn Davies, rev. ed. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1996

c 9000 6000 Domestication of cattle and cultivation of crops BC Livestock and grain, come to be used as money . Cattle are probably the oldest of all forms of money. cf.
, , But pasu(go-cow,arrow,eye,bhuu-the earth,ko-the king) is vasu(gold,the sun,rays).The sun is paNa.kara(ray,hand) is paNa.Vasu is kara and paNa. Harsha(erection of hair/phallus),sikhara(branch,peak) of vana(tree) are kara ,vasu and paNa.

? - c. 3100 Writing invented in Harappa ,Mesopotamia and Egypt BC The main use was for keeping accounts.

c. 3000 - c. Development of Banking in Mesopotamia 2000 BC

Banking originates in Babylonia out of the activities of temples and palaces which provided safe places for the storage of valuables. Initially deposits of grain were accepted and later other goods including cattle, agricultural implements and precious metals. The large granaries of IVC also might have served as kosa(banks) as also as sabhaas. The Srii Padmanaabha Swamy temple of Kerala and Srii Baalaaji temple of Andhrapradesh are good examples of this at present.

c. 2250c. 2150 Cappadocian rulers guarantee quality of silver ingots BC The state guarantee, probably of both the weight and the purity of her silver ingots, helps their wider acceptance as money. cf.The Harappan use of standard weights.
kaasarahaatragaatrakarsha garta - paNa

Gaatragartashatpana maapanamaanava maana

c. 1792 - c. Reign of Hammurabi in Babylon 1750 BC The Code of Hammurabi includes laws governing banking operations.

Hammu is Manu (Hanu ) for the Harappans and Muusa for the Jews. c. 1200 Cowries used as money in China BC The Chinese character for "money" originally represented a cowrie shell. Cowries have been used as money in many different places at different periods.


paNa san-kha sankhya( numbers)

c. 1000Tool currencies adopted in China 500 BC These were metal models of valuable implements that had previously been accepted in commercial exchanges, e.g. spades, hoes, swords,knives etc..

cf. , , , , etc.from IVC. Word is paNa.S-word is money. c. 950 Queen of Sheba(cf.sepha-phallus-palace,Diva-the sky,day) visits Solomon BC and they exchange gifts. The Biblical account of their encounter is probably the best known example of competitive gift exchange.

Crude "co-ins(cf.go-cattle/arrow/eye/earth/star/the sun/rays/the moon/singer/horse/harewater//billion/hairs of the body/dhenu/dhanu/the 687 BC sky/nine/mother/Sarasvati of the Harappans)" invented in Lydia (according to Herodotus.His Lydia has to be India.) c. 640 c. 630 The first true coins produced in Lydia BC The earliest coins made in Lydia, Asia Minor, consisted of electrum, a naturally occurring amalgam of gold and silver.

c. 600 BC

Pythius operates as a merchant banker in Asia Minor

c. 600Round, base metal coins invented in China 300 BC c. 600 c. 570 Use of coins spreads rapidly from Lydia to Greece BC c. 550 BC Lydians produce separate gold and silver coins

546 BC Croesus King of Lydia is captured by the Persians As a result, use of coins spreads to Persia. Unlike the Greeks the Persians use mainly gold coins in preference to silver.

546 BC Athenian Owls produced These coins are first produced by the tyrant Peisistratus, using silver from the Laurion mines 25 miles south of Athens.


, owlpatrabhadrapaNa;kausika(owl,treasury guard or treasurer,Indra,Visvamitra);Garuda is garta and karsha.

c. 490 Discovery of a Rich Seam of Silver in the Laurion Mines BC 406 Athens issues bronze coins with a silver coating 405 BC 405 BC Aristophanes' comedy The Frogs is produced In the play Aristophanes refers to how the new, inferior coins have displaced the old superior ones from circulation - probably the world's first statement of Gresham's law, that bad money drives out good.

394 Career of Pasion the Athenian banker 371 BC Pasion, a slave, becomes the wealthiest and most famous Greek banker and gains his freedom and Athenian citizenship in the process. Greek banking transactions are carried out primarily in cash.

390 BC The Gauls attack Rome The cackling of geese in the capitol, where the city's reserves of money are kept, alerts the defenders. The grateful Romans build a shrine to Moneta, the goddess of warning, and from Moneta the words money and mint are derived. Monetamaanasa(mind)manaah(mind)nayana(eye)maanyanaaNyanaaNaka (coin) paNa(money)

360 Reign of Philip II of Macedonia 336 BC Philip unites Greece and Macedonia.. Among his coins is the golden stater celebrating his triumph in the chariot race in the Olympics in 356 BC - an early example of the use of coins as propaganda. c. 350 Normal rate of interest in Greece is 10% except for risky business BC According to Demosthenes 10% is the normal rate of interest for run-of-the-mill business. For risky business such as lending for shipping rates of between 20% and 30% are normal.

336 Reign of Alexander the Great 323 BC

During the conquest of Asia Minor the cost of maintaining Alexander's army reaches about 20 talents or half a ton of silver a day .Alexander also simplifies the exchange rate between silver and gold by fixing it at 10 units of silver equals one of gold. Cf.Manus laws

323 Empire of the Ptolemies in Egypt 30 BC For long before Egypt came under Greek control grain had been used as a form of money in addition to precious metals, and state granaries functioned as banks. The Ptolemies transform the local warehouse deposit system into a fully integrated giro system with a central bank in Alexandria. Payments are made by transfer from one account to another without money passing. Cf.the Great halls/granaries of IVC.

275 BC

The aes signatum or bronze bars are still commonly used as currency in Rome cf ayas of the Harappans

269 BC

Regular issues of silver coins are minted by the Romans and widely circulated

218 2nd Punic War between Rome and Carthage 201 BC Because of the enormous demand for coins to pay troops the Roman rulers debase their coinage in purity and weight, causing inflation.

c. 200 Delos becomes a prominent banking centre BC Delos, a Greek island becomes a banking centre. Transactions are carried out by giro or credit transfer. cf.gira(word is paNa and money),kara(hand gives and takes).

118 BC Leather money issued in China This consists of pieces of white deerskin, about one foot square, with a value of 40,000 cash. (The cash was the name of a base metal coin). Cf.bhadraasana is bhadra(tiger,bull) aasana(seat) and ajina(hide of goat,antelope,tiger) indicating the use of leather money in place of the present paper money by the Harappans.

55 & Julius Caesar raids Britain 54 BC In his account of his two raids Caesar notes scornfully that the Britons still used sword blades as currency.cf. of Harappa. 30 BC Reign of Augustus Caesar 14 AD Augustus reforms the Roman monetary and taxation systems issuing new, almost pure gold and silver coins, and new brass and copper ones, and also introduces three new taxes: a general sales tax, a land tax, and a flat-rate poll tax. Tax is daksha(hasta-kararaksha-raaja-garta-karsha) and dasa(ten). Roy Davies

108.The cowry shell as money http://www.conchsoc.org/pages/MW_6_p19-21a.pdf

By Colin Narbeth (Banknote Specialist), 20 Cecil Court, Leicester Square, WC2N 4HE. email: Colin.Narbeth@btinternet.com

The Chinese are credited to have introduced the use of cowries as a form of money .But the Harappans were the first to do this . It is from from them that the use spread to China . The use of cowries as money became common place in most African countries at one time or another and in some, like Ethiopia, cowries are still used for this purpose.. One of the earliest written references is that of an historian, S su-ma Chien, of c. 145-86 BC. He mentions cowries as being used as money in the Shang and Chou periods. You shall not accumulate the huo and the pao and make profits for your own use. Huo(cf.Go=cow) means money and pao(cf.paNa-money,raya-wealth) means treasure. The shells used were Cypraea moneta and Cypraea annulus

. Both species live in large numbers in the Indian Ocean.

Figure B: Recent specimens of C. moneta [right hand pair] and C. annulus [left hand pair] Scarcity of cowries caused the Chinese to make imitations of them in wood, stone, jade, other semi-precious stones, bone, bronze, and even gold and silver .This led to a major coinage in imitation of the cowry - the 1 Pi Chien (Ant Nose money cf.Harappan , ) of the Sung dynasty. The name originates from the characters resemblances to an ant and a human nose. These coins were used at a burial, being inserted inside the nose of the deceased to keep out the ants. Panam=pinam(cf.story of the fist coin also with Phanes). These coins have also been called Kuei-lien chien meaning Ghost Face moneycf.aana=nose,face cf.head &tail,mukhamudra etc., again from the appearance of the character.
Some authorities claim that cowries were used as a medium of exchange as early as 2000BC(cf.Harappan fish paNa,co wry and ant figures). Marco Polo recorded that cowries had been brought from India to the Yunnan Province of China. Larger species such as the Tiger Cowry cf.H-94, Cypraea tigris and the Turtle Cowry,Cypraea testudinaria. were sometimes used to represent higher values. Ironically, although cowries were banned in 335 BC for conflicting with copper money, a few centuries later it was the debased coinage which was banned, and cowries were restored as the official coinage of China. Up to the 14th century taxes could be paid in cowries.

cf . , , etc. in the Harappan Glyphs .Maasha(mass of gold) is naasa(nose or sma-face or amsa-part) Figure D: Ant Nose Coin

Figure C: Examples of imitation cowries in jade, gold and stone. Note that a hole has been made in the stone example for authenticity. Sam-kha = horn =pana=vana =bhana sana saasana=sa-aajna,aasana,asana, gra-sana,krasana,gar-ja-na ;kiir-tana, giir-vaana kara-kala-gana-pana-dhana-sama-sana-bhaka-sana,vaaha-sana Dyu=ud=yadu

cf. sana=sma=face naasa=nose ukha-go-cow-sa;ukaaca,gaja,naaka,saaman;naaman,maasha,maana,manaa,paana,pana,patra,bhadra,varta,sanke ta,san-kh-ya(, =san-kha),kalasa,karsha,haatra,netra,vaaha,vaasa,vaaca,aana Figure E: Rare Ghost Face coin from the Chou Dynasty

Fi gure F: Postage stamps depicting Ant Nose Money and replica cowries.





= naaga=hood of serpent(paNa-phana-vana

( naaga-paasa),naaga(head of elephant)

=na+aga(mountain) =paana




or sepha



is bhana sanga is

sankha.grasana is krisana.The snakes that eat each other is paNa and sankha.cf.paNa=phala-fruit and the concept of the Biblical original sin where Adam and Eve ate the phala-fruit of the vana-tree of knowledge(jna-saya) genitals,especially male sex organs are called money in Malayalam.saadhana is things and sex organs.Maa(to measure)-nava(paNa-praise,money,barter,agreement) is made a paNava and a

maapaNa and naaNaka(naaNaya)in the scripts.Fish is pasas and bhuja(fish=fist).It is paNa(hand;pa-leaf,water,cipher;na- pearl).It is hasta(ashta=8 and panca(5). Hence the cowries were counted by fives or eights .The bhadras(panca, simha,cipher etc.) indicate 5 and the

Tiger,lion,leopard,bull;purusha-puruda-aksha-karsha naagas( snake, elephant, mesha,


arrow etc.) indicate 8. The figure of 5 is the 8 is the figure of paNa(phaNa-

figure of hasta(aksha

) and the figure of

snake).Patra is leaf and female organ. Vrishna is krisana and sukla is sulka. Naaka (
paNa-baana-arrow , ;naa-maa-to measure;ka-water=maana-measure) is the ,

male organ.,vana(leaf or tree

, , , , ),vana(house ,water,nine ) paNa( kara-hand are sankha paNa.PaNa is panca.Hasta is ashta.Kara is to paN to fuck as in

) etc

Ashta naaga,ashtavasu ashta pasu(vasu=paNa).The figure of = is naaga,krisana,vrishna etc.Thus elephant,snake,leaves,spear etc. represent eight.Leaves=


head=eight.Snakes that eat each other .sex=sanga=sanKha=sangama=jangama. Bandha=panTa,pali-sa(bali-sa).Srava (kraya,ka=sa + =c =u=v= santula =paNa=bhuja=sura=caaraaya(arrack)=saraava(zaara,zura)=soma-sonasrava=kraya=graaha(alligator is called sankhamukha)

Compare abja(sankh)-paasa(noose,fetter,dice)- bhaga(vulva,the sun)-bhaaga(part)bhuja(hand)-kaasi(handful,the sun)-nava(nine,praise)-naava(boat)-paNa(agreement)- pasu(animal)-vana(tree,water,a house)-vasu(ray,wealth)-vaaha(bull,hand)-gava(go-cow)cow-ri-suurya-suura(tiger,lion,panther,boar,dog,cock,suna,suuna-tula-sama) Santul-santolayati-to weigh onething against another,balance together The vedic count of agnaekanaagaganaashtahasta5 sankha+3(druvanabaana 3saratratrisriiraaja cf.naagaraaja mahaaraajatrinanetra

haatra DhariNa=scale) 3+3+natraanadhariNanetrapaanabaaNapaala


man=na or paasapancabandha , )

fishmanpasasbandhapancapancama(sex)=bandhana(fetter Sana paNasmaaasanaaajna

na(krisana,karsha,panca,sarva,tarana,bhaga,vaha) vana=dravina) =naanaka panca



To collect cowries, large palm(cf.pana=palm of tree and of hand=paNa=pala , , leaves from the coco-nut trees were laid in the shallow sea water. Soon thousands of cowries would crawl onto the leaves - to be suddenly pulled out of the water and left high and dry to die before being sent to replenish the Queens Treasury. This account was confirmed by Masudi of Baghdad, famous Arab historian of the 10 century. . In India the cowry was an important currency - and even large transactions like the building of a property were paid in millions of cowries. Not unnaturally, the cowry became scarce in its home waters and traders found that they could exploit Cypraea annulus because it was so similar to C. moneta . Town governors packed them in sacks - 20,000 to the sack. But when used between private individuals they had to be counted, in fives(paN-ca sankha-sankhya cf.

). Barth wrote: The general custom is to count them in fives , , .The people of Bengal use them for ordinary money although they have gold and silver and plenty of other metals; and what is more strange, kings and great lords have houses

built expressly to store these shells and treat them as. part of their treasure. Cow-ry =suurya =go-raya = sana=sa-na fish=daanya+kha=sankhya=netra=nayana=naanaka or ma-kha-va-n(king,god)

makhavan pana(sana)=tetra drakhm=saraa-kha-ma or sa -na -kha-ya kha=hole of arrow=sara =tra-aana sana(pana) the hole in coin =kha=sara=raja=raya=pana =sa-na(ma)-kha-ya =paNakhya

These were special shells only available on the Mekran coast. The authorities at the time monopolized the supply of the Kauri and used it as currency. The Kauri along with the Harappan seals have been found as far as Hawai, and in many parts of the MiddleEast and Africa . The Harappans used shells not only as money but also as implements like libation vessels,ladles etc. as seen from the following links



109.Commodity money http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodity_money http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Money

Many items have been used as commodity money such as gold, silver, copper, rice, salt, peppercorns, large stones, decorated belts, conch shells, alcohol, cigarettes, cannabis, candy, barley, beads etc., as well as many other things

that are thought of as having value. The commodity itself constitutes the money, and the money is the commodity. Dollar etymology Dollar is said to be derived from German thaler (dollar from coins Sankt Joachims thaler -from the Saint Joachim valley), named from the place where coins were minted from silver mined nearby c. 1500. It is however a descendant of tola,netra(kingmoney),dhana,tulaa, Dinar etc.also.

110.Money, Weights and Measures in Antiquity

A weight of three mina from the Assyrian city Nimrod (British Museum) 1 Money and weights

1 talent (G.UN; biltu) = 60 mina 1 mina (MA.NA; man) = 3600 shekel = 60 shekel 1 shekel (GN; iqlu)
Four weights found in Persepolis indicate that the mina was 499.80 gr.

= 30.00 kg = 500 gr = 8.333 gr

Compare with Indian Maund,seer ,paNa etc. on page 81.The maund is 36.6 kg approximately.The Indian karsha 80 retti ( 9 .8 gr ) and the Tola of 12 maasha(96 retti=11.76 gr.) are close to the shekel(8.3 gr. Cf.Palestanian shekel 11.5 grm. she-kalkar-sha).The maasha of 5 retti (0.6 grm) is comparable to the grain of .69 grm..

Subdivisions of the shekel:

1 shekel = 2 divisions (zzu) or half shekels cf.sasa in the Harappan seals

o 1 division = 4.17 gr = ca. 1 Greek drachm , 1 shekel is 8 slices (bitqu) = vibhaaga o 1 slice = 1.04 gr 1 shekel = 12 grains (mahat) cf.matsa/mahisha o 1 grain = 0.69 gr (Parthian, Late Achaemenid?)

1 shekel = 24 carat (gir) = saraaasa o 1 carat = 0.35 gr 1 shekel = 40 chickpeas? (hallru) o 1 chickpea = 0.21 gr 1 shekel = 180 barleycorn (E, uttetu) o 1 barleycorn = 0.0463 gr

The purity of silver: Silver in the Neo-Babylonian and Achaemenid period contained 1/8 alloy, i.e. silver had 87.5 % purity. Sometimes, and chronologically increasingly, silver is characterized as qal, "pure", which may have had a higher purity. The tetradrachms of the Hellenistic period (see below) had purity well above 90%. Cf. Vargyas (2001) 13-17; Mrkholm (1991) 5.

The weight known as DWd (Chicago Oriental Institute;


1 Babylonian mina = 6 kar 1 kar
, , ,

= 60 shekel = 10 shekel 1 shekel


= 499.80 gr = 83.33 gr = 8.33 gr

King Darius I the Great introduced gold coinage based on the Babylonian standard (until then, the Lydian standard of king Croesushad been used). 1 gold

piece (dareikos, daric, statr) was between 8.25 and 8.46 gr of gold(cf.ashta naaga,ashta vasu etc.), which corresponds to the 8.33 gr of the Babylonian shekel. Darics were struck in extremely pure gold, 98-99%. Darius maintained the silver piece or siglos on its old standard. Sigloi were betwen 5.20 and 5.49 of silver. They had a 97-98% purity, although 94-95% is recorded in the fourth century. The later silver standard was 5.40-5.67 gr.

Phoenicia; Israel
The weight of the sheqel was locally different. Palestinian sheqel 11.5 gr. In the great trade centers of the fifth and fourth century, it was slightly above 7 gr. Tyre went over to the Attic standard ca. 350 BCE.

Persian coin (!!) cf.the Harappan archers

etc.BaaNa is paNA.

Greek: Attic standard (and Ptolemaic standard)

In the "Solonian" (cf.svarNa-sovereign) system:
1 talent-weight = 60 mnai 1 mna = 6000 drachm-weights cf.saraasa-droNa = 100 drachm-weights 1 drachm-weight (holk) cf.sulka 1 talent-weight = 60 mnai 1 mna = 6300 coin-drachms = 105 coin-drachms 1 coin drachm = 27.47 kg = 457.8 gr = 4.578 gr = 27.47 kg = 457.8 gr = 4.36 gr

The Athenian silver drachm (coin) of the second and first century weighs 4.20 gr. An Athenian decree about weights and measures (IG II 1013; late second century BCE?) includes that the emporike mina, which had until then been equivalent to 138 coin-drachms, henceforth had to be equivalent to 150 coin-drachms.


1 talent (to talanton)

= 60 minae 1 mina (h mn)

= 6000 drachms = 100 drachms 1 drachm (h drachm)

= 36,000 obols = 600 obols = 6 obols 1 obol (ho obols)

= 25.86 kg = 431 gr = 4.31 gr = 0.72 gr

Alternative values: o 1 talent = 21.45 kg o 1 mina = 357.5 gr o 1 drachm = 3.58 gr o 1 obol = 0.60 gr 1 stater (ho statr) or tetradrachm = 4 drachms = 17.24 gr cf.pratha palm has 4 digits 1 didrachm = 2 drachms = 12 obols = 8.62 gr (= 1 Babylonian shekel?) 1 obol = 8 chalkoi 1 deben silver (Ptolemaic demotic) = 20 drachms
Note. In the Seleucid empire the standard coin was the tetradrachm,


In the Ptolemaic empire Ptolemy I Soter began reducing the weight to 15.8 gr. > 14.9 > 14.3/14.4 gr. in ca. 290 BC > 14.2 in the

early first century BC. (Mrkholm (1991) 8.

A Roman weight from the Saalburg mesha(goat,ram)-maasha( aweight)maaza(mass,weight equal to a masha)-sama(equal)-paNa(the sun,trade,barter)

Sama(= tula,tola,suuraLibra svarNa(sovereign) cf.


) paNa sansankha


is maa(measure,mother,mahaa-great)-aja(Indra,Rudra,Vishnu,Marut,sun,king;sa-



= 12 ounces 1 pound (libra or as) 1 ounce (uncia)

Duncan-Jones: 1 libra = 323 gr (better than 327 or 324 g)

= 327.45 gr (or 322.56?) = 27.29 gr (or 26.88?)

Coinage,BCE 211-157/156 (1 denarius = 1/72 libra of silver):

1 denarius (X) = 2 quinarii 1 quinarius (V) = 4 sestertii = 2 sestertii 1 sest. (IIS) = 10 as = 5 as = 2 as 1 as bronze = 4.55 gr silver*

* Also recorded: 4.49 gr

Aureus of Augustus (!!)

1 aureus 25 denarii 1 denarius 50 quinarii 2 quinarii 1 quinarius 100 sestertii 4 sestertii 2 sestertii 1 sestertius 200 dupondii 8 dupondii 4 dupondii 2 dupondii 1 dupondius 400 as 16 as 8 as 4 as 2 as 1 as 7.72 gr gold 3.80 gr silver silver silver brass bronze

1 denarius = 1 drachm (eastern part of the Roman empire) 1 denarius = 1 tetradrachm (Alexandria) 1 as = 2 semis = 4 quadrantes The weight of the denarius gradually declined from 3.80 to 3.10 gram. Its fineness was slowly reduced from 98% (Augustus) to 45% (Severus Alexander).

Diocletian, Edict on Maximum Prizes

1 libra(tulaa,tola) of silver = 6,000 denarii. silversuklasulkasukraDurga 1 libra of gold = 72,000 denarii. Constantine onwards: 72 solidi per libra of gold Bert van der Spek for Livius.Org, 2004 Revision: 24 February 2007

PaNapalaleafvanaphalabullalavaravaray akarabhuja
Drachm krisana(gold,cowrie) grasana(grasping) Drachm Tetradrachm DinaarNetradharaNa Drachm drughaNa(Brahma) paNa(Vishnu) paNasavasna Pratha-palm of hand =paNa Prasthaa weight and measure of capacity 32 palas or of an Aadhaka(cf.edaka-a goat);or 16Palas4Kudavas1/4 of an Aadhaka;or 2Saravas;or6Palas;or1/16 of a DroNa

111.Money in the ancient world

The Dynamics of Money

In many countries the cattle played the role of money. The Latin word to name money "pecunia" comes from "pecus" that means the cattle. Vasu is pasu and bhuja.Vaaha is bull and bhuja. On the territory of ancient Germany people used the so called "cow money"(cf.vasu=gold). The Northern peoples used the dear as the money unit(cf.hariNa-deer,gold). Other ancient countries used sugar(cf.cakra), fur(cf. ajina), elephant ivory(cf.gaja), opium, cacao etc. as the alternative money. The cowry shells or Cypraea moneta are especially popular as the money alternative(cf.abja-bhuja-paNa , ).

The precious fell(cf. Harappan ajina) was used as money in the North America, Alaska, Siberia and it was the money in Ancient Russia. One squirrel fell was one coin and one hundred fells made one rouble.cf.
drumaasraya. Harappan

In Ancient Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras the cacao beans were used as the money coins. In some countries of Peru and Bolivia pepper was playing the same role. In some regions of America people used leaves of tobacco(cf.vanapaNa) and the tea was used in Mongolia as money. Besides, slaves(daasa New Guinea.cf.daasa )were also playing the role of money in Africa and

112.The Laguna Copperplate Inscription

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Laguna Copperplate inscription (also shortened to LCI) is the earliest known written document found in the Philippines. The document releases its bearer, Namwaran, from a debt in gold amounting to 1 kati and 8 suvarnas (865 grams).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins (go-inganakaNakalakanaa Co-ingo-niigoNa-bullcow-ri)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coins have long been linked to the concept of money, as reflected by the fact that in other languages the words "coin" and "currency" are synonymous.

A coin is a piece of hard material that is standardized in weight, is produced in large quantities in order to facilitate trade, and primarily can be used as a legal tender token for commerce in the designated country, region, or territory. .

First coins
Aristotle states that possibly the first coins were struck by Demodike of Kyme who had married Midas, king of Pessinus, and had by him a son named Agamemnon Herodotus states (I, 94) that the Lydians 'were the first to make coin in gold and silver'. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BMC_06.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BMC_06.jpg Electrum coins, minted circa 600 BC with the lion, mark of Potnia Theron, and the sun (paNa)burst, mark of Phanes (paNa-Visnu,money). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BMC_193.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BMC_193.jpg The oldest Aegina Chelone coins made by Pheidon king of Argos (who first set the standards of weights and measures)depicted sea turtles(kurma-suurya-svarNa-paNa) and were minted ca. 700-550 BC. The first Lydian coins were made of electrum, a naturally occurring alloy of silver and gold that was further alloyed with added silver and copper. Many early Lydian coins were undoubtedly minted under the authority of private individuals and are thus

more akin to tokens or badges than true coins, though because of their numbers it's evident that some were official state issues, with King Alyattes of Lydia being a frequently mentioned originator of coinage.. Most of the early Lydian coins include no writing, called a "legend" or "inscription", only an image of a symbolic animal.(cf.Vasupasu;Durgasuulasulkasimhalinga,paNa is Vishnu and money,or money is god.Praise of god is praise of the king and price of goods.Hence initially figures of the gods were shown on the coins which was later replaced by the figures of the rulers). The fact that the oldest lion head coins(karsha paNa) were discovered in that temple, and the fact that they were not used in commerce, strengths the scenario that they were actually badges or medals(cf.paNa-money,praise) that were issued by the priests of the temple of Artemis, and the name of the person who received the badge or medal was inscribed on it. Artemis in Anatolia was named Potnia (vasna-vaNija-vanitaa)- Theron( druuNa-droNa-throne ) which is

translated as "mistress of the animals", and her symbol was the lion

and the


The first metal coins are regarded by some as being invented in China. The earliest known Chinese metal tokens were made ca. 900 BC, discovered in a tomb near Anyang. These were replicas in bronze of earlier Chinese money, cowry shells, so they were named Bronze Shell. Most numismatists, however, regard these as well as later Chinese bronzes that were replicas of knives, spades, and hoes as money but not as coins because they didn't at least initially carry a mark or marks certifying them to be of a definite exchange value. Along with Anatolia and China, India also played a major part in the development of coinage. The first Indian coins were minted in IVC by the Mahajanapadas of the IndoGangetic Plain. The coins of this period were punch marked coins called PuraNas, KarshapaNas or PaNa. The Mahajanapadas that minted their own coins included Gandhara( ), Kuntala( ), Kuru( ), Panchala( ), Shakya, Surasena, and Surashtra. Some argue that Indian coins were developed from Western prototypes, which the Indians came in contact with through Babylonian traders,which is not true.. The earliest coins made of pure gold and silver were made by King Croesus of Lydia, son of Alyattes. Shortly afterward in the same region gold "darics" and silver "sigloi" were issued by the Achaemenid Empire of the Persians. A famous early electrum coin, the most ancient inscribed coin at present known, is from nearby Caria, Asia Minor. This coin has a Greek legend reading "Phaenos emi sema" which can be translated either as "I am the badge of Phanes" or as "I am the sign of light" or maybe "I am the tomb of light" or "I am the tomb of Phanes". The celebrated coins of

Phanes are known to be amongst the earliest of Greek coins, a hemihekte of the issue was found in the famous foundation deposit of the temple of Artemis at Ephesos (this deposit is considered the oldest deposit of electrum coins discovered). One assumption is that Phanes was a wealthy merchant, another that this coin is associated with Apollo-Phanes and, due to the Deer, with Artemis (twin sister of the god of light Apollo-Phaneos). Although only seven Phanes type coins were discovered, it is also notable that 20% of all early electrum coins also have the Lion (symbol of Artemis-Potnia Theron) and the sun burst (symbol of Apollo-Phaneos). Alternatively it is stated that the inscribed Phanes maybe was the Halicarnassian mercenary of Amasis, mentioned by Herodotus, who escaped to the court of Cambyses, and became his guide in the invasion of Egypt in the year B.C. 527 or 525. This Phanes was probably buried alive by a sandstorm, together with 50000 Persian soldiers, while trying to conquer the temple of AmunZeus in Egypt. This unbelievable rumor, only mentioned by Herodotus, was recently proved by excavations. The fact that the Greek word "Phanes"(paNa / faNa /sama) also means light (or lamp cf.the figure of the paNa-sun or the stars in the Harappan seals), and the word "sema"(piNa,sava,sma-corpse,face) also means tomb, makes this coin a famous and controversial one.

Stater, Cyzicus

Aureus, Rome, Augustus (27 B.C. to 14 A.D.)

114.The Greek Monetary System

The rise of Greek trade metropolises in the 5th century B.C. went hand in hand with the development of new monetary instruments. While the use of money in the form of bars in Mesopotamia and Egypt may be traced back to the 3rd millennium B.C., above all grain and silver were also used in these highly developed cultures. Silver took the form of coins from the 7th century B.C., and the ruler and temple guardians determined the (silver) weight standard.

Silver Currency and Monetary Reform

1/3 Stater, 7th century B.C.

Tetradrachm, Athens, after 449 B.C.

The Greek term for coinage nomisma also reflects a connection between law and coinage. Both words have the same root nomos(cf.namas-lamassupaNa-praise,price) . It is the praise of the king. Attic coins, which had displayed the proverbial owl(kausika-treasurer) as their heraldic motif since the rule of Peisistratos (560 B.C. to 527 B.C.), became the symbol of the new monetary power and came to be used as a trade coin throughout the Mediterranean.

Tetradrachm, Syracuse, 510 B.C. to 485 B.C.

Stater, Aegina, 480 B.C. to 456 B.C.

Tetradrachm, Acragas (Sicily), around 420 B.C. The dram (archaic spelling drachm; apothecary symbol ) was historically both a ... The Greek drachm is a weight of 1100 Greek mine, which is about 4.37 grams. ... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dram_(unit)

Tetradrachm, Ephesus, 390 B.C. to 330 B.C.

Tetradrachm, Rhodos, around 360 B.C.

Attic "World Currency"

Tetradrachm, Alexander III the Great (336 B.C. to 323 B.C.) Arados, 328 B.C. to 326 B.C.


etc.Single paNa-4 digits

Tetradrachm, Athens, 183 B.C. to 182 B.C.

Money Exchangers and Credit

Dekadrachm, Syracuse, around 390 B.C. The coin is from the workshop of the famous engraver Euainetos.

Octodrachm cf. Ptolemy VI and Ptolemy VIII (180 B.C. to 116 B.C.), Egypt

etc.Double paNa-8 digits

Money, Value and the Law

Stater, Corinthia,cf.winged horse and not winged bull by this time. 415 B.C. to 387 B.C.

Stater, Lysimachus (323 B.C. to 281 B.C.) Sardis (Thracia), 299 B.C. to 296 B.C. The Roman Monetary System

By comparison to Greece, the Roman monetary system developed quite late. During the first four centuries following the foundation of Rome in 735 B.C. unworked lumps of copper, aes rude, and then cast bronze bars, aes signatum, with an image or inscription were used as money. Small domestic animals were also used as a measure of value. The Latin term for money, pecunia, is derived from the word for small animals, pecus, which is seen as indicating that cattle and sheep were the first form of money in Rome. However, bronze bars are cited as payment means more often.

The Hellenization of the Roman Monetary System

Didrachm (quadrigatus), 222 B.C. to 215 B.C.

60 asses, Rome, after 211 B.C. . The main coins modelled on Greek precedents were the bronze

as and the

silver denarius, whose mark, X (ten), signified that it was worth 10 asses.
(cf.Most of the IVC seals follow the same pattern). The Roman Senate exercised control of the monetary system on behalf of the Roman citizens.

115.Roman currency
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Roman currency during most of the Roman Republic and the western half of the Roman Empire consisted of coins including the aureus (gold), the denarius (silver), the sestertius (bronze), the dupondius (bronze), and the as (copper). These were used from the middle of the third century BC until the middle of the third century A.D.

During the third century, the denarius was replaced by the double denarius, now usually known as the antoninianus(naanaka) or radiate, which was then itself replaced during the monetary reform of Diocletian which created denominations such as the argenteus (silver) and the follis (silvered bronze). After the reforms Roman coinage consisted mainly of the gold solidus and small bronze denominations.

A denarius by Maximinus. Republican iconography

The job of deciding what imagery to feature belonged to the committee of tresviri monetales ('trio of money men'), young statesmen who aspired to be senators. The position of tresviri monetales (moneyers) was created in 289 BC and lasted until at least the middle of the third century AD .

Relative values
(after. 211 B.C.) Early Republic , Values Denarius Sestertius Quadrans Quincunx Dupondius As Semis Triens Denarius Sestertius Dupondiu s As Semis Triens Quadrans Quincunx 1
1 1 1

4 5

4 1
4 2

5 1 14 1

10 2 12 2 1

20 5 4 2 1

30 7 12 6 3 1 12 1

40 10 8 4 2 1 13 1 1 23

24 6 4 45 2 25 1 15
4 3

10 1 20 1 30 1 40 1 24

5 1 5 2 15 1 10 1 6

2 1 4 1 6 1 8 5 24

2 1 3 1 4 5 12

3 1 2 5 6

4 1 14

5 5

This table will be helpful in determining the value of the Harappan money units as the source is Harappan.
Cf. ajaayasascopper/brass/bronze Dinaara netra Aureus auros(bullbhadracakrakarsha) Bhadra the bull head of bhadra-king cf Dakshas head-ram head


The coinage system that existed in Egypt till the time of Diocletians monetary reform was a closed system based upon the heavily debased tetradrachm.
. The new government set up by Diocletian was a tetrarchy, or rule by four, with each emperor receiving a separate territory to rule. The new imagery includes a large, stern portrait that is representative of the emperor. Cf.Asokas pillar .

116.Money in Ancient Mesopotamia

By Marvin A. Powell Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 39, No. 3 (1996) Abstract: Although contemporary preconceptions about what money is or is not sometimes evoke doubt about the existence of money in ancient Mesopotamia, it seems clear that it did exist. Money was substance oriented, and coins, when they finally appear are weighed like any other valuable metal. The most common money substances were barley as cheap money and silver as the more

expensive, but other substances were also used. As to the forms or shapes in
which money circulated, a number of words in the ancient languages can be identified that probably refer to these forms, but their specific appearance remains, in most cases, unknown.

Cf.man-maanava-maapana-paNa, vana(leaf,palm-hand) ;dog-sunaka-sulka(tax,price) in IVC.

Money originated as commodity money, but nearly all contemporary money systems are based on fiat money

simha sulka-hamsa-panca-karsha-hari(Sumer.areelion)-krii-srii A 640 BC one-third stater electrum coin from Lydia.

117.Dram (unit)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The dram (archaic spelling drachm; apothecary symbol ) was historically both a coin and a weight. Currently it is both a small mass in the Apothecaries' system of weights and a small unit of volume. This unit is called more correctly fluid dram or in contraction also fluidram. Ancient unit of mass
The Greek

drachm is a weight of

100 Greek

mine, which is

about 4.37 grams.cf. Drachm paNa maana Mina cf. , etc. The Roman drachm is a weight of 196 Roman pounds, which is about 3.41 grams.

118.Modern unit of mass

In the avoirdupois system, the dram(cf.maatramaashamass) is the mass of 1 256 pound or 116 ounce. So the dram weighs 87532 grains or exactly 1.771 845 195 312 5 grams. The dram (symbol: ) is also the mass of 196 pound () or 16 ounce () in the apothecaries' system that survived until the middle of the 20th century in Englishspeaking countries. It is equal to 3 scruples () or 60 grains (G). Thus, it is equal to exactly 3.887 9346 grams.

Luke 15:9 and having found, she doth call together the female friends and the neighbours, saying, Rejoice with me, for I found the drachm that I lost. Cf.piti-uri-cerunaazhi,8aazhakku(aal) or 40cuvatu 2 uri=4 uzhakku =4444 rice grains cf.

Aazhakku=ara uzhakku=a handful=1/8 of a naazhi=5cakatu

Uri=half a naali=2 uzhakku uri=Uri=


Ancient drachma (cf.

fish-bhuja-palm-paNa- prasruti-fistful,

anjali-fistful of both hands,pritha-palm )

The name drachma(paNa,drughaNa,drughnii

, , ,

) is derived from the verb "" (drssomai, "to grasp"cf.fish eating alligator piti paNa). Initially a drachma was a fistful (a "grasp"cf.paNa or piti of the Malayalees cf.piti ari contribution to the churches etc.) of six oboloi (metal sticks cf. the six marks accompanying the fish,paNa or or indicate the four fingers+ two sections of the thumb ), which were used as a form of currency as early as 1100 BC. It was the standard unit of silver coinage at most ancient Greek and Roman mints, and the name obol' (cf.owl,bowl,ulba,upala,pala,paNa) was used to describe a coin that was one-sixth of a drachma. The notion that "drachma" derived from the word for fistful(paNa;pa=va=hand,na-bind) apparently dates at least to Herakleides of Pontos (387-312 BC) but the metrologist Livio C. Stecchini argued that drachma was a word of semitic origin (see www.metrum.org) though, actually it is of Harappan origin. The 5th century BC Athenian tetradrachmon ("four drachma"cf.the four fins of the fish or jar ) coin was the most widely used coin in the Greek world prior to the time of Alexander the Great. It featured the helmeted profile bust of Athena (vasna,jina cf. Vana Durga/ Mahaa Laxmi on Indian coins)on the obverse (front) and an owl(kausika) on the reverse (back). In daily use they were called glaukai (owls), hence the phrase , 'an owl to Athens'. Drachmas were minted on different weight standards at different Greek mints. The standard that came to be most commonly used was the Athenian or Attic one, which weighed a little over 4.3 grams.

Drachma from Lucania, c. 535510 BC

Tetradrachm from Athens about 450 BC. Athena (dhana,aasana) on the obverse, owl (kausika,patra) on the reverse .cf.rayi(aisvarya-suurya;su-rayi) is srii (wealth,laxmi) and devi(ravi). Notable Ptolemaic coins included the gold pentadrachm and octadrachm, and silver tetradrachm, decadrachm and pentakaidecadrachm. Historic currency divisions

8 chalkoi 6 oboloi

= 1 obolus

= 1 drachma
, , ,

100 drachmas = 1 mina (or mnaa,man)

60 minae = 1 Athenian Talent (Athenian standard)

Minae and talents were never actually minted: they represented weight measures used for commodities (e.g. grain) as well as metals like silver or gold.

119. Kopeck of Russia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kopeck

http://dictionary.mwh.reference.com/browse/cope ck

kopeck cow(Lat.pecus)- bhaaga(part,bhaga-the sun,vaaha hand,bull).cowsauhundredsata-mana

An aluminum-bronze coin of Russia, the Soviet Union, and its successor states, the 100th part of a ruble. Also, kopek, copeck. Origin: 16901700; < Russ. kopka, equiv. to kop lance, spear cf + -ka dim. suffix; so called from the lance with which the figure on the coin was armed . It is a satamana of modern times.





kunni weight21/4 paNa weight

1 nenmani

viisam biijambhujamviitamvii-sama weight

16 viisam=1 paNa

71/5 viisam=1 kunni weight. shodasa sudaasa paNa 16paNakarsha PaNa is Naava-boat.Hence karsha is a boat. Boats are used as talisman to bring money even today by the Fengshui practitioners. Karsha garta cakra sakrasikhara


Miina-maana-parimaaNa Angaagna gaNanagabull ,elephant

Uttolanam= weighing

Cash=kas-to sound,kaas-to shine,kaaca=sikya AV=string of the scale of a balance Cf.Sumer.kaspam-money,gis-tree(cf.money tree),penis,scepter ;has-thigh,kas-trader,gaja-elephant

Kaaca(ka-aasa,haasa) sikya


Saasana=saadhana =goods,procuring etc.

Coins were introduced as a means to trade things of daily usage in Asia minor, India and China in 6th century BC. Most historians agree that the first coins of the world were issued by Greeks living in Lydia and Ionia (located on the western coast of modern Turkey). These first coins were globules of Electrum, a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver. These were crude coins of definite weight stamped with incuse punches issued by the local authorities in ~650 BC. Few historians have suggested (based on vedic records) that India minted perhaps the first coins of the world which were introduced even earlier than Lydian/Ionian coins, in 8th century BC; most scholars do not agree with this theory. Panini wrote Ashtadhyayi in 4th-5th century BC in which he has mentioned


, Nishkas

, Sana , Vimastika

, Karshapana

and it's various sub-divisions to be used in financial transactions. Thus coins were known in ancient Indian literature at least from 500 BC. The earliest coins of India are commonly known as punch-marked coins. We are certain that the concept of coinage was invented in India independent of foreign influence which imparted the unique characteristics to these punch-marked coins, not seen in any other coins of the ancient world. Punch(panca-five cf.H-182)-marked coins are marked with 1-5 (and sometimes more) marks representing various symbols. Two well known numismatists, D. B. Spooner and D.R. Bhandarkar after careful study independently concluded that the punching of various symbols(laksha,paNa) representing animals, hills, tree and human figures followed a definite pattern and these coins were issued by royal authority (bhadraasana,bhadraasva).

First coin of India (?) Before 5th Century BC Minted in Madhyadesha?, found near Mathura Silver unit Seven punch marks( punch-paNasa-paNa-panca-karsha) Weight: 7.14 gm Numismatic Digest # 22 Rare In the Rig-Vedic period small kingdoms came into existence all over the suncontinent from Kabul (Kubha in Sanskrit) to upper Ganga (Ganges). Most of these were small states under hereditary monarchs and few republics. These small and large states were called Janapadas(cf.sam-pat
)and or or


. About 6th century BC, sixteen

Mahajanapadas(cf ) or kingdoms rose to pre-eminence in India. According to ancient text Anguttara Nikayas they were as follows: Anga, Magadha, Kashi, Koshala, Vajji, Malla, Vatsa, Chedi, Kuru, Panchaala, Matsya, Surasena, Ashvaka, Avanti, Gandhar and Kamboja. One of the earliest coins of India were minted by the following Mahajanapadas. Ganga River valley: Kashi Koshala Brij (?) Upper Ganga river valley: Kuru-Panchaala Indus river valley: Takshashila (Taxila) & Gandhaara (Pushkalavati) Southern India (Godavari and Narmada river valley): Ashmaka or Ashvaka and Avanti

Shown above is possibly the earliest coin of Indian subcontinent which was found near Mathura. This rectagular coin, made of almost pure silver, was issued in central India or Madhyadesha. It has seven distinct punch marks including central `pentagon(vasna-panca-kona-gona) enclosing a sphere(gola-kosagona .paNapaNasapancapunchpatra) punch mark. None of those marks show much resemblance to punch marks routinely seen on coins of other Janapadas. Three other punch-marked coins of India minted by Taxila, Koshala and Ashmaka Janapadas are shown below. These are some of the earliest

coins of the India. Taxila Janapada 600-303 BC Two septa-radiate marks at ends, Uniface Weight: 11.3 gm (100 ratti) MAC#4071

Silver, Satamana Bent bar (PaNa had to be bent like bhuja and phaNa. To praise the godking one had to bent the body .Money is the king and god).

Septa radiate marks compare with saptamaNa sapta paNa haatra 4+3 as in the Bible a quart of wheat for a days wages,and three quarts of barley for a days wages REV.6.6. sulkacakrakarshavakra PaNabhujbent fingers (karaja)like the phaNa of a snake make a fistful-kara(karsha)-paNa.Hasta is a sarpa. GirvaaNapaNa-gira kara-paNakalpa

About 600 BC, in the north western part of India, Takshashila / Taxila and Pushkalavati, became an important commercial centers for the trade with Mesopotamia. These wealthy satrapies (provinces) introduced a unique coinage to facilitate the trade. These were silver concave bars of 11 gms which are popularly called as `Taxila bent bars' or `Satamana bent bars'. Satmana or Shatamana represented 100 rattis of silver in weight (Shata means 100 while mana means unit). These silver bars were punched with two septa-radiate (seven arms) symbols, one at each end. These bent bars represents one of the earliest coins of India. Shown above is a fine example of Satamana bent bar.

Koshala Janapada 600-470 BC Silver, One and Half Karshapana ? Weight: 4.68 gm ( 48 ratti) Reference: Series III, Group A of Hardaker Rare Ancient Indian coinage was based on `KarshapaNa'(karsha is garja indicated by roaring animals,birds,drums;ghar-sa;sikhara;harsha etc.;
, , , , , ,


that consisted of 32 rattis (3.3

grams of silver cf.ratiradiratti). A `Ratti' is equivalent to 0.11 gms which is the average weight of a Gunja seed (a bright scarlet coloured seed). Subsidiary denominations of KarshapaNa like half Karshapana

(16 ratti ), quarter Karshapana (8 ratti Karshapana

) and 1/8 of

(4 ratti ,) , were also minted. Shown below is a fine example of 1/8th (4 ratti) of KarshapaNa which is as usual uniface. On obverse is septa-radiate single punch (identical to what is seen on two ends of Satamana-100 ratti-11.3 gm- bar).

karsha paNa cf.sangharsha(fight)karsha paNa. Taxila Janapada =panca-da 5th Century BC silver, 1/8th Karshapana Septa-radiate single punch Mark, Uniface Weight: 1.4 gm (4 ratti) MAC#4079 Note the cakra (karsha-wheel)+ghar(cross)+paNa symbols .Compare this with the elephant(bhadra, gaja) + wheel( cakra) hara-sara-nara-paNa-vana-mana septa radiate
svar-Na/7 karsha paNa.Sapta/sabda/bhadra/haatra/dhvaja paNa. Note the seven women in M-1186 also.

Ashmaka Janapada 600-350 BC Silver, Double Karshapana Pulley Type, Uniface

Weight: 6.7 gm MAC#4081 In ancient India during 600-321 BC, many Janapadas issued coins with only one symbol like Lion (Shursena of Braj cf. Lion is suura. vraja cf.M-308), humped bull (Saurashtra cf.M-318) or Svastika (Dakshin Pancaala cf.H-182). Four symbol coins were issued by Kashi, Chedi (Bundelkhand), Vanga (Bengal) and Prachya (Tripura) Janapadas. Five symbol punch marked coins were first issued by Magadha which were continued during Mauryan expansion. Shown below is a very rare coin of Kalinga Janapada which is in mint condition

Kalinga Janapada 500-350 BC Silver, half Karshapana . Uniface Weight: 1.6 gm Very Rare Kalingaka(head,who;sa-god)-linga(phallus-palace,cihna-mark,simhalion) is nagna(nude) and accompanied by lions or tigers as in M-308.


Mauryan Empire (Ashoka the great?) 310-181 BC Silver Karshapana Obverse: 3 deities (paNa-the sun)and peacock (patra-paNa) Reverse: Peacock on hill cf.Harappan patra(leaf,bird) on hill aa-sa-na bhadraasana (throne) Nandipada Weight: 3.35 gm (32 rattis) Reference: GH, Series VII Scarce patra-


Shown above is an interesting silver KarshapaNa (mentioned in ancient Sanskrit treatise Manu smruti being 32 rattis in weight) minted by Mauryan authorities. The most striking feature of this punch-marked coins is presence of 3 deities, struck from single punch. It is very rare to see any human figure or deities on punch-marked coins. Shown below is another coin minted by Mauryan emperor which shows sun(paNa), the symbol of Mauryan(cf mauryasuuryathe sun).

Mauryan Empire 310-181 BC Silver, Punch-marked coin Weight: 2.3 gm Kuninda

Amoghbhuti Late 2nd Century BC Silver Drachm, Bilingual Obverse: Deer and Deity, Brahmi Legends Reverse: 6 symbols, Kharoshti legends Weight: 2.4 gm MAC#4443 Rare

Kuninda( Kulinda ) issued very attractive silver coinage in late 2nd century BC. These coins were issued by king Amoghbhuti who ruled in the fertile valley of Jamuna, Beas and Sutlej rivers (modern Punjab in northern India). The obverse of the coins shows a deer and Laxmi (goddess of wealth srii gira,krii,haricf.paNa=Vishnu; Ravi-the sun is rayi-riches and devi-goddess(cf.Durga,Lakshmi) is holding lotus(padma-vasna-paNa) in her uplifted hand. Between the horns of deer(harina,krenacf. , ), a cobra (phaNa-paNa)symbol is depicted. The reverse shows 6 symbols. Hill (giri,bhadra,patra,paNa) and river(vana) below, Nandipada (hoof of bull=pana,patra,vartaka,bhadraasana,word of gratitude), tree(vana) in railing, Svastika(paNa) and Y(paNa,naga,kara=paNa) shaped symbol. Interestingly, the coins were bilingual. On obverse, legends were in Prakrit (closely related to Sanskrit), written in Brahmi script while on reverse were in Kharoshti. The legends on obverse reads Rajnah Kunindasya Amoghabhutisya maharajasya. The reverse bears Maharajasa in Kharoshti script at the same place where Indo-Greek and Saka coins depicted their ruler's names. Nupam.Mahajan@moffitt.org


. Shown below is the coin minted by Demetrios I, Seleukid Kings of Syria.

Demetrios I, the Soter 162-150 BC Seleukid King of Syria Silver drachm Weight: 4.2 gm Obverse: Diademed head Reverse: Cornucopia Minted at Antioch, Yr 162 BC Reference: Newell 134 MENANADER (160-145 BC)

Menander 160-145 BC Silver drachm, Bilingual Obverse: Bust of King, Greek legends Reverse: Pallas, Kharosthi legends Minted at Panjshir Weight: 2.33 gm MAC#1791 Menander /`Milinda' who had his capital at Sakala (modern Sialkot in Pakistan, Euthymedia in Greek). Shown above is a fine example of his coin minted at Taxila (Takshshila). This is a bilingual coin with interrupted legends. On obverse

is king throwing Javelin(baana-pana,praasa-patra,suula-sulka,paNa-balisamjnaa-agreement,sacrifice), the legends are in Greek, King Soter Menander while reverse shows Pallas Athene facing left with sloping shield.cf. The legends on reverse are in ancient Indian language Prakrit, written in Kharoshthi script which reads Maharajasa tratarasa Menandrasa (-of the king, saviour, Menander) . APOLLODOTUS I (180-160 BC)

Apollodotus I 180-160 BC Silver drachm Obverse: Elephant, Greek legends Reverse: Humped bull, Kharosthi legends minted at Taxila Weight: 2.38 gm Reference: MIG#207h, MAC#1754 To keep up with the Indian tradition of punching animals like Elephant and Bull on punch-marked coin, this coin also bear these two animals on the coin. The legends on reverse are in Prakrit, written in Kharoshthi script which reads Maharajasa tratarasa Apaladatasa(of the king, saviour, Apollodotus ). PHILOXENUS (110-80 BC)

Philoxenus 110-80 BC Silver tetradrachm Minted at Pushkalavati Weight: 7.32 gm MAC#1959 This is another bilingual coin with Greek legends on obverse while Kharoshti legends Maharajasa apadihatasa Philasinasa on reverse.cf.tratarasa on other coins. NICIAS (80-60 BC)

Nicias 80-60 BC Silver tetradrachm Weight: 9.09 gm Shown above is a nice example of his coin which is bilingual. On obverse the legends are in Greek with his name at the bottom of portrait while reverse shows Pallas facing left with sloping shield. The legends on reverse are in Kharaoshti which reads `Maharajasa tratarasa Nikiasa'.



kara,sara,traa traatra,traatri(Indra) protector,one who saves from RV,AV.

Traatri devaBhaga,Savitri




traatra(traatri-Indra,Bhaga,Savitri) tratarasa

Bhadra(king,bull) pa(protect,rule)-traa(protect) pitri(father)

HERMAEUS (40-1 BC) . Hermaeus was the last Indo-Greek king Shown below are two of his coins portraying him on obverse. On reverse one can see Zeus enthroned. Both are bilingual coins with Greek legends on obverse while Kharoshti legends Maharajasa tratarasa Heramayasa on reverse.

Hermaeus 40-1 BC Silver tetradrachm Minted at Chach Weight: 9.17 gm MAC#2016

Hermaeus 40-1 BC Silver tetradrachm Minted at Kapisa .

Taxila Janapada 5th Century BC silver, 1/8th Karshapana Septa-radiate single punch Mark, Uniface Weight: 1.4 gm (4 ratti) MAC#4079

Emperor Ashoka erected hundreds of stone pillars and magnificent Buddhist Stupas (dome shaped monuments cf.stava-praise). These pillars are made out of shafts of sandstone and display Buddhist symbols such as the wheel and the lion.(wheel=karsha,garta,garja;lion=hari,bhadra,simha).

Proclamation Coin - Indian Rupee

June 8, 2009 http://www.australianthreepence.com/blog/2009/06/proclamation-coin-indianrupee.html

From The Australian coin collecting weblog

India Silver Rupee 1790 - Shah Alam

Posted by Mnemtsas at June 8, 2009 8:48 AM

123.Shekel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shekel http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/weightsandm easures.html 03/21/2012/Dr. Mitchell G. Bard


Shekel being karsha we have to study its history in detail.

Shekel (sheqel, Hebrew: , pl. shekels, sheqels, sheqalim, Hebrew: cf.vedic sulka, sukla, sakala, sukra,kratu, sankha,kalasa, garta,karsha,Daksha), is any of several ancient units of weight or of currency. The first usage is from Mesopotamia around 3000 BC. Initially, it may have referred to a weight of barley (the first syllable "she" was Akkadian for barley.She-kala(gana-calculate,count) is sakala(a part ),salka(scale-

balance and fish ,sulka),kalasa(paana-pot or potsherd etc.) This shekel was about 180 grains (11 grams or .35 troy ounces).Hence this is equivalent to the tola or satamana of 100 ruttees used by the Harappans.

124.The early shekels

The earliest shekels were a unit of weight, used as other units such as grams and troy ounces for trading before the advent of coins. Coins were invented by the early Anatolian traders who stamped their marks to avoid weighing each time used. Early coins were money stamped with an official seal to certify their weight.(cf. many IVC seals had this purpose ). Silver ingots, some with markings were issued. Later authorities decided who designed coins. (Detroit Institute of Arts, 1964) Herodotus states that the first coinage was issued by Croesus, King of Lydia, spreading to the golden Daric (worth 20 sigloi or shekel), issued by the Persian Empire and the Silver Athenian obol(cf.upalastone used as standard weight and pala of the Harappans) and drachma(paNa).

As with many ancient units, the shekel had a variety of values depending on era, government and region; weights between 9 and 17 grams, and values of 11, 14, and 17 grams are common(cf.the IVC karsha of 80 or 96 grains). A shekel is a gold or silver coin equal in weight to one of these units. It is especially the chief silver coin of the Hebrews.



Silver shekel minted in Jerusalem in the First Jewish revolt against Rome in 68 C.E. Obverse: "Shekel Israel. Year 3". Reverse: "Jerusalem the Holy" The shekel was common among western Semitic peoples. Moabites, Edomites and Phoenicians used the shekel, the latter as coins and weights. Punic coinage was based on the shekel, a heritage from Canaanite ancestors. The Aramaic spelling tekel appears with a symbolic meaning in the writing on the wall during the feast of Belshazzar, according to the Book of Daniel.

The Bible uses the same tax and measuring units of the vedas showing its connection to the Harappan civilization. Seven co-in weights are mentioned in the Bible: talent, mina, shekel, beka, gerah, pim, and kesitah. A scale of the relationships between the first five weights mentioned can be established on the basis of the Bible and other sources; the absolute and relative value of the pim(cf.vedic copper paNa-20 maasha=4 kaakinis) can be determined from archaeological finds. The seventh weight, the kesitah(Genesis33.19,Joshua24.32,Job 42.11; cf.Vedic Harappan nishka= a golden ornament used as money or kaashta-a measure from hasta-a hand) is an archaic weight and its name confirms the origin of the Bible from the Vedas of the Harappans. We can figure out the interrelationships of the three most important weights, the talent(tulaa,tola,suula-spear,suura-the sun), shekel(kalasa,sulka), and gerah(ghar).

talenttulaa dhana(wealth),daana(donationnetrasacrificemiinanayananaaNya naaNaka),sama(equal) anka(writ) .Sulka is tulya(equal cf.libra pound) in weight or value. Karsha(tola or tolaka or cash,hartathe sun;kara-dagiving tax,krishi-farming) weight of gold or silver16 Maasha80 Rettis1/4 pala1/400 of a Tulaa 176 grains troy;in common use 8 Rettis are given to the Maasha and the Karsha is then about 280 grains troy) Troy netra g-rain go(fish,eye,cow)+ rain

co-ingo(cow)-raya(water,wealth) kraya(purchase),gopaya=kupya(base metal) rupya(gold,silver cf. Rupee) . The talent (kikkar karsha or karka or nakra or cakra?), was the largest unit of weight in the Bible. In Ugaritic it was pronounced kakaru(cf.karka=crab,white?) . A talent was 3,000 shekels (cf.vedic tridasa=30, Greek tau =300) based upon ancient Canaanite traditions who in turn got it from the vedic Harappans.A shekel, means simply "weight ". The fundamental nature of the shekel can be seen in the fact that all weights which the Bible explains are explained only in terms of the shekel.The shekel was used as a bartering(cf.vedic karNa patra-kalasa or kreNa patra karaNa-purchase writ deed -shekel,bhadraking,part,vart-to live,trade) material, not a minted coin. Jeremiah bought a plot of land and weighed his payment (silver) on scales (Jeremiah 32.9). Cf.vedic Harappan . or half-shekel (Genesis

Subdivisions of the shekel were the beka

24.22,Exodus 38.26, cf. + = ) and the gerah , a 20th of the shekel (Exodus 30.13). The gerah is known in Akkadian as gir(cf.vedic ghar . The basic meaning of the Akkadian word is a grain of carob seed. In the Harappan scripts also the ghar is shown overlaid by grains to show ghar by khala- a threshing floor which is also the gol in Gol-

gotha(or Cal-vary) in the scene of the crucifixion of the Chr-ist.The cross as bhadra is paada(foot,four;bhaata-dawn;bhaasa-light;bhaa-the sun,sa-god),pajraa(Soma cf.the cross overlaid with grains) and bhaj(worship,divide

)-raa(give cf.the Eu-char-ist). The shekel, was a

)and the maneh was

50th part of the maneh (cf vedic daana netra miina a 60th part of the talent. Hence, 1 talent =60 maneh =3,000 shekels

1 maneh

=50 shekels

=100 beka


=1,000 gerahs

The Bible mentions at least three kinds of shekels: in Genesis 23:16, a shekel of silver "at the going merchant's rate [over la-socher]; in Exodus30.13, "shekel by the sanctuary weight [ha-kodesh]"; and in 2 samuel 14.26, "shekels by the king's stone [b'even ha-melech]," that is, shekels stamped by the royal treasury as proof that they are perfect.(cf.the standard weights of IVC, unicorns and girvaana symbols in the Harappan seals etc.) The mina (Hebrew: Maneh cf.vedic bali or daana or netra=sacrifice or offering to king has the shape of fish which is also called miina-fish or maana -devotion or measure?) which designates a weight of approximately 50 shekels, is found in the Bible primarily in the late books (Ezekiel 45.12,Ezra2.69,Nehemiah7.70,71) and in ancient times in Israel reckoning was done in shekels and talents only, and the mina was not used except in unusual situations. It appears that this practice too had its roots in an ancient Canaanite tradition, for in Ugaritic writings many calculations are found involving shekels and talents and very few involving the mina. From Ezekiel 45.12 the value of the mina is equivalent to 60 shekels like the Akkadian man. The beka(cf.vedic =gava=go=cow,vaaha-bull, bhaaga-part.The raised na is svar-Na gold from svar=heaven,na=jewel) is mentioned twice in the Bible (Gen24.22,Ex.38.26) and its value is explicitly determined as one-half a shekel as seen from the scripts themselves. Its name is derived from

the root bq, "to break, to divide," and its basic meaning is "a part(cf.vedic
bhaga-part or the female genitals shown as the fish eating alligator also )."

Also mentioned in the Bible is the peres (Dan 5.25,28 cf. compare vedic.parasu-axe cash- moneydrughaNa - wooden macedrachm(caturam=square or four or tetra is double sama or equal. Macesama-equal for barter.Go-cow in a co-in is a hoe also. ) . Bhadra(the cow) of the veda was usually vasu(gold) whence gold is also called ashtapada (cf.ashtavasu) 125.Coins in the Talmud The currency system most commonly found in Talmudic literature was based on the Roman monetary system both in terminology and metrological structure. Its standard was linked to that of the Tyrian tetra-drachm (selasamapanasana kalasasenacelasaala) . cf.vedic sena(sama-paNa-equal) or spear money (sastra-sasa-tra) , etc). .

The smallest known coin was the perutah(puruda-bhadrapurusha


=gold, pritha-palm,bhadra-bull,gold? in a dinar

). There

were four perutot

(daana-ra netra sas-grain ,dasa or sata?.

ratnamaNimoney also called a "zuz"

A pritha

has four fingers).

Daana(donation) is dhaanya(grain), dhanya(noble), paana (pot) and miina (fish,hema-gold). NaaNaya(coin) is nayana(eye) and maanya(noble).Bharani(a pot) is the asterism in Miina. Sas (grain) is soma(suuna miinanellu-paddy,svarna-gold).Sas is sasa(hare cf.the copper tabletC2B7 from Mohenjo-daro) , saada(grain),shash(six)

and dasa(ten). Saadakumbha is hema(mahaasacrifice,buffalo,spring festivalnaaga-snake,elephantgold). cf.1 talent (dharaNa,tulaa) = 60 mina =120 tartimar=750 uncia=1,500 sela=3,000 shekel= either 4,000 or 3,000 Italian issar=6,000 zuz (

also called dinar-netra) = 12,000 provincial sela=24,000 perutah

Coins in daily use were the denarii (or zuz cf. vedic sasa-hare,sas-grain) and sela'im from imperial mints, while "small change" copper coinage was minted locally in a number of cities, and were considered to be equal to 1/8 the imperial coins(cf.Harappan gold . Saras(
, , ,

etc.Ashtapada is

head) or dasra(ass,asva) is rajata(silver). A

bhadra( cf.paRa-a measure of rice) is 8 idangazhis. A khaarii(cf.ghar) is 256(444 4) idangazhis.

In Babylonia during the Sassanid period (from the early third century onward), the standard silver unit was the Sassanid drachm, called in the Talmud zuz (from Akkadian zuzu"to cut" or Harappan sasa or saasa-raaja-king), while smaller copper coins of varying sizes were called peshitte(mushti?fist = paNa)

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/weightsandmeasur es.html

126.The shekel of Tyre

Daksha(raksharaaja punch markkalasa

Shekellaksha, scala,karsha sakala-salka

Shekel of Tyre shekel sulka temple tax. Note the jewish temple on shekel. Silver Tyrian shekels were the medium of payment for the Temple tax in Jerusalem, and have been suggested as a possible coin used as the "30 pieces of silver" in the New Testament.

127.The Jerusalem shekel

Bar Kochba silver shekel/tetradrachm. Obverse: the Jewish Temple facade with the rising star, surrounded by "Shimon". Reverse: A lulav, the text reads: "to the freedom of Jerusalem" The shekel of Tyre was subsequently replaced as the Temple tax in 66 C.E. by the Jerusalem shekel of the First Jewish revolt against Rome.

128.The Bar Kochba shekel

During the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire 132-135 C.E., the Jews of Judea struck Bar Kochba shekels.

In modern times
Modernly, the word is used informally for "money". Since 1980, the shekel has been the currency of the modern state of Israel, first the Israeli shekel, then (since 1985) the Israeli new shekel. Seven weights related to metal (thus creating "coins") are mentioned in the Bible: talent, mina, shekel, beka, gerah, pim, and kesitah. A scale of the relationships between the first five weights mentioned can be established on the basis of the Bible and other sources; the absolute and relative value of the pim(simha?paNa) can be determined from archaeological finds. The seventh weight, the kesitah(Daksha?kaashta,kaasiGenesis 33:19; Joshua 24:32; Job 42:11), seems to be an archaic weight and the origin of its name and its metrological value are not known. We can figure out the interrelationships of the three most important weights, the talent(tulaa), shekel(kalasa,sulka,cakra), and gerah(ghar,kara). The talent (kikkar =karka? cf.kukura=yadava,kakuda or sekharachief,head,crown,sikhara-peak cf. , , , ), was the largest unit of weight in the Bible, and was already known by the same name in Ugaritic. In Ugaritic it was pronounced kakaru(karka=crab,white?=argentum=rajata=sveta,arka-copper,arghaprice), as has been shown from Akkadian documents from Ugarit and Alalakh. The relation between the talent and the shekel is defined in Exodus 38:2526. The half shekel brought by 603,550 men amounted to 100 talents and 1,775 shekels. Thus a talent was 3,000 shekels. This system of dividing the talent into 3,000 shekels differed from the Mesopotamian system which divides the talent into 3,600 parts, and was the same as the Ugaritic system where the talent was also divided into 3,000 shekels. From this it follows that the biblical division is based upon an ancient Canaanite tradition which in turn was derived from the Harappan system of weights and measures. The major weight of metal mentioned in the Bible is the shekel, as its name, which means simply "weight," testifies. Since the shekel was the definite weight,

an expression such as "1,000 silver" (Genesis 20:16) can be explained as 1,000 shekels of silver, and the name of the weight is omitted since it is selfexplanatory. Abbreviations like these are also found in other Semitic languages. The fundamental nature of the shekel can also be seen in the fact that all weights which the Bible explains are explained only in terms of the shekel. The shekel was used as a bartering material, not a minted coin. Jeremiah bought a plot of land and weighed his payment (silver) on scales (Jeremiah 32:9).

Subdivisions of the shekel were the beka or half-shekel (Genesis 24:22; Exodus 38:26) and the gerah, a 20th of the shekel (Exodus 30:13). The gerah is known in Akkadian as gir(cf.kar-sha,krii,bull , , , , . The basic meaning of the Akkadian word is a grain of carob seed(cf.gunja seed or maasha bean and karsha). Gerah
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerah

Obverse of a Judean silver Yehud coin from the Persian era (.58 gram), with falcon or eagle and Aramaic inscription "" "Yehud" (Judaea). Denomination is a ma'ah A gerah Hebrew " "is an ancient Hebrew unit of weight and currency. One gerah is one-twentieth of a shekel. A shekel being 180 barleycorns or 60 carob divided by 20 = 3 carob. This is 0.568 grams. A gerah is in Aramaic a ma'ah "( "pl. ma'ot " "which means "money"). It was originally a fifth of a Denarius/Zuz(cf.IVC sasa-hare) as seen in Exodus ("20 gerah is a shekel"), then became a sixth of a denar/Zuz, such as the Yehud coins

which came in two denominations, approximately .58 gram as a ma'ah and approximately .29 gram as a half ma'ah (chatzi ma'ah), and (.58 X 6 = 3.48) which is about the weight of a Zuz/Denarius based on a 14 gram Shekel. The Jerusalem Talmud Shekalim in the Mishnah, debates if a "kalbon" which was added when giving annually a half shekel to the Temple in Jerusalem, if it was a "ma'ah" or a "chatzi ma'ah" (half ma'ah). gerahgraaha(gharial,grah-grabh-grip)kara(hand) paNa(palm) The shekel(cf.sulka-rukma), in turn, was a 50th part of the maneh, and the maneh was a 60th part of the talent. The talent was, of course, equal to 3,000 shekels. The maneh and the talent, however, were only units of account and remained so during the Second Temple period when the shekel became a coin denomination. Scales and weights of the shekel unit have been found in excavations as have gold, silver, and bronze ingots.

A Simple Table:

1 talent 1 maneh

=60 maneh = 50 shekels

=3,000 shekels =100 beka =1,000 gerahs

, ,







In short, all weights fit together nicely.if we only knew how much a shekel weighed In excavations carried out in Palestine some of the weights which have been found have their weight marked on them, but most are without any notation. The shape of the weights, for the most part, is semicircular (dome-shaped cf.garta,bhuj-bent). There are also some cast metal weights that are rectangular and cube-shaped, and some that are oval or in the shape of animals(mrigarukma-nakra-hariNa). Most of the weights found in Palestine are from the end of the period of the monarchy (the seventh to sixth centuries BCE).

Very few weights and inscriptions with the word shekel written explicitly have been found in strata from the Israelite period. A bronze weight in the shape of a turtle(kuurma,rukma,puurNa,svarNa,suurya) was found in the coastal plain; on its reverse side it bears the inscription "one-quarter shekel(cf.IVC tortoise)." And in fact, a weight of this sort (one-quarter shekel) is mentioned in I Samuel 9:8. That quarter shekel weighed 2.63 grams. That would make the shekel 10.52 grams. cf Taxila

satamana of 11.3 gms. Another bronze weight from Samaria, also in

the shape of a turtle(kurmarukma;puraNa), bears the inscription "five", and this has been interpreted to mean five gerahs.(cf.turtle in Harappa cf.gharchaar4paada1/4;5 svastikas-ghars in H-182). Since there are twenty gerahs in a shekel, that would make that weight one-quarter of a shekel as well. Its weight is 2.49 grams, making a shekel 9.56 grams. Another weight from Samaria is marked on one side "one-quarter shekel," and its weight is 2.54 grams. That would make the shekel 10.16 grams. In establishing the value of the shekel there is an additional complication in that the Bible mentions at least three kinds of shekels: in Genesis 23:16, a shekel of silver "at the going merchant's rate [over la-socher]; in Exodus 30:13, "shekel by the sanctuary weight [ha-kodesh]"; and in II Samuel 14:26, "shekels by the king's stone [b'even ha-melech cf.bhadra-aasana,asma]," that is, shekels stamped by the royal treasury as proof that they are perfect. It cannot be determined whether these shekels were equivalent in value, but on the basis of evidence from external sources, it appears that there were differences between them. The mina (Hebrew: Maneh cf.maana?) which designates a weight of approximately 50 shekels, is found in the Bible primarily in the late books (Ezekiel. 45:12; Ezra 2:69; Nehemiah. 7:70, 71). The value of the mina is defined in Ezekiel 45:12. From this verse it follows that the mina is equivalent to 60 shekels like the Akkadian man. The beka(cf bhaga-the sun,gava,go,vulva;bhaaj-to divide,bhaas-to shine)/bhaaga/vaaha/naaga/naaka , ) is mentioned twice in the Bible (Gen. 24:22; Ex. 38:26) and its value is explicitly determined as one-half a shekel. Its name is derived from the root bq, "to break, to divide," and its basic meaning is "a part." =bhaga(the sunpaNa) svarsvar-Na In addition to being divided into the beka and gerah
, ,

, the shekel was also

divided into a fourth and a third (I Sam. 9:8; Neh. 10:33). There is support for this division both inside and outside Palestine. From Assyrian documents found at Calah it is evident that the shekel was very often divided there into many more subunits, but there is no proof that this was so in Israel as well. Also mentioned in the Bible is the peres (Dan. 5:25, 28 cf.prithapalm;parsu /bhaara ,bhadra-gold,vraja ). The peres is also mentioned in the Mishnah (Pe'ah 8:5) and its value there is half a zuz. (peresparicuprithavrishasarpabhadra)

129.The History of Coins: How We Got From Shekels to Sela'im

Under Persian rule, some forms of Judean coins were minted, imitations of Athenian coinage. These silver coins are rather rare, but at least six coin types are known with the inscription Yehud (Aramaic: Judea dasyu,paNihun?). Some follow the "head/owl" type, while others show a falcon, a fleur-de-lis, a Janus head, a god seated on a winged chariot, and a bird of an unidentified kind. It cannot be determined whether the Jewish high priest or the local Persian governor was the issuing authority, but it's clear that the community of Judea at that time had no problems placing images on coins. In fact, one of the coins contains the Hebrew name Hezekiah (Yehezkiyyah). Beginning in 137 BCE, the Hasmoneans minted their own coins, mostly the small bronze perutah(cf.bhadra) or dilepton. In accordance with the Second Commandment no likeness of living beings, men or animals, are found on them. Most of the emblems, for example the cornucopiasingle or doublethe wreath surrounding the legend, the anchor, the flower, the star, and the helmet, were copied from emblems found on the late issues of the Seleucid coinage. All Hasmonean coins bear Hebrew legends, but those of Alexander Yannai and Mattathias Antigonus also have legends in Greek. The Hebrew legend, written in the old Hebrew script, almost always appeared in the formula, "X, the high priest and the assembly of the elders of the state of the Jews.(cf.bhadraasana/sabha of Harappa)" The Hasmonean rulers were thus styled on most coins as high priests. The only exception is Alexander Yannai. Preceding the destruction of the First Temple, the mina is mentioned only once, in the verse about Solomon's shields (I Kings 10:17). From this it is reasonable to assume that in ancient times in Israel reckoning was done in shekels and talents only, and the mina was not used except in unusual situations. It appears that this practice too had its roots in an ancient Canaanite tradition, for in Ugaritic writings many calculations are found involving shekels

and talents and dinar saasadasa) 24,000perutah (


12,000 provincial sela(sana)


Coins in daily use were denarii (or zuz) and sela'im . On the Greek legends the Hasmonean rulers styled themselves throughout as "king." John Hyrcanus' coins were the main pattern for the whole series of Hasmonean coins. One side depicted a wreath surrounding the legend, "Johanan [Yehohanan] the high priest and the assembly of the elders of the state of the Jews," while the reverse side showed a double cornucopia with a pomegranate(cf.vana=paNa). All his coins were of the perutah denomination(cf.H-3305 with bhadra-maiden and the perutah symbol). The coins of his successor, Aristobulus I (104103 BCE), were in br(ay)-ass with the same denomination and type, but the name was replaced by Judah (Yehudah,suura-tiger). At the beginning of his reign Alexander Yannai (10376 BCE) issued coins of the same type as his predecessors, changing the name to Jonathan (Yehonatan). Later, he issued another series of coins (in Hebrew and Greek) on which he styled himself king. Their emblems were star, anchor, both sometimes surrounded by a circle, and flower. A lepton or half-perutah(patra) with a palm branch(cf Parpolas ass seal), and a flower also belonged to this "king"(bhadra-perutah-Bharata-vrisha ) series. One type of this series, the star/anchor surrounded by a circle(pa-taarabhadraperutah), was very frequent. This was the only coin type in the whole series of Jewish coins which bears an Aramaic legend written in square Hebrew letters and which has been dated. The Hebrew as well as the Greek date 25, which is the 25th year of reign of Alexander Yannai (78 BCE), were recently discerned. As in the Greek legends and this Aramaic one as well, his name is given as "Alexandros." Alexander Yannai also apparently issued lead coins which belong to his "king"(cf.Harappan karsha) series. It is believed that in his final issues he reverted to the early Hasmonean coin type, styling himself again as high priest but altering his Hebrew name from Yehonatan to Yonatan referred to the magistrates who were responsible for the mint.

Besides the regular coin type, Hyrcanus II also issued lepta or half perutot of the same type as did his father Alexander Yannai, bearing the palmbranch/flower.(cf.the Harappan seal with hind leg+palm leaf motif). One larger trilepton shows a helmet and a double cornucopia. On all his coins he styled himself high priest. During the short reign of the last Hasmonean ruler, Antigonus Mattathias (4037 BCE), a fundamental change occurred in the coin issue of the Hasmoneans. His Hebrew name Mattityahu (Mattathias) is only given on his perutah denomination. The pomegranate between the double cornucopia is replaced by an ear of barley. He issued two larger denominations which can be compared with the Seleucid chalcous and dichalcous. Antigonus was the only Jewish ruler who

depicted the holy vessels ( cf.Harappan paana-paNa , )of the Temple of Jerusalem on his coins, specifically, the table of shewbread and the sevenbranched lampstand.(cf.PaNa is saptaasva). In his Hebrew legends he styled himself "high priest" and in his Greek legends "king." His Hebrew name is known to us only from his coins. The coins of Herod the Great (374 BCE), all of bronze as those of his successors, can be divided into two groups: those which are dated and those which are not. The dated coins all bear the same date, the year three. As Herod no doubt reckoned his reign from his appointment as king of Judea by the Romans in 40 BCE and not from his actual accession three years later, the "year three" is equal to 37 BCE. All legends on his coins were in Greek and no Hebrew legends appear on the coins of the Herodian dynasty. The legends rendered his name and title. The emblems on his coins were the tripod, thymiaterion, caduceus, pomegranate, shield, helmet, aphlaston, palm branch, anchor, double and single cornucopia, eagle, and galley(cf.paNa symbols). It may be concluded from this selection of symbols that Herod the Great did not wish to offend the religious feelings of his subjects. The denominations of his coins were the chalcous and hemi-chalcous, the trilepton the dilepton the name bhadra or perutah(puruda,bhadra of Harappa.

and frequently ).This confirms


(lepton=1/100 drachm=mite,slender,lubdha,sapta, smallest greek coin cf. tola or satamana and gunja weights)

The coins of Herod Archelaus (4 BCE6 CE) are undated and bear mainly maritime emblems, such as the galley, prow, and anchor. Other types are the double cornucopia, the helmet, bunch of grapes, and wreath surrounding the legend. His main denomination was the perutah trilepton . . , but he also issued a

As the territory of the tetrarch Herod Philip I (4 BCE.34 CE) was predominantly non-Jewish, he allowed himself to strike coins with a representation of the ruling Roman emperor and the pagan temple erected by his father in his capital Panias. His coins were dated from the year 5 to the year 37 of his reign, though not all dates occur. The most common coin struck by King Herod Agrippa I (3744 CE), grandson of Herod the Great, was a perutah of the year 6 of his reign (42/3 CE), depicting an umbrella-shaped royal canopy and three ears of barley. This coin was obviously struck for Judea. For the other districts of his kingdom he issued coins that would have offended Jewish religious feelings as they carried his own portrait or that of the Roman emperor and even gods or human beings in the Greco-Roman style of the period. On one very rare coin two clasped hands are shown; the legend seems to refer to an alliance between the Jewish people

and the Roman senate.(cf.the bhadraasana paNa symbol in L051a is formed from two clasped hands.Hence this can be a simple royal symbol and indicate the number 10 - the kings number as in dasaraajas and Ten Commandments) Herod Antipas (tetrarch of Galilee 4 BCE 39 CE) began to issue coins only after he founded and settled his new capital Tiberias. All his coins are dated. The earliest date is from the 24th year of his reign (19/20 CE). On his coins he is called Herod, but they can easily be distinguished as they bear his title "tetrarch." The emblems on his coins are all of flora such as the reed, the palm branch, a bunch of dates, and a palm tree. Though the emblems are the same on all denominations, (the years 6 and 11) and which belong to the two different eras used on his coins. These double dated coins bear "inoffensive" symbols such as double cornucopias and a hand grasping various fruits. All his coins, like those of his father Agrippa I, were of bronze and dated, making it easy to arrange them in chronological order.

The bulk of his coins were struck during the reign of the Flavian emperors, with Tyche(cf.Durga-sulka), the goddess of destiny, and the goddess of victory as emblems. A unique specimen, with the victory inscription on a shield hanging on a palm-tree(cf.IVC hindleg and palm leaf), refers to the Roman victory in the Jewish War (6670 C.E.).
By the time the Jewish War broke out, the Tyrian mint had ceased to issue silver shekels, but shekels were needed by every Jewish adult male for the payment of the annual Temple tax of a half-shekel (Exodus 30:11ff.; II Kings 12:5ff. cf.the Harappan sulka). This reason and the resolve of the Jewish authorities to demonstrate their sovereignty over their own country led to the decision to strike the well-known "thick" shekels and half- and quarter-shekels dated from the first to the fifth year of the era of the war. These are the first silver coins Jews struck in antiquity. They are of an extraordinarily good quality, artistically as well as technically. The

emblems are as simple as they are beautiful: a chalice with pearl rim (cf. Harappa.com )and three pomegranates. The legends which are, of course, only in Hebrew and written in the old Hebrew script, read Yerushalayim ha-Kedoshah ("Jerusalem the Holy") and Shekel Yisrael ("Shekel of Israel") with the abbreviated dates: shin alef, shin bet for sh[enat], a[lef], "year one," sh[enat] b[et], "year two," etc.). Small bronze coins of the perutah denomination were struck during the second and third year of the war, and three larger denominations were issued during the fourth year, two of which indicate the denomination as revi'a ("quarter") and chatzi ("half"). The emblems of the bronze coins were the vine leaf, the amphora, the lulav, the etrog, the palm tree, the fruit baskets, and the chalice(all vana/paana/paNa symbols).

During the Bar Kochba War (133-135 CE) the last Jewish coin series in antiquity was issued. There were two silver denominations, the tetradrachm or sela(sana,paNa) and the denarius or zuz(cf.sasa,dasa). The Temple front and a lulav and etrog appeared on the tetradrachms, while a rather large number of emblems occurred on the denarii, such as a wreath surrounding the legend, a bunch of grapes, a juglet, a lyre, a kitara, a pair of trumpets, and a palm branch(cf.paNa symbols). These emblems were used in many die combinations, thereby creating a large number of coin types. The bronze coinage was divided into four denominations, a system taken over from the city coinage then current in Palestine and which was reused for the Bar Kochba issues. In general, the Bar Kochba coinage was based on the tradition of the coinage of the Jewish War, 6670. The amphora, vine leaf, and palm tree occurred on the coins of that period, and the similarity of the legends is all the more striking, with the name of Zion replaced by the name Israel during the Bar Kochba War.

The vast majority of coins used during the Roman period were minted by the Romans themselves. After the banishment of Herod Archelaus in 6 C.E., his territory (Judea and Samaria) came under direct Roman rule administered by a procurator of equestrian rank. Some of these procurators issued coins of the perutah denomination as follows: coin types with a palm tree and an ear of barley; coin types with a wreath surrounding legend, a double cornucopia, olive spray, three lilies, a vine leaf or leaves, kantaros, amphora, and a palm branch; coin types with three ears of barley, simpulum, lituus, and a wreath surrounding the date of issue; and coin types with a wreath surrounding legend, two crossed spears, a palm tree, and a palm branch. It is believed that these coins were issued at Caesarea Maritima, the administrative center of the Romans in Palestine. Individual Roman-held cities also minted their own coins. City coins issued under Roman rule customarily had the head of the emperor on one side while the reverse bore images referring to the city, such as temples built there, the gods worshiped by their inhabitants, and military garrisons stationed in them. In some cases (Ashkelon, Gaza, Neapolis, Sepphoris, and Tiberias) the money systems consisted of three or more denominations. Their equivalency with the Roman coin system cannot be ascertained. All these coins were of bronze. The only city in Palestine that issued an autonomous silver coinage was Ashkelon (between 51 and 30 BCE)coins bearing portraits of Ptolemy XIV, Ptolemy XV, and Cleopatra VII. The city coinage came to an end in about 260 C.E. when it became known that the value of the metal was greater than their nominal value. It was then replaced by debased Roman imperial coins. Source: JewishGates.org

130. Measurements of volume

60 bindu = 1 saana(cf.naasa-nose,maasha) =1 teaspoon(3.55 ml)

8 saana


=1 sukti=1 ounce

2 sukti =1 pala=2 ounce(cf.pala-kara-hand,pada-foot) bhaara,paRa 2 pala = 1 prasruta=4 ounce

2 prasruta=1 kudumba=8 ounce 2 kudumba = 1 saraava=16 ounce(cf.sara-arrow,water;srava-ear) 2 saraava=1 prastha =32 ounce(911.12 ml) Measurements of Mass 60 grain = 1 dram(3.888 mg) 3 dram=1 tola(11.664 mg) 40 tola= 1 raattal 1 grain = 1/6 paNa(65 mg) 6 grain=1 paNa cf.somasuunagrainpaNa6 stroke fishgrain 12 paNa=1 dram 30 paNa=1 tola =2 kazhancu kazhancu =1saana 2 saana=1 kola 2 kola=1 karsha 2 karsha=1 sukti 2 sukti=1 pala 2 pala=1 prasruta(10 tola cf.suula-spear) 2 prasruta=1 kudumba(40 tola) 2 kudumba=1 saraava 100 pala=1 tulaam(5 kilogram 831 gram 900 milligram)

131. Inter relation of the weights and measures.

The basic unit is maa (= = ) maatra paana(jar)

or maana(nm,miina paaNa(hand)

) naama paNa

(stake,wage,price,a weight of copper coin=20 maashas=4 kaakinii,commodity for sale,wealth,business etc.) From this we have ||||= paada(foot) biija(seed,cipher) bhuja(arm).Hence paada and miina became units of measurement.Miina is niiLa(length= dooradistance.) for Tamils and mile for the Romans.Now nmz Hence we have ma(time)-maa(NY)- maana - miina - maasa - maasha - naasa maata samaa(year) sa-maya(time) yaama(a unit of time) maaya(a goddess) Yama(the god of time and death). An aNu is a unit and aNu is atom.Anu is man. Mans standard length limit is six feet. The body has three divisions, namely ,the foot (1),body(2handsva) and head(3 sar sira tradhara ) .Since saras(srii,three) forms the limit at the top and the number of limbs are 4, 4x3=12,the number of signs in the zodiac and the number of inches in a foot,and the number of phalanges of the four fingers.Standard fingers on the two hands are five+five = ten. Sums and multiples of 1, 2,3,4,5 and 6. 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,12,15,18,20,24,27,30,60,120,360 etc. became the standard units to count with. There are 6 Ritus and 60 samvatsaras(years) in the time reckoning of the Bharats. Land was measured by the measure of paddy it can fill in sowing. Nellita is a measure =1/8 of an inch . Paada being laabha(FL footleg) fish + bhadra can indicate subha laabha also.
laabha subha(svaaha,bhadra) pasu(gocow)-laabha(gain).

132. Units of measurement in the ancient world.

. The Egyptians used units like the royal cubit(bhuja) and itrw(drava = travel,water,fish;doora-distace) for length. Weights were made in units known as debens(cf. Bharata- vasna- bhadra - panca-five; pala-bhaara-weight cf. H103.) . The unit of value was Sna (vocalized as shena = cf.Bharatasama,sma,vasna,maasha,mesha,san,dhana) . The word shena was not used as the name of a weight. One deben(vasna-panca-5,dozen-12) equalled 12 shena(5+7=12) Some of the weights from the Dynastic period take the form of bull's heads animals
(cf.R,V.bulls heads presented to Indra), ,.


or other

The measurements for capacity included the "jar" (hin cf.miina paana ), the "barrel" (hekat, heqat cf.Bharatakataaha,kalasa) ,and the "sack" (khar cf.Bharata -khaara or khaarii). Besides grain, these measurements were also used to measure items such as honey, resin and gold-dust. The Hebrews used units like the cubit (Bharata-bhuja) to measure length,the log(Bharata-kosa) to measure capacity,and the mina(maneh or shekel) as measure of weight. The original measures of length were derived from the human body: the finger, hand, arm, span, foot, and pace. The Hebrew system was derived from the Babylonian system which in turn evolved from Sumerian and Bharata roots.

Litra(cf.Bharata maatra ),ezba(finger breadth cf.Bharata bhadrafinger,hasta),zeret(span,Bharata-kara-hand,vitasti),hasit(content and width of the hand cf. Bharata-hasta- hand,capeta,pritha), pesiah(pace cf.Bharatapaada-foot), ris(raasi -stadium cf.sar saradharakara5,ghar-house), bezah(egg cf. Bharata biija paada-bhuja) etc. are some of the units. Kapiza( cf. Bharata- kosa,kalasa) was a small vessel often used as a measure . The Babylonians used weights and measures like

Gan(cf.gaNa-naaga Sar(cf.seer




Gur , Mina

) and ka(cf.Bharata

saraska- head) etc .

The Old Babylonian system used units like the kush (cubit cf Bharata-bhuja) for length, sar (garden-plot Bharata-sa or bhadra- fence,dhara-earth) for area and volume, sila(fish cf. Bharata- miinadrona ) for capacity and mana (Bharata-maasha)for weight. At the base of the system is the barleycorn, she, area, volume and weight.

used for the smallest unit in length,

The Akkadians made use of a letter called a shin(cf.dhaanya

, , ,

san,suuna,soma), pronounced as 'sh'(cf. min-netra-cakshu

soma grain nellita-in Malayalam. The barleycorn is a 'e', ( 'shay' 'she.' Cf Bharata mesha maasha maa- sa/shesama) .Thus the Babylonian ka gets a link to Akkadian se through the
(please note that the actual quantity

indicated by these names need not be the same in different systems).Cf. dhaanyasalayah,shashtikah,vriihayah,ku-dhaanya; seeds cf.tila shindhaanamaashanaasa

a measure=4sesamum

dhaana =grain,seat,receptaclegartakarsha Thus the Akkadians got it from the Bharatas.

133. The Sumerian system of weights and measures .

How the sexagesimal system came into use?The answer is sixty also is hasta or sa-hasta or shat dasa(dos-hand). One can count up to 60 using two hands.Man(mina ) figure
=5 or 6 with the lines indicating 5 or 6

(cf.shekel50/60mina as maanava is maapana) and the head giving the zero.

On the left

hand there are three parts on each of four fingers (excluding the thumb). The parts are divided from each other by the joints in the fingers. Now 1x2x3= 6(ritus);2x3x4=24(horas);3x4x5=60(years) and 1x2x3x4x5=120(the life of man in the Bible,in the vimsottari dasa scheme etc.For the Keralites the life of Mahaabali was terminated by the third foot of Vishnu!).One can count up to 60(=3x4x5) by pointing at one of the twelve parts of the fingers of the left hand with one of the five fingers of the right hand. This gives a way of finger counting up to 60 . Hasta(hand) shashti (sixty)shows that the sexagesimal system also originated in Bhaarata. Shashtika is that which was bought for sixty.Shashti yojanii(journey of sixty yojanas) ,shashti haayana(period of sixty years) etc. are other examples. The Babylonian number ( cuneiform symbol) wedge is the hand fist itself. In general length, volume, and mass were derived from a theoretical standard cube, called 'gur', ( Gur cf.Bharata -caru-pot,kara-hand) filled with either barley, wheat, water, or oil. Units of length were prefixed by the logogram DU ( ) a convention of the archaic period counting system from which it was evolved. Du is do(the hand ) of Bharata. Doo -ra is distance or length in dos(arm) and padas(foot,pada do as v u). Sumerian measures of shekel(gin,BharatagaNa,naaga,kaNa,kanaa,kala,kalasa,sulka),sar(garden,Bharata -bhadra-field,dhara-earth,sara-5),ku(field,Bharataku=earth),pur(estate,Bharata-pur =mansion,city) etc. have their roots in Bharata. The seg-sar(720 bricks, Akkadian:libittumuusaru) is the paRa(bhadra-drona) for the South Indians. Capacity Shekel(gin,Bharata-kaNa,gaNa,jala,naaga, kanaa,kala,kalasa,maatra cf ma=water),bowl (sila ,Bharata-kosa,camasa),vessel(ban,Bharatapaana)etc.have roots in Bharata . Mass The units of mass grain(se,cf.Bharata:sa-bird maasha;gunja;sa-ma ; tu-la),shekel(gin ,Bharatasila,saraka,kalasa,cakra,karsha),pound(mana,phala,paNa),load(gun,Bharata-tulaa,pala)

have their roots in Bharata . Ma-na maana( pari-maa-Na measure ) is miina itself. Time .The calendar of Nippur dates to 3500 BCE and was itself believed to be based on older astronomical knowledge of an uncertain origin(cf.Bharata origin) .The main astronomical cycles used to construct the calendar were the synodic month, equinox year, and siderial day as used by the Bharats(cf.samaayear;maasa-month;bhadra-varsha-vrisha ). Some units of time are gesh(Bharata-dasa time,kala-kaala-time),mu-es(second,Bharata-nimisha), Da-na(Bharata-vinadi cf.nama),ud(day,Bharata-diva,dinaday),Itud(month,Bharata raasi-sign or month,ritu-bimonth),mu(year,Bharata ma-time,yama-god of time,samaa-year,samaya-time,haayana-year) The similarity of the words is not accidental as already discussed in BTLOTH. It is probably because of the migration of the Bharats from Anatolia to Sumer and Harappa around the close of the sixth millennium BCE.

134. Bharata measurements of time.

We have seen that the principle of maanava as maapana was first employed by the Bharats and the ancient world followed their measuring systems. Samaya is sayana and sa
(god) yama(god of time).

The bhuja,the paada,the paatra(kalasa,drona),maatra etc. paved the way for measuring units. The Bharata measurements of time can be summarized as below: a paramaanu(nimisha) is the normal interval of blinking in humans, or approximately 4 seconds a vighati is 6 paramaanus, or approximately 24 seconds a ghati is 60 vighatis, or approximately 24 minutes ghata a muhurta is equal to 2 ghatis, or approximately 48 minutes a nakshatra ahoratram or sidereal day is exactly equal to 30 muhurtas A leekshaka is 1/60th of a paramaanu lice a lava is 1/60th of a leeksha rava-the sun a renu is 1/60th of a lava nara a truti is 1/60th of a renu . drumsruti a yaama is 7 ghatis 3hours

The day was divided into 30 parts and the night into thirty parts.(RV.6.59.6) or . four yaamams(AV.6.21.2). Sapta(seven,divasa-day) - ahas(days) constituted a saptaaha(a week). A maasa or lunar month (approximately 29.5 days) was divided into 2 pakshas,(bhaksha,bhiksha) the sukla(white) and the Krishna(dark) . The year was divided into twelve months and occasionally an intercalary month was added to make the year agree with the seasons.A month had thirty days and the year had 360 days. The year was also divided into three seasons of four months and six seasons of two months each.(AV.6.55.2).The 28 lunar mansions beginning with Krittika(the spring equinox) and including Abhijit are named in AV.19.7 and Taittiriya samhita 4.4.10.

Catur(sa-surDurgaSurya-the sun;dhurya-a bull)-bhuja(biija)


cf.bhadraasana is the hoof(foot)

with 4 claws.It is the mark of aya.



41. "Priest King."

Pa-tra,netra the two dress,pattam,bhattatiri

Seated male sculpture, or "Priest King" from Mohenjodaro (41, 42, 43). The left shoulder is covered with a cloak(netra-king) decorated with trefoil(patra-bhadra), double circle(bhadra) and single circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment(garta-rakta-raagaraaja-king). The upper lip is shaved and a short combed beard(netra-king) frames the face. Material: white, low fired steatite Dimensions: 17.5 cm height, 11 cm width Mohenjo-daro, DK 1909 National Museum, Karachi, 50.852 Marshall 1931: 356-7, pl. XCVIII

Harappa.com http://www.harappa.com/indus/42.html

42. "Priest King."

The head band is the fish asva-avasa-gopa sign.It is mudra ring MudranetraEgy.ntr-god,Bharata-Indra-king godpatrabhadra The central ornament worn on the forehead of the famous "priest-king" sculpture from Mohenjo-daro appears to represent an eye bead(netra), possibly made of gold with steatite inlay in the center. Bhadra is patra(leaf;pa-leaf,tra-three) and vasana(netracloth). Hence dress with the trilobe or trefoil indicate the king.

135.Kadavul (Tamil-god )

Gadol or godol :larulp) gedolim ) (Hebrew "big" or "great"), is a Hebrew term used mostly by Haredi Litvish Jews to refer to the most revered rabbis of the Generation. The term gadol hador (bhadra-potri-hotri-sacrificer)refers to the "greatest (one) of the generation".

136.Kohen Gadol
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Priest_%28Judaism%29 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kohen

Jewish high priest and Levite in ancient Judah (the depictions of the Menorah, Table of Showbread and trumpets are inspired by the Arch of Titus). Kohen Gadol or Kohen ha-Gadol (Heb. " Great Priest") is the title of High Priest of early Israelite religion ancient Israel, the Kohen Gadol (High Priest) wore a headdress(siirshaka,sikhara) called the Mitznefet (often translated into English as "mitre"cf.netra-king,mudra-kings ring seal), which was wound around the head so as to form a broad, flat-topped turban. Attached to it was the Tzitz, a plate of solid gold bearing the inscription "Holiness to YHWH" (Exodus 39:14, 39:30). Yhwha-g-n-afire,kingyahva(lord). The Harappan priest king had similar headgear and note that of the Egyptian Atum.Note the pa-tra on the amsa vastra ( holy dress of rank cf.the patra on the amza-shoulder of the unicorn) of the priest king. Pa-tra bhadra(patrapaasya

, ) on head bhadra(agna) netrasravaamzaamsaatumagna(king). Note the patrapaasya(lalaatika-forehead jewel) of the king along with the pa-tra marks on the dress(netra).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitre

The mitre (sometimes also spelled miter), from the Greek , "headband" or "turban", is a type of headgear now known as the traditional, ceremonial head-dress of bishops and certain abbots in the Catholic Church, as well as in the Anglican Communion, some Lutheran churches, and also bishops and certain other clergy in the Eastern Orthodox churches, Eastern Catholic Churches and the Oriental Orthodox Churches.
In Western Europe, the mitre was first used in ancient Rome by the Salii(cf.srii of the Harappan seals) and other priests, and outside of Rome about the year 1000. Worn by a bishop, the mitre is depicted for the first time in two miniatures of the beginning of the eleventh century. The first written mention of it is found in a Bull of Pope Leo IX in the year 1049. By 1150 the use had spread to bishops throughout the West; by the 14th century the tiara(tria
, ,

)was decorated with three

(srii,raaja,kiriita) crowns.
In ancient Israel, the Kohen Gadol (High Priest) wore a headress called the Mitznefet (often translated into English as "mitre"), which was wound around the head so as to form a broad, flat-topped turban. Attached to it was the Tzitz, a plate of solid gold bearing the inscription "Holiness to YHWH" (Exodus 39:14, 39:30).


Jewish High Priest wearing the mitznefet.

Harappan priest kings headband and dress.

Pope Gregory the Great wearing the camelaucum.

The camelaucum (Greek: , kamilaukion), the headdress both the mitre and the Papal tiara stem from, was originally a cap used by officials of the Imperial Byzantine court. "The tiara [from which the mitre originates] probably developed from the Phrygian cap, or frigium, a conical cap worn in the GrecoRoman world. In the 10th century the tiara was pictured on papal coins." Other sources claim the tiara developed the other way around, from the mitre. Its use has possible precedents in the Phrygian mitr-aic sacrifice and the mitre-like headdress signifying netra(king) and enlightenment and received at a priest's inauguration. In the late Empire it developed into the closed type of Imperial crown used by Byzantine Emperors .

Mitra simplex traditional style: White damask with its white lappets ending in red fringes.(cf.red paint in Anatolia ,red paint on the Harappan priest king etc.Rakta- raagais garta-throne and raaja-king ).

The evolution of the mitre, from the Catholic Encyclopedia

(1913). Note the bhasma-bhadra- three line the head and the mitre(cf.Mal.netti-forehead).


Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishop's mitre.

St. Zenon of Verona wearing a mitre.(cf.Mal.metraan-bishop,netra-king,eye) . With his inauguration as pope, Benedict XVI broke with tradition and replaced the papal tiara even on his papal coat of arms with a papal mitre (containing still the three levels of 'crowns' representing the powers of the Papacy in a simplified form) and pallium. Prior to Benedict XVI, each pope's coat of arms always contained the image of the papal tiara and St. Peter's crossed keys.

Episcopal Church bishops with mitres and a crosier .

Elaborately embroidered Westerm mitre Crucifixion (top), French mitre Nativity of Christ Elaborately Deposition with embroidered Eastern Twelve Apostles. Ink (middle), Twelve Apostles (bottom) Orthodox mitre, 1715 on cloth
Muse national du Moyen ge, htel de Cluny, Paris Muse national du Moyen, htel de Cluny, Paris

Mitre of Orthodox Metropolitan Chrysostomos of Smyrna, killed when the Turks Benaki Museum, Athens. captured the city in 1922.
National Historical Museum, Athens, Greece.

Mitre of Bishop Sztojkovics, ca.

Orthodox mitre, 2000, Kiev

Bishops of the Armenian Catholic Church in

1860, stolen from the Serbian Orthodox Cathedral, Szentendre, Hungary in 1989.

Jerusalem Orthodox mitre, 2000, Kiev

Abbot's mitre, treasury of the former Premonstratensian Abbey in Rti in Switzerland


Note the mitre of the Harappan priests and deities in these pictures and that of Atum of Egypt.

1 3 8 . Atum
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atum

. Atum

in hieroglyphs

Atum (alternatively spelled Tem, Temu, Tum, and Atem jina-dina-paNa soma-sun,Muusa-Moses) is an important deity in Egyptian mythology, whose cult centred on the city of Heliopolis (Egyptian: Annu). His name is thought to be derived from the word 'tem' (cf.sam,jina,soma,anta,naata,naasa,anda,aatma,aasana,asana) which means to complete or finish. Thus he has been interpreted as being the 'complete one' and also the finisher of the world, which he returns to watery chaos at the end of the creative cycle. Anta-naasa-end,anda-egg,amsa-part,asana-food;god is food.

Atum Atum is one of the most important and frequently mentioned deities from earliest times, as evidenced by his prominence in the Pyramid Texts, where he is portrayed as both a creator and father to the king. He is usually depicted as a

man wearing either the royal head-cloth or the dual white and red crown of Upper Egypt, and Lower Egypt, reinforcing his connection with kingship. Sometimes he also is shown as a serpent, the form which he returns to at the end of the creative cycle and also occasionally as a mongoose, lion, bull, lizard, or ape.

139.Iusaaset, the grandmother of deities

Iusaaset, Atum's wife cf.ushas vedic goddess of dawn In the Old Kingdom the Egyptians believed that Atum lifted the dead king's soul from his pyramid to the starry heavens(cf.udakakriyaudaya-rise,kriyaact,Aries). By the time of the New Kingdom, the Atum mythos, merged in the Egyptian pantheon with that of Ra, who was also the creator and a solar deity, their two identities were joined into Atum-Ra. But as Ra was the whole sun, and Atum became to be seen as the sun when it sets (depicted as an old man leaning on his staff), while Khepera was seen as the sun when it was rising.

140. Soma



somamadhudhuumahomasoNasuunasuura paajra

141. Rice http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice

Etymologyof Rice
First attested in English in the middle of the 13th century, the word rice derives from the Old French ris, which comes from Italian riso, in turn from the Latin oriza, which derives from the Greek (oruza cf.vrisha-bull;bhadraking;srava-ear of corn,ear,rice;drava-fish,gold). The Greek word is the ultimate source of all European words (cf. Welsh reis, Ger. Reis, Lith. rysai, Serbo-Cr. riza, Pol. ryz, Dutch rijst).

History of domestication & cultivation

See also: Oryza sativa#History of domestication and cultivation Asia

The average Asian rice farmer owns a few hectares : Banaue Rice Terraces, N. Luzon, Philippines

Rice field under monsoon clouds in Pegu Division, Burma Rice was first domesticated by the Chinese in the region of the Yangtze River valley. Changes in the morphology of Diaotonghuan phytoliths dating from 10,000-8,000 BP show that rice had by this time been domesticated. Soon afterwards the two major varieties of indica and Japonica rice were being grown in Central China. In the late 3rd millennium BC there was a rapid expansion of rice cultivation into mainland Southeast Asia and westwards across India and Pakistan. The earliest remains of cultivated rice in India have been found in the north and west and date from around 2000 BC. Perennial wild rices still grow in Assam and Nepal. It seems to have appeared around 1400 BC in southern India after its domestication in the northern plains. In the Rigveda it is called Soma( from suuna-grain,aazu-to press out or distil soma juiceRV.9.108.7;AV.20.127.7.Aazava is liquor.), aasuRV,AV(or aasuvriihi),Pajra RV,Srava , Srii,Anna RV10.117.3 etc.Vriiihi(rice,srii-ka-grain) is mentioned in the Atharva veda.Paatala is ia rice ripening in the rains .Rice is first mentioned in the Yajur Veda (c. 1500-800 BC) and then is frequently referred to in Sanskrit texts .Saali(rice) is mentioned by Manu and the Mahaabhaarata.. Many festivals such as Bihu in Assam, Sankraanti in Andhra Pradesh, Tai Pongal in Tamil Nadu, Makara Sankraanti in Karnataka, Nabanna in West Bengal, Onam in Kerala etc.celebrates harvest of Paddy.

The roof is vaara and the paatra is srava(ear,rice,soma)-bhadra.The golden husk is the Tiger skin or the ox hide of soma(rice) as seen in this figure of rice (soma) available in Google rice grain structure (from www.Mehrangroup.com/rice/ricegrain)


Soma(rice wine) drona Indus River at Mohenjo-daro 2

Rice(soma) fields almost ready for the fall (kharif) harvest reach to the edges of the
Indus River near Mohenjo-daro. The flood plain on the far side of the river is covered by a vast scrub forest that would have supplied the ancient inhabitants with firewood and good hunting.

http://www.teksengricemill.com/images/structure_grain.gif bull- fish soma- bull bill bhuj paNa Note how the Egyptian Bata becomes soma bhadra(rice- bull) . Sed (medha asva-bulls tail) is sada( soma-anna-rice) sacrifice. The fish sign is often associated with the shad(six,sas-grain,corn) mark to show that is sada(Sed,rice) or Sasa( is corn or grass as per RV.cf.sasya-plant). sasadasadesa(region,place,nation).

sasya sasa(hare,saasa-king,dasa-10,sata-100) + aya(4,good luck,dice) Sasa is also the name of an Aatreya -author of RV.5.21.Sasa bhadra is rebus for Dasa raaja(RV),Dasaratha(Raamaayana) etc.

Look at this seal: The horned archer(refer DTIS page112) of the copper tablets from Mohenjo-daro has a very interesting Bharata/bhadraasana story to tell. He has a bulls horn and tail(bhadra) and carries a bow(viira) and arrow in his hands.The bull's horn is vaara(horn,tail) and purusha(man) is bhadra(vrisha=bull,puruda-gold).He is accompanied by a seven script inscription which may be split into viira bhadra(bhadraasana-paNa) units as shown below : The archer-viira(vaara-tail,roof,jar,door,lid) bhadra(purusha,puruda)karsha(garja-horn Gr.keras-karsha,Lat.cornu-svarNa-gold. A horn sounds and counts.)- paNa(baaNa-arrow)- aasana(bow,amsa-part,amzashoulder,asma-mountain,maasha-bean measure,,naasa-nose,smaface,zma-past) .
-bhadraasana(bhadraasva,vaaha-na;vaaha/bhaga/bhaaga paNa)/saasana(order,daana-donation)/ bhaajana(vessel-nishka)/bhuushaNa(ornament-nishka)/bhojana(food)/nagna bhadra(nude girl,bhadra naaNaka)/nakra paNa(nose money).Betel make the lips rakta/karsha . Nagna bhadra bhadra naaga(snake,elephant,arrow;kanaa-woman) bhadraasva Mahaa bhadra padma naabha(Lotus navel-Vishnu-vasna-paNa) vasna(paNa/bhadra/karsha) ,vadana(face) cf.va-hand,ta-tail,Laxmi,nacipher,gem aasana (bhadra) bhadra(patra,paartha,Bhaarata) .This is shown as three leaves(pa-tra -paNa or palm , ) on markhor goat(aasana-aja/asinus) and other animals in B8,B9,B10 etc. or by the bhadra(star,dot,spot) on the aasana (buttocks,amzashoulder) of the animals as in B14,B15a,B15b,B16,B17a,B17b,B18 etc. karsha(karNa,karaNa,patra,rishabha,hariNa)

Horned deities can be seen in DK13013,H-178B,K-65, M-304,M305,M-1181,M-1186 etc. also to indicate karsha/garta.

142. Soma(moha) in kramuka

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Areca http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Areca_nut

In the Indian Subcontinent the chewing of betel(patra-leaf-vana-pan) and areca nut(kramukamoha kara somamohamadhu) dates back to the Vedic period Harappan empire.
Like grain/rice wine areca is also a soma candidate.
Paan( patra-leaf-betel ) paNa(praise,prize,price,money)vana(leaf,tree) The art of Paan or the chewing of Betel dates back to the Vedic Harappan empire. The prepared nuts boiled, sliced and sundried are wrapped with a Betel leaf from the Betel pepper. The combination of betel nut and other condiments is also known as quid. In India, tobacco is sometimes used in this mixture. Then the package is chewed and sucked on for several hours. A Betel chewer is recognised by the red staining of the mouth, gum, teeth and lips. In traditional Indian households, a good host would after a sumptuous meal, offer a silver tray piled with a pyramid pile of Paan.

In ancient India, women used to chew paan to acquire a redness(cf.soma-sona) on their lips and mouth,

serving as a primitive lipstick. It is traditionally regarded as a medicinal substance and an aphrodisiac


An areca nut bunch hanging from the palm(paNa-praise). Mal.kamu-ku haoma(moha) ka(nut) .The palms including the coconut palm generally tenders moha(madhu,soma) and used as paNa(praise,please) to the gods. Vandana(praise,worship) was done with pancama(sex;panca-ma madyaalcohol,matsya-fish,maamsa-meat,mudra-dance,maithuna-sex).Puuga(areca) is bhoga (food,snake,sex) and gopa(king.cf.soma bhadra-king).

Photo of a ripe areca nut(soma)

Areca nuts wrapped in Betel (patra-bull)leaves, appearing as they are commonly prepared and sold in Taiwan

Display of the items usually included in a chewing session. The betel leaves are folded in different ways according to the country and most have a little lime(calcium hydroxide) daubed inside. Slices of the dry areca nut are on the upper left hand and slices of the tender testicle nut on the upper right. The pouch on the lower right contains tobacco, a relatively recent introduction.

143.Egyptian festival of Opet http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/festival.htm

There was a ceremony communing with another holy image of Amun, Amun-Min, who inseminated the earth, according to the ancient beliefs of creation, and brought about plentiful harvests.cf.fish asva avasaushasomasuuna suura;amunasur suuryasuu(produce)-raya(rayi-aisvarya-harvest)

Asva-water buffalo aksha-paNa-naaNaka-naaNya-maanya


Miinanayanana-yama(sama=two)cf.mahishamanusha,naraasva,man Opetasva(bull)avasa(sun,king)abda(year)abja(lotus,conch) 144.The Festival of the Fertility god Min

In this celebration, the king cut the first sheaf of grain, which symbolically supported his role as life-sustainer of his people. It should be noted that this festival, associated with Min, was clearly one of fecundity and the virility of rebirth, with the agricultural aspect predominating.

145.Sed( Heb-Sed) Festival

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sed_festival


The sed festival (also known as Heb Sed or Feast of the Tail) was an ancient Egyptian ceremony which was held to celebrate the continued rule of a pharaoh. The less formal feast name, the Feast of the Tail, is derived from the name of the animal's tail that typically was attached to the back of the pharaoh's garment in the early periods of Egyptian history.cf.viirabhadra of IVC .

Sed of Egypt

Viirabhadra of IVC.

The Sed-festival Renewal of the kings Rule and Health http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/festival.htm

By Jimmy Dunn

Rice Rise-Race

One of the most important festivals related to kingship was the Heb(cf.vaahabull,bhaga-the sun) - Sed Festival, also frequently referred to as the royal jubilee or simply the Sed-festival which normally depicts the king running alongside the Apis bull in order to prove his fitness to rule.Apis is asvabull,avasa-king,sun and abda-year.Thus the annual rise of the sun at the winter solstice is the Sed/pongal festival. Vrisha-bull (bhadra-king,va-raaja-king)varshayearvrika(wolf,a kshatriya) A very ancient jackal-like god(it is the king god as vrika/vrisha is the king), who may have been an independent deity or, alternatively, related in some way to the jackal god Wepwawet, was closely related to kingship ideology, and the ancient Sed-festival. Cf.wolf bull-f

Varsha ayana or haayananayanana-yamaniyama (law) nigama(veda cf.Old and New testaments of the Bible). The ritual continued to be practised throughout Egypt's Pharaonic history as bhadraasana (kshetra,gaja-aasana) was the seat of the god / the king as stated by Manu.7.7(page 56). Heb-Sed Festival

. The Heb-Sed Festival was usually celebrated 30 (tridasa deva-god cf 30 shekels as price of Jesus) years after a kings rule and thereafter, every three(srii) years. It usually began on New Years Dayday one of the peret(varsha,vrisha,bhadra) seasonand started with an imposing procession, as did all ancient Egyptian festivals. The name sed festival (also known as Heb Sed or Feast of the Tail) derives its name from the name of an Egyptian wolf god(nripavrika-wolfvrishabullvriihi-ricebrih- to grow great), one of whose names was Wepwawet (viira bhadra,prabhaata) or Sed. The less formal feast name, the Feast of the Tail, is derived from the name of the animal's tail (vaara-viira-hero;baala-paala-pa-king)that typically was attached to the back of the pharaoh's garment in the early periods of Egyptian history(The tailtasa-god,bird,snake;the bushy hair of the tail shows harsha/garta as

in the unicorn figure).The ancient festival probably was instituted to replace a ritual of murdering a pharaoh who had reached an age or condition when judged unable to continue to rule. Eventually, Sed festivals were jubilees celebrated after a ruler had held the throne for thirty years and then every three (or four in one case) years after that.

Detail from an ebony label of the First Dynasty pharaoh Den, depicting him running around the ritual boundary markers (cf. festival . Representations of this festival, normally depicts the king running alongside the Apis bull (cf.bhadra=border,bull,varsha,vrisha) in order to prove his fitness to rule. It denotes the beginning of the year and the suns race round the year. And the kings race round his territory like a vrika(dog) to guard it. Vrisha(bull;bhadraasvavarsha-abda,varsha-vritta year circle) is varsha(year,place).Vrishabha(bull) is prabhaata(dawn) and prataapa(glory) of the sun king.KaaLa(bull,hala-plough
, , ) as

part of the Sed

) is kaala(time).

146. Bull-baiting of yore http://www.hindu.com/2008/01/13/stories/2008011355961 800.htm

T.S. Subramanian Evidence of jallikattu in the Indus Valley emerges

Photo : By Special Arrangment

M-312 PROOF POSITIVE: A seal made of stone, found at Mohenjodaro, depicting jallikattu (bull-baiting) that was prevalent in the Indus Civilisation. The seal, about 4,000 years old, is on display at the National Museum, New Delhi. Mr. Mahadevan is of the opinion that the seal shows only one man, who is flung into the air by the bull(cf.soma pavamaana), his flying, his plunging, his somersaulting and finally sitting on his haunch. A colour photograph of this seal is found at No. M 312 in The Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions, Volume 1, edited by Asko Parpola and others. This is a bhadraasana(throne-garta-karsha) of panca karsha(cf.bhadra-pancasimha-garja-garta-gaatra-kaasara-karsha) seal indicated by the azana(throwing) by the bhadra(asva-kaasara-buffalo).It is bhadra( kings) asma(stone) also.There are five(panca-vasna-paNa) purusha(puruda-gold) to indicate saabhadra(savitri-the king god) and panca(5) puruda(gold)-patra(writ) .Each vacana(vasana, vadana) unit is a vasna(paNa) unit. Compare this seal with Dr.Parpolas ass seal

M-290a 1

and the bhadraasana seals 2

, 3


1.bhadraasana karsha paNa(5) 2.pritha(bhadra) svarNa(krisana) paNa(9) 3. Naaga(Hastina,karsha,8) bhadra aasana (vaahana) karsha 4 .Pa-Na-svarNa-kara-sa(5) 5. ka-r-sa rNa-va-sa (karsha,Saraka svarNa) 6.bhadraasana-kaasara(buffalo-karsha) bali(tax,hana-paNa) nakra(alligator,nose;karaNa-deed;karNa-ear;hariNa-gold;rukma-nishka-gold ornament) .This is a nose money or nishka money. Bhadra is a buffalo, a woman, an elephant,a tiger, a cipher etc.Buffalo throwing men is similar to woman throwing tiger to indicate bhadraasana(azana-throw,amsa-part, amza-shoulder,azma-me,naasaruin,naaza-nose,saasana-daana-sana-donation) etc.

147. Harappan Writings


152. Inscribed sherd, Harappa -2300 BCE

Sakala of kalasa (Pot sherds) served as sulka( money).




Cf. as in house) Garga

.Karka(thorn)graaha(gharial) griha(paNa-







hiraNyaaksha hiranyaaksha= karsha




aksha/paksha/maksha sarpa/sarva maha

Mahesvara/mahiisvara maga(sun priest) mahaa

or bhaga/maga/paNa



Vrishabha(sarshapa-6 likhya-6liksha)

- bhadra


ka,a , sa

kara,sra,ksha karsha,aksha

,cakra,Sagara,Sarga,Sakra +


srakaasara,karsha +


karsha-karsha -paNa2 karsha paNa or aksha karsha pana as in

=karsha )







and paNa


(svar-the sky,the sun,svarNa-aja-gold)

Each laksha

may be a liksha

aksha,karsha,bhadraasana paNa karsha,panca hiraNya aksha,karsha,dasaraaja,Dasaratha

Sahasraaksha paNa.








Vrishabha(1/4) naaga(1/4) is the unicorn(1/2 karsha paNa).It can indicate karsha paNa =bhaga(cf.bhaaga-bhaaj-todivide Heb.beka-bq-to divide).




unicornbhaksha-food,bhiksha-donation,paksha-wing,lunar phase)asva(rishabha,aasana-asmaa-throne,aajina-hide)-

pa Na(bhaga,karsha,garta,sagara,cakra)bha-tra-aa-sma(sana) bhadraasana(amsa patra-partition deed) paNa(bhaga- the sun,money,part,agreement;bali-tax,gava-cattle,nava-nine,praise;karsha) whence bhadraasana karsha/paNa. s-va-r-Na -bhadra(patra-garut-karsha-Garuda)-paNa(bhaga-sun,money,navanew,nine,praise). PuraaNa-manaa-paNa

PuraaNA= a Karsha or measure of silver=16 PaNas of cowries Mn.8.136 traaNa-manaa-paNa traa=a protector,defender RV1.100.7 SraavaNa-paNa Indra-agna-bhadra-bhaga(paNa) Aksha(5,eye,snake,dice)-sarpa(snake,8;sapta-7)-paNa (aksha=sarpa;sarpasarvaall,talpa-bed) .It is 58/57 paNa(value,money) or simply sapta-aksha/karshapaNa.There are 7 laksha/karsha paNa(word) in the inscription. Hence it can be a paNa(barter,word,bird,value) slip of value 7 or 58/57. PaNa(pritha-palm) is phaNa of sarpa(bhuja-hand,bhoga-snake) . Bhadra(king,gold)-traya(third)-abda(year,abja-conch)-paNa(money) Bhadra gaja(bhadraasva) sarpa paNa . This is corroborated by the bhadraasvanaaga carma(aajina) patra(paksha) paNa (bhaga-sun-sana-dhana) .It is hide money. Bhadra-gaja-vrishabha is the unicorn.Bhadra(patra-pa,sa)-gaja paksha(wingking-winged bull),bhaksha(food),bhakta(part,devotee),bhiksha(gift,donation),sakta(strong).

paNa(karsha) bhadraasana paNa cf.Goebekli Tepe bhadraasana shown by bird(Garuda,hamsa-garta-karsha) + headless body and erection(aasana,harsha,garta) + scorpion(druuNa-svarNa-gold) on page 100 indicating bhadraasana(hamsaasana-simhaasana)-harsha(karsha-garta)-druuNa(droNathrone-thorn;taruni-woman).The writing is very similar to the writing on this sherd and the IVC seal where the bird is accompanied by a thorn/spike to imitate the druuNas tail sting(thorn) / droNa / tarunii(woman) reading bha-dra(pa-tra) karna(karsha,hariNa)-nag-na-taruniipatra(bhadra) which is yet another form of H-3305 where nagna bhadra harsha (karsha) is shown plainly.The erect phallus/harsha shows the palace/garta/karsha. karka= thorn ,

Bhadra naaga


crab,pot;harika=a gambler.

Goebekli Tepe

IVC Mohenjo-daro 25

IVC H-3305

. Fishmaana(house,volume) paNa(praise,barter,agreement) vana(house,9) naava(boat,praise) Griha(house)graaha(alligator) argha(price)

karsha(aksha,raaja bhadraasana(



Asmanprecious stone RV.5.47.3 INSTRUMENT MADE OF STONE RV.4.30.20;RV.10.53.8AV12.2.26. Hence bhadra asma bhadraasana bhadra amsa amsa-part patra-writ (deed of partition) rockPeter The bhadraasana-palace/throne is Peter.Hence the church of Christ(karshagarta-raksha) was founded on Peter.

varta -barterpatra-writ,bird,leaf bhadra king,bull,gold paatra(paanavaara)-jar,pot

Dramba,dramma drachm1/16 nishka cf.drum Drapsa(drop of Soma RV.1.94.11;10.11.4)-maapana Dravya-maapana cf.fluid dram

DraviNa=movable property (as opp.to house and field)RV.AV

paNa(RiNa,raaja,risha)-apna(avana,vaayana)samjnaa-pa-na or bhadraasana RiNeshu-samjnaa-paNa Graaha-alligatorargha-price griha-housearca-praise Argha=a collection of 20 pearls having the weight of a DharaNa. Argha samsthaapana=fixing the price of commodities-it is the act of a ruler,in concert with the traders and should be done once a week or once a fortnight .Manu.8.402

Naaga dharaNa-traaNa


naaga(arrow,snake,elephant) has paNa.

Dhara(sara)-Na-female breast,rice corn;a king of the Naagas;a kind of wt=10 palas,16 silver maashakas;1silver puraaNa;1/10 satamaana;19 nishpaava;2/5 karsha;1/10 pala;24 raktikaa etc.

tail of scorpion-druuNa

The six spoked circle(10+6) is king Sudaasa(shodasa)




154. Unicorn seal Unicorn seal from Harappa Phase Period 3B. Bhadraasva(bhadra gaja,panca karsha,panca aksha)-vasana(aasana,raaja,naaga,vasna)nishka(aabharaNa,dharaNa,tola,tulaabhaara,sulka). It is bhadraasana manyaa can be seen from the patra on the aasana(amzashoulder) and the manyaa(nerves on the neck.cf.nishka) on the unicorn.Unicorn Being the palm is panca vasna(pritha-vrisha-bhadra).



shekel SULKA Hastina pura


naga-ra(city) Gaja- bhadra(pura)

Iisvara(god) is vrisha(Indra,bull, Tamil kaaLai=bull).Vrisha is bhadra(bull,king,auspicious,girl,cipher,wheel) paala(ruler)


paatra(jar) svara(voice)
The belt across the shoulder is the Brahmins sacred thread-pavitra-savitra Sulkasunaka-dogsimha-lion Mal. cunkam(tax,),tankam(kanakam-gold)

Bhadra(vasna,gold)-krisana(gold,cowrie)karsha(tola,nishka,dharaNa). Note bhadra(gold,patra,pritha,panca-5)-aasana(amza,amsa,asva) maanya(nerves on the nape of the neck-nishka-aabharaNa for the neck) of the unicorn and the bhadra(patra) aasana namaskaara script

Bhadra-gaja(asva,sva)-naasaa(aasana,vasana)-aa-bhara-Na(nishka,dharaNa) or



- vasna



Karsha(panca-five,karaja-five fingers)-gunja(krishnala)-maasha( raaja-paNa)

Cf.Five krishnalas=1/10 suvarNa= a maasha paNa(approx.17 grains troy). Karsha is ka-head ,raaja-king/sara-arrow
or kaasara or cakra

Panca-aksha-vasna-maashapaNa Panca-arka-paNamaashapaNa-naaga ( ,kanaa ,kalaa)-gaja Thus this seal is a word picture of the seal



aksha(bhadra) placed on bhadra

bhadraasana aksha.Gaja(bhadra) is aksha and ashta.With the harsha of its hair it is bhadraasana karsha.Hari(tiger,gold)-naya shows hiraNya , pariNaya etc.Hence this is hiraNyaaksha bhadraasana karsha.





cakra karsha,panca

bhadraasana paNa,maasha


Eka cakra /eka karsha/ekasulka bhadra naaga(mahaaraaja) karsha(panca) vasna

27. Bull seal, Harappa.

The majestic zebu bull,

is the most impressive motif found on the Indus seals. Generally carved on large seals with relatively short inscriptions, the zebu motif is found almost exclusively at the largest cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa because of the emperors presence there. The rarity of zebu seals is curious .When carved in stone, the zebu bull probably represents the most powerful clan or top officials of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. cf.ekacakra .Manyaa(nishka) is seen on the neck.A belt across the shoulder indicate the pavitra/savitra of the head priest. Harappa Archaeological Research Project.

Zebu bull seals are rare as it represented the chief priest or kohen gadol or Peter and Paul pope of Mohenjodaro and Harappa as the ekacakra indicates.
Eka cakra(bhadra-vasna-karsha)-rishabha naaga-panca(karsha,karNa)vasana(vasna,paNa) svarNa-naaga-karsha-vasna(paNa).

Aksha(eye,snake) uksha(bull) - gaja (bhadra)

eka-cakra-bhadra(bhaarata,paartha,praata)-pushkara-nripa(Varuna)-paNa(naava,naama) ekacakra= having one wheel(said of the suns cxhariot)RV.1.164.2;AV9.9.2;10.8.7governed by one king,the state of being sole master,supremacy of a king,name of a daanava, Name of a town of the kiicakas Pushkara is a son of Varuna ;a Gaandhaara king who is a son of Bharata Pushkara(bhuj-kara;bhaaskara)suuryamuulyavasnasulka

Pushkarapatra is a lotus leaf.Was it a coin? Pushkara taamara-lotustaamra-copper Vaaha=beak,vaaja,bhaaga Vaaha=bearer,porter,a mesure of capacity (containing 10 Kumbhas or 2 prasthas) .The ten kumbha is clearly marked in the vaaha.



28. Bison
seal, Mohenjodaro. Four script symbols are inscribed in reverse, above a bison with head lowered to the feeding trough. A swastika motif turning counter clockwise is carved on the reverse. Pritha(vrata,vrija,vrisha,prajaa,Peruta ) bhiksha(bhuja,bhaksha,bhakta,bhuusha,bhoja,puuja) paNa ashta pada (handfuldonation-money-gold cf.piti ari-handful rice -donation to the churches) Manyaa is shown by the nerves/stripes on the nape of the bulls neck. The king is prajaa bhaksha-eater of subjects by taxes cf. , and prajaa bhakta-loving his subjects cf. one of the titles of Ashoka: Piyadassi or Priyadarsi, "He who is the beloved of the Gods and who regards everyone amiably" comes from this tradition. Pritha(Peruta,puruda-gold)-daksha-netra(paNa,king,sacrifice)-srii(ashtapada-gold)

Spider(srii-krii,ashtapada-hari-gold; luutatulaa Hala(bala-pala-paNa-vasna-kara)-bha-k-sa(bhaksha-food,bhiksha-donation,dakshaking cf.

sa,dasra,gaatra,deha,sara+ ka,sa,maa,naaga,gaja =daksha,gaja,dharaNa,


raajaDharma raaja mritaraaja-king of the dead marta raja-king of men.Dharma raaja is Yudhishthira.Daksha raaja is the year of reign of the king.Raaja dharma is kings duty or obligation.Raaja maatra is kings measure)-netra(king,paNa-muulya)ashtapada(srii-hari -gold) Harika(gambler,karka=crab,pot,thorn) Garga crabgrabh,grabha(taking possession of)grabgraabha(one who seizes,that which is seized)gras(grasp)grah,graaha(seizing, a handle,an alligator)drachmpaNapritha(palm,mushti-fistpaNa,pitri-father,elders) Hari(krii,hri,giri,srii)=horse,lion,gold,man,frog,peacock,swan,parrot,snake,ray,sun, moon,Indra,Vishnu,air,wind Srii paNa(kara-dos-dasa) tarpaNa ,tridasa(deva),sriikara Hence it can indicate pitri bhaksha(puuja)-tarpaNa also.It explains the meaning of tarpaNa . Tridasa rishabha karsha(throne,money). Srii(tri)
bala(paNa) bhadra(king,gold,pause/stop) deva(gada,bhaga-the sun-

paNa cf.Heb.beka) hala(karsha) .Hala(plough,karsh-to plough,bhadraasana) is the aayudha(weapon,udaya) of Balabhadra.It can indicate three gold karsha also. KrishNa (vrishNa-krisana-gold,pearl ) is paNa(money,Vishnu).Thus god is money. Balabhadra(paNapatra-money bulla/writ) is Krishnas elder brother.We have the Krishna(krisana) and Sukla(sukra,sulka) Yajur(suurya) Vedas.This shows that Balabhadra deva was an IVC king or the story of the Mahaabhaarata was popular even at Harappan times.



89. Molded tablet.

An individual spearing a water buffalo(cf.medhamaasha) .A gharial is depicted above the sacrifice scene and a figure seated in yogic position, wearing a horned headdress, looks on.


O n the reverse (90),a female deity is battling two tigers(bhadra-azana

gharsha/karsha/paNa) and standing above an elephant(naaga,gaja-garja cf.kanaalady,Hitt.gazana-a lady.). A single Indus script depicting a spoked wheel(akshacakra-karsha) is above the head of the deity. Cf.Sumer.gur-wheel,Heb.Heres-the sun,ophen-wheelcakrakarsha paNa(bali-sacrifice,tax).Buffalo(mahaafestival,sacrifice,buffalo,maagha)-bali(sacrifice,tax) Mahaabali(a legendary king,the festival of maagha etc.) Cf.anka(a hook,a curve,a mark,stroke,9)-ankana(marking,seal)ankaNa(yard)- agna(fire,naga-the sun,naaga-elephant)-anga(limb,the number 6),angana( a woman,a yard/court,the female elephant of the north-kankaNa(bangle,bracelet,crest,necklace,ornament,ornament round the feet of an elephant)-kaNa-kala-kara-hala-karsha-cakraaksha-gaja

Bhadraasana(throne) karshapaNa is shown by the vrishNa,hiraNya,krisana, svarNa patra(leaf,writ;padma,vadana,vasna) gaatra(kaasara-karsha) paNa posture of the legs(caraNa,Lat.crus-foot) and karsha (Grk.keras-horn,kiriita,sikhara Lat.crista-crest) on the head in the first figure; the aasana-stand on bhadra-kaasara-buffalo and its bali (sacrifice,tax,fine,paNa)or spearing and the nakra (makara,karaNa,hariNa,kreNa,rukma) The four feet (of the alligator is made paNa laksha(nishka) like the four laksha with the fish etc. to indicate bhadraasana( 4 claws of the bulls hoof). paNapaNasa(finance)savana(sacrifice) bandhavaNakka Bhadraasana paNa grasana(krisana,grantha)-turiya paNa Thus the deity(king) by his posture shows bhadraasana karsha paNa. The sacrificer by his foot(crus) on the head(bhadra) of the kaasara shows bhadraasana karsha.The gharial by itself is karsha.This shows the endorsement of the karsha three times or it is karsha of value three(srii,raaja,druu). karsha paNa(gold) 16 maasha Silver 16 PaNa or 1280 Kowries Kahaan Copper80 Raktikaas(cf.Rudra) 176 grains or only 1 PaNa of cowries or 80 Kowries Mn.8.136,336;9.282 Kaarshaapanaavara-having the value of at least one kaarshapaNa(as a fine) Mn.8.274&10.120 cf.
, = paNaavara Kaasi (cf.gaja-elephant,sikha-head gear, kaasu, kesa) =fist,handful,the sun RV.3.30.5;7.104.8;8.78.10, name of a prince,the ancestor of the kings of Kaasi,of the family of Bharata. sulka sul(trident)+ka(head) or tula -ka(head,body) sulka patra aajna(order,amsa-part) Kaasara paNa(kaarsha paNa)-krena,nagara,karana(gharial)

Gharial(graaha,na-krakaraNa(deed-patra-writ) kalasakarNa kara(na-karakara-na=two hands


)haraNa(hand,gold,dice,theft,divisioncf.four feet

is bhadraasana and aya-good luck,dice,4) , , hariNa(gold,horn) Karana RV.1.119.7=doing,making,effecting,causing,writer,scribe.Hence the gharial(karsha) and the jar can be the scribe(patra,varta,bharata),helper,companion A.V.6.46.2;15.5.1-6;19.57.3 The headdress is a KaraNa .Hence bhadraasana paNa karaNa

GirvaaNa is shown by the tail and body of the gharial .The four legs may be 4 paNa also. Graaha(nakra-makara-gharial)krayakriyakarNakaraNakrama

Nakra(na-hara=ass,fire;horn)nagara,Naagari(karaNa-deed,writ,scribe;naaman,gira-speechbharatabhaasha;it can indicate writ-writing-karaNa in Naagari),krena,cakra,Sakra,rukma,hariNabhadra(bull,king,gold) patra(writ,leaf) kaasara(buffalo) bhadra(bha-va-bull,dri-split cf.spearing the Christ,Lat.crista-crest Refer.K-65 also;spearvajra-bhadra,baaNa-paNa.Spearing shows karsh or furrowing)paNahaatra(wages) karsha PaNA Hana(killing) harahalavanapalapaNaphaNabali(sacrifice,tax) kaasara(buffalo)gaatra
netra(eye,king,sacrifice) . garta(karsha) haatra paatra,patra maatra

Hanana(stabbing) shows anna(food,the sun)

and gaNana(count).
kaasarakaasa(light,kesa-hair,gaja-elephant,Sumer.kasa-trader,zag-shine)-ra(agni,raagold,give) gaatra(body ) garta(throne-bhadraasasna) karsha(paNa)

cakra(wheel )gharsha(fight ) sekhara(heap/peak,crown ,wreath of flowers worn on the top of the head as shown by the squatting figure and in M-1181

the foot of the buffalo is complemented by the head of the buffalo,manusha-man is a mahisha-buffalo and matsa-fish with a gaatra-kaasara) saagara(sea) haatra(wages) netra(eye,king) ka(head)-aadara(respect) Bhadaasanabhadra naasa(kings nose,gold nose,kings face)

spearing buffalo (

) spearing bullwriting

a bulla



cf.King Cambyses of Persia spearing the Apis bull of Egypt .

Spearing the bull(bhadra) was considered as attacking the king(bhadra) and the people(praja).
Mal.Mutala(gharial) mudra(seal) motira(ring-mudra motira- abhijnaana anguliiya,uurmika,rasana). Saarasasaarasanakaanci=1 ply,mekhala(saptakii)=7/8ply cf. ,rasana=16ply,kalaapa=25 ply thread

Aksha(wheel,karsha,tola)uksha(bull) gajakaasikaasuhornkarNa pakshabhikshavakshakaraNasikhaakshi(eye)aksha=beam of a balance,104 angula,a snake , a die for gambling,the number five


http://www.harappa.com/figurines/2.html http://www.harappa.com/figurines/22.html

2. Ox- or water buffalo-drawn cart with driver from Harappa.

Note the solid wheels of the cart and the statement of RV.7.32.20 that the wheels were made of solid wood. These carts are very similar to carts drawn by oxen or water buffalo even today. Vedic ratha-chariot is these carts or

great temple carts drawn by uksha(asva-bull,gaja-elephant).

The vedic cart wheels were made of solid wood as seen in this figure.
Vedic carpenters made chariots and carts .The wheels are of solid wood as stated in the Rigveda.(RV.7.32.20).Boats and ships were built(RV.10.101.2 Cf. the amulet M1429).



24. Moulded tablet, Mohenjo-daro.

Three sided molded tablet. Note the

boat(naava-paNa), the hut(paNa-praise,Vishnu),the leafy (patrabhadra)fronds , the birds sitting on the deck(patraasanabhadraasana) ,the snout nosed gharial with a fish in its mouth(karsha paNa-praise to the throne/king.) and the eight symbols(cf.ashtapada-gold) of the Indus script.

Mastnasta=nose,pakshi-patra-bird ,akshi nayana-aksha =eye .Naava(nau-boat,praise cf.lamassu-namaste). Nauka(boat)mukha(face,mouth) Naava(boat) apna(wealth) laabha(gain) .Hence practitioners of Fengshui believe
the boat to bring in wealth !


) paNa(money,praise

paana(jarpaatrapatra baaNa vaana bhaama laabha


NaavaNoah.Noah sent out a raven(droNa-crow has a taraNa-boat) and a dove(kapota-dove,pota-boat,puusha-the sun) from his naava(ark).The raven did not return.The dove(patra bhadra!)

) retuned to him with a freshly plucked olive leaf(patra-

in its beak! (Genesis.8).



71. Attachable water buffalo horns from Harappa.

Water buffalo horns with incised lines on the horns might have been used in magic or ritual transformation in Indus society, or they may have been worn as symbols of authority (cf.kaasara-buffalo,karsha-garta-throne.Sumer.guzza-throne,garzaoffice.Heb.heres-the sun) The horn is the king(Lat.cornu- horn,Grk.keras-hornnripa; kirana-the sun-horn). Asva(bull,buffalo,elephant) is avasa(king,the sun) and aksha(karsha,tola,die,beam of balance).Saptaasva is the sun.In this horn there are 7 marks to the left and 7 to the right from the centre.In the inscriptions also this type of repeat can be seen from left to right to the centre and right to left to the centre which is a vedic recitation style of boustrophedon. Water buffalovaara bhadraviirabhadrabhadraasva
(nri,riNa,bhaNa,netra) Asva(water buffalofish)

avasa(king,sun) aksha

(balance,karsha gaatra



kaasara(buffalo) kaksha(buffalo,bull,grass ) gaja This is further corroborated by the number 7 on the asva horn and saptaasva(sun-paNa;paada
kaasarahaatra(wages + u,o + na =3/4) in H-9.

)khecara(harta-the sun


maatra(measure)netra(eye,king,sacrifice ) When receiving the haatra(paNa),one had to touch the netra(eyes) with it to praise(paNa) the netra(king). The fish is suuna(grains) or soma(madhu) also.Viirabhadra is soma(svarNa,rice wine). Thus the seven is a measure of grain(sapta-psaata-sada-anna-food grains and vegetables) or alcohol and these officials were probably responsible for its storage and distribution. Vaarabhadra(viirabhadra) is a black horse(gaura asva) whose rider (cf.Yama Dharma-dharaNa-scales )is bearing a pair of ) in his hands and metes out


-a quart of wheat for a days wages and three quarts of barley(cf.krishnala )for a days wages.(Rev.6.5-6).


sapta sa-paadanetrahaatramaatramaasha



H-94 where the buffalo horn balance is shown with karsha(kaasara) paNa.




bhadraasana(bhadra=head). The narrow neck is the gala attached to which is kara(bhuja-hand-paaNa). 1. Early Harappan female figurine with painted features from Harappa. Another style of Early Harappan female figurine(bhadra-bull,king,girl,auspicious) holds a round object(, possibly a vessel(for a lamp cf.bhadradeepa-welcome;the two breasts and the object form a bhadraasana ), with both hands(shaped into

bhaNa/patra/paNa-praise .Bhuja is bhoga as in or .) Details such as a necklace(cf.nishka) with long pendants, bangles(cf.karsha), and grid-like lines possibly depicting textile designs are painted in black(cf.viirabhadra-tiger-garta-stripes).
Approximate dimensions (W x H x D): 3.7 x 7.9 x 2.4 cm. (Photograph by Richard H. Meadow)


33. Early Harappan zebu figurine with incised spots from Harappa.

Some of the Early Harappan zebu(bhadra-girl,bull) figurines were decorated. One example has incised oval spots(bhadra-pacipher,circle.Bhadra on the amza shows bhadraasana). It is also stained a deep red(rakta-raksha-raaja-garta), an extreme example of the types of stains often found on figurines that are usually found in trash and waste deposits. (Photograph by Richard H. Meadow)

34. Zebu figurine with painted designs from Harappa.



Other animal and sometimes anthropomorphic figurines are decorated with black stripes and other patterns, and features such as eyes(aksha-uksha-asva-avasa;netraeye,king) are also sometimes rendered in pigment. (Photograph by Richard H. Meadow)
The bull-tiger is viira(hero)bhadra(king,patra-writ or writ of award;putra-son,pitri-father).

Viira bhadra is a horse fit for the asvamedha sacrifice; a chieftain; rice gruel etc..Viira is raaja(rasa-juice,potion) and bhadra (srava) is rice.In the Vaayu

Puraana Viirabhadra is said to have been born from the mouth(vadanamouth,bhadrabull,Siva) and is said to have sahasra(thousand; mahas-ra;sabhadra) heads(rice ear) and is clothed in tiger skin and he bears a blazing bow and battle axe(cf.the horned archer and the roofed

fish ).Viira bhadra is jaata(saada-shat-sat) vedas(sacrificial fire tigercf.vacasasvafishraaja-vacaskings word) shat-pasalabha in M- 1186talpabedaasana
Viirabhadra(ricewine,king)bull-tiger harikarikriihri

30. Seals & tablets.


A collection of seals and tablets from a single house

show that some people, possibly traders(cf.paNabarter,trade,money), were using a wide variety of inscribed objects. The first seal shows bhadraasana bhadranaaga amsapatra karsha(paNa) traya(3).Last five seals indicate paNa 3,paNa 4 etc. Harappa Archaeological Research Project.

31. Seals and sealing. Harappa.com


Long rectangular seals and a terra cotta sealing (bottom) with Indus script. The top
seal has seven signs of Indus script. The back of this seal is convex and it is perforated from the side. The central sign may represent a house or temple and is a symbol that is often repeated on seals with horned deities seated in yogic position. cf.patra-writ..Hitt. <hatri-> write .Svar(nabha ) is

+ + haatra(netra,maatra,bhadra,patra)+

kara,sara,naaka,suula,aasana,na sarvabhadra,saravaNa(svarNa),subhadra,bhadrapada,netra netra(raaja raaja tama samraat),svarNa,svarga(cf.naaka=arrow,heaven;svargaasana is simhaasana cf.the sign

Leo denotes the sun in the heavens),Dvaaraka,bhavana,sulb(to mete out),sulba(copper,sacrifice),bhaaskara; maana(maasha,maapana,bhadraasana,12) + maana(measure,mansion,maasha,maapana,bhadraasana,12)maanava(man)



;bhaara(weight) .


viira(hero,king) vaara(tail cf.Sed and viirabhadra) dam-maana,aasana,amsa,maasha,dama(Lat.domus- a house),tama,daana,aasana,aatma,sma,jina(cf.jinakaasasunshinesimhaasanabhadraasana);na,ca


makara,nakranagaracakrakarshaakshagartasekhara(crest) ma tribhaaga,asmatra,kshatra(king,gaja+tra),kshetra(temple,gaja+tra),garta,karsha, bhadra(tri-naga;sringi-kanaka-gold),patra,paatra,paartha,maatra,maasha

bhadra,ra aasana,paada ,dha(wealth,property,seat) bhadraasana,5

garta,parNa, varNi(gold),karsha,Heres(khecara,harta),bha,paNa,8. Hence this can be read as bhadraa-aasana(simhaasana)-bhadra(sringi)-bhadraasanakarsha(garta)- bhadraasana-bhadra-rishabha(bhadra). This becomes more clear if we have a look at the bottom terracotta sealing where the bhadra(buffalo,mahaa)-bali Maagha) -patra (archeraasana,paNacf.Mahaabali-festival of naasa(aasana,daana,na,)


aksha(sa-sarpa,bhaNa,paNa,karsha,tola,5) bhadraasana-paNa-karsha or bhadraasana(karsha)-panca(5,bhaksha,bhiksha) is indicated. Bhavana bhavana dam kshetra rishabha(Bhaa-s-ka-ra =the sun or a proper name) Ashta(8) bhadraasana(5) karsha maasha 24.

The second seal indicates tola(suura)-patra(bhadra)-taraNa(aasanasroNa-DroNa-saravaNa-svarNa-throne)-karsha (vasna,panca). The third seal reads paNa(money,value,barter)

aksha( dvaadasa body,mouth)



maasha/ gaja(garja-karsha;naaga-copper-cobra-kubera,cf.bera-veracf.12 maasha1paNa

The fourth one reads Vasna(karsha)-panca(aksha)-sankha The fifth one reads Aksha(karsha,5) -paNasa(savana-sacrifice,panca)-su -parNa (svarNa)-


naaga(copper,nagna,gaja-karsha,naanaka paNa(phaNa,patra,bhadra,panca-5)
svarNa karsha paNa(trade,value,money).

ie.aksha(uksha,bhadra) vasna(value)=

PhaNa indicates the expanded flaps of nose(cf.nose money),the expanded hood of a cobra(cf.copper =paNa);the fingers of the hand bent like the hood of a snake(ie.kaasi=paNa=handful);the genitals of a woman(kanaa);the head of the elephant(naaga,gaja),nabha(the sky-svarga-seat of the sun god-garta-throne) etc.Vanita is vaNija(trader) and phaNi(snake)-sa(like,snake). Gaja is kasa(Sum.trader) and garja(roar,garta-throne,karsha). palm is paNa(vana). Karsha(karaja-fingers) being panca(five) the number of paNa(words) in the inscriptions are usually five .

Fish-bhuja-panca + shat pancaasat 50 AV (ie. half of sata or half of satamana) pancaasathe fiftieth pancapaadafive footed RV,AV


32. Seal, Mohenjo-daro.


Probably the karsha paNa count is indicated by the number of karsha animals.Pasu is vasu.Ashta pasu is ashta vasu.

Terracotta sealing from Mohenjo-daro depicts karsha

animals (cf. the pasupati seal). Nakra(alligator/gharial,nose)makaramrigarukma krena karaNakarNanagaranaaga(snake,elephant,ram)harina (gold,deer.Note the deer
in M-304).The gharial matches the fish with its heavy salka(sulka,kalasa,karsha) and its

paNa(Sumer.face,mukha-face,Mal.mutala-gharial,mudra-seal) as in

Pasu is vasu(gold),subha(auspicious,siva-auspicious) and bhuja(hand).Mriga is rukma(gold).Nakra(gharial,garial,gavial) is nose(money,hariNa-gold).Naaga(ashta-8) vasu(8-bhuja) sankha(alligatoraligarta-alligarta-lacertus;sankhamukha) pa(circle, leaf ,bha-the sun,star,)Na(like,pearl,fight cf.vana-leaf).PaNa(the sun,money,metal,vana-leaf) has vasu(bhuja-kara-rays-glean) around it shown by the pasus.Bhadranaaga(bull elephant-unicorn;nagna bhadra cf.H-3305) is indicated by the elephant legs of the bull at the bottom left.Bhadraasana is shown by the azana(sangharsha-gharsha-karsha-na-fight) of the bhadras(pa), bhadra aazana(amza) and patra asana(leaf eating of the bull at the bottom right) of the bhadraas(bulls).

Compare this alligator with Pasupati in M-304.

Krisana=pearl ,goldRV.1.35.4,10.68.11;AV.4.10.7garjana(roar).Hence the roaring animals (tiger,lion,elephant,gharial,goat,bull,buffalo) represent pearl or gold. Krisana-vat =decorated with pearls RV.1.126.4

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gharial

The gharial (Gavialis gangeticus Marathi : Susar, also called Indian gavial or gavial), is the only surviving member of the once well-represented family Gavialidae, a long-established group of crocodilians with long, slender snouts. Their well-developed laterally flattened tail and webbed rear feet provide tremendous maneuverability in their deepwater habitat. On land, however, an adult gharial can only push itself forward and slide on its belly(nakranaaga-snake,kaama-desire,sexMakaraketana is Kaamadeva or VaruNa;naga-sun,ra-fire,shine,desire;naagamahaa,raa-gold,sound,daanamahaadaana). Its elongated, narrow snout becomes proportionally shorter and thicker as an animal ages. The bulbous growth on the tip of a males snout renders gharials the only visibly sexually dimorphic crocodilian. This growth is present in mature individuals and called ghara after the Indian word meaning pot. Males utilize the structure to modify and amplify hisses(garja of naagasnake,gardabha etc.) snorted through the underlying nostrils. The resultant sound can be heard for nearly a kilometer on a still day. The ghara , (ghata=a jar,pitcher,a measure-1droNa or 20 dronas,the head, an elephants frontal sinus,aperiod of time-24 minutes) is thought to play an important role in gharial reproduction by identifying mature males to females(cf.Kaamadeva) and as an instrument in courtship auditory communication. The Nepali word ghataa(gharaa) means earthenware pot, pitcher, watervessel. The leg musculature of the gharial does not enable it to raise its body off the ground to achieve the high-walk gait on land, but can only push its body forward across the ground ('belly-sliding' cf snake), although it can do this with some speed when required. However, when in water, the gharial is the most nimble and quick of all the crocodilians in the world. The jaws are lined with (harsha-karsha-danta)many interlocking, razor-sharp teeth 27 to 29 upper and 25 or 26 lower teeth on each side. The front teeth are the largest. The snout is narrow and long, with a dilation at the end and its nasal bones are comparatively short and are widely separated from the premaxillaries. The nasal opening of a gharial is smaller than the supra-temporal fossae. The lower anterior margin of orbit (jugal) is raised and its mandibular symphysis is extremely long, extending to the 23rd or 24th tooth. A dorsal shield (harsha-karshakares-crista-crest-kiriita),is formed from four longitudinal series of juxtaposed, keeled, and bony scutes. The length of the snout is 3.5 (in adults) to 5.5 times (in young)

the breadth of the snout's base. Nuchal and dorsal scutes form a single continuous shield composed of 21 or 22 transverse series. Gharials have an outer row of soft, smooth, or feebly keeled scutes in addition to the bony dorsal scutes(harsha-karsha-kares). They also have two small post-occipital scutes. The outer toes are two-thirds webbed, while the middle toe is only one-third webbed. They have a strong crest on the outer edge of the forearm, leg, and foot. Typically, adult gharials have a dark olive color tone while young ones are pale olive, with dark brown spots or cross-bands.


Close-up of the male's ghara

Gharial and Turtles

The most distinctive feature of the group is the very long, narrow snout, which is an adaptation to a diet of small fish , , . Although gharials have sacrificed the great mechanical strength of the robust skull and jaw that most crocodiles and alligators have, and in consequence cannot prey on large creatures, the reduced weight and water resistance of their lighter skull and very narrow jaw gives gharials the ability to catch rapidly moving fish, using a side-to-side snapping motion.

Nakra( nose,na-ghara,crocodile/gharial/alligator-grabha-graha-graaha cf.naha) makara(makaramatsya ) Mal.mutala(nakra) mudra(seal,sign cf.gold mohur,surata-sexsuurya-the sunmitramihira) Sakra(Indra) cakra(aksha-wheel ,eye cf.nakracakra)karaja(finer,nail) karshaharsha(sex,joycf.Grk.makar-happiness) garja(roar) garta(throne)garut(wing,garuda-a bird) gaja(cf.Airaavata-suurya-the gaja of Indra)ksha(Narasimha) rakta(red cf.Lat.crocodilus,Grk.krokodeilos-a lacertus- lizard;Lat.crocus,Grk.krokos,Heb.karkom=saffron) raaja(king-Indra cf.nakraraaja) Arka(the sun) argha(price) artha(wealth) ardha(half) nakra(naasanose,phaNa paaNa-baaNavajra bhadra-light patra-

leafbhaama-the sun-paNa-vishnu-vasna;vana-leaf

nagna(naked) naaga(nagna,gaNana,kalana,naanaka,elephant,arrow,snake,copper)kara(han d,tax,trunk)


-na(two,band,fetter,fight,gift,jewel,pearl,navel )


graahagriiva(neck) kraya-purchasetraya-three nakranaga(kiraNa,mihira,harta,Heb.heres-the sun)-ra(fire) naaga(snake

phaNa,elephant note the garja-hiss on the

,goat , ) naasa(ruin) naaza(nose) naada(sound cf.naagasvara-a snake pipe)




or markhor



,gaana-song etc.) being kaama(desire,sex), naada(sound), naaza(nose) or hema(gold) indicate gold.







(bhadra-kanaa-naaga) hiraNya,hariNa(gold)kiraNa(sun)

netra(king,eye,sacrifice bhadra(vasna)

) satra(house,sacrifice)
, ,


haraNa( hand,horn-paNa,gold,division,daana,cowrie) hastahaataka(gold) gajakaca kasaakshamastamatsanasta(nakra-nose,gharial)

cf drughaNa sringazaaranga,na-kshatra




ca,na,ha +



arka,aksha,nakra,karshagraahamrigakrena,nagara,karma nishkasulka

Rukma RV;AV= an ornament,chain or disc=rava(ru)-panarupya(rupee)

Apart from the hiss(garja-karsha),the nakra/graaha keeps its mouth wide open almost always in an act of graasa/garja to indicate garta, karsha, phaNa(paNa,bhaNa,bhaN-to sound) nakrakantha(neck,nishka,garja,sound,count) kantaka(thorn) santha(fight) zandha(agreement,cf.Mal.canta-market place).cf.the karsha(furrow,scratch,laksha,garja,harsha) lines on the kantha(gala-hala-plough)

of the unicorns,bulls etc.indicate garja,garta and karsha.

as in this

bhadraasana(patra amza-leaf on shoulder and

)- karsha (gala-hala-kala-

kharsha-laksha,hala produces karsha on gala to denote kala-count;manya-nerves on neck,money) -pa(bhadra-bull,king)-Na(horn) or paaNa(hand,paana-cup,paalaking,baala-boy,hair,vaara-hair of tail,viira-hero)

unicornmahaanaaza(cf.nakra-gharial) mahaaraaja(samraat-raaja tama-aleph tama)


hearth-karsha garja-gaja or






nakraNaraka( name of an Asura killed by Vishnu,Hades) karNakaraNakarshakaasaragarjacakraharshahartaHeb.heres-the sun nakranagaranaagara(naagari-the alphabet of Bharata) naa(man-fish,marta-matsa)-


Deva(Brahmins)-Naa(man)-gari(gira-speech) cf.

tetratraata(kreta) vasana paNa treta(triad,sacred fire);trai(to protect) traya(kraya),traa,tri(krii),traatra,traatri(Indranetramoney)

150. The ghar evidence in the script

Ghar(jar ) is a house(cf.Hindi-ghar).Paana(vaara) is paNa(a

house).Do you notice a ghar in kra-tu(sacrifice) and the cro-ss

.Ghar (cf.Sumerian sar =gar-den) is the catushkona catvara(courtyard or rectangular place where cross roads meet) in which the yajnapaatra(sacrificial pot) is placed. Ghar is placed on the

kara(hand) in


A gharial has a ghar on its snout.

151.The Hoof Evidence to the script

Sa(naaga,patra)-va(pa-water)-rna(nara,svarna)- karsha(kaasara,kalasa,sulka, laksha,nishka ) or ka-pa-rda-karsha or sa-hasra-paNa-Rina(debt).

M-1181 svarNa karsha(garta)/karsha paNa .


33. Seal, Mohenjo-daro.


Square seal depicting a nude(nagnanaaga) male deity with three faces(paNaface;gartakarshaka-head,tra-tri-threekaasara-buffalocf.three headed pasupati-M-304 and three headed bulls), seated in yogic position

on a throne(bhadraasana ,sampat,samapaNatamadama-housesvamwealth,tvam-thou-you), wearing bangles(paNa,harsha-karsha) on both arms and an elaborate headdress(kiriita-garta-karsha-patra-vrisha-paNa-vana-leaves). Five(pancasavanapaNasabandhavasnakarshakaraja-five ) symbols of the Indus script appear on either side of the headdress which is made of two outward projecting buffalo(kaasara-gaatra-karsha-sekhara-crown,wreath of flowers) style curved horns(kiraNa-PaNa-sun,each horn is a phaNa or pa-sasnake,vakra-arka-nakra), with two upward projecting points. A single branch (sikhara-harsha-karsha)with three pipal leaves(pa-tra,varta,bharata,bhadragold,king) rises from the middle of the headdress(cf.kaparda-cowrie,vartakatrader).

Seven bangles(harsha-karsha-garja-sabda-sapta-seven) are depicted on the left

arm and six (shat-dasa-dos) on the right(13 karsha paNa), with the hands resting on the knees. The heels( are pressed together under the groin(patraasana,padmaasana,bhadraasana) and the feet(paada-deva) project beyond the edge of the throne(bhadraasana). The feet of the throne are carved with the hoof of a bovine(vartaka=trader,hoof;bhadraasana-hoof cf. ) as is seen on the bull and unicorn seals. The seal may not have been fired, but the stone is very hard. A grooved and perforated boss is present on the back of the seal. The deity indicates bhadraasana karsha paNa patra and the inscription is svarNa or kaparda(cowrie-Cypraea Moneta of which 80 =1 paNa;braided and knotted hair like that of Siva so as to resemble the cowrie shell) karsha.




36. Silver seal, Mohenjo-daro.

This silver seal with a unicorn motif is one of two found at

Mohenjo-daro. Karsha-nakra-pana=soma,svarNa Sa-nharana sa-nakra-pana,sanaa,namas,vasna

bhadraasana bhadranaaga manyaa(unicorn neck-nishka)

sa) naaga(karsha-garja-gaja,kapaNa,na


HiraNyaaksha paNa.Rajatam hiraNyam-RV-whitish gold is silver.Karsha hiraNya paNa is svarna karsha. During the vedic period silver also was called by the name of gold(rajatam hiraNyam).

The inscription



naaga,sa,pa indicates naaga(8,hema-gold) paNa . Praise/money to the king or savana(sacrifice) or namas(praise) or pavana(wind,VIshnu). Silver karsha being 32 ratti 8 ratti can be karsha or 8 maasha can be karsha of gold.

152. Human Sacrifice (kara-paNa-bali-hana-hara-hala)



svarNa (Daksha) maasha(maana,maatra,medha) cf. , , etc.) patra(paatra,paNa,satra,saadara

34. Seal, Mohenjo-daro.

. A deity with a horned headdress(karsha paNa,Daksha) and bangles(harsha-karsha) on both arms, standing in a pipal (sacred fig) tree (bhadraasana,tree is patraasanaaasana of patra which again is paatraasana-aasana on paatra which is a normal symbol in the unicorn seals ). A human head(bhadra) rests on a small stool(aasana) over the sapta(devata,divasa,dvija;sabdasound/count or the simple word bhadra-king) kanaa(bhadra-woman;naagaaasana.Hence bhadra naaga/bhadraasana is indicated.This agrees with the paatra/patra aasana for the godking.). A ram ( bhadra naaga-mesha-maasha) is shown.The bhadras wear a single plumed headdress(kaparda with harshakarsha;parda-hair,bhadra-woman,king,bull,gold), bangles on both arms(harsha-karsha) . PaNa is bali(netra-sacrifice).MoneynaaNya

nayana(eye)netra(sacrifice,nayana,king) Bhadraasanapuruda(gold,purusha) aasana (seat) purodaasa(Holy bread) Karsha garta(throne) rakta (blood) This is the eucharist.Thus money is sacrifice and praise to the god king.This principle of paNa(money) as bali(sacrifice) is truly vedic and can be seen in several seals.

The horned(horn

is the crosssa

god, horn-sound-count) deity

is placed in a tree(vrik-kshatriya,sha-man) to show prakaasa, Vrishaa(Indra) and bhadraasana.. The horn indicates vrisha(karsha,Indra,prabhaatapraatabhadrabull,king).Horn(u )+

man(sha) usha(dawn).Ush-as(dawn) is uksha(bull,ush-to burn)+ aja(a ram,Rudra,Indra,Aries,gaja-elephant).An aja (naaga,mesha,medhyamedhasacrifice,maasha) is shown close by to indicate usha sacrifice(bali-paNa).Refer the sacrifice of Isaac(Visaakha) by his father Abraham in Genesis :22 where on the sacrificial altar Isaac(Visaakha cf.chaagamukha-ram faced Daksha-the year with the face of Aries.) was replaced by an aja(Aries,usha).The god is Rudra(Rudhirablood,putra-son,suurya-the sun,bhadra-king,bull,varsha-year) or Soma(sona-fire,blood) who is in the paana(chalice) held by the kara(hand,ghar-cross) of the potri(priest,purusha-man,puruda-gold)
who sits in a ghar(bhadra) aasana to indicate girvaaNa(praise,korban) as seen in the glyph
.Compare this

with the words of the Christ

"Abba, Father,everything is possible for you. Take this cup from me. Yet not what I will, but what you will. Mark.14:36

The bharata(fire,praata-dawn,pa-tra


jar,bhaarata-fire) symbol

ka,sa(gaja) is placed close to the foot

of the deity along with the head(bhadra) of the sacrificial victim on the altar(stand-aasana) and the praying chief priest.It shows bhadraasana(garta-royal throne),amsapatra(deed of partition),bhadra aajna(royal order or command),ajina patra(writ on animal hide) etc. .Bhadraasana (kings seat, royal order, girvaaNa)is also shown by the deitys seat(aasana-seat,aajna-order) on the paatra(jar) with patra(leaves,writ) and also by the sapta(seven,sabda-voice,word,garjagarta-karsha) bhadra(women,king)at the bottom of the sacrificial scene.The seven women also show the seven flames(saptaarchis) of the fire and savitri.These ladies are portrayed by Mark : 15.40 thus: some women were watching from a distance. Among them were Mary(hari-srii-ray,horse ,the sunnari-a woman)Magdalene,Mary(hari=nari) the mother of James...Yosha is usha.Kanaa(woman,bhadra-girl,king,bull) is naaga(ram shown above). Hari(Indra,agni,ray cf.kara=ray) is nari(lady,nriking).Hari is haya(asva,seven) . Haya strii is Gaayatri.Hence there are seven women present in the scene.Bhadraasana(royal throne) or

bhadraajna(royal order) is also shown by the aasana (seat)on the bhadra (women) like the aasana(seat) on the paatra(jar) and patra(leaves.) The medha(sacrifice) scene is placed above the haya(hari-women) to show hari(haya-horse) medha(sacrifice) by medhaa( power,superiority).In the asvamedha the queen priestess was to emulate sexual relations with the head severed body of the victim to give him svarga(heaven) by surata (sex). Nari haya(seven) also indicate nari(woman)- saya(sex) or nritya(dance). U-daya(sunrise) has saya(sex) in it .Haayana(year) is haya(horse)-na(like) and sayana(sex) also. Prakaasa(light) is prasaada(divine food) and vriksha(tree,preksha-sight).

Vriksha(patraasana-bhadraasana paatraasana cf.

or the paatraasana of the deity in this seal.The karta-garta-seat is covered with patra-leaves and bhadra-sandal,turmeric,gold and placed on vartakahooves,bronze etc. to make it bhadraasana) is pra(pro)-gaja(unicorn);

vrika(wolf,jackal,tiger,kshatriya;bharga-arka-the sun;nripa-king)-

sa(god),ta(tail) cf.


The Egyptians sacrificed their king(vrika) in the Sed(vrika-ta,sa) festival and ate him as the divine food(prasaada).The Christians eat the body of the Christ in

the same belief.Sariira-body king,sacrifice



is eating the body of the king or the Christian Holy Mass (Kurbaana)

itself. The Harappan Bharats, the Assyrians and the Keralite Christians are closely related by descent and by belief.cf.the study by Dr.Mini Kariappa: DNA mapping proves Jewish, Syrian Christian, Nampoothiri Brahmin DNA Identical:.DNA Test at the Hyderabad Center Proves Nambootiri Brahmins and Syrian Christians have same Jewish DNA Composition. Dr.Mini Kariappa Presents paper at CHAI Triennial & Platinum Jubilee Conference at Hyderabad 6-9 Oct 2011..From scribd.com)

.It is Daksha(deha-body;da-gajahasta) yaaga also. The Vedic people had its equivalent in the asvamedha(medha=juice of meat,asvaakshagajaavasa=king,food,salvation,the Sun). Note the yajnavriksha(Fig tree) in which the agna(fire,king) god is seated like the Christ on the cross. Yajnavriksha is agnaprakaasa(sunshine).

Now let us look at the inscription in this seal.

salabha-butterfly, silpa-ornament;sulba-copper,sacrifice; sirilocust-tri-krii,Sumer.giris-butterfly,moth-karsha-garta-garut





sha,gaatra-karsha (marta Mitra,Marut-

wind,Dharma-law,mudra-seal,srii-nri-king,krii-purchase,panca-5.Panca paana is pancabaaNa-kaamadeva).Hence the inscription indicates

Srii (Sarva srii)



The vedic glyphs have multiple readings from the whole glyph,from its components and from the different directions it is read. Thus marta(man) becomes gaa-tra(body),da-sra(asvina),Dharma(Yama-god of niyama-lawand death),taamra(copper) etc.Hence Srii Bharata is Dharmaputra in the Mahaabhaarata and marta putra(son of man) in the Bible.Taamra patra(copper writs or tablets) were a form of records of the Harappan Bharata kings.Medha becomes maasa(month),mesha(a ram,Aries),vaaja(food,sacrifice ) etc. Srii bharata netra(svarNa-gold or kaparda-cowrie) hence becomes dasra (Asvina)maasa(month) netra(sacrifice).

The sacrifice to Durga(kratu) is the sacrifice (kratu)of the Christ (kratu,Lat.crista-crest-garta-kiriita-king) itself. From paatra(jar)- patra(leaf)- aasana(seat) we have bhadraasana(royal throne) .


ra sa or


bhadra(king,bull,happiness,auspiciousness), bharata(fire,king), praata(dawn) and patra(writ). The seven women make gnaavas(praise) and bhadra sabda(auspicious speech or word of the king).Bhadra sabda is AUM or garja(karsha-karasdeed/action,saras-head) Hence the inscription reads: Srii(His highness/holiness) Bharata netra(king Bharata) tridasa(divine) bhadraasana(throne,order) patra(writ) gnaavas(praise,speech) which means writ of praise to His Highness King Bharata and his sacrifice or an order of King Bharata .It is also svarna silpa (nishka)karsha bhadraasana

patra(writ).This seal is thus very closely related to the svarna karsha seal M-1181(page 410).

153. The Price Of The Christ.

It is thirty silver coins as Krista(Christ ) is tri(three)-dasa(ten,raaja-king) . Tridasa is thirty and god. Dasa being sata(hundred) the value of the Tau(cross,sava-sacrifice,sau-hundred) is three hundred.

cf. the price of Indra as per RV.4.24.10 is ten cows.

=krisaanu-archer trying to guard the soma RV balipaNabaaNapaaNa


K-65 bhadrabandhana(taming the bull/girlbhadravandana-praise

to the king cf.M-312) ;taru-tree



Na(youth,na-fight),taru-Nii marta(man) droNa(archer) druma(tree) druuna(scorpion





of tree)

kanta(having thorns,kantaka-thorn) ,

kantha(throat,neck) drik sikhara(karsha)


srik(arrow) srak(garland)

Sangharsha(fight)san(paNa)-karsha The horn indicate karsha by its garja and karsha(scratch) or gharsha. A thorn is a horn.It is a kanta(kantha/karka) that produce karsha or garja/Garga by its power of gharsha(scratch/furrow).Hence

Vana-paNa patra-bhadra-harsha-karsha .The branches and leaves show karsha paNa. Tra-vana(branch-horn-hariNadeer,gold)=dravina(gold),drona,saravana,sraavana etc.

Bhadraasana karsha PaNa is written bothways with the central dravina(gold) or paNa traya(kraya) indication.

Saakha-sikha-sikhara-kiraNa-hariNa-(harsha-karsha-gartaGrk.keras,Lat.cornu horn-hariNa-svarNa-gold )-siva-gaja + tra kshatra(king)kshetra(temple,field) draaksha(grape) drik(dris-eye;karsha- garta-darsa )

The bhadra(simha-Tiger) aasana shown for the deity is the bhadraasana of the king and the sarpaasana of paNa(Vishnu-vasna). Hanana(stabbing) shows anna(food,the sun) and gaNana(count).

bhadra bandhana(asva medha-taming the bullbhadra vandana-praise to the kingbhadraasana-royal throne).Kaasara and gaatra indicate karsha/varsha.


In this seal(K-65) at the centre we can see a bhadra(gold,girl,king,bull)/kanaa(girl,naakasnake,elephant) between two bhata( hired fighter,pada-foot,bhat-to hire ) to show bhadrapada/garta/karsha(Lat.crus-foot) and crossing (Lat.crux-cross-garta-karsha) to form

gharsha(fight,namas with crossed baaNa or paaNa-hands),sekhara-crown,Lat.cristacrest for the bhadra(king,girl,bull). The side deities show bhadraasana by a bhadra(Tiger-garta) attached to their sroNi(throne,taruNi-girl).Their parda(hair) is made into kaparda(cowrie) and sekhara (crest,karsha,kiriita,kreta).The sikhara(saakha-kaaca-gaja-aksha) with harsha/paNa leaves placed close to them indicate sekhara(crown) karsha paNa traya(3).The dru(taru-protector,kara) + na,sa,3 indicate taruNa/taruNii/druuNa(gold,scorpion,bow)/DroNa(throne)/garta/karsha.Traya(traa,krii) is kraya.Druma is druuNa, DroNa and sroNa(throne) .cf the scorpion in the Anatolian image. This seal also illustrates the left to centre and right to centre boustrophedon style in some IVC inscriptions.



15. "Granary," Harappa.

The term granary is a misnomer as there was no discovery of special concentrations of burned grain or storage containers here . Most scholars agree that there is little evidence for the construction of massive granaries at either Mohenjo-daro or Harappa and that these structures should only be seen as evidence for large public buildings. Rulers and state officials probably met in such large public buildings and many of them may have been used for specific religious functions. cf. Refer life of the Harappans. These buildings were for vedic courts vidhata , sabhaa and the samiti in administration.The large halls of the cities were used for the meetings of the sabhaa and the samitis.Also note


Pillared Hall, L Area,which may have been a hall of assembly with places for people to sit in ordered rows(sabhaa/samiti ) . The sabhaa parva of the Mahaabhaarata indicates a continuation of this tradition. The College Building Courtyard, Mohenjo-daro, SD


further supports this view.



8. "Great Bath," Mohenjo-daro.

The "great bath" is perhaps the earliest public water tank in the ancient world.
A series of rooms are located along the eastern edge of the building and in one room is a well that may have supplied some of the water needed to fill the tank. Most scholars agree that this tank would have been used for special religious functions where water was used to purify and renew the well being of the bathers. cf. Bethsaida Mark.8.22 and Bethesda John.5.2 a pool near the Sheep Gate in Jerusalem.Snaana(bathing) is janana(birth),jnaana(knowledge) and jina,smaaana(face,mouth,nose).Hence rites of bathing like baptism were established.

Jala-waterjina-the sunjna(learned,scholar) nisanightsinsnaa,snaana-bathingjanana(jan-birth). Each time one bathes he is reborn as bath is birth.Baptism is birth from jala-water removing sin.For the Brahmin it is jan(birth) from the sun to learn the veda and become bhuusura(deva of the earth)/dvi-ja(twice born;ravi-jaborn from the sun) as a jna(vindu-Hindu-bindu ,Hindu with bindu on forehead).In the temples the god(the sun) is washed in jala(jina) and kshiira(milk,siira-the sun) to show the gods birth-sunrise. Naaza -nose is snaa(bathing).

154.The Mayiladuthurai Stone Axe http://www.harappa.com/arrow/stone_celt_indus_sig ns.html

A Note on the Muruku Sign of the Indus Script in light of the Mayiladuthurai Stone Axe Discovery
by Iravatham Mahadevan, May 6 2006

paNa,vana-naaga,vana-naaga-pana pannaga-naaga-droNa karsha Pannaga-bhadra naaga-aasana(garuda),aazana(droNa-druuNa-throne=Vishnu) Vana durga bhadra aasana(sroNa)

suvarNa paNa

bhadraasana(aasana of 3 pa


cf.Mal.naaranga-lemon.Naaranga is placed on sringa to worship and as raksha-cakra.For this rakta-kumkum is also applied on it.),saaranga, hariNa,karsha


paNa,kara(sara,dhara), Dasa(gaja,karsha) cf.Saarnga is a bow of Vishnu made of ivory and saarngapaaNi(saarngadhara) is Vishnu maasha(naaga,naatra,netra,maatra,haatra,haaraka) paNa,nava,vana .

suvarNa paNa= saarangapaaNi=paNa(Vishnu)

sringi paNa

Dasa maasha =

Nava-naagara-bhadra-aasana cf.putunagaram

can-dra-sa or nava netra dharanamaasha svarna

There are two near-identical signs in the Indus Script (Nos. 47 & 48, I. Mahadevan
1977) depicting a seated god identified as Muruku for reasons summarised in this Note. (For background details, see my 1999 paper Murukan In The Indus Script). nu-drughaNa(a wooden mace ,axe,hatchet RV,AV;Brahma)
pra bhaakaraprabhaakara

nu= a weapon,praise,time,roar,thunder(cf.garja);nava9,new,paNa(praise,price,nakhakshata-karaja-nail-karsha,kara-na,karaNa,bhujana,bhuushaNa) ,vana,nayana,gaja,kasa,aksha,sma,kara-na,karaNa(writ)

nu+u =now,at once;karna(ear,karsha),naagara(naagarii cf. naagarika= the toll raised from a town ); kaasi(the sun, handful-paNa,raajakaasisikhaSiva cf.bhadra-kingRudra), naaga,naaka(arrow ,suula-

tola haana,hema,mahaa,naakir nu -no one or nothing at all;kara+saanagarjana,krisana(svarNa,pearl);naatra(praise),maatra(measure),haatra,paatra,naasika(na a-sikha-nishka-vasna-aasana),Na,dru-druma-tree,triNa-grass,hakarshaNa krisana(gold,pearl) kardama( a prajaapati,meat)karsana(fire)karshaNa(furrowing by a plough,drawing near like a bow) garjana(roar)gharshaNa(fight) darsana(sight)tarjana(pointing the index finger).


NaagabhuushaNa is Siva.Naagarii karaNa is a Bharata writ .

patra(karaNa-writ,hariNa-bhadra-gold/king,petra-stone) nu(weapon)-bhadra(stone) stone celt karabhabhaa-kara


druuNa-DroNa(raaja)-sroNa-taruNa-throne,na,sha, daaru-donor,daaru-wood;druugold,daana-saasana-gift,aasana-seat,naada-sound,naaza-nakra-nose cf. ;darsana(netraeye,king);nakra-gharial;arka-the sun,argha-price;asana(food,yajna-havana);aazanaseat,bhavana(house);naaga(snake/elephant,the feet show the hiss-garja-karsha).All naasa(nose) is naaga/naada/daana by the hiss/garja.Daarupaatra is a wooden

vessel.Vasna (price,an ornament worn by women round the loins) is a bhuushana(nishka) of sroNa or VasnanishkadroNa(16) . Hence vasna(price) nishka/saasana/aasana karNa(ear,karsha,garta,naaaga,hariNa,paNa)



indicated which means its price is a nishka of earring,gold or one with Siva as the deity. paNa,nava,vana,nayana,aksha,cakshu(caksh-to say,to see) griha,graaha,paataka,haataka,haara,hiira,hema,kaama,sringi,nishka,saaranga

(elephant, beetle,conch,lotus,deer,swan,bow,hair,ornament,gold,petal of flower,earth,lightkarsha),netra,mudra,Indra,triNa,naaga(naga-the sun-paNa),nakra cf.Mal.naaraka- naagaranga-lemon(na-tra;naatra -Siva,praise;netraking,sacrifice;bhadraasana) and the worship of the trident(suula-suura) with lemon on each point sadaana-sadana-house .All these are synonyms of paNa(house, money,trade or barter ,dicing,price,praise) and gold.PaNa is kaasi(handful,the sundrachmgraasagraahakarsha).Aksha drik/Akshapaatakaa gambler. is a judge or




tarjana(tarjani-index finger-unicorn)

, darsana (eye,sight,sacrifice). Akshi(aksha-eye ) is paNa as it expands like the PhaNa of the aksha(snake). Thus the garjana(gaja) sound of the animals is tarjana count by the karsha(hasta).

san haraNa,haara saadhana(tool)


aasanasanharaNa(cutting hair),sanhaara(ruining)-


vrascana-tool for cutting gold,patraasana(bhadraasana)


equipment,tool;sadaana-house;bhadraasana(throne-droNa-sroNa cf.k-50


kaparda karsha-karaja-kraya-traya-sraya





-cutting tool

Nu- weapon(nava-9,new) dru gha,sa na,sa money.The axe money is nose money or karsha itself.


aksha(paNa) naasa(nishka)

aksha(paNa) naasa(nishka).

-Nava graahapaNa graahapaNa grihaNava graha( 9 planets). gaja


aksha-axe Grk.axine

Sumer.kasagajakaaca(dola-gaja-garja-karsha-tola) netramaatrahaatrapaatra ,

The inscription probably indicates the name of the tool itself and the value/use of it as paNa karsha(nishka) bhadraasana money .





naaga(copper) -naaga(copper) cf.paNa is karsha(karaja-fingers).Karsha paNa is paNa(praise) garta(throne) or praise to the king.Hence netra(eye-king) is touched with paNa to show praise to the king.

karsha paNa


The price of the stone celt is 3 or 5 copper paNa.Price is praise to the king.The king is the eye(netra).Netra(eye,king,sacrifice) is maatra.Nayana is money.Hence on receipt of money nayana is touched with it to show praise to the king(sarkaar-cakra-garta-karsha).

Photograph of stone celt courtesy The Hindu.

155.The Bhirrana potsherd

Harappan link

T.S. Subramanian Discoveries made at Bhirrana in Haryana provide the missing link in the evolution of Harappan civilisation archaeology. The red potsherd with the engraving resembling the Dancing Girl bronze figurine of Mohenjodaro, found at Bhirrana.

Potsherd, Bhirrana (left). Dancing girl, Mohenjo -Daro (Right).

The Archaeological Survey of Indias discoveries at the Harappan sites of Bhirrana and Rakhigarhi, both in Haryana, in the past one decade testify to the importance of these sites in the evolution of the Harappan civilisation.

Bharata( a dancer) is bhadra .Paatra naatra

(girl,king,auspicious sign) and patra(leaf)

( a jar ) is bharata( a dancer) .Nritta(nata-dance ) is (praise; Siva-Nartaraaja-Nataraaja) and netra (raaja-

king;sacrifice;eye).Paana(jar) is paNa(naatra -praise).Kuru is Grk.choros(dance)- Lat.chorus(band of singers and dancers-bharata)-gartakarsha-harsha.

156. The Dholavira sign board


a,ma na na(anna,anala, manana-homage,reverence cf. Mal.mannaking,mahaa-great,naama on the forehead of Brahmins,Raama cf.naranri) ra,a ka sa aasa na,ra(rakshaNa, akshara-final beatitude,lakshaNa) na(aasana,daana,soma)


This is the bhadraasana(palace/temple) of king/god Anna RakshaNa or Raama Akshara.

ma haa bhadra,ra,ka ka sa kaparda(cf.bhadrahead,king,gold;patra-leaf,raaja-kingkaasa -lightkesa-hair .Note the double bun in

several seals indicating hair/harsha/garta.Refer page 526. cipher a


is Rudra-Siva. Mahaakesa(Mahesa,Mahesvara) is Siva.Mahaakaparda is conch(sankha-Janaka-kanaka)..The kaasa of the sungod is the kesa of the godking.

Harsha(garta,vraka-kshatra-kshetra;aksha-trakshetra) .Hence it is

Mahaakesa kaparda kshetra(a temple of Lord Siva) or Mahaaraaja Harsha(joy,harta-the sun,garta-throne) Varta(dha)ka(increasing)/vaktra(face) a

kings name. In fact this name is again seen in the seal after the patra(bhadra-king) as beak(speak-vaktra-face,mouth,organ of speech) of karsha(garta-garja-harsha) with naaga(mahaa,maana) indicating Mahaabhadra(Mahaaraaja) Harsha vaktra. Bird symbols at the end can denote bhadra,patra,varta(trade) and vritta(metre)















AsvaparNa(having horses for wings RV.1.88.1;6.47.31;a river) amsa(division,vamsa-race) raaja cf.


the asva-unicorns with parna-leaf on the amsa-shoulder can indicate asvaparNa vamsa.Hence the unicorn + reads AsvaparNa amsa raaja bhadraasana.








paNa(house,vishnu)-na(Buddha,Ganesa,we)-9rakshaNa(vishnu,protector)/lakshana/Laksmana-suvarNa suvarNa-nistarana(victory)-nava golden victory temple or golden Vishnu or Buddha temple.




maana-house,Vishnu,Buddha;nama,mnaa cf.Damayanti)

PaNanaava(praise) suvarna(Garuda,puurNa)-lakshana-panana(sale)/janana(birth)/snaana(bath)/anna Garuda lakshanana-paNa(vishnu)-Vishnu on Garuda temple Anna(food,rice ,Vishnu)-rakshaNa(protector)-suvarNa(gold,Garuda,Siva,a yaagasacrifice;puurNa-Suurya) It can indicate a temple of Anna puurNa devi(ravi-the sun) also.




year king,earking,dakshayearking ,varshabhadrarishabha

Kasipuu-kanaka-sahaaya Mahaa-rakshaka-puujaka,bhuushaka,poshaka,paushaka(pausha-the 11th month,the 3rd year in the Jupiter cycle,war,festival)

Maargana- a beggar,mendicant,an arrow Kaamadeva/Mahaadeva cf.


,the number 5(from the 5 arrows of

Maarganaka( a beggar,mendicantright to left) poshaka,kasipuu(left to right) Probably this refers to the festival at Marga-Pausha(winter solsticeChristmas)
[Reading from right to left]



-rada,ratha,laya,aalaya,saya,sabha,sava,gara,khara,khala cf.



aksha pakshabhakshabhiksharaksha(bha=rava=ra cf.BhadraRudra) raaja(king;Ra-aja,aasa,sa-snake,god cf.Pharaoh, the godkings snake),ka,a,ra,ca

- Zanaka,zinha-lion,sankha- conch,linga-phallus,Janaka(

-naga(the sun),naaga(snake,elephant,king)

- pa-tra,patra,bhadra,mitra,bhadraasana(garta-suvarna-suparna),pa,bhi

-vraka(kshatriya),varaaha,praasa,bharga,garbha(griha-house),garta(bhadraasana is garta),gaja,Kaca,asva,visva(cf.Visvamitra),sapta,bhaga(paNa-the sun,gracious lord,patron cf.pada-deva cf.beka- a paNa unit )

Cf. in .arkaarghakarabhargabhaga(the sun,bhaaga-part,beka-part of shekel)vrika(wolf,kshatriya cf.Sed/Wepwawet)varaaha vrisha(bull) sakasikhabhishakkshapaakasyapakasipuu(food and clothing) hiraNyakasipuu( )

asvasaptasapta-asvakarshahorseHeres! Mahaalaya- a great dwelling, a great temple, a great monastery,a place of pilgrimage,name of a linga whence Mahaalinga( having a great Linga or phallus-Siva,Name of a place) is also indicated.

Mahaaratha(Dasaraaja,Dasaratha,Bhaarata,Dvaaraka)/mahaalaya/mahaasaya/mahaalin ga/Mahaasankha/mahaasimha-bhadra-vrika/Bharga/garbha/griha.Mahaasaya is also naagasaya(cf.Vishnu on the ananta naaga).Mahaaratha(mahaabhadra) Janaka(Zanaka,sankha) bhadra bhaga(vrika,bharga) is king Janaka(of Videha/Mithila cf.father of Siita). Vrika( Bharga) is kshatra the lord of kshetra(priest king) which agrees with the Mahaalaya. Mahaarada-naaga bhadra-Vrika(kshatra-kshetra) Mahaaratha- a great ratha(chariot),possessing great chariots, a great warrior, a son of Visvamitra, a Raakshasa etc. Mahaaratha is mahaaraaja(samraat-great king.cf.Maratta) Dasaratha- father of Raama- had dasa( ten) rathas.Dasaraaja(Dasaratha) is desaraaja(king of desa-nation).Bhaarata is bhaa(light,the sun)-ratha(chariot).Dvaaraka( city of Krishna;svarga-the heavens) is Bhaarata(the chariot or chair of the sun). Mahaarada(having great rada-teeth ) is Ganesa(the tusker).Mahaarada is Mahaaratha/mahaaraaja(king god) itself.

The presence of 4

+1 make bhadra(king,cipher) panca(great,simha,linga cf.pancaloha for idols) vansa(tribe) or Mahaabhadra(Siva).Bhadra is Rudra(ravabharu).Hence Mahaalinga is also indicated.


bhadra(king,cipher)=ha,ka,na,bha,va etc. it can be read as

Janaardhana/ Dhanaarjjana bhadraasana(patraajna)

Bhaarata(Bhaargava )-sa-apna-tara(passage,crossing .RV.2.13.12;8.96.1) bhaaratasa apnasa(property RV.) cf.apna raajapresiding over property RV10.132.7 apnastha possessor RV.6.67.3

Bhaarata is Dvaaraka .






PA(SABHA,SVA) Dvaaraka naga(nava)-bhadra-aasana(asva)-siva(subha,sikha) This reads girvaaNa ( kings writ)-bhaarata sabha(court of king Bharata) patraasana (kings throne;bhadra-aajna=kings order)-subha(siva-auspicious) or simply the seat of the auspicious court of king Bharata. The symbol nakra/raksha

is a paana(cup,paaNa-kara-dos-hand,bhaama-the sun) formed from a ghar(cross,kara-hand) to indicate girvaaNa. Being a bhasana(beetle) it indicate bhaashana(vacana-speech),vasana(house,cloth) etc. It being the haraNa(paaNa-hand) and nakra(makara-alligator;nagara-city) indicates a svii-karana(welcome handshake) to the city also.

The wheels

asaksha/cakra/ bhadra(king,bull,auspiciousness,a cipher) gives the

value of a,ca,ka,bha(pa cf.bha-light,the sun),ra etc. .Bhaarata(bhadra-paartha-king cf.melukaah-kingship;Meluhha) is agni (RV.,4.25.4,6.16.19 ) and it is also the

name of the author of RV.3.23, RV.5.27 .Bhaa(the sun,light)-ratha(raaja-srii-king) is the king of light(cf.Christ ,INRI-the king of light).

This is the ra(agna-fire,the king,the first;eka-uni-one) symbol.It is the horn of the unicorn. It is a vetra(staff of the Brahmin king) or

yashti(staff). The vetra was made patra (wing) by the Sumerians,Akkadians Assyrians,Egyptians and the Greeks as we have seen earlier.

This is the ghar( ghri-burn,shine cf.cr-oss) symbol which is a raksha(bolt,protection),sa(bird,god cf.Christ the X aviour kings cross).Sa is ka(head),na(not), Ta (taya-protection,Taaw,Tau) and ha (god,sky cipher) or Z=H=T=N

.The Sumerian symbol for god(dingir/sa) is the bha/sun-star/cross

The plural of dingir is dingir dingir.


etc. in IVC.

The Akkadian cross sign DINGIR also indicate god.



90. Molded tablet.

Meadow and Kenoyer 1997 A female deity(kanaa-naaga-elephant,bhadragirl,cipher,gold,elephantcf.bhadra is paNa) battling two tigers(bhadra/va-cipher,tiger,auspicious,gold) and standing above an elephant(bhadra) making bhadraasana(bhadra-patravaahana;va+va+kanaavaahana-aasana-seat,vehicle). A single Indus script - spoked wheel (cakra-sekharacrown)- is above the head of the deity.(Gaja kasasound-count;Sumer.kas-trader,hurasham-gushkingoldHitt.hassus-king aksha-

karshagartagarja gaja cf. gaja is thus aksha-5 and ashta-8kaca(kesa-hair) kiisa(the sun,a monkey). kesava(Vishnu). Thus it is bhadraasana karsha. Interestingly the elephant is depicted as the unicorn itself and it shows harsha(karsha-garta-garja-gaja-kaca-kesa) on the back indicating itself as bhadraasana(garta-throne,seat of parda-Bharata).Parda(hair) is bhadra(elephant,girl,king,cipher,gold) and Bharata.Note the harsha(karsha) of the parda of the bhadra(girl,head) also.Parda of bhadra(ka-head) is kaparda(cowrie). Kesa(hair) is kaasa(shine cf.shine of gold) and gaja.This point s to a karsha of shell money.The Tigers(garjakarsha) show garja-garta-karsha by the wide open mouth, the standing on the raised feet,the prominent karaja(claws) and the gharsha(fight) with the bhadra(girl- harsha-karsha,ls;king;kanaa-gaNanacount,vanita-vanija-trader) causing bhadra-azana and
bhadraasana(garta-karsha).Ubhaya(two)-hari(Tiger) is Hariupiya/hariNa also.Kanya-salya paNya(trade,article for trade,price). , -gaNya-

. cf.Hittite :kessar-a hand; gu.za gis.dag-throne;gasanmunus-lady;guskin-gold(cf.gaja,kas +naaga) .A gaja(garja- elephant has a kara(hand,trunk,tax).A kara has karaja(finger,nail) used for counting of karsha(weight,ganita-count,gunja unit for weight). Gaja is ksha(narasimha-kesava) or ka(Brahma,head,rafire)-sa(god) whence it is the godhead( Hitt.hassus-kingraaja) itself.

On the reverse (89), an individual is spearing (gharshakarsha-cakra ;kunta-praasa-spear;kuntakanthathroat,gunja;praasa-raaja-king) a water buffalo (asvamedha))with one foot(pada-pati-lord) pressing the head(bhadraasana,karsha) down and one arm holding the tip of a horn(Grk.keras-bhaNa-karsha). A gharial [nakrakarsha,sankha] is depicted above the sacrifice(bali-sacrifice,tax,paNa,medha-maasha) scene and a figure seated in yogic position(padmaasanabhadraasana), wearing a horned headdress(sikharakarsha), looks on. The horned headdress has a branch(sikhara-sekhara-saakha) with three prongs or

leaves(vana-paNa) emerging from the center. cf.Hittite:pat-beli-belu-lord,master;sukurspear(sikharasekhara-crown cf.Vishnus cakrakarshagarta ) Ubhaya(two)-Hari(Tiger) can indicate Hariupiya also. Vaa=to procure or bestow by blowing
or two tigers or two hands (va+va) Cf.vaa-ja , vaa-sa , paa-da , paa-na , baaNa , paa-Na,paNa etc.

Wheel=aksha-5 ;naaga-elephant or 8 or naaNaka(coin),kanaa-lady ;bhadracipher,king,gold; karabha(elephant,camel,palm;kara-hand;elephantaleph+hand) The elephant is the unicorn(later Ganesa-nagesa-mahesa-jinesa-janesa-king,the sun) is clearly shown by the unitusk shown on the trunk itself. The elephants back is decorated with paNa(harsha-garja-garta-karsha) marks also. Tigergarjagartakarshagajaaksha(snake,eye,karsha)sa(god,snake)
Bandha of bhadra by a vanita(bhadra) is a vanija bandha(barter,agreement). Since all the glyphs indicate bhadra we can rearrange this to make a patra(writ-bird-word) as panca(PaNasa-trade,vasna-price,bandha-barter,vandal-praise,simha-lion-Leo-Deo-devaking,hamsa-swan-sun) bhadra(patra)

or as

which is duplicated in H-182

or .This seal has a tiger(garja) accompanying a man holing a paNava(drum cf.paNaas



cakrabhadrapatra , , vrisha karshagarjagarta(throne) This seal is with ubhaya(two) hari(tiger) which can indicate Hariyupia also.

The gala(kala,hala,kara,hara,sara) or griiva(kreya,traya,srava) of the Tigers(suura sankha,bhadra-simha) joined by a bhadra(vanita-girl) -bandha cf. gala of bull joined by two bhadra-bulls to show bandha/panca/karsha/karaja.

aksha-karsha-bhadra + tiger(va ) + woman(sa-ca-sha) + tiger(va) + elephant(ka,sa) aksha(karsha) vaacaka(word) bhadra(auspicious,king,gold) vaacaka(speechword;vaasaka-house,dress;maasaka- 1 maasha)

aksha(snake,dice,karsha-tola-5-aakaasa) ,bhadra(king,patra-writ) hiraNya,svarNa-gold,svar-ravi-the sun,dvi-two,dyu-aakaasa-the sky,na(gem,gold,binding)

panca,naaza,raaja,parNa,karNa,nakra,hariNa, hiranya,rukma,nishka,karsha


bhadra(cf.perutah),paNa(bhadra is paNa),naaga,gaja,kanaa,paana,paatra,nishka,kalasa,laksha,bhadra,patra,naama,maana,ka,sa, Va.Pra-gaja is prakaasa. vasna,panca,sankha,varsha,vrisha,karsha,bhadra,patra

aksha(aakaasa-naaka-sky;naaga,gaja,karsha,5)hiraNya,svarNa(gold),dyu(sky,player) hiraNya(naaga,gaja,aksha) ) .SvarNa

suvarNa(gold,gold coin;Garuda-garut-karsha.cf.Note the wings of

karsha HiraNya suvarNa is a gold coin weighing one karsha(16 maasha=80 ruttee).SuvarNa is vrisha(vrika-bharga-bhaga) as bhadra is vrisha(bull),naaga(snake,elephant,gharial) and gold.Hence note the same hiraNya(karsha,vrisha).HiraNyaaksha karsha panca indicate 5 karsha of gold.

in a similar single karsha seal.


paNa(vasna)-hiraNya(nakra,karNa,harNa) -suvarNA-karsha(cakra-aksha-bhadra)eka or paNa-vrisha(karsha)-naaga(hema)-vasna(panca,simha)-karsha-eka or ekacakra-bhadra(rishabha,raaja)-naaga(raga-hema)-raaja-maana(vasna).

157.Scripts of numbers and scripts of speech

Thus man=5



Naagakalasa Mbh.5 a man RV.10.32.9 kalasadroNakalaa1/16th part(of karshamaasha cf.maasa=moon and 1/16th part of the lunar half is a kalaa) kalaa = a 16TH part,INTERESTnaagaRV.8.47.17 kanaa(girl-maata-mother goddess,maasa-moon,maasha-weight) kali=DIE MARKED WITH ONE DOT cf.bhadrakaali,LOSING DIE av.7.109.1 Na-mo-vaa-ka =naaka+ma(vis)+va+fish +naaga(raaja) Kalaa=a designation of the three constituent parts of a sacrifice ie. mantra,dravya and sraddha



karsha) (najewel,pearl,paNasamaagreement;panca+navanda,bandha,
=PaNa tri naa naaga panatraya naaNaka pana-traya na(pearl)paNa(sankhanaagamgajamkaacamkaasi)


Karna karsha

karsha paNa karaNa paNa(agreementsama) bhargakarabha

kaasi paNa naaga,vaaha,krisana

vasna,krisana Traya kraya,yatra,yaatra,raaja is a common script. pancapaNasavasnavasanabandhavanda(praise-price-garta)


garta/karsha)sandha cf.Mal.canta-market.



133. Unicorn seal A steatite unicorn seal from Harappa with Indus script. paNa karsha(paNa) -30-aksha-hiraNya-bhadraasana


145. Unicorn seal http://www.harappa.com/indus2/145.html

PaNa +




vaana(vasna,netra,jaala,maatra,paNa,naava,maaNa;kala-sa) saravaNadraviNa(cf

)svarNa(suvarNa)DroNa(throne) , ,

pramaaNapraNaamaparimaaNa(pinda-pound) traya(kraya) karsha(tola,tulaa,sulka)

(hands in harsha/garja)karsha




garja kanthagala-




copperkanya gaNya-count) sankha harsha There are 8 garja(gala,kala,hala,karsha,laksha,rekha) marks on the neck indicating 8 karsha.Kalasa being naaga it is 8(ashta naaga) or hasta(ashta/panca) naaga(hema-mesha-maasha).Inside the bearer glyph the man symbol makes a five count(sound) as

karsha( /cakra /sarpa ) is panca(five,simha/garja;vasna;pabhadra,aasana-aajna) or bandha(barter) or vanda(praising the king,praise is price)

From the paatra-aasana(cf.M-1186) in front of the unicorn and the garja on its neck(nishka,harsha on skin-nishka) we have bhadraasana karsha paNa.Its count(sound) is 3
, 5(number of paNa glyphs=5) or 8(from + or +number of glyphs).Normal karsha(aksha) is panca(5) itself. This explains why the inscriptions are generally of 5 glyphs.

Karsha paNa

- trinetra(Siva,32)

can indicate a karsha paNa

bearing the godhead (ka-raajakarshakanaka-gold) of trinetra(Siva cf.the , on the forehead of the king.Netra is eye and the king.Naaga is nayana and naanaka-nagna.Akshanaaga-is akshi.) or 32 maasha(silver karsha).

Karsha-trinetra(Siva,32 gunja)-trayakarsha Karsha-traya-Vena(nava)-raaja(maasha) Vaanaraaja is naagaraaja(king cobra)/naakaraaja(the sun)/mahaaraaja.

vaana(netra-mat,clothmaatramaasha) paNa-vas(sa,va)-

house paNa,satra draviNa(paNa) Most of the seals indicate karsha(tola) indicating him to be a prominent trader(tulaadhara) or he receiving many tulaapurusha/tulaadaana mahaadaanas

25. Unicorn Seal, Mohenjo-daro.


paNa,pa bhadraasana)


nripa,panca,vasna,aasana( draviNa(karka-

ankaNa,angana,aksha paNa patra,bhadra


paNa naagapannaga(snake,cobra which has a phaNa-hood indicating paNa).Sisna is saasana(rule,gift). Sisna +patra(bird)=saasanaa patra(command/gift writ) of the king. Saasana raaja(paNa,karsha) karsha(garta)-nagna(naaga-hema)-karsha paNa(kanta karshakantha garjakarshaspeakbeak) patra. Panakala(pingala-lion,mongoose,siva, a naaaga,fire,,owl,pinjara-gold)patra(bird-word-writ). beak=speak(count,sound) cf.Athenian owl money

paatra-aasanabhadraasana(throne),ajina patra(writ on hide of animals),

aajnaa patra(order/command writ),bhadra amsa(kings portion),daana patradeed of donation.cf.taamra saasana-copper plate deeds..Rakta(red,copper) being raaja and garta,the copper tablets were especially used for this. An inscription of eight symbols (ashtaapada,ashta naaga ,ashta paNa)runs along the top of the seal. The elongated body and slender arching neck is typical of unicorn figurines, as are the tail with bushy end (viira bhadra cf.Apis bull)and the bovine hooves(bhadraasana,vartaka). This figure has a triple incised line depicting a pipal leaf shaped blanket or halter(amza patra-amsa patra-bhadra amsaportion, a measure), while most unicorn figures have only a double incised line(paNapa-na). The arching horn is depicted as if spiraling or ribbed(garjakarsha), and the jowl is incised with multiple folds(garja-karsha,manyaa). A collar or additional folds (bali,vali,manyaa) encircle the throat(garja-karsha). In front of the unicorn is a ritual offering stand with droplets of water or sacred liquid along the bottom of the bowl(paatra aasana-bhadraasana-nishka.The bhadra- drapsa- drops-Drupada indicate the king and gold cf. paatraaasanabhadra Sumer.ensi-king). The top portion of the stand depicts a square grid(garta) double grid netra or sieve(netra-net-bhadra-king,gold cf.note the

Large square unicorn seal with perforated boss on the back

glyph in 145), which may have been a circular cylinder.


= =pingala=owl= monkey,mongoose,fire ,51 year of Jupiter cycle,Pingala sage author Brass/bronze Patrabrassbronze; bhadra-gold,king,virgin saasana-daana-sana-gift. This is a

girvaana(korban) bulla of a Harappan Paul(bulla) or Peter(patra-writ). Yajna(sacrifice) is agna(fire),aajna ,asana and aazana.Savana is sayana. The soma(sisna) is pressed between the bhadra(adri=yoni) to get the biija(medha-juice). Sisna saazana ( teacher,order,rule, property given by a king ) saadhana(articles,sex organs,practice) etc. fish paasasvacassaasana is saasana patra -bhajana patra -vacana as in
, etc.

patra- paNa patra-vasna patra

The inscription style is with saasana(sisna-vaara-tail) at the beginning and patra(bhadra-head) at the end wth the body in the middle so that the bhadra bulla has a bull(bill) form.

The fistha-stapa-staPiscesmiinamaanamaanyanaaNayanaaNyapaNa(hand,money).

The salaaka/varti(projection) on the

indicate paNa.

VipaNi being paNi and vi-paaNi the two hands fish (paNa) PaNis (phaNis) of the veda.

and jar ( nipa)

shows the

Mushti shtomamaithunamithuna;adriathari,patra pasas natwo hands,dhaanya,dhanya),udaya=u-saya(sex,hand). Soma is sisna =saasana=mosa =mozaa(sunrise),sona(fire,blood)


mina=nayana=maanya=paana=pani=vipani =bandha=vasna



maanafame ,measure bahumaanaparimaaNapramaaNa Maa=to measure. Maanathe family of Agastya,the family of Maana the tenth house cf.mastamatsadasamatenth Maanana=paying honour Maanavamaapanasamaapa Nimaa to measure ,adjust Nimi =kings of Videha

Stroke direction in the seals

The red arrows indicate the direction of strokes used to incise each group of tablets. Refer http://www.harappa.com/indus2/149.html http://www.harappa.com/indus2/150.html http://www.harappa.com/indus2/151.html


33. Seal, Mohenjo-daro.


This quare seal depicts a nude male deity(nagna-agna,naaga,naaNaka) with three faces(karshaka-tra cf.three heads of bulls).He is seated in a yogic position(bhadraasana) on a throne(garta).He has bangles(karahand,ray,tax;krii-purchase;vana-ray,vaNa-sound,paNa-money) on both arms (harsha-karsha) and an elaborate headdress(sekhara-sikhara-karsha). Five(panca-bandha-vanija-vanita) symbols of the Indus script appear on either side of the headdress which is made of two outward projecting buffalo(kaasaragarta-karsha) style curved horns(keras-karsha), with two upward projecting points. A single branch(sikhara) with three pipal leaves(bhadra paNapaNa patra , , , ) rises from the middle of the headdress. The feet of the throne are carved with the hoof of a bovine(vartakatrader,bronze,hoof) as is seen on the bull and unicorn seals




r na,nri


sa suvarNa karsha

= Lat.crus,crux bandha vanda(praising,extolling) sanga(crossing,sex) sankha

bhadra naaga(kanaa-aasana) bandha(barter,vanda-praising) karsha


karsha whence


ca,pa and cakrabhadraaksha.

Thus the earlier

naagari bhadra vetra is bhadra( dot,stop,cipher) now.cf.sa

(god,bird,patra) Mal.caa-death.

Bekuraa =BHARGA=the Sun name of vac=asaadhaa and sahamaanaa The image of the Elamite goddess Narunde discovered at SUSA and dated to.2220B.C. shows her with two lions and a star (cf.Harappan wheel/star) as her attributes. Dr. Parpola tries to link the Harappan star and old Iranian goddess Anaahitaa (DTIS page.262). Nakshatra naaga(paNa-the sun)-satra(paNa-house) na-kshatra(kshetra) bha(pa).
with her and the

158. A tour through Dr.Parpolas Deciphering The Indus Script(DTIS).

DTIS-page21.2600-2500BC. Three zebu bulls are tethered to three different trees. Bhadraasva bhadraasanavrisha paNakarshapaNa Three types of bulls(different laksha-karsha on the body) and trees show three paNa(vana-vaNa-sound-count)/three karsha paNa of bhadra(gold,king,patra-writ). Three groups of patra/bha-tra(vi-sa-bird-word-bhadra cf. cf.) ) are enclosing the bulls to indicate bhadaasva/karsha/garta/garja/hearth. Vasna(paNa-money) is vacana(word).Words like gold paNa or copper paNa stamped on parchment(patra aajna-bhadraasana) or or potsherd(paatra amsa-bhadraasana) or skin (ajina patra-bhadraasana) served as money of that value guaranteed by the king. Amsu( siksha -gucca-gaja-uksha-pucca-sikha-harsha-garta-karsha) at the right is soma and the bhadra (bull,gold,king) with it is somabhadra or somapaatra or svarNa patra(golden writ).Tree being patraasana is bhadraasana.The bhadra(king) is tied to the patraasana(bhadraasana).

DTISpage21= Note the triangle -ka-head(cf.Cleopatra below) on the crest(karsha) of the first bullpatrakonasomabhadra.Note this symbol on the patra(pa=leaf). Compare this with the Egyptian symbol of the Apis(bhadraasva-bhadraasanagarta. Apis-asva-Avasa-the king,the sun).Patra(leaf,bird;bhadra-king,bull,gold). The dola shows tola/karshapaNa.It is the equivalent of aksha/uksha/gaja
, , .The hind part or hind leg (cf.the wild ass+hind leg) shows the aasana of the bhadra(bhadraasana). Additional patra mark is shown on the aazana(sroNa) to make bhadraasana(garta-karsha) like

the amza patra (shoulder leafamsa patra-partition deed)of the unicorn.

The tree(patraasana,vana) at the centre is bhadraasana paNa(praise to the king,price by the kings measure). The stake(yuupa-bhuu-bhuupa-bhadra-king) to which the bhadra(bull-king) is tied is the

bhadra( patra,paatra)-aasana


DTIS-page32.Sumerian tablet from Uruk indicating 54 oxen and cows..The bhadra(bull) and aja(ram) is bhadraasa(garta-karsha.This is bhadra gaja-unicorn- in IVC) as in

to indicate aksha/uksha- garta-karsha .The bull(bhadra-svara-sound-count-pound) is karsha and the ram(mesha,aja) is maasha.Karsha karaja - panca - 5 and aja - aya- 4. Interestingly,

bhadra(bull,auspicious,king)panca(five) bandha(barter) bhadra(cipher bha-tra

ajaaya (good luck,the number 4 ) aga(the sun,snake, tree,mountain) eka(one) Hence the 54 can be the bull and lamb itself.Bhadranaaga = 5 + 4 = 9 ,the head of the 9 Being bhadra and its tail being naaga(snake).Bhadra-asa can be bhadra(cipher)+ eka(1)=10 Bhadra(saasa) is dasa whence we have the dasa vrata (ten commandments), dasa raaja (the ten kings ) etc.As bha-tra we have the three kings.





the 54 becomes 43 as bhadraasana and maa-na(mina) is paNa. Maa is bleat of cow or goat and measure .

Bhadra(king,bull,girl,gold,elephant,auspicious) , paatra,paana

patra(leaf,bird) sarpa(snake,sarpa talpa-

baaNa(arrow,praasa-spear) talpa(aasana)

Ananta sayana)

salabha(butterfly-bhadra talpa)

patra talpa(Garuda-garta-karsha) pa(leaf,water,wind,snake,king) ca(bhadra- patra-chatra- a parasol- royal insignia) sa(bird,snake,god-king) sa(bhadra-vetra,sarpa cf.the horn of the unicorn)

Bhadraasana bhadra-asana(food) tax Bhadraasana bhadra(king)-aaza(face) the kings face or head.


aya trayakrayadravasravasrayasreya +

na,paNa traya

paNakraya paNasraya paNa draviNasaravaNa etc.



ka(sa,pa), aja


ka,sa,a whence

Ka the head is a patra(pa-leaf,bird) or bhadra(head,king,bull,cipher,girl)

with the karnapatra as wings cf.

T cf.aleph-asva-aja-avi-bhadra-patra-vi-sa hence aja= a,sa


ra,sa,ca cf.ravi

Leo-deo-deva rava-ravi-the sun/his sign-ra/na

L of Egypt is S of Bharata. Thus Aleph is asva.Leo is simha(saanga,anka;suura)..Aslesha has s&l together.The Mal.Sa inverted is La. Simha sanga(saya) sankha(sankh)linga(phallus-palace)

Tunga(Siva,erect,high,chief,peak,throne)pungava(bull,marked by a bull)


mamaa(mesha,measure) aana(nose,face,breath) maanamaashasvaahasvaasa(breath) suaasasu-vaasa svastika



karsha paNa


Paatra is gaatra(garta/karsha).cf. the Akshaya(aksha) paatra(paNa) of Paancaali(Draupadi Fish itself is karsha paNa.Placed on

hrit(heart,chest) it endorses the karsha/garta..

paNa bhuja(a coil, the arm,the trunk of an elephant,the base of a triangle)bhuj(bent,eat,enjoy,possess) bhujaa(a curve,coil

of a snake) fish(paNa-phaNa)

bent armsbhoga(snake,sex,food)




Man naamaa(measure) zina(food,body) jina(the sunpaNa) Fish na,paNa maana,maapanamaanava

Man +fish

matsa(fish) masta(head)

nasta(nose,noose ) nashta(loss) hasta(hand) ashta(8) asta(house,end) The Bible utilizes this theme when Jesus told Simon and Andrew: I will make you fishers of men Mark.1.17.

DTIS page 55 Indus script on a late Harappan seal Dmd-1.

paNa =Sa(san,ca-Siva,Moon)=snake,bird,fence,lakshmi,Gauri,Vishnu,Siva etc.kara(paNa)Vakra(kara)arka(sun-paNa)arghacakra(ca-

Siva,moon;sa-god,snake;kara-hand;garja-roar,gartathrone)karsha(kara-sa-sha) Grk.Keras-hornharta(the sun) Heb.Heres-the sun harsha(joy,erection) Sa(god,snake,pa-snake,ca-moon,ra-fire) has a phaNa(bhaana-shine,patra-hood-kosa


) which is

paNa(palm,money). Bhuja(kara) is bhoga(sasnake).Hasta(kara) is aksha(sa-snake).Aksha karsha(gras-grass-drachm-grasp-paNa)

raasa(god,bird,snake cf.raajaraa-aja,aaza


and harsha.

praasa(raaja) .Hence in nishka(naasika)

talpalata-vavatsasarpaMal.sapra manca(bed of kings)

Vartaka=brass(grass),hoof, a trader. Kalaa is kanaa and naaga(kaama-desire,raaga, .


Anka(curve,hook,crook 1or 9.

) is agna(fire,king) or the numbers


DTIS page 55. Karshacakra(aksha) Lat.crux(cross) naaga


garja(roar) gaja(elephant)




) kanaa( a girl

angana(lady) ankana(laksha-mark,count) gaNana(counting) janana(birth) mahaa(great;a cow,a feast, a sacrifice,a buffalo) hema(gold)




dvaar(svar,sa) is

vanda(praise) bhadra(a cow) . Na in


Hence this is bhadra






karsha or vasna(value) naaga(8)/hema(gold) karsha. Kaama(Naaga-elephant,mahaa,hema) dhenu(saanu-the sun-paNa-Vishnu)

Is the elephant cow or gold karsha paNa itself. Open vaktra

garja/karsha.Danta is dasama or matsa(karsha).Pa/sa


+na (teeth)

paNa/sana(karsha-harta-harit-hrit Heb.heres) .

DTISpage55. Karshacakraharta(the sun).PaNa(sun) is Vishnu ( the sun). Hence this reads karsha paNa(garta-king, paNa-praise.Price is praise). Karshapanca paNasakalasa karajacakracashakacamasamastamatsahastafive

DTIS page 82 . H-94 .Tiger Cowry . Cypraea tigris.Krisana

(gold,conch) paNa . Panca-paNaPaNa(barter)bandha(barter).

Gaatra karsha/haatra/maatra.Nri(king) is hari(Indra,tiger,lion,gold,srii-the


sun,Lakshmi,Va-tiger,Varuna,handcf.uddaama -having raised rope is Varuna/Yama.).Vrika is tiger and kshatriya.Tiger is garja and karsha. Gaatra is stressed by the Tiger(garja-gaja-dasa or ta-tail+bodysadasa/sata) with bold karaja(claws, sankhasa-with,nakha-nail), a wide open mouth(garja) and a gaatra full of karsha laksha(scratch/streak) and the bhadra(head) of a kaasara(buffalo,gartathrone,Mal.kasera-chair Grk.boubalos-bhuupaala-king) or aja(ram)..This is aksha(balance).Graduated buffalo horns(keras-karsha-garta-bhadra) were used as balances by the Harappans.Refer page 471. Balanceaksha(panca)bandhavanda The unicorn(bhadra=bull,tiger,elephant,buffalo) is the tiger.The paatra aasana -jar throne-is simplified as the buffalo head.

karshagarja(tiger) kaasara(buffalo)


+ na


This is thus three karsha paNa.

The aksha(balance/kaksha-buffalo,bull,grass

) + tiger



karsha-panca is corroborated by the panca-anga-gaatra . Note the karshagarja(gaja) sarpaharshahara-sa-god,snakeharita(tail,sa- god,snake).Vaara is bhaara , and viira .

HiraNyaksha(killed by Vishnu;hiraNya=aksha=karsha,aksha-Sesha/Anata is the aasana/saya

svarNa(hiraNya) + , aksha(snake)

of Vishnu.Aksha is kaasa/kesa/gaja/kaksha/paksha/bhaksha/bhiksha/vaksha. Sesha is teja.)

Bharata-Vyaaghrapad -=author of RV.9.97.16-18 .Hence vyaaghraBharata.

The prominent claws of the Tiger can indicate Vyaaghrapad also.

DTIS page 83. M-314.The longest continous Indus inscription. There are 17paNa(vaNa-sound-count) in this inscription . Line 1.Aksha(karsha-tola;snake,eye,5)-karsha(kesa,svarNa,aja)ankana(marking,counting;aneka-many,pingala-bronze)-nri(king)-pa(nripaking,paNa) .Suula is tola.kunta is kantha(garja).Praasa is raaaja.Paali is

PaaNi.From the cakra(Sakra-Indra,Sagra,Saargon) and paali we have CakrapaaNi(Vishnu).Dasa is ten.Gada is a club.Gaja is naaga.Kaca is hair.The last two scripts as panca/bandha/vanda/vasna agrees with


. The reading may be reduced to Gaja


Lakshmi) bandha (barter,agreement,bulla,bill) which precisely is

bhadra -0+aja - 1=10aksha(karsha,5)+aja(1)=15 bhadraasa(garta) bhadra(ka-head)-ajakasakacakaasakesa =double bun. Gaja+bhadra(durga,Siva)Gaja Lakshmi. Line2.Ashtapada(ashtanaaga-ashtahema-ashtavasu-gold)karsha(harsha,vasna,panca,bandha,vandal,vrisha)naagabhadra(kaamadhenu,Mahaabhadra,bhadranaaga-unicorn;hema naaga=8 gold,maapana-measure) .From left to right (cf.the Tiger va is inverted to make it u-va) it can be read as suvarNa-ashtapada(gold). Line3.Karsha(srii)-paNa-netra(bali-sacrifice,eye,king,2;muula-muulyaprice,karaja-karsha)-bali(netra-sacrifice,tax,paNa)-karsha-gaja(kacakesa;naaga)Pingala(brass,mongoose,monkey,owl)/vrisha(Indra,bull,mouse,karsha). Pingala(mangala,sangama) naaga was a common sacrifice even used in the Bible(nehushtan-bronze snake.Num.21.4-9.) .

Countsound official ,earl also.Contus

the reversed footcounter of a teller

CountL.computare,gaNitakunta Taaraka


gartakarsha paNa bhadraasanapatraasana(tree,head,kamsa)

paNasavana or svarNa paNa


DTIS page 91. H-3305 .An amulet from Harappa.

Naaga(gaja-garja-garta-karsha;naga-aga-jina-the sun) nagnagnaanaanakakanaakanaka(gold) simha(lion,tiger) Harsha(erection,joy) showsharija(horizon),garta and harta(heb.Heres). Bhadrabha(sun,star;pa-water)-sara(arrow,water;sira-head;vajra-weapon of Indra,cakraweapon of Vishnu)parda(hair)pajra(soma) patrapaatrapaana paaNabhaamanaava

Naaga is naava and Kaama.Kaamas bhaarya(aalaya,sayana) is Rati(srii). Bhadraasana being aaasana on bhadra(virgin,bull,elephant,lion,tiger) garta (throne) of the naaga(raaga,raaja) is portrayed as Durga/simha aasana as in this seal ,K- 65,K-50 etc.Bhadra is Durga(simha-Tiger,lion). Paanahema,paatrabhadra =gold,paaNahema Bhadra(girl,king,gold,elephant,bull;auspicious;varta,varsha) hema kanakaangananaagakanaamahaamaashamaatameshanaasa
vaacavaajavaahabhaagabhaga(the sun,female genitals,good luck) Bhadra vaaca is auspicious speech or AUM. Bhadra naaga(unicorn) is Mahaabhadra(Siva,samraat) and bhadraasana.Bhadraasana

is also shown by the naked aasana(sroNa) and saadhana(genitals) of the girl(Durga-BhadrakaaLikaasiheli).

Bhadraasana is shown by the patra(vulva,vagina-vasna,bhaga) and aasana of the bhadra.L.vulva,volva=wrapping,womb .Bhagavati9devi-ravi-the sun) has a bhaga(the sun). L.vagina-sheathvaahanaaasana(throne,aajna-vrata-order)

For male

sisna (saasa-na )


Note the sampad(sampat-wealth) -stand .Paada (deva,veda) is

pada(word),bhaata,bhaasa,vaaca,vaaja, vaasa,aasa and va-aja(goat).Maata is maa(bleat of goat)- aja(goat) also.Hence the aja(Usha) glyph is attached .cf.DK13013 where a terracotta mask depicts a deity having a humanface with horns of a bull(bhadra) and beard (netra) of a goat(Aja-Usha).H-178B shows a ram-faced(Aja-Usha) deity with long arms(kara) full of bangles(harsha-harta-garta-karsha),standing inside a fig tree(patraasana-bhadraasana-

-vrishaasana-sarpaasana indicating seat on leaf,bird,bull,mouse,snake etc for the gods/god kings.).The king is the god(cf.Manu.7).

The raised vaaha (hands,bull-bhadra) shows harsha and Svaaha(wife of the sun) Gaja is ka(he,head,Brahma,fire,water)-aja.kaa is she and Sarasvati(goddess of water.Sara-jalawater;jina-the sun,sira-sara-head ;jyoti-light-knowledge.Sarasvati is Jalavishu-the autumn

equinox.Being Brahma himself Sarasvati is the wife and daughter of Brahma.).Saasa is Saaja . yashti(kara,rekha,lekha,karsha)asti,ashta,hasta,asthi etc.Sa (unicorn ka +


is he,god,snake(cf.Pharaoh),bird(cf.lamassu) etc.Saa is she,Srii

Parvati,Srii Bhagavati etc.She is Gajalakshmi (jaga-rakshaNabhuupaala) also.Brahma(the sun) being praaNa(life) Svaaha(svaasa-breath cf.praaNavaayu;vaayu-vaahu-baahuhands ) and Sarasvati (kara-jyoti)are the same.Pitri (father)being bharta9lord,husband)

he is father and husband of Sarasvati.

Samjnaa is wife of the sun.Svaaha is wife of Agni.Agni is the sun.Bhadra is Bhadrakaali a form of Durga(suurya).Samjnaa patra is a notice.Paatra is bhadra(Bharata), bhaarata(agni) and bhaarya(a wife).



= + sama = is the sun.Samaapa is a sacrifice.

hasta(kara-hara-Siva,fire ,ass;bhujam-Sambhu-Sivam-siva-subham)na-rapaharaNanripa bharaNaaavaraNa aabharaNa(nishka)

samgharsha paNa-karsha. Patra of female and naaga of male make count, sound, pound and harsha(karsha).

The stand on toe indicate vartaka as king


Cf. prop-rietar ardhodayaasana ardha paryankasitting on the hams,

paaNa(trade,hand,praise)paana baaNa pari-anka

Hamback of thigh Ger.hammehind leg Ardha prasthika=measuring half a prastha PaN.7.3.27 Ardha siirin=a cultivator who takes half the crop for his labour Yajna.1.126

Taara-starardha. With kri -to give an equal share

Hence stars

part,party RV.10.27.18,4.32.1,7.18.16

Artha-for the sake of,on account of Artha-desire Ardha place,country Ardha candrathe semicircular scratch of the finger nailnakha kshatasanka laksha Ardha paNacontaining half a paNa Mn.8.404

snehasangasankha SanakaJanaka

DTISpage92.H102. A portion of the inscription on the obverse is marked on the knob for easy identification while using multiple seals..In this case
is shown on the knob.



agna,naga,anka -



The first and last glyphs repeat the same sound.Naaga naaga is Raaja raaaja.

Sa-aja-anka is Sasaanka(the moon,camphor;sasa-hare,saasa-raaja,anka-signkings/royal insignia cf.C2B7 copper tablet from Mohenjo-daro ).

Interestingly the hare(sasa-saasa) and hair(harsha-garta,heir gets a partition deed-amsa patra) are royal insignias!.Note the ghaasa(food,pasture;kaasa,kaca,kesa,gaja) before the sasa.




and sa


bed cf.sesha naaga-bed of Vishnu) are aasana of the bhadra(god-king) made of bhadra(gold/simha/elephant/bull/woman/sarpa).Note the patraasana(bed-bhadraasana) in the inscription C2B7 indicating amsapatra/throne.

sankha -naabha (naava,paNa,naatha,nava,maapa,paana)-karsha(sarpaaksha-sakra-harta-Heres) Left to right :paNa(sa)-sri-nka(sringi-gold)maashaka(hema,mahaanga-Siva, a camel;mahaaja- a ram) Sankha(shell)-caturmaasha(4 maasha=suvarNa/nishka)karsha(1) sanka(kantha)-naabha(naada,naatha)-sravaNa(karNakarsha) sankhakarNa(an attendant of Siva)-paNa(naava,maapa) sankha naabha(name of a king,son of Vajranaabha)
sankha alligator mukha . (vadana,vaktra,vasna) karsha .Sankhamukha is an

Its sound is garja(karsha).Maapa mukha




DTIS page92.M318.PaNa(gaja-sesha-ksha-salaaka-sulka)-traya(tra)-karsha(bha-la-ka,va-caka,va-sa-na,sa-n-khacf.kha = nanakha-karaja).PaNahouse,Vishnu,money,price. Gaja-tra is kshatra or kshetra.Phalaka is a tablet. PaNa-sa-na is barter or vandana(praise)/bandhana(restraint)/vancana(cheating.cf.Judas cheating Christ/garta/king)

This indicates kshetra



or money in is satra

praise of the temple(the abode of the god/king).Khetra

Karsha(gaja,grass,triNa-netra-naatra-Indra) sapaNa(panca-5)


-maasha -

Karsha-trayamaasa-savana indicates karsha for the third month sacrifice. Panca-maasha-traya karsha indicates money of value 3 karsha and 5 maasha.



-na,aa,ga sa,aa -va,na


garta),bhadraasva,bhadra(bull,king,gold) vasana(vacana-AUM,vasna,naava-paNa-praiseprice).Bhadra naava is Padma naabha(Vishnu-vasna-paNa).

Karsha-traya-varsha .Karsha for the kings third year. Karsha-traya(3)-maasha-dasa(10)-vasna(price,rent).

DTIS page92. M-1203.Asva(7,bull,king;aksha-5,karsha,azva-poor) karsha(cakra,hariNa,nakra,Asva karNa) kaaya(capital,body of lute,timber,group,sreNi-trader group;ka-aya;gaja;salaaka-jaalaka-salka-sulkashekel) bandha(barter,agreement;vasna-rent,price; draviNa, saravaNa,sravaNa,panjara(cf.finger,pingala,mangala),vandana,mantra,mudr a,mitra)

Asvakharaja is a mule cf.M-290a with the wild is shown by the paatra-


aasana with many bhadra(cipher,dot ,spot,pot patra on the amza(amzapatra,amsapatra).

) and the

Karsha is shown by the harsha of the puccha(tail ,guccha-nishka-ukshagaja) and sekhara(keras).The garja-harsha on the gala indicate karsha(kalasa

DTIS page 108.DK-7535.Copper axe blade with the karsha (finger,fingernail,karsha of nail or nail mark is karsha) inscription is sword money.Aksha(karsha) is axe.Cf.the stone celt from Mylaaduturaai.on page 507

with the karaja

karshapaNa mark.Kshata (karsha)

indicate daksha.In DK7856

7(asva) karaja marks are shown to indicate asvakharaja and avasa(the sun,king) garta(karsha,Heres) which is paNa(sun-money).Kara-ca(karshaaksha -axe-hoe)
paNa(barter,Vishnu,money,praise,price,copper) aya(4-

aja,die for game,good luck,sekhara,maasha)


price,savanna,Karsha cf.bulls and goats of Sumer) karaja(nailmark,garta-throne,karsha)

.Hence probably the value of this sword money is 45 karshaPana of copper for

barter trade(paNa).

DTISpage108.DK2119.Bali( baliibull,buffalo,hog,camel,archer,Frankincense tree,maasha bean,vali-folds of skin etc.indicate bali-tax or donation to the godking.) .Note the bull and its skin folds .




uksha(ukta,daksha,siksha,suukta,paNacf.sicca PaNa cf.sicca rupee) garta

scripts kshaNa( festival,time;aksha,uksha-ksha-karsha) patra(bhadra,writ,pa) . The

can indicate paksha-bhaksha-bhiksha and patra(bhadra)

aasana(aajna,amsa) also.Sicca(siksh-wish to bestow,help,instruct) indicate Siksha(dakshasaasa-king Siksha was a king of the Gandharvas cf.dakshiNa-gift.) or sikshaa(learning,instruction,helping,bestowing- indicate royal gift.).

DTIS page109 H-3458 The obverse and reverse of a miniature tablet. Sara(sa,pa,vi ,aga cf.pa-tra) + na sraN-to donate,saraNa(refuge),traaNa-to protect ;Indra - the godking,agna(fire,naga-the sun,eka-1) . The sara(vi-arrow,5) is balanced by the kara( tax,haraNa-hand,gold) on the left With 5(sara) karaja(fingers) to show harsha and karsha.Hence this is karsha(hariNa-gold) The sara being vi,vi


or nava( 9 ) /naava(praise-paNa).

+ na

+ sa(bhuja-bhoga-sa-snake/ta-tailcf.has-ta,Sumer.kas-

vinsa=20th. Thus this may signify the

Panca(5th) or vinsa(20th) year of the kings coronation.Also the Roman numeral

V=5=va(hand).The obverse shows the

karsha lines.Va(

kara (hand)=sara=5.+ 4

V ) + na


Thus the paNa(price,praise;nava-9,naava-praise) and karsha obverse corresponds to the nava karsha of the reverse.

of the

DTIS page 109 H-247.Akneeling man holds a vessel

sign preceded by the number two sign


.PaNa(money,copper,praise,price,Vishnu) is and

is the karsha(keras-horn,ka-head), paaNa(trade,hand)


.Money is the sun god-king.Kneeling shows paNa(praise) of paNa.Gaatra is karsha 2 karshapaNa-karsha-2.



trimsa trishNakrisana(gold,pearl) shows paana-traya paNa trayapaNa kraya(purchase). Garta is gatra.Paana is paa-tra(bhadra-gold,patra-writpaNa).The jar is pa(va-hand).The paana-cup is paaNa(palm), paNa and sringa(horn,sringi-gold).Paana paatra is chashaka/caksha/aksha /hasta .Trikara is sriikara(auspicious) and Durga.Maatra (measure) is Mitra and mudra.Sa-tra is PaNa (house,money,sacrifice).Karsha paNa is ka-tra or garta paNa.Trim-sa is thirtieth and trimsaka is the thirtieth part or bought with thirty paNa(cf.the price of Christ-garta-raksha-thirty pieces of silver). Ka-trakaasara(buffalo) gaatra(body) paatra paanapaaNa paNavaNavanasatra.The single jar karsha is made three jar karsha

smasru(nak-sa-tra cf.naaga=sa)


, paaNa


bhaama(the sun)

bhaa-ra(Visnu,weight-it makes one bent/worship) nishk/nishka(gaNita,vaNija,vanita,manusha,nisva)



DTIS page 109.M- 478.


count),dru(tree) ,nava(new,9) ; paNa(praise,price,sun,money) ;dru+paNadraviNa(gold). Nava(9),naga(the sun,naaga-snake,copper),hema(gold) paNa ;sana(

, body-gaatra-karsha;food,garta-karsha,paNasamasana) ;naaga+aasananaagaasana(Garuda-

garta),naagaazana(anatasayana,seshasaayii-Vishnu-paNa-sun);paNa(palm,patrabhadra-karsha-karaja-fingers-panca-5) ;garja(karsha-gharsha-garta-bhadraasana-trumpet

.and drum-beat the right end also.

.Gharsha-percussion- vaadya-vaacya show