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9.

9.1. N- T n
,
,
2
. , T = { ( a1 , a2 ) , ai R, i = 1, 2}
,
3
T = { ( a1 , a2 , a3 ) , ai R, i =1, 2,3}
,
, .
n x1 , x2 ,..., xn
n- , x1 , x2 ,..., xn .
n- n-
n .
n m1 , m2 ,..., mn ,
M ( m1 , m2 ,..., mn ) . O ( 0, 0,..., 0 ) .
T n , ,
k-, , OX k .
, OX k
M ( 0,..., 0, ak , 0,..., 0) , ak . ,
n n OX 1 , OX 2 ,..., OX n .
n , k-
, X k .
, X k N ( a1 ,..., ak 1 , 0, ak +1 ,..., an ) ,
a1 ,..., ak 1 , ak +1 ,..., an
. n n
X 1 , X 2 ,..., X n .

,
.
uuu
r
AB ,
, ,
. ,
, . . ,
, , .

n.
, n
uuu
r
, - AB .
188


,
uuu
r
AB .
.
A ( a1 , a2 ,..., an ) , B ( b1 , b2 ,..., bn ) , b1 a1 , b2 a2 ,..., bn an ,
uuu
r
uuur AB ,

AB .
uuur
AB = ( b1 a1 , b2 a2 ,..., bn an ) .

n-
uuu
r
AB , ,

u
u
u
r
A T n , = AB . ,
n- A ,
uuu
r
, AB
.
n- = ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn )
A(a1 , a2 ,..., an ) T n . , B
uuur
x1 + a1 , x2 + a2 ,..., xn + an . AB = ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn ) = .
uuur uuur
AB = CD , .

, n- .
uu
.
u
r
OA -
A . ,
uuu
r

A - OA .
uuu
r
ur
uuu
r
ur ur
OA A . AB B A
uuu
r ur ur
, AB = B A .
9.1. , A, B, C , D

T n :
uuu
r uuur uuur
1) AB + BC = AC ;
uuu
r uuur
uuur uuur
2) AB = CD AC = BD ;
uuu
r
uuu
r
3) AB = BA .

uuu
r uuur ur ur ur ur ur ur uuur
1) uAB
+ BC = B A + C B = C A = AC;
uur uuur
uuu
r uuur uuur uuur
uuur uuur uuur uuur uuur uuur
2) uAB
= CD AB + BC = CD + BC AB +BC =BC +CD AC =BD ;
uu
r ur ur
ur ur
uuu
r
3) = B A = ( A B ) = BA.

A B T n
uuu
r
AB . A B ( A, B) .
uuur
( A, B ) = AB .
9.2. T n
:
1) ( A, B) = ( B, A) ;
2) ( A, B) 0; ( A, B) = 0 A = B ;
189

3) ( A, C ) ( A, B) + ( B, C ) .

uuu
r
uuu
r uuu
r

A
,
B
=
AB
=

BA
=
BA
= ( B, A ) ;
(
)
1)

uuur
uuur
uuu
r

(
A
,
B
)
=
AB

0;

(
A
,
B
)
=
0

AB
=
0

AB
= A = B. ;
2)
uuur uuu
r uuur uuur uuur
3) ( A, C ) = AC = AB + BC AB + BC = ( A, B) + ( B, C ) .

, A, B, C . .

Tn:
uuur uuur
1. uAB
= AC B = C .
uur uuur
2. uAC
= BC A = B .
uur uuur uuur
uuur uuur
3. AB + AD = AC AB = DC . uuur uuur
4. ( A, B ) + ( B, C ) = ( A, C ) AB BC .
9.2.
T n
, T 3
, .
T 3 ,
,
T n .
uuuur ,
M , N , , = MN . k
, k R .
T 3 .
, , M
: = MN , N
.
.
T n .
, M , N

uuuu
r
uuu
r
, = MN . , AB ,
A B , .
R n , ,
L . ,
, .
T n ,
:
190

1. ,
,
uuur
C : = CD , D
, . . uuur
L , = CD , C D .
2. , t
t R .

1. , M ,
.
. = MM = ,
. , 1 2,
t = .
2. , T n
.

, T n
.
L
.
9.3. M ,
:
uuuu
r
uuuu
r
1) L = MN , N ; 2) N MN L .
1. . L M
uuuu
r
: = MN . 1-
N .
uuuu
r
. = MN , uuuNur . M
, MN ,
. . L .
uuuu
r
2. . ,

MN
uuuu
r
, MN L .
uuuu
r
uuuu
r
. , MN L , . . MN
M . 1-
N .
+ L R n
+ , ,
L . : M M M 0 + L ,
= M 0 + L .
9.4. :
1) , L
.
191

2) M T n L R n
= M + L L = L .
3) M ,
= M + L .
.
1) , ,
L , + L . A : = AB .
B .
B : = BC .
C . , + = AB + BC = AC . A C
, + L .
2) ,
L L :
L = PQ; P, Q = Q P, Q = M + , P = M + ; , L
= M + ( M + ); , L = ; , L L .
L = L ,
uuur
: L , = CD , C
= D C, C = M + ; , L D = C + , C = M + ; , L

D = M + ( + ); + L D .
L ,

.
3) 9.3,
:
N MN L N M = , L N = M + , L N M + L ,
= M + L .
L
.
.

,
.
9.5. 1 2
, :
1) 1 2 L1 L 2 ; 2) 1 = 2 L 1 = L 2 .
. 1. 9.4 ,
1 = M + L , 2 = M + L . 9.5
:
1 2 M + L M + L L1 L 2
1

192

2.
9.5 :
1 = 2 1 2 , 2 1 L L , L L L = L .
1

9.1. M 1
2 . , 1 2 = M + L L .
9.2. , ,
, .
9.3. T n A
A , M
n . ,
uur
uur
n
T , M = AN , N ,
.
9.4. T 2 T 3 ,
. :
) ;
) M 1 , M 2
M 1 M 2 .
9.5. T 3 . , :
) , M N ,
, ;
) , l M ,
l , , M
l ;
) , ,
, T 3 .
9.6. , T 3
: , ,
T 3 .
9.7. 1 2 , L L .
, 1 ,
2 , 1 2 .
1

9.3.

M 0 T n 1 , 2 ,..., k R n .
( M 0 , 1 , 2 ,..., k ) T n ,

uur uuur
M = M 0 + t11 + t 2 2 + ... + tk k ,

193

t1 , t2 ,..., tk .
. N ,
l1 , l2 ,..., lk ,
uu
r uuur
N = M 0 + l1 1 +... + lk k .
uuur uuur
M 0 = M 0 + 01 + ... + 0k

, M 0 ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k ) .
9.6. = ( M 0 , 1 ,... k ) T n
, M 0
1 ,..., k , L
R( 1 , 2 ,..., k ) , .. L = R( 1 , 2 ,..., k ) .
.
uur uuur
N N = M 0 + l1 1 +... + lk k N M 0 + R( 1 , 2 ,..., k ) ,
, = M 0 + R( 1 , 2 ,..., k ) . 9.4
, ( M 0 , 1 ,... k )
L = R( 1 , 2 ,..., k ) . 1 ,..., k
L , , ( M 0 ,1,..., k ) .
, M 0 (M 0 ,1 ,..., k ) .
= ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k ) .
= ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k )
1 , M 0
1 ,..., k .
. M 0 I 1 . 1 ,..., k
L . 8.2
L = R(1 ,..., k ) L . 9.5 ,
= ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k ) 1 .
1



, L . .
L L , ,
L .
M u

T n
ur
A = , AM = .
9.7. A =
T n ,
- A , L
A = .
.
194

M 0 - A = ,
1 , 2 ,..., k A = .
5.10,
M M = M 0 + t1 1 + t 2 2 + ... + t k k M M 0 + R ( 1 , 2 ,..., k ) ,
, = M 0 + R( 1 , 2 ,..., k ) . 9.4
, , L = R( 1 , 2 ..., k ) .
1 , 2 ,..., k L

A = , .
C A = - :
A1 = 0, A 2 = 0,..., A m = 0 .
(9.1)

1
2
m
8.25 , L = R( A , A ,..., A ) . A
L ,
.
.
A = AM 0
1 ,
M 0 - A1 , A 2 ,..., A m A .
. M 0 I 1 . , L L .
L , A1 = 0, A 2 = 0,..., A m = 0 , A1 , A 2 ,..., A m
L . ,
( 9.1) , , A = , L .
, L L . 9.5 1 .

.
9.8. .
1. A = , M 0
- , 1 , 2 ,..., k
A = , = ( M 0 , 1 , 2 ,..., k ) .
2. = ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k ) .
A = , L = R( 1 , 2 ,..., k )
.
A = AM 0 .
.
1. 1 ( M 0 , 1 ,... k ) .
M 0 I 1 L = R ( 1 , 2 ,..., k ) = L . 9.5
1 .
2. A = AM 0 1 .
M 0 I 1 L = L , L L
1

195

A = . 9.5
1 .
.

= ( M 0 , 1 , 2 ), M 0 = (3, 3, 2,1) ,
1 = (1, 2, 2, 1), 2 = (2, 4, 4, 2) , 1

3 x1 + 2 x2 + x3 x 4 = 4,

2 x1 + 5 x2 + 3 x3 + 2 x 4 = 1,
3 x + 4 x + 2 x + x = 2?
2
3
4
1
. ( M 0 , 1 , 2 )
1 , M 0
1 , 2 . M 0
, . . M 0 1 .
L1
3 x1 + 2 x 2 + x3 x 4 = 0,

L : 2 x1 + 5 x 2 + 3 x3 + 2 x 4 = 0,
3 x + 4 x + 2 x + x = 0.
2
3
4
1
1 2

.
, 1 2 L , ..
1 1 , 2 .
1

9.8.
,
)
x1 + 2 x2 3 x3 + 2 x 4 = 2,

x1 x2 3 x3 4 x 4 3 x 5 = 10,
2 x + 3x + x 5 x + 6 x = 7;
1
2
3
4
5

) M 0 (2, 6, 7,1, 4) 1 = (1, 2,1, 4,1) ,


2 = (3, 2,1,1, 3) , 3 = (0,1, 2, 2, 6) , 4 = (5, 6,3,9, 1) .
9.9 M1 (1,1, 4,1,3) M 2 (3,2,1,5,4)
( M 0 , 1 , 2 ) , M 0 ( 1,1, 2,1,3) , 1 = ( 1, 1,3,1, 1) , 2 = ( 1,1, 1, 1,1) .
9.10. , 1
2 , 1
x1 x 2 3x3 x 4 = 1 , x 2 + 2 x3 + 4 x 4 = 1 , 3 x1 + 4 x 2 + 11x3 + 7 x 4 = 2 ,
2 = ( M 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 ) , M 0 (3,1,1,0), 1 = ( 4,2,1,1), 2 = (3,4,0,1), 3 = (1,8,2,1) .
9.11. , ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k , ) ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k ,..., l ) .
196

9.12. M 1 ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k ) .
( M 0 , 1 ,... k ) = ( M 1 , 1 ,... k ) .
9.13. uuu
T 2 T 3
uuur
( M 1 , M1M 2 ) , M 1 M 2 ?
9.14. uu
T 3
uuuur uuuuuur
( M 1 , M1 M 2 , M1 M 3 ) , M 1 M 2 M 1 M 3
?

9.15. 1 ,..., l
( M 0 , 1 ,..., k ) .
( M 0 , 1 ,..., k ) = ( M 0 , 1 ,..., l ) .
9.16. 0 M 0
1 ,..., k ,
M 0 1 ,..., k . , 0 =
= ( M 0 , 1,..., k ) .
9.17. , ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k , 1 ,..., l )
( M 0 , 1 ,..., k ) ( M 0 , 1 ,..., l )
9.18.
1 = ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k ) 2 = ( M 0 , 1 ,..., l ) . , L + L L , L , L
L
1 , 2 .
9.19. , ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k , 1 ,..., l )
, ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k )
( M 0 , 1 ,..., l )
1

9.4.
,
L .
dim .

dim = dimL .
,
9.3.
9.9. :
1.
A = n r ( A) , n
, r ( A) .
2. = ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k )
1 ,..., k .

197

1. L
A = ( 9.7).
n r ( A) .
3. 9.6 ,
= ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k )
L = R (1 ,..., k ), dim = dim L = r ( 1 ,..., k ).


.
9.10. 1 2
, 1 2 dim 1 = dim 2 .
.
9.5 8.9, :
1 = 2 1 2 , L = L 1 2 , L L , dimL = dimL
1 2 , dim 1 = dim 2 .
1

9.20.
)
x1 + 2 x 2 x3 + 6 x 4 = 8

x1 + x 2 15 x3 + 6 x 4 = 7,
2 x + x 4 x + 9 x = 8,
2
3
4
1
) M (1,2,1,5)
1 = (1,2,3,1), 2 = (2,3,2,3), 3 = ( 1,0,5,1), 4 = (1,3,7,2) .

9.21. ,

3x1 2 x2 + 2 x3 x4 + 4 x5 = 2
5 x + x + 4 x 2 x + 7 x = 7
1 2
3
4
5

x1 5 x2 + x5 = 3
4 x1 7 x2 + 2 x3 x4 + 5 x5 = 1

( M 0 , 1 , 2 ) , M 0 (1;1; 0,5; 2;1) , 1 = (20,1,1, 0, 15) ,


2 = (16,1, 1, 0, 11) .
9.22. M 1 (1,2,3,0) , M 2 ( 0,1,1,1) , M 3 ( 1,1,1,1) .
, :
) ; ) .
9.23. 1 : A = 2 = ( M 0 , 1 , 2 ,..., k )
. :
) 2 1 , AM 0 = , A i = , i = 1,2,..., k ; i = 1,2,..., k

198

) 1 = 2 AM 0 = , A i = , i = 1,2,..., k r ( 1 , 2 ,..., k ) + r ( A) = n , n
A = , r ( A) A .
9.24. ,
k > 1 , ,
r, 0 < r < k.

9.25. ,
M 1 ,..., M k ,
m.
9.26. 1 2 ,
l . ,
k

, 1 2 , :
) dim k + l + 1;
) dim = k + l + 1 , 1 2 L I L = .
1

9.5.

T n
.
, T n .
.
T n n
. n
F ( x1 ,..., xn ) = 0 .
F ( x1 ,..., xn ) = 0 ,
:
1) M (a1 ,..., an ) ,
F ( x1 ,..., xn ) = 0 , . . F (a1 ,..., an ) = 0
;
2) n b1 ,..., bn F ( x1 ,..., xn ) = 0 ,
N , b1 ,..., bn ,
.

. F ( x1 ,..., xn ) = 0 ,
M (a1 ,..., an ) (a1 ,..., an ) F ( x1 ,..., xn ) = 0 .
,
T n ,
F ( x1 ,..., xn ) = 0 , . .
F ( x1 ,..., xn ) = 0 , , .
, F ( x1 ,..., xn ) = 0 ,

199

. ,
. ,
, :
1) , . . ,
(
);
2) , .

1. 2 .
O R M O (M, )R= ,
(O, M ) O M .
O M ( a, b) ( x, y)
.
(9.2)
( x a ) 2 + ( y b) 2 = R .
.
(9.2) ,

( x a ) 2 + ( y b) 2 = R 2 .
2. T n . O
R M O (M, )R= .
(a1 , a2 ,..., an ) O , ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn )
,

( x1 a1 )2 + ( x2 a2 ) 2 + ... + ( xn an ) 2 = R.
(9.3)
T n .
(9.3) , ,

( x1 a1 ) 2 + ( x2 a2 ) 2+ ...+ ( x n a n) 2= R 2 .
uur

uuur

3. M = M 0 + t1 1 +... + tk k , ti R,1 i k,
( M 0 , 1 ,..., k ) .
( M 0 , 1 ,..., k ) .

uur uuur
M = M 0 + t11 + ... + tk k , ti R,1 i k,

(9.4)
,
1) (9.4) ;
2) 1 ,..., k .

200

, (9.4)
( M 0 , 1 ,..., k ) ,
1 ,..., k .
9.11. :
1. (9.4), 1 ,..., k
,
k , M 0
1 ,..., k .
2. M 0
1 ,..., k k
(9.4)
.
.
1. 9.3 ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k ) .
9.6 , ,
M 0 1 ,..., k . 9.9 ,
dim = r ( 1 ,..., k ) = k .
2. 1 , ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k )
k , M 0

1 ,..., k . 1 ,..., k
, (9.4)
( M 0 , 1 ,..., k ) . 2
k ,
M 0 1 ,..., k ,
1 = ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k ) . ( M 0 , 1 ,..., k )
, 1 . 1 ,
9.10 1 = (M 0 , 1 ,..., k ) .
. ,

k , 1 ,..., k
L . ,

dim L = dim = k , 8.8 ,
1 ,..., k L .
9.11

.
1. .
2. M 0 , ,
1 ,..., k L .
3.

uur uuur
M = M 0 + t1 1 + ... + tk k , ti R,1 i k.

201


uur uuur
1. M = M 0 + t11 + t2 2

x1 2 x2 + x3 x4 2 x5 = 0,

2 x1 + x2 x3 + 2 x4 + 3 x5 = 1,
3 x 2 x x + x 2 x = 4,
2
3
4
5
1

M 0 (1,1, 1, 4,1) , 1 = (1,1, 1, 2, 0) , 2 = (0,1, 2, 2, 1) ?


. 9.11 ,
,
M 0 1 , 2
dim = 2 .
M 0 , . .
M 0 . 1 , 2
x1 2 x2 + x3 x4 2 x5 = 0,

L : 2 x1 + x2 x3 + 2 x4 + 3 x5 = 0,
3x 2 x x + x 2 x = 0,
2
3
4
5
1

, 1 , 2 L , . .
1 , 2 , .
L , dim = dim L = 2 .
uur uuur
, M = M 0 + t11 + t 2 2
.
2. 0 = ( M 0 , 1 , 2 ) ,
M 0 = (6, 0, 2, 0) , 1 = (5, 2, 3, 0) , 2 = (7, 0,3,1) .
,
0 , :
) N (1,1, 1, 1) ;
) = (2,1, 1, 2) .
:
) , 1 , 2 .
, N 0 . N
0 ,
uu
r uuur
N = M 0 + t1 1 + t2 2
uuuuur
, , M 0 N
uuuuur
1 , 2 . , M 0 N
uuuuur
1 , 2 . , N 0 M 0 N , 1 , 2

202

uuuuur

= ( M 0 , M 0 N , 1 , 2 ) . ,
( 9.9) 0 .
uu
r uuur uuuuur
N = M 0 + M 0 N + 01 + 0 2 , N ,
uur uuur
uuuuur
M = M 0 + t1 1 + t2 2 + t3 M0 N

;
)
1 , 2 , 1 , 2 ,
.
= ( M 0 , 1 , 2 , ) , . .
uur uuur
M = M 0 + t1 1 + t2 2 + t3 .
0 , ,
(
9.9), (
uur uuur
9.6). M = M 0 + t1 1 + t2 2 + t3
.

9.27.

x1 + 2 x2 + 3 x3 2 x 4 + x 5 = 4,

3 x1 + 6 x2 + 5 x3 4 x 4 + 3x 5 = 5,
x + 2 x + 7 x 4 x + x = 11.
2
3
4
5
1

.
9.28. , M 1
(2,3,1,1) L

2 x1 x2 + x3 + 2 x4 = 0,

x1 + x2 2 x3 + x4 = 0.

.
9.29. ,
M 1 (1,0,1,1), M 2 (3,2,1,0), M 3 (4,1,2,3)
, .
9.30. 0
x1 + x2 2 x3 + 2 x4 = 2,

2 x1 x2 + x3 5 x4 = 7.

,
0 ,
) M 1 (1,2,3,4) ,
) = (1,2,5,1) .

203

uur

uuur

9.31. , M = M 0 + t1 1 +... + tk k , ti R,1 i k,



, M 0 1 ,..., k L .
9.32. , A = ,

.
T n
A =
,
1) A = ;
2) A .
9.12. :
1.
1 = b1 ,

.................,
= b ,
nk
n k

1 ,..., n k ,

k 1 ,..., n k .
2. M 0
1 ,..., n k k
uuur
1 = 1 M 0 ,

...................
uuur

n k = n k M 0 .

(9.5)

.
1. 9.7 ,
1 ,..., n k .
, 9.9 ,
dim = n r ( 1 ,..., n k ) = n (n k ) = k .
2. 1
(9.5). 1 , 1
k ,
1 ,..., n k . M 0 (9.5),
0 1 . , (9.5)
1 .
2
k ,
M 0 1 ,..., n k ,
1 . 1 .
204

, 1 .
, 9.10 1 .
. ,
, k 1 ,..., n k
L .

, dim L = n dim L = n k , 8.8


, 1 ,..., n k L .
9.12
.
1. .
2. M 0 1 ,..., n k L .
3.

uuur
1 = 1 M 0 ,

............
uuur

n k M 0 .
n k


uur uuur
M = M 0 + t11 + t2 2 , M 0 (1, 2, 1,3, 0) , 1 = (1,2,3,2,3) , 2 = (1, 3, 2, 3, 2) .
.
.
, , L .
9.11 , 1 2
L , L = R( 1 , 2 ) .
, L (
8.21)
1 = 0, x1 + 2 x2 3 x 3 + 2 x 4 + 3 x 5 = 0,

2 = 0
x1 3x 2 + 2 x 3 3x 4 2 x 5 = 0.
1 = (1,1,1, 0, 0) , 2 = (0,1, 0, 1, 0) , 3 = (1,1, 0, 0, 1)
, . .
L .
1 = 1 M 0 , 2 = 2 M 0 , 3 = 3 M 0
.

uuur
uuur
uuur
1 M 0 = 2 , 2 M 0 = 5 , 3 M 0 = 1,

(9.6)
x1 + x 2 + x3 = 2 , x 2 x 4 = 5 , x1 + x 2 x5 = 1 .

205

(9.6)

9.33. ,
:
x1 + 2 x 2 + 2 x3 = 1,

) 2 x1 + 3x2 + x3 = 0,
x + 3 x + 5 x = 3.
2
3
1

x1 + 2 x 2 + 3 x3 + 4 x 4 = 5,

) 2 x1 + 3x 2 + 4 x3 + 5 x4 = 6,
3 x + 4 x + 5 x + 6 x = 7.
2
3
4
1

9.34. ,
M (1,2,1,2,1) L

4 x1 2 x 2 + 3 x3 + 5 x 4 3x5 = 0,

2 x1 + x 2 + 3 x3 + 4 x 4 x5 = 0,
2 x x + 2 x + 3x x = 0.
2
3
4
5
1
9.35. ( M 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 ) .

:
) M 0 (2,1,2,1), 1 (1,1,1,1), 2 = (2,1,1,3), 3 = (0,1,1,1) ;
) M 0 (1,1,1,1), 1 = (1,0,2,1), 2 = (2,1,0,1), 3 = (1,1,1,1) .
9.36. 0
x1 2 x 2 + 3 x3 6 x 4 = 1,

3 x1 x 2 x3 + 2 x 4 = 3.

,
0 , :
) M (1,2,0,1) ;
) = (2,1,1,3) .
9.37. A = ,
B =
A = , .
9.6. ,

: , .
T n
T n ,
.
, ,
.
L .
. ,
.
9.13. :
206

uur

uuur

1) M = M 0 + t, t R , ,
M 0 .
2) M 0
uur uuur
M = M 0 + t, t R , .
3)
1 = b1 ,

.................
= b ,
n 1
n 1

1 ,..., n1 , ,
1 ,..., n1 .
4) M 0
1 ,..., n 1 ,
uuur
1 = 1 M 0 ,

.................
uuur

n 1 M 0 .
n 1

9.11 9.12,
k = 1 .
T 2 T 3
. T n .
9.14. N1 N 2 n .
M n ,

uur
uur uur
M M = (1 t) N1 + t N2 , t R,
n , N1 N 2 .
. N 1 N 2 : N 1
t = 0 , N 2 t = 1 .
9.13 , N1 N1 N 2
1 M = N 1 + t N 1 N 2 .

M 1 M = N1 + t N1 N 2 M = (1 t ) N 1 + t N 2 M
1 .

uur
uur uur
M = (1 t ) N1 + t N2 , 0 t 1

[ N1 , N 2 ] n . [ N1 , N 2 ] N1 N 2 :
N 1 t = 0 , N 2 t = 1 . N 1
N 2 [ N1 , N 2 ] . M ,
,
. , [ N1 , N 2 ]
, N 1 N 2 .

207

T 3 ,
,
. .
9.15. n
, ,
.
.
uur uuur
M = M 0 + t, t R ,
A = .

uur uuur
M = M 0 + t ,

A = .
.


,
uuur
A( M 0 + t ) =
uuur
( A )t = AM 0 .
(9.7)
: 1) A 2) A = .
uuu
(9.7) ,
r
AM 0 A ,
.
uuur
(9.7) , AM 0 .
uuur
AM 0 = , (9.7)
t. , (9.7) ,
, t .
.

A(3; 2;6; 4), B (5;10; 10;6), C (5; 1; 4;5), D (9; 17;0; 4).
1.

, [ A, B] [C, D]?
CD
.uur
urAB uu
ur
uu
r
uur
r
AB : M = (1 t ) A + t B; CD : M = (1 t )C + t D.
,

ur ur
ur
uur
AC = t1 AB + t 2 DC

(1 t1 ) A + t B = (1 t 2 )C + t 2 D,

(9.8)

0 t1 1,0 t 2 1.

0 t1 1,0 t 2 1,
AC = (8;1;10;1)
AB = (8;12;16;2) DC = (4;16;4;1) : t1 = 0, 75, t2 = 0,5.

t2 [0;1] , AB CD .
2.
208

2 x1 + x2 + 4 x 3 + x4 = 4,

x1 x2 + x3 + 2 x 4 = 4,
2 x + 7 x + 8 x 5 x = 4.
2
3
4
1

,
.
uur uuur
. 9.15, M = M 0 + t
uuur
: A = , A = AM 0 , .
. A = , M 0
A = .
= (5; 2; 3;0) A = , M 0 (5;0; 2;0)

A = . ,
uur uuur
M = M 0 + t x1 = 5 + 5t , x2 = 2t , x3 = 2 3t , x4 = 0
.

9.38. ,
) M 0 (1,2,1,3) = (3,2,1,3) ;
) N1 (2,1,3,2) N 2 (4,1,2,3) ;
) M 1 (3,1,2,1) 1 = (1,,1,1,1) ,
2 = (0,1,2,1), 3 = (2,0,1,1) .
9.39. ,
, x1 + 2x2 x3 + 3x4 + x5 = 10.
9.40. ,
M = M 1 + t , M = M 2 + t
, M 1 (2,0,4,5) , M 2 (0,1,2,4) , = (3,2,1,2) .
9.41. , T n
.
9.42.
x1 = 9 + t , x 2 = 3 + 2t , x3 = 6 + 3t , x 4 = 4 + 4t ,
x1 = 7 t , x 2 = 2 + t , x3 = 6 + 3t , x 4 = 5 + 5t .
,
.
9.43. ,
M = M 1 + t , M 1 (3,1,2,0) , = (2,1,1,3) , , M 1 .
9.44. , ,
,
, .
9.45. , T n ,
,
.
209

9.46. ,
.
9.47. .
L .
, .
9.48. M = M 1 + t1 M = M 2 + t 2
. ,
) ,
M 1 M 2 , 1 , 2 ;
) ,
M 1 M 2 1 2 ;
) .
T n
T n ,
n 1 , .
2 . ,
L .
, dim = dim L = 1 = n 1, n = 2.
3 .
, L
. dim = dim L = 2 = n 1, n = 3 .
9.16. T n :
1)

uur uur
M = M 0 + t11 +... + tn 1 n 1 ,

1 ,..., n 1 , ,
M 0 1 ,..., n1 .
2) M 0
1 ,..., n 1
uur uur
M = M 0 + t11 + ... + tn 1 n 1

.
3) = b , ,
, .
4) M 0
uuur
= M 0 .

9.11 9.12,
k = n 1 .
, ,
. L dim L = n (n 1) = 1 ,
210

L = R( ) . ,
.

9.49. 3 x1 + 2 x 2 + x3 + x 4 = 1
, (1,2,1,1) = ( 1,3,4,1) .
9.50. ,
) x1 2 x2 + 4 x3 x 4 = 2 ;
) M 1 (1,2,1,1), M 2 (2,1,2,1), M 3 (1,1,1,1), M 4 (0,1,0,2) .
9.51. ,
) M = M 1 + t1 1 + t 2 2 + t 3 3 ,
M 1 (1,1,1,1), 1 ( 2,1,1,3), 2 = (1,2,1,0), 3 = (1,3,1,1) ;
) M 1 (2,1,1,3), M 2 (1,2,1,0), M 3 (1,4,1,1), M 4 (3,0,3,5) .
9.52. ,
.
9.53. , 1 = b1 2 = b2
, 1 || 2 .
9.54. , 1 = b1 2 = b2
, 1 || 2 , ( 1 ,b1 ) ( 2 ,b2 )
.
9.55. ,
n
n
T , > 3 , .
uur uuur
9.56. , M = M 0 + t
, L M 0 .
9.57. , k
n k .
9.58. ,
,
uuur
M 0 det( M 0 , 1 ,..., n 1 ) = 0, 1 ,..., n 1
L .
9.59. M 0 ,
uuur
. , ( M 0 ) = 0
.
T n
N 0 N ,
N0 N0 N ..
9.17. T n

uuuuu
r
N 0 N : = b , N 0 N || .
uur uu
r
. M = N + t ,
N 0 ,
211

N .
,
= b,

r
uur uu
.

M = N + t .

uu
r
uu
r
uu
r
b N
2
( N + t ) = b N + t = b t =
,
2

. . .
t
N 0 . , . N 0
uur uu
r
uu
r uur
uuuuu
r
, N 0 = N + t1 . N N0 = t1 N 0 N = ( t1 ) , ,
uuuuu
r
N 0 N || N 0 N . .
N1 N 2 N .
, N1 = N 2 . N1 N N 2 N . , N 1 N N 2 N
, N1 N = k ,
N 2 N = l . , k = l :
. N1 N = N1 N 2 + N 2 N k = N1 N 2 + l k 2 = ( N1 N 2 + l ) k 2 = l 2 k = l .
, N 1 N = k = l = N 2 N N 1 N = N 2 N N 1 = N 2 N 1 = N 2 .

. n ,
, 1 2 ,
: 1 (2 )
uuuuuu
r
n , M 0 M
() , M 0 M
, . .
uuuuuu
r
uuuuuu
r
M 1 M 0 M , ( M 2 M 0 M ) .
, n , ,
1 , 2 . ,
M 0 M ,
uuuuuu
r
9.17 M 0 M . ,
uuuuuu
r
uuuuuu
r
M 0 M , M 0 M , M 1 , M 2 .
9.18. ,
+ b = 0 , n 1 2 ,
1
+ b > 0 ,

2
+ b < 0.

212

. M ,
M 0 .
uuur
M 0 + b = 0.
(9.9)
uuuuuu
r uur uuur
(9.9) M 0 M = M M 0
uur
uur
uuur
uur uuur
uuuuuu
r
uuuuuu
r
uuuuuu
r
M + b = M M 0 = ( M M 0 ) = M0 M = M0 M cos( , M 0 M ) . (9.10)
uuuuuu
r
(9.10) > 0, M 0 M > 0 ,
uuuuuu
r
uuuuuu
r
uur
M 1 M 0 Ms
M
M ( , 0 )M =1 b
+ >0,
u
u
u
u
u
u
r
u
u
u
u
u
u
r
u
u
r
M 2 M 0 M cs( , M 0 M ) = 1 M +b <0 .
M
M 0 .
. ( M , ) M ,
+ b = 0

uur
M +b
(M , ) =

. (9.10) ,
uur
M + b = M 0 M cos( , M 0 M ) .
, ,

uuuuuu
r
uuuuuu
r
cos( , M 0 M ) = 1, ( M , ) = ( M , M 0 ) = M0 M ,

M
uur
(M , ) =

M +b

9.19. + b = 0 ,
T n .

:
1. M 1 M 2 ,
[ M 1 , M 2 ] .
2. M 1 M 2 ,
[ M 1 , M 2 ] .

1. , M 1 M 2 1 ,
. .
uuu
r
M1 + b > 0 ,
(9.11)
uuur
M2 + b > 0 .
(9.12)
M ( M 1 , M 2 ) , uur uuu
r
uuur
M = tM1 + (1 t ) M 2 , 0 < t < 1. (9.11)
t , (9.12) (1 t )

213

uuu
r
uuur
uuu
r
uuur
uur
t M 1 + tb + (1 t) M 2 + (1 t) b > 0 ( tM1 +(1 t) M2 ) +b >0 M +b >0,
. . M
( M 1 , M 2 )
M 1 M 2 .
, M 1 M 2
2 , .
2. M 1 M 2 ,
uuu
r
M1 + b > 0 ,
(9.13)
uuur
M2 + b < 0 .
(9.14)
(9.13)
(1)
uuu
r
M 1 b < 0
(9.15)

(9.14)u
(9.15).

uur
uuu
r
M 2 M1 < 0.


+ b = 0 .

(9.16)
c

uur uuu
r
uuur
M = t M1 + (1 t) M 2 , t R ,

uuur
uuu
r
uuur
uuu
r
uuur
uuur
M2 + b
r.
tM 1 + (1 t ) M 2 + b = 0 ( M 1 M 2 )t + M 2 + b = 0 t = uuur uuu
M 2 M1


[ M 1 , M 2 ] , t (0;1), . . 0 < t < 1.
(9.14) (9.16) , t > 0 . , t < 1 .
. ,
(9.16),
uuur
uuur
uuur
uuu
r
uuu
r
M2 + b
uuur
uuu
r 1 M 2 + b M 2 M 1 M 1 + b 0,
M 2 M1

(9.13).

9.60. , 2 x1 + 3x 2 4 x3 + x4 = 5
, M (1,2,1,5) N (2,1,1,6) .
9.61. , ,
,
.
9.62. 3,

x1 + 2x2 x3 + 3x4 x5 = 4 .
9.63. 1 . ,
1
, L L 1
, .
1

9.7. ,
214

T 2 T 3
2
3 3
2 3
.
uur uuur
1) M = M 0 + t, t R , ,
M 0 .
2) M 0
uur uuur
M = M 0 + t, t R , .
9.13.
3 .
3)

uur uuur
M = M 0 + t1 + t 2 ,
, ,
,
M 0 .
4) M 0

uur uuur
M = M 0 + t1 + t 2
.
9.16 n = 3 .

1. l, (2;5)
l1 : x = 1 + t , y = 2 + 3t .
. t
= (1;3) , l1 , , l.
l x = 2 + t , y = 5 + 3t .
2.
x = 2 + 2t , x = 8 2t ,

y = 5 t,
y = 12 3t.
. A( x0 , y0 ) .


x0 = 2 + 2t1 , x0 = 8 2t 2 ,

y 0 = 5 t1 ,
y 0 = 12 3t 2 .
, A

2 + 2t1 = 8 2t 2 ,
t = 2,
1

5 t1 = 12 3t 2 .
t 2 = 3.
A(2;3) .
3. : A(5; 2), B (7;3) C (2; 2) .
BAC .
. A(5; 2) .

,
uuu
r uuuu
r
. : = k AB + l AC.
215

ukuur l

uuur
uuur
, AB , AC . AB = (12;5) ,
uuur
uuu
r2
uuur 2
AC = (3; 4), AB = 169 , AC = 25 ,
uuuruuur
AB AC = 56 . :

uuu
r
uuur
AB
AC
uuu
r
uuur
uuu
r uuur
uuur
uuur
uuu
r =
uuur (5AB 13AC ) = 0 ( k AB + l AC )( 5AB 13AC ) = 0
AB
AC
uuu
ruuur
uuu
r
uuur
5k AB 2 + ( 5l 13k ) AB AC 13l AC 2 = 0 5l = 13k .
k = 5, l = 13,
= 5(12;5) + 13(3;4) = (99;77 ) .

BAC :
x = 5 + 99t , y = 2 + 77t .
4. B, A (4;1;6)
, N 1 (3;5;1) N 2 (1;1;3).
.
N 1 N 2 .
uuuuur
N1 N 2 = (4;4;2). = (2; 2;1)

N1 N 2 .
N 1 N 2 x = 1 + 2t , y = 1 2t , z = 3 + t .
x0 + 4 y0 + 1 z0 + 6
,
,
)
2
2
2
[ A, B] , , N 1 N 2 .
, N1 N 2
x0 + 4 = 2 + 4t ,
x 0 = 2 + 4t ,

y 0 + 1 = 2 4t , y 0 = 1 4t ,
z + 6 = 6 + 2t.
z = 2t.
0
0

( x0 , y0 , z0 ) B. C (

A B ,
uuu
r
AB N 1 N 2 .
:

uuu
r
uuu
r
uuu
r
AB N 1 N 2 AB AB = 0

( x0 4; y0 1; z0 6)(2; 2;1) = 0 2 x0 2 y0 + z0 12 = 0
2(2 + 4t ) 2(1 4t ) + 2t 12 = 0 t = 1.
, B : x0 = 2 + 4 = 2, y 0 = 1 4 = 3, z 0 = 2.
uur uur
uur
5. , T 3 l1 : M = N1 + t1 l 2 : M =
uur
uuuuur
N 2 + t 2 , det(N1 N 2 , 1 ,

2 ) = 0.


uuuuur
: l1 l 2 N1 N 2 , 1 , 2 ,
uuuuur
N1 , N1 N 2 , 1 , 2
uuuuur
det( N1 N 2, 1, 2 ) =0.
6. ,
N 1 (2;1;2) N 2 (1;0;1) x = t , y = 3 4t , z = 1 t .
216

. ,
, ,
, .
,

uuuuur
N1 , N 2 . , N1 N 2
uuuuur
, . . 1 = N1 N 2 =(1;1;1)
. 2 = (1; 4; 1) , ,
. 1 2
, .


uur uur
M = N1 + t1 1 + t 2 2 ,

x = 2 t1 + t2 , y = 1 + t1 4t2 , z = 2 t1 t2 .
7. ,
l1 : x = 2 + 2t , y = 3t , z = 1 + 4t , l 2 : x = 3 + 3t , y = 1 + 4t , z = 7 3t .
. , l1 l 2
. l1 N 1 (2;0;1)
1 =
= (2; 3; 4) ,
l 2 N 2 (3;1;7)
2 = (3, 4, 3) . 5 , l1 l 2
uuuuur
, det( N1 N 2, 1, 2 ) =0 .
uuuuur
N1 N 2 = = (5;1;1),
5 2
uuuuur

det( N1N 2, 1, 2) =det 1 3


1 4

4 = 0.
3

, l1 l 2 .
,
l1 l 2 . N 1 , 1
2 .

x = 2 + 2t1 + 3t2 , y = 3t1 + 4t2 , z = 1 + 4t1 + 2t2
8. l ,


l1 : x = 7 + t , y = 3 + 2t , z = 9 t , l 2 : x = 3 7t , y = 1 + 2t , z = 1 + 3t ,
l1 , l2 .
. 1 = (1;2;1) 2 = (7;2;3)

l1 l 2 . = (k1 , k2 , k3 )

l.
l
l
l
1 , 2 .
217

k1 + 2k 2 k 3 = 0,
1
1 = 0

2
2 = 0
7k1 + 2k 2 + 3k 3 = 0.
k 2 = 1, k1
k 3 : k1 =2, k 3 = 4 . , : = (2;1;4) .

x = x0 + 4t, y = y0 + t, z = z0 + 2t ,
x0 , y0 , z 0 , l.
, l l1 l 2 . ,
l l1 , l l 2 . ,
5,
7 x0 3 y 0 9 z 0
3 x0 1 y 0 1 x0
1
1 = 0, 7
3
2
2
= 0.
2
4
2
4
1
1

3 x 0 2 y 0 z 0 6 = 0,

5 x 0 + 34 y 0 11z 0 38 = 0.

y0 = 0, x0 z 0 :
x 0 = 1, z0 = 3 . l
x = 1 + 2t , y = t , z = 3 + 4t .

9.64. , x = 1 + t , y = 4 7t A(2,5)
B(3,10) .
9.65. M (0;4) N (3;1).
, A (1;2)
MN.
9.66. M l1 l2
x = 3 + 3t ,
l1 :
y = 4 + t,

x = 3 + t ,
l2 :
y = 6 t.
9.67. A(3,2) ,
M (4,1) N (0,3) .

9.68. ,

x = 1 + t,

y = 3 + 2t ,

x = 5 + t,

y = 1 + 2t.

9.69. ,
,

218

x = 1 + t,
x = 2 + 2t , x = 2 + 3t ,

) y = 1 + 2t ,
y = 5 3t , y = 1 2t.
z = 1 + 3t ,

x = 2 3t ,

y = 3 + 2t ,
z = 4 t.

9.70. ,
A (2;5;3) x = 3 + t , y = 3 2t , z = 1 + 3t
.
9.71.
x = 3 7t , y = 1 + 2t , z = 1 + 3t , x = 1 + 2t , y = t , z = 3 + 4t .
9.72. ,
A ( 2;4;1)
x = 7 + 4t1 3t2 , y = 3 t1 + 5t2 , z = 2 + 2t1 t2 .
9.73. ,
A(3; 5; 2) B(1;3; 4)
x = t , y = 3 2t , z = 3 + 8t .
9.74. : (0;0;2), B(3;0;5),
C(1;1;0) D(4;1;2). ABC
BCD .
9.75. ,

x = 1 + t , y = 1 + 2t , z = 3t , x = 2 + 2t , y = 3 + 4t , z = 6t .
9.76. ,
A(2; 1;3) x = 5 + 3t , y = 2 t , z = 3 + 4t .
T 2 T 3
T 3
1. = b
T 2 ( T 3 ),
.
9.16.
2. T 2 ( T 3 )
M 0 ,

uuur
= M 0
(9.17)
T 2 (
T 3 ).
9.16.
(9.17) , ,
M 0 ( x0 , y0 )
(a, b) , a ( x x0 ) + b( y y0 ) = 0 ;
M 0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 )
,
219

a ( x x 0 ) + b ( y y 0 ) + c ( z z 0 ) = 0.

3. T 3 M 0
1 , 2 ,

uuur
1 = 1 M 0 ,
uuur

2 = 2 M 0

(9.18)

.
9.13 n = 3 .
4. , (9.18)
1 2 ,
uuur
uuur
1 = 1 M 0 , 2 = 2 M 0 .

:
uur
uuuu
r
1 M = 1 M 0 ,
M 1 ,
M uur
M 1 I 2 .
uuur
M 2 ,
2 M = 2 M 0,

1. l,
A(1; 1) l1 : 3 x 4 y = 10.
. = (3 4) l1 .
l1 l , = (3 4) l .
, l 3( x 1) 4( y + 1) = 0 3x 4 y 7 = 0.
2. AB AC 4 x + y 20 = 0
2 x 3 y 20 = 0 . BC ,
O(5,2) .
. A AB AC ,
A
4 x + y 12 = 0,
x = 4,

A(4,4) .

2 x 3 y 20 = 0
y = 4

O ,
uuur
AO = (1;6) BC .
, B .
BH . = (2;3)
AC , , BH . O
BH .
BH :
x = 5 + 2t , y = 2 3t . B AB BH
4 x + y 12 = 0,
x = 1,


B (1;8).
x = 5 + 2t ,
y = 8
y = 2 3t

220

,
BC B(1;8)
uuur
AO = (1;6) . , BC
1( x 1) + 6( y 8) = 0 x + 6 y 49 = 0.

3. ,
x + 2 y + 4z 3 = 0 .
. ,
, , 1 , 2
, . .
x + 2 y + 4 z = 0 . : 1 = (2; 1;0)
2 = (4;0; 1) , M 0 (3;0;0) .
uur uuur
M = M 0 + 1 t1 + 2 t2 ,
x = 3 + 2t1 + 4t2 , y = t1 , z = t2 .
4. ,
A(3;1; 4) B(2;0; 3) x + 2 y z + 2 = 0.
1 = (1; 2; 1)
.

x + 2 y z + 2 = 0 , , . A B
uuu
r
, , AB = (1; 1;1) .
uur ur
uuur
M = A + t1 + t2 AB .
,
, uuu
r
L = R( 1 , AB)
, ,
1 = ,
r
uuu
AB = .


A ,
= (1;0;1) .
ur
( A) = 0
x + z + 1 = 0 .
5. ,

2 x y + z = 3,

x + 2 y z = 5.

. N 0 (0;8;11)
L , . .

2 x y + z = 0,

z + 2 y z = 0,

= (1;3;5) .

uur uur
M = N 0 + t
x = t, y = 8 3t, z = 11 5t .
221

6. C (2; 1; 2) x + y z 2 = 0.
. , C
. = (1,1, 1)

.
,

x = 2 + t , y = 1 + t , z = 2 t . C 0 C
x = 2 + t , y = 1 + t , z = 2 t x + y z 2 = 0
C0 = (3, 0,1) .
7. ,
x = 1 + 2t1 3t2 , y = 1 + t1 t2 , z = t1 + 2t2 .
.
uur uuur
M = M 0 + 1 t1 + 2 t2 , M 0 (1; 1;0) , 1 = (2;1;1) , 2 = ( 3; 1; 2) .
,
, ()

1 = 0,
2 x + y + z = 0,

2 = 0, 3x y + 2 z = 0.
= (3;uu7;1)
.
ur
( M 0 ) = 0

3( x 1) 7( y + 1) + z = 0 3x 7 y + z 10 = 0 .

9.77. ,
A(5; 3) B(1;7) .
9.78. A(2; 1) , B(2;3) C (4; 5) .
BE .
9.79. x 2 y + 15 = 0
7 x + y 15 = 0 .
, A(4; 2) .
2 x y + 3 = 0 , x + 5 y 7 = 0 3 x 2 y + 6
9.80.
AB , BC AC .
AF .
9.81. , A(2;5)
x + y 5 = 0 .
9.82. ,
A(2; 1;3) B(0;3;1) .
9.83. ,
A(1;7; 2) 3 x 2 y + 4 z = 5.
9.84. ,
A(3; 1; 2) , B (1; 2;5) 2 x y + z + 4 = 0 .
222

9.85.
x + 2 y z = 3,

2 x + 3 y 4 z = 2.

9.86. , A
(3;1;2)
3 x + 2 y + 2 z 6 = 0,

x + 2 y 4 z + 5 = 0.

9.87. ,
x + y + z + 1 = 0 A(1; 1; 1)
2x y z = 2 .
9.88. ,
A(2; 1;1) 2 x y + 5 z = 5 .
9.89. , A(1; 1; 3)
x + 2 y z + 10 = 0 .
9.90. ,
A(3;5; 7) x = 3 + 2t , y = 1 t , z = 2t .
9.91. ,
x 2 y + z 5 = 0,
A(2,3,2)
.
x + y z + 1 = 0

T 2 T 3
() T 2 (
T 3 ) ().
2 ( T 3 ),
(), 1 2 . 1

2 ( T 3 ),
uuuuuu
r
M 0 M , M 0 M
() , . .
uuuuuu
r
M 1 M 0 M .
2 2
uuuuuu
r
( T 3 ), M 0 M
, M 0 M () , . .
uuuuuu
r
M 2 M 0 M .
,
2 ( T 3 ),
, 1 , 2
. , M 0 M () ,
uuuuuu
r
uuuuuu
r
M 0 M . , M 0 M ,
uuuuuu
r
M 0 M .
1. () , + b = 0 ,
2 ( T 3 )
223

1 2 ,

1
+ b > 0 , 2
+ b < 0.
9.18.
2. ( M , ) M () ,
+ b = 0 ,

uur
(M , ) =

M +b

9.18.

1. , A(1; 2; 1) B(2;3; 4) ,
, 1 2 ,
x 2 y + 5z 3 = 0 , 2 x + 7 y z + 5 = 0 .
. A x 2 y + 5z 3 < 0 ,
B x 2 y + 5z 3 > 0 . , A
B 1 . A
B 2 x + 7 y z + 5 > 0 , , A B
2 . ,
A B ,
1 2 .
2. ,
1;1) .
A(1; 0; 1), B(1;1; 0), C (0;
uuu
r
uuur
. AB = (2;1;1), AC = ( 1; 1; 2)
L .
uuur
uuu
r

AB AC ,
uuu
r
AB = 0,
uuur
.
AC = 0.
= (1;1;1) .
A . ,

ur
( A) = 0

x + y + z = 0.
B C .
x + y + z + 1 = 0 ,

A, B, C ,
x + y + z + 1 > 0 .
3. , d = 5
1 : 2 x 3 y + 6 z + 1 = 0 .
224

. M ( x; y ) . ,
2.21,
( , 1 ) = ( M , ) =

2x 3y + 6z + 1
22 + ( 3) 2 + 6 2

=5

2 x 3 y + 6 z 34 = 0,
2 x 3 y + 6 z + 1 = 35
2 x 3 y + 6 z + 36 = 0.

9.92. 2 x + 3 y 5 = 0 . p q
A( p; 3) B(4; q) :
a) ,
) .
9.93. : 2 x + y 8 = 0 ,
p A(2; p ) :
x + 2 y 1 = 0 , x y 1 = 0 .
a) ; ) .
9.94. , p A(1; 2) B(2; 1)

,
2 x y + 3 = 0 , px 4 y + 16 = 0 .
9.95. , p A(4; 2) B(5;1)
, x + 3y 9 = 0
2 x + py 4 = 0 .
9.96. , 5 x 4 y + 2 z 5 = 0 ,
A(3; 2; 1) B(2;5; 1) .
9.97. ,
, : x 5 y + z + 2 = 0
x + y z + 1= 0 .
9.98. ,

x + y z + 3 = 0 , 3 x 3 y + 3z + 5 = 0 , A(3; 2;1) .
9.99.
11x 2 y 10 z + 15 = 0 , 11x 2 y 10 z 45 = 0 .
9.100. 4 x 2 y + 2z + 3 = 0
. , A
(3;1;1) .
9.101. ,
A(4,3,1) , B (0,1,3) , C ( 2,5,1)
D(1;1;1) .

225

226