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Чеурин Г. С. - Самоспасение без снаряжения

Чеурин Г. С. - Самоспасение без снаряжения

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ОпубликованKorwin
М.: ЗАО Издательство «Русский журнал», 2001. – 194 с.
М.: ЗАО Издательство «Русский журнал», 2001. – 194 с.

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Published by: Korwin on Mar 26, 2012
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Bn6nno1eka cañ1a « Cekpe1m 6esonacnoc1n a noaceqneanoñ xnsnn» http:/ / sos- ru.info
F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 8
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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 9

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Bn6nno1eka cañ1a « Cekpe1m 6esonacnoc1n a noaceqneanoñ xnsnn» http:/ / sos- ru.info
F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 10

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/5?2F$+*9, +$1.

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518$FJ+<A (27(2>515.. ^15 C5;&1 ><1J, = 4$(=&9 5E$($8J, N1*E$/.*$ +5(C<, *7&E$+*$
72.5+5= (27=*1*@ 5>K$/1=2 = D$F5C.

G$85/121.2 = 12.*A (2>512A +2 4$(=<I =7;F@8 +$1. ^15 * [.:2(+$;* [518], * [.!+2I8$(
[356], * C+5;*$ 8(&;*$. V8+2.5, .2. 45.27<=2$1 54<1, /F$45$ 4$($+$/$+*$ «72428+<A»
($.5C$+82D*I +2 (5//*I/.&9 45E=& . &/4$A& 4(*=58*1 ($8.5. S5N15C&, +2 =7;F@8 2=15(2,
>5F$$ 4(58&.1*=+5 4(5=$8$+*$ = .2E$/1=$ 1($+*+;2 5(;2+*72D*5++5-8$@1$FJ+5/1+<A *;(
(27F*E+5;5 &(5=+@ [539]. V8+2.5 +* = .5$C /F&E2$ +$ .54*(&@ /F$45 5>(27D< *;(,
(2/4(5/1(2+$++<A = !!!P = /$($8*+$ 80-A ;585=.

S/*A5;$++2@ ((2>5E$$ +27=2+*$) /($82 57+2E2$1 /4$D*R*E$/.&9 /*1&2D*9 C</F@K$;5
E$F5=$.2 +2$8*+$ / /5>5I. L 5>/12+5=.$ /5D*2FJ+<A 451(@/$+*I N15 4(*=58*1, .2. N15 +*
4$E2FJ+5, +$ 15FJ.5 . 4(*+@1*9 +$4(2=*FJ+5;5 ($Z$+*@, +5 * . /&*D*8&.
X .2.2@ ?$ /($82 +2*>5F$$ 542/+2? V>(21*C/@ . /121*/1*.$.
3.3. +B-B'2B'H- VH2B%!/-CD(PS 2'B#-U'I

G2Z2 45=/$8+$=+2@ 8$@1$FJ+5/1J +245F+$+2 12.*C .5F*E$/1=5C /1($//5=, +$5?*82++<A
/5><1*I, &;(5?29K*A $?$C*+&1+5 (!) +$ 15FJ.5 785(5=J9, +5 * /2C5I ?*7+*, E15 $$ C5?+5
4(*(2=+@1J . +2A5?8$+*9 +2 FJ8*+$, = ;5(2A, = 4&/1<+$ ($/F* +$ . $K$ >5F$$ /$(J$7+<C
*/4<12+*@C). ` ;515=< F* C< . 12.5C& 45F5?$+*9?

cF28+5.(5=+2@, >$//1(2/1+2@ /121*/1*.2 .5+/121*(&$1: +$1. V>(21*C/@ . D*R(2C.

L /($8+$C 45 P5//** 72 ;58 = E($7=<E2I+<A /*1&2D*@A F98$I .,I0J(#5:
—= 45A582A * N./4$8*D*@A — 250-300;
—4(* 7$CF$1(@/$+*@A, +2=58+$+*@A — 500—800;
—= 1$A+5;$++<A 2=2(*@A — 1000—1500:
—+2 =58$ - 9000-12000;
—= 2=2(*@A +2 1(2+/45(1$ — 40000—45000;
—= .(*C*+2FJ+<A 4(5*/Z$/1=*@A — 30000—32000;
—= ($7&FJ121$ /2C5&>*I/1= — 55000—65000(1);
—4(* 4(5E*A 5>/15@1$FJ/1=2A — 3000—6000.

`15;5: 5.5F5 140—150 1</. E$F5=$. $?$;58+5 = P5//** 45;*>2$1 = ($7&FJ121$ +$/E2/1+<A
/F&E2$= * E($7=<E2I+<A /*1&2D*I.

#*/F5 (2+$+<A C5?+5 5D$+*=21J .2. 1:10, 1.$. +2 «45(@85.» >5FJZ$. S(*4F9/&$C . N15C&
E*/F5 *+R2(.15= * *+/&FJ15= (=55>K$ +$ 458829K*A/@ /121*/1*.$), .515(<$ C5?+5
/E*121J 4(@C<C /F$8/1=*$C /5D*2FJ+<A N./1($C2FJ+<A /*1&2D*I.

G$ =82=2@/J = /121*/1*.& 8(&;*A /1(2+, C5?+5 /C$F5 .5+/121*(5=21J:

= N15I 5>F2/1* C< 15?$ 4(5E+5 «=4$($8* 4F2+$1< =/$I» * 5.5F5 1% +2/$F$+*@ &A58*1 *7
?*7+* 45 N15I 4(*E*+$.

\5?+5 82?$ /(2=+*1J / «($7&FJ1215C» 2R;2+/.5I =5I+< — 45;*>Z*A 4(*C$(+5 2% 51
=/$;5 .5+1*+;$+12, 4(5Z$8Z$;5 E$($7 >5$=<$ 8$I/1=*@.

`12., +2Z2 45=/$8+$=+2@ ?*7+J 45 /(2=+$+*9 / >5$=<C* 8$I/1=*@C* «=/$;5» = 2 (272
C$+$$ 542/+2! ` +2 R5+$ 4585>+5I /*1&2D** +2Z$ 5>K$/1=5, +2=$(+5$, +2*>5F$$

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 11

4($+$>($?*1$FJ+5 51+5/*1/@ . 4(5>F$C$ 5>&E$+*@ 8$I/1=*@C = #!!

L51 ;8$ 45F$ 8$@1$FJ+5/1* 8F@ *//F$85=21$F@ * 4$82;5;2! G5... / 8(&;5I /15(5+<, >&8$1 F*
*A 8$@1$FJ+5/1J ($+12>$FJ+2 4(* 12.5C .5F*E$/1=$ «4$E2FJ+<A /5><1*I»? G2=$(+5$, N15
$K$ 58+5 4(5@=F$+*$ «(5//*I/.5;5 C$+12F*1$12». \5?+5 5;5(E21J/@, C5?+5 =5/A*K21J/@,
+5 5>5I1*/J /2.(2C$+12FJ+<C «&C5C P5//*9 +$ 45+@1J» &?$ +$ &82/1/@.

!F$8&$; &E$/1J, E15 ($2FJ+<$ N./1($C2FJ+<$ &/F5=*@ 72E2/1&9 4($8/12=F@91 /5>5I
/*+1$7 +$/.5FJ.*A /($8. :2.2@ *7 +*A >&8$1 54($8$F@9K$I — =54(5/ +$4($8/.27&$C<I!
S58;515=*1J ?$ E$F5=$.2 .5 =/$C 4(5;+57*(&$C<C &/F5=*@C /(27& — 2>/5F91+5 +$($2FJ+5.

S5N15C&, +2E*+2@ 458;515=.& E$F5=$.2 . 2.1*=+5C& 8$I/1=*9, +$=57C5?+5 * 82?$
4($/1&4+5 ><F5 >< = +2E2F$ 54($8$F@1J /R$(& 72+@1*I E$F5=$.2, /551=$1/1=$++5 /($8& *
(27(2>21<=21J /4$D*2FJ+5$, &7.5/4$D*R*E$/.5$ /+2(@?$+*$. 515=*1J +285 .
/&K$/1=5=2+*9 =5 =/$A /($82A, 1.$. *7&E21J * =<8$F@1J 4(*+D*4< =<?*=2+*@ $8*+<$ 8F@
=/$A /($8.
3.4. JE- 240205- -A-4B-U'' H VH2B%!/-CD(P/ 2%!A-/

G$/C51(@ +2 4(*+D*4*2FJ+<$ (27F*E*@ C$1585= (2>51< = N./1($C2FJ+<A &/F5=*@A *
N./1($C2FJ+<A /*1&2D*@A, C5?+5 =<8$F*1J $8*+<$ 4/*A5F5;*E$/.*$ 5/5>$++5/1*. ^15, .2.
4(2=*F5, 72.5+5C$(+5/1* 4($585F$+*@ /1($//2, /45/5>+5/1J ></1(5 4$($I1* 51
4$(=5+2E2FJ+5;5 Z5.2 . 5/C</F$++<C 8$I/1=*@C. ^1* 72.5+5C$(+5/1* +$ C5;&1 ><1J
*7F5?$+< 45 2+2F5;** / ?$/1.*C* +5(C2C* 4(2=*F 1$A+*.* >$7542/+5/1* * 85F?+<
&E*1<=21J *+8*=*8&2FJ+<$ 5/5>$++5/1* F*E+5/1* [325,810].

L.S. :27+2E$$= =<8$F@$1 8=2 =72*C5*/.F9E29K*A 458A582 . 5D$+.$ E($7=<E2I+<A
/*1&2D*I — .24/&F*(5=2++<I * 51.(<1<I. S58 .24/&F*(5=2++<C =2(*2+15C 45+*C2$1/@
/5782+*$ «N.(2+2» =5.(&; E$F5=$E$/.5;5 5(;2+*7C2 / D$FJ9 +$854&K$+*@ 2;($//*=+5I
/($8<. L+&1(* .24/&F< ($2F*7&91/@ 12. +27<=2$C<$ +5(C2FJ+<$ &/F5=*@
?*7+$8$@1$FJ+5/1* [325].

P@8 4($*C&K$/1= 12.5;5 /45/5>2, . /5?2F$+*9, 4$($E$(.*=2$1/@ +$5>A58*C5/1J9
«5?*82+*@ 2=2(**». S(*E$C /1(2Z+2 +$ 15FJ.5 /2C2 2=2(*@, +5 * $$ 12I+5$ C&E*1$FJ+5$
5?*82+*$, *7C21<=29K$$ 4/*A*.& E$F5=$.2 +$ C$+JZ$ ($/F* +$ >5FJZ$), E$C /2C2 2=2(*@.

:(5C$ 15;5, /F$8&$1 &E$/1J, E15 +2 /5782+*$ «.24/&F» /2C5;5 (27F*E+5;5 =*82, (27C$(2 *
4($8+27+2E$+*@ &A58*1 12.5$ .5F*E$/1=5 ($/&(/5= (.2. 4(*(58+<A, 12. * E$F5=$E$/.*A),
E15 ($2FJ+2@ 45FJ72 51 4(*C$+$+*@ 12.5I .24/&F< /1($C*1/@ . +&F9.

,K21$FJ+5 458;515=F$++<$ 5>5(&85=2+*$ * /+2(@?$+*$ = /&K+5/1* 15?$ @=F@91/@
.24/&F5I. #$F5=$., /5(*$+1*(5=2++<I +2 *A */45FJ75=2+*$, =(2K2$1/@ = .(&;&
/1$($51*45=, .2. = 724$(15I .5C+21$, * C5?$1 = /F&E2$ +$724(5;(2CC*(5=2++5;5 *7C$+$+*@
/*1&2D** 45F+5/1J9 451$(@1J /2C55>F282+*$. G$ /42/291 * 454<1.* =5/45FJ75=21J/@
5>K$E$F5=$E$/.*C, .272F5/J ><, &+*=$(/2FJ+<C 7+2+*$C. e/F* 7+2+*@ 45F&E$+<
R5(C2FJ+5, >$7 5/C</F$+*@, >$7 =.F9E$+*@ /5>/1=$++5;5 C<ZF$+*@, 15 5+* =
N./1($C2FJ+5I /*1&2D** 5.27<=291/@ 28$.=21+< >$/45F$7+5C& /+2(@?$+*9, .515(5$
15FJ.5 C$Z2$1 *+1$+/*=+5I (2>51$. c5(5Z5 =/$C *7=$/1+<$ *+/1(&.D** 45 1$A+*.$
>$7542/+5/1*, /5/15@K*$ /4F5ZJ *7 58+*A «Ge», — $K$ 58+5 @(.5$ =<(2?$+*$
.24/&F*(5=2++5;5 =2(*2+12. S(2.1*E$/.* =/$ 5+* +24*/2+< = /=5$ =($C@ «45 ;5(@E*C
/F$82C» ($2FJ+<A 4(5*/Z$/1=*I / 1(2;*E$/.*C */A585C * 4($84*/<=291 «+$ /5=$(Z21J»
8$I/1=*I, .515(<$ 4($8Z$/1=$++*.5= 4(*=58*F* . ;*>$F*. : /5?2F$+*9, +$1 54*/2+*I
($2FJ+<A /F&E2$=, .5;82 E$F5=$. = /*F& /5>/1=$++5I /C$.2F.* * F5=.5/1* /C5; >< *7>$?21J
1(2;*E$/.5;5 */A582 (!).

L15(5I 4&1J — 51.(<1<I, .5;82 E$F5=$. *7+2E2FJ+5 /E*12$1 /$>@ E2/1J9 S(*(58<. L
N15C /F&E2$ =<?*=2+*$ *7 4($585F$+*@, 4$($F2C<=2+*@ /*1&2D** 4($=(2K2$1/@ =5
&G0&(+0# = &/F5=*@, 1.$. 45*/. /=5$;5 C$/12 * R&+.D*I = 5.(&?29K$I /($8$.

S$(=<I =2(*2+1, .24/&F*(5=2++<I, 457=5F@$1 ?*1J =($C$++5 — = 4($8$F2A «85C2Z+*A
7242/5=»: «4/*A*E$/.5I N+$(;**» * C21$(*2FJ+<A ($/&(/5=. L15(5I, 51.(<1<I, —
4(2.1*E$/.* >$/.5+$E+5.

e/F* =<, .2. /&K$/1=5 >*5F5;*E$/.5$, /E*12$1$ /$>@ E2/1J9 S(*(58< * 8$I/1=&$1$
/551=$1/1=$++5, 15 5.(&?29K2@ /($82 = 4(*+D*4$ +$ C5?$1 /57821J =2C N./1($C2FJ+5I
/*1&2D**, 82?$ $/F* 5>5(&85=2+*$, /+2(@?$+*$ * 458;515=.2 (2=+< *F* >F*7.* . +&F9! L
A&8Z$C 8F@ =2/ /F&E2$ 5+2 >&8$1 C&8(<C * /1(5;*C &E*1$F$C * /2C2 458/.2?$1 4(*
+$5>A58*C5/1* =<A58 *7 /*1&2D**, $9 ?$ 45/12=F$++5I! G5 N15, $/1$/1=$++5, = 15C /F&E2$,
$/F* +$ «/5=21J/@ = $$ C5+2/1<(J /5 /=5*C &/12=5C». a$;.5 72C$1*1J, E15 $/F* 4(*
.24/&F*(5=2++5C C$158$ 4(*/45/5>F$+*$ *8$1 72 /E$1 ($7$(=5= * ($/&(/5= 5(;2+*7C2 *
5>K$/1=2, 82F$.5 +$ >$7;(2+*E+<A, 15 = 51.(<15C =2(*2+1$ +2*>5F$$ 458A58@K*C /45/5>5C
=<?*=2+*@ @=F@$1/@ @:BC5:!+,-?@,B,I0#2@(9 (F(.5(<09. !F$8&$1 458E$(.+&1J:
.&FJ1&(+5-N.5F5;*E$/.2@, 4515C&, E15 4(* 4(5E*A (2=+<A &/F5=*@A 12C, ;8$
«.24/&F*(5=2++<I» E$F5=$. =*8*1 & ;(57& /5>/1=$++5I ?*7+*, «51.(<1<I» =*8*1 @!(2,5:!
[325]

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 12

4. >2(0EP H#%2- «\H0C0['R!2H0! EP8'E-('!»

G2>F982@, .2. /4$D*2F*/1< 45 >$7542/+5/1* = +2/15@K$$ =($C@ 4(5A58@1 N124<
4/*A5F5;*E$/.5;5 4$($5/C</F$+*@ 4(5>F$C .&(/2, 2=15( A51$F >< (2//.2721J 5>
2+2F5;*E+5C F*E+5C 4&1*, 5 1$A C&E*1$FJ+<A 4(5>2A * 5Z*>.2A, .515(<$ &?$ 5/12F*/J
45728*.
4.1. +%-E(!('! /!B0A'H 05!24!R!('7 5!604-2(02B'

!+2E2F2 *+R5(C2D** ><F5 85 5>*8+5;5 C2F5. 20 F$1 +2728 45*/.* 4(*=$F* . (2>512C
L.. L5F5=*E2 (;. \5/.=2) 45 =<?*=2+*9 N.*42?$I F$121$FJ+<A 2442(215= 4(*
=57C5?+<A 2=2(*@A, 2 12.?$ . C$158*E.2C X.X. `FJ*E$=2 (;. #$F@>*+/.), = E2/1+5/1*, 45
R5(C*(5=2+*9 12. +27<=2$C<A +5/*C<A 2=2(*I+<A 7242/5= — .5C42.1+<A +2>5(5= 8F@
=<?*=2+*@ +2 4(*(58$.

G5 =/$ N1* ($.5C$+82D** 4(*=58*F* 54@1J ?$ . +$5>A58*C5/1* 4($8=2(*1$FJ+5;5
5>&E$+*@ * 1$C >5F$$ — . 458;515=.$ /551=$1/1=&9K$;5 /+2(@?$+*@. X E$C& &E*1J *C$++5
= 4$(=&9 5E$($8J? ` .2.5$ = 4$(=&9 5E$($8J /+2(@?$+*$ ;515=*1J?

S(*ZF5/J =7;F@+&1J +2 72(&>$?+<I 54<1. S$(=<C 4542F = 45F$ 7($+*@ 85/1215E+5
A5(5Z5 *7=$/1+<I 4(*+D*4 =<?*=2+*@, 5/+5=2++<I +2 45>$8*1$FJ/1=$, 51(2>512++<I $K$
8=$/1* F$1 +2728 2+;F*I/.5I .5F5+*2FJ+5I 2(C*$I, =5$=2=Z$I = /=5$ =($C@ = `+8** *
2R(*.2+/.*A 8?&+;F@A.

V/+5=2 =<?*=2+*@ 45 N15I C$158*.$ — /*F2 * /+2(@?$+*$! S(*E$C = 5.(&?29K$C C*($
=</Z2@ D$++5/1J — /5>/1=$++2@ ?*7+J. L/$ 5/12FJ+5$ 5>@72+5 /F&?*1J «45>$8*1$F9». G5
><F5 F* N15 /5=C$/1*C5 / (5//*I/.5I 5>K*++5/1J9?

X=15( 5>(21*F/@ «=75(5C +2 L5/15.». G2 4$(=<I =7;F@8 12C $/1J =/$! G5... 8F@
«4(5Z$8Z$;5 4@1+28D21*F$1+*I .&(/ = C5+2/1<($ i25-F*+J». L85>2=5. 4(542;2+8*(&$1/@
51/1(2+$+*$ 51 /1(282+*@» * .2. .(2I+@@ C$(2 — &+*=$(/2FJ+<I «85>F$/1+<I» =<A58 *7
F9>5I ^! 45/($8/1=5C (*1&2FJ+5;5 /2C5&>*I/1=2.

S5/F$8+$$ ?$ /5=$(Z$++5 +$854&/1*C5 .2. 8F@ 4(2=5/F2=+5I, 12. * 8F@
C&/&FJC2+/.5I P5//**!
4.2. a0C7%(-7 VH24!A'U'7 (- 205-RD'S #4%78H-S EA0CD 2!E!%(0[0 405!%!8D7 F022''

V.272=Z*/J = 5E$($8+5C .(*7*/$, 2=15( = 1982 ;58& =.F9E2$1/@ = 458;515=.& *
4(5=$8$+*$ 42C@1+5I S5F@(+5I N./4$8*D** ;27$1< «!5=$1/.2@ P5//*@». i$/1$(5 &(2FJD$=
458 (&.5=58/1=5C !.X. !5F5=J$=2 72 58+& 7*C& 1982/83;. 4(5ZF* +2 /5>2EJ*A &4(@?.2A
=$/J (5//*I/.*I !$=$( — 51 UNF$+2 +2 .(2I+$C /$=$(5-=5/15.$ 85 \&(C2+/.2 +2 72428$
[710].

^./4$8*D*@ +$ 4($8/12=F@F2 /5>5I /45(1*=+<I 4$($A58, A51@ * 45 N15C& 42(2C$1(&
><F2 5D$+$+2 =</5.5. V(;2+*75=2+2 5+2 ><F2 U(2FJ/.*C 518$F$+*$C X.28$C** +2&. *
4($/F$85=2F2 *//F$85=21$FJ/.*$ D$F* — /5D*2FJ+5-N.5+5C*E$/.*$, ;$5R*7*E$/.*$ *
C$8*D*+/.*$. ` .5+$E+5, 1$ /2C<$, 5 .515(<A /$IE2/ *8$1 ($EJ — =<?*=2+*$ =
N./1($C2FJ+<A &/F5=*@A.

`C$++5 = N15I N./4$8*D** 2=15( =4$(=<$ =/1($1*F/@ / 4(*+D*4*2FJ+5 *+<C 458A585C
. F*E+5I >$7542/+5/1*. : >$7542/+5/1* = &/F5=*@A, /=$(AN./1($C2FJ+<A +2 .2?8<I 8$+J (/
15E.* 7($+*@ $=(54$ID2)! V.27<=2$1/@, .5($++<$ /$=$(@+$ «=<?*=291» = /=5$I 1&+8($ +$ 72
/E$1 458;515=F$++5;5 +2 =/$ /F&E2* ?*7+* /+2(@?$+*@ (;8$ =7@1J /15FJ.5 /5>2. *F* 5F$+$I,
E15>< =/$ / /5>5I &=$71*?), +$ 72 /E$1 +2F*E*@ UE*1$F@ * C+5;5F$1+$;5 7+2+*@. 8$
UE*1$FJ, $/F* +2 &4(@?.$ 58*+ (!) .29(? 8$ =7@1J C+5;5 F$1 +2 5>&E$+*$, $/F* $A21J, 2
7+2E*1, * ?*1J +285 /$;58+@, 78$/J * /$IE2/?!

!$=$(@+*+, 5.27<=2$1/@, =<?*=2$1 72 /E$1 &C$+*@ 4(*8&C<=21J =<A58 *7 F9>5I
N./1($C2FJ+5I /*1&2D** +$45/($8/1=$++5 = C5C$+1 $$ =57+*.+5=$+*@ (!).

b245C+*F/@ 8*2F5; / E&.51/.*C 5A51+*.5C. V+ &$7?2$1 7*C5I 58*+ +2 /5>2EJ$I
&4(@?.$ = 45F@(+&9 +5EJ 72 1(*/12 .*F5C$1(5= (!) . /5/$8&. S5 8$F2C!
!4(2Z*=2$C: +$ >5*ZJ/@?

—X E$;5 >5@1J/@? ,&+8(2 — 85C (58+5I!
—X =8(&; E15-+*>&8J /F&E*1/@? #15 8$F21J >&8$ZJ?
—G$ 7+29!
—:2. ?$, +$ 7+2$ZJ, 2 $8$ZJ?
—X =51 /F&E*1/@, 15;82 * >&8& 7+21J!

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 13

X 51.&82 12.2@ &=$($++5/1J, E15 = $K$ +$*7=$/1+5I N./1($C2FJ+5I /*1&2D** C</FJ,
$8*+/1=$++5 =$(+2@, 5>@721$FJ+5 4(*I8$1? V1E$;5 12.2@ &=$($++5/1J = /=5*A «1=5(E$/.*A»
/45/5>+5/1@A?

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=*8$1J, .(2/51& 82?$ =5 «C(2.$ 45F@(+5I +5E*», +$ ;5=5(@ &?$ 5 C+5;5D=$1J$ 45F@(+5;5
F$12. !$.($1 =<?*=2+*@ N15;5 /$=$(@+*+2 +$ = /*F$ * +$ = 7+2+**, 2 = .&FJ1&($! L
.&FJ1&($ 5>K$+*@ / 5.(&?29K*C C*(5C!

(!4(2=.2: /$=$(@+*+ 51F*E2$1 * *C$$1 = /=5$C @7<.$ 5>57+2E$+*$ >5F$$ 8=&A 8$/@1.5= (!)
511$+.5= D=$12 /+$;2, .515(<I 8F@ $=(54$ID2 4(5/15 «>$F<I»!)

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+$ C5?$1 ><1J ;F2=+<C +$5>A58*C<C &/F5=*$C /45/5>+5/1* . =<?*=2+*9, .2. N15
/.272+5 = 72428+<A &E$>+*.2A. G2 !$=$($ /1(2A — ;F2=+<I 8$C5>*F*7&9K*I R2.15(,
(27(&Z29K*I F*E+5/1J. [2F$$ — 5.27<=2$1/@, 51/1(2+$+*$ 51 /1(282+*@, &C$+*$
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/F5=2!

,(28*D*5++2@ /$=$(+2@ 4$82;5;*.2 +2/15FJ.5 5.272F2/J 51F*E+5I 51 +2Z*A
4($8/12=F$+*I, E15 45+2E2F& .(&?*F2/J ;5F5=2. \< =/$ 4(*=<.F*: >$7 *+/1(&.D**, >$7
4($8=2(*1$FJ+5;5 5>&E$+*@ — +* Z2;&. U /$=$(@+ 4($8=2(*1$FJ+<$ *+/1(&.12?* — +2
&(5=+$ 724($12. :5+.($1+2@ *+R5(C2D*@ — */.F9E*1$FJ+5 45/F$ 8$I/1=*@, F*E+<A 5Z*>5.
* +2.54F$+*@ =54(5/5=. L =*8$ .5+.($1+<A 51=$15=! !.5(5/1J 5>&E$+*@ =57(2/12$1 = 12.5C
/F&E2$ C+5;5.(21+5. [2-82! ,2 /2C2@, C+5;5.(21+5 5/45($++2@, 4(5>F$C+2@ 4$82;5;*.2!

!$CJ C$/@D$= +$4($(<=+5;5 (&.5=58/1=2 >275=5I ;(&445I +2 #&.51.$ * ,2IC<($ *, /2C5$
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^./4$8*D*@ 5.272F2/J 4$(=5I = C*($, 45F+5/1J9 =5/4(5*7=58@K$I 45A58+<I 5>(27
?*7+* /$=$(+<A +2(585=, — >$7 42F215., /42FJ+*.5= * 5;+@ (4(*E$C «4$($/1(2*=21J/@» /
1&(*/1*E$/.5;5 =2(*2+12 +2 «1&+8(5=<I» 4(*ZF5/J &?$ «+2 A58&»). ,(28*D*5++2@
/$=$(+2@ 5F$+J@ 58$?82 4(2.1*E$/.* +2 ;5F5$ 1$F5, +5E$=.* +2 /+$;&, >$7 5;+@, 4*12+*$
/<(5$ C@/5 * (<>2. S$($8=*?$+*$ — +2 /5>2EJ$I &4(@?.$, 4(*E$C .2?8<I .29( = 1&+8($
— +2$8*+$ /5 /=5$I &4(@?.5I. ` 15FJ.5 12.*C, «/=5*C», 4(*Z$8Z*C *7 1&+8(<, /$=$(@+$
C5;F* 85=$(*1J /=5I ?*7+$++<I 8($=+*I 54<1, 82?$ +$ C+5;5=$.5=5I, 2 C+5;51</@E$F$1+*I
(!). V4<1 +$ 15FJ.5 =<?*=2+*@, +5 * =/$I ?*7+$5(;2+*72D**, * +$ 15FJ.5 = 1&+8($
«+2$8*+$ / 4(*(585I», +5 *, E15 $K$ >5F$$ =2?+5, 54<1 C$?F*E+5/1+5;5 5>K$+*@.

^15 8F@ 2=15(2 ><F5 45*/1*+$ 51.(5=$+*$C. ` 45 4(*$78$ 85C5I 4$(=<C 8$F5C ><F5
4($8F5?$+5 X.28$C** +2&. */45FJ75=21J 82++<$ 4(*$C<, 72*C/1=5=2++<$ & /$=$(@+, 4(*
5>&E$+** &E2/1+*.5= 45F$=<A *//F$85=21$FJ/.*A N./4$8*D*I.

,$C >5F$$ E15 82=+5 ><F* *7=$/1+< (2>51< 7+2C$+*15;5 4&1$Z$/1=$++*.2 L.X. V>(&E$=2
[343].

G5... 82?$ +2 4$(=5$ ?$, $K$ &/1+5$ 4($8F5?$+*$ ><F 45F&E$+ .21$;5(*E$/.*I 51=$1: N15
=/$ — .2C$++<I =$., 1$C >5F$$ !$=$(, 2 C< — D*=*F*72D*@, C< — e=(542!
4.3. F022'7 - VB0 +!E!%

S(*ZF5/J 72;F@+&1J = 8($=+99 */15(*9 P&/*. ` 5.272F5/J — 8($=+$(&//.*$ C$158*.*
45 /=5$C& R*F5/5R/.5C&, 8&Z$=+5C&, 2 1$C >5F$$ 8&A5=+5C& /58$(?2+*9 — 58*+ . 58+5C&
/A58@1/@ / /$=$(+<C*. g5F$$ 15;5 — 64% (5//*I/.5I 1$((*15(** 45
.F*C215;$5;(2R*E$/.*C &/F5=*@C 5R*D*2FJ+5 4(*(2=+$+< . !$=$(&. ` *C$++5 /$=$(+<$
C$158*.* 457=5F@F* (&//.5C& =5*+& (* +$ 15FJ.5 =5*+&) 8$I/1=5=21J 4(* 45F+5C
51/&1/1=** /+2(@?$+*@ * 458;515=.*.

` 4(*Z$F R&+82C$+12FJ+<I R*F5/5R/.*I =<=58: P5//*@ — +$ b2428, .2. /E*1291 +2
L5/15.$, * +$ L5/15., .2. &>$?8$+< +2 b2428$! ` 1$C >5F$$ +$ «4(5/F5I.2»! P5//*@ — N15
!$=$(. S(*+D*4*2FJ+5 *+5I, 1($1*I =*8 D*=*F*72D**.

F2=+2@ *, 45?2F&I, $8*+/1=$++2@ 4(*E*+2 +$4(*7+2+*@ N15;5 R2.12 — ;5/458/1=&9K2@
=5 =/$C C*($ 8&2F*/1*E$/.2@, 8*2F$.1*E$/.2@ R*F5/5R*@ .515(2@ (2//C21(*=2$1 C*( .2.
$8*+/1=5 * >5(J>& «8=&A» 4(51*=545F5?+5/1$I. \*( ?$ 45-(5//*I/.* — «1(*2F*/1*E$+»!

b+2C$+*12@ (&//.2@ «1(5*D2» 4(5+*7<=2$1 =/$ NF$C$+1< .&FJ1&(< * ?*7+$5(;2+*72D**.

G2E*+2@ / 1985 ;582 2=15( 4(*C$+@$1 /$=$(+<$ C$158*.* 4(* (2>51$ /5 /=5*C*
=5/4*12++*.2C* — .2. /5 =7(5/F<C*, 12. * /5 Z.5FJ+*.2C*. L 1989 ;58& 54&>F*.5=2+2
4$(=2@ 4$E21+2@ (2>512 [625], 2 721$C — 51E$1 = 5/.5C*1$1 45 +2&.$ * 1$A+*.$ [236].
[2FJ+$IZ*$ N./4$8*D**, = E2/1+5/1* U(2FJ/.2@ (1986 ;.-(&.5=58*1$FJ !.X. !5F5=J$=),

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 14

(27=*F* 1$C&.

b+2.5C/1=5 / (2>512C* L.S.:27+2E$$=2, / $;5 8=&C@ 458A582C* . (2>51$ = N./1($C2FJ+<A
&/F5=*@A — «.24/&F*(5=2++<C» * «51.(<1<C» — &4(5E*F5 &=$($++5/1J = 4(2=*FJ+5/1*
=<>(2++5;5 4&1*. ,$C >5F$$ $;5 4(*/12FJ+5$ =+*C2+*$ . !$=$(& [216]. X a.G. &C*F$= / $;5
1$5(*$I N1+5;$+$72 * +2F*E*$C N1+5/5=-($F*.15=-A(2+*1$F$I 8($=+$;5 7+2+*@ 4(*=$F* .
C</F* 5 /&8J>5+5/+5I (5F* /$=$(+<A N1+5/5= = */15(** +$ 15FJ.5 P5//**, +5 * =/$;5 C*(2
[406].

X.1*=+2@ (2>512 = U(2FJ/.5C N.5F5;*E$/.5C /597$, 5/5>$++5 / =$8&K*C* /4$D*2F*/12C*
45 N.5F5;*E$/.5C& 5>(275=2+*9 !L. :5C5=<C * . `. !*.5(/.5I. /R5(C*(5=2F* @(.5
=<(2?$++5$ N.5F5;*E$/.5$, /*$- 1$C+5$ /58$(?2+*$ =/$;5 2=15(/.5;5 .&(/2.

S585ZF5 * +2Z$ =($C@ =5/1($>5=2++5/1*. :2. *7=$/1+5, = +2E2F$ 90-A ;585= ><F /5782+
:5C*1$1 45 E($7=<E2I+<C /*1&2D*@C, 2 721$C * \#!. L Z.5F2A P5//** ><F ==$8$+
5>@721$FJ+<I .&(/ «V/+5=< >$7542/+5/1* ?*7+$8$@1$FJ+5/1*» [105]. P2>512 2=15(2
«i.5F2 N.5F5;*E$/.5;5 =<?*=2+*@» 45F&E*F2 ($.5C$+82D** \*+*/1$(/1=2 5>(275=2+*@
P5//** * / 1993 ;582 (2/4(5/1(2+@$1/@ = =*8$ &E$>+5;5 45/5>*@ [SV, 237, 238, 241].
S585>+5$ ?$ ($Z$+*$ = 1993 ;58& 4(*+@F5 \*+*/1$(/1=5 5>(275=2+*@ :272A/12+2, ;8$
><F ==$8$+ .&(/ 2+2F5;*E+<I (5//*I/.5C& [124,238].
4.4. F022'I2H-7 'A!0C0['7 EP8'E-('7

G5 =57+*.2F =54(5/: 45E$C& = +2Z$I /1(2+$ 85F;*$ ;58< +$ ><F5 /*/1$C< 5>&E$+*@
+2/$F$+*@ 8$I/1=*@C = #!? ,(28*D*5++5$ (5//*I/.5$ 51/12=2+*$?

V.27<=2$1/@, = 85($=5F9D*5++5I P5//** 12.2@ /*/1$C2 ><F2! g5F$$ 15;5, >&.=2FJ+5
4(5+*7<=2F2 =$/J .&FJ1&(+5-><15=5I &.F28 ?*7+* [301].

V8+2.5 82F$$ ;5/&82(/1=5 =7@F5 N1& R&+.D*9 +2 /$>@ * .&FJ1&(2 5>$/4$E$+*@ F*E+5I
>$7542/+5/1* 5.272F2/J &1(2E$++5I.

S5@=*F2/J +5=2@ 4(5>F$C2 — .2. «($2+*C*(5=21J» 451$(@++5$ 72 /$CJ8$/@1 F$1? :2.
=5//57821J $K$ 58*+ &1(2E$++<I 4F2/1 +2D*5+2FJ+5I .&FJ1&(<?

G$5>A58*C5 ><F5 /57821J /=5$5>(27+&9 R*F5/5R*9 =<?*=2+*@. `C$++5 +2Z&,
(5//*I/.&9, .&FJ1&(5F5;*E$/.&9!

` =/$ +2Z* (2>51< R2.1*E$/.* 4$($/12F* ><1J /=585C 4(2.1*E$/.*A ($.5C$+82D*I.
S(*ZF5/J =<A58*1J +2 R*F5/5R/.*$ 5>5>K$+*@.

b8$/J-15 .2. (27 * 4(*;58*F5/J +2F*E*$ = =</Z$C (28*51$A+*E$/.5C 5>(275=2+** 2=15(2
NF$C$+15= N15I /2C5I /*/1$C+5/1*, /15FJ ($8.5I = /5=$1/.5I =</Z$I Z.5F$. X /*/1$C+5/1J
— N15 * $/1J *8$2FJ+<I «C5/1*.» C$?8& 1$A+5.(21*E$/.*C * N.5F5;*E$/.*C C<ZF$+*$C.

G2Z* (2>51< 45F&E*F* =</5.&9 5D$+.& =$8&K*A /4$D*2F*/15= P5//** 45 >$7542/+5/1*
* N.5F5;**, = E2/1+5/1* 2.28$C*.5= PXG \.l. a$C$Z$=2 * L.G— g5FJZ2.5=2 [104], 2 12.?$
2.28$C*.2 C$8*D*+/.*A +2&. L.S. :27+2E$$=2.

UE2/1*$ = Z.5F$-/$C*+2($ 45 >$7542/+5/1* ?*7+$8$@1$FJ+5/1* = ;. ,&24/$ ((&.5=58*1$FJ
— L.S.j&(2=F$=) 457=5F*F* $K$ >5F$$ (27=*1J 1$C& [239].
4.5. 9(0[002(0E(02BD F022''

V.5+E21$FJ+5 /5782+*$ R&+82C$+12 1$5(** =<?*=2+*@ * ?*7+$5(;2+*72D** 72=$(Z$+5
/5 7+2.5C/1=5C / (2>515I \.L. P2D2 «:5+D$4D*@ 5>$/4$E$+*@ >$7542/+5/1*» [348]. `C$++5
*7 N15I (2>51< 72*C/1=5=2+< 1$(C*+< — «+21&(2F*/1*E$/.*I» * «8$@1$FJ+5/1+<I» .2.
4(*+D*4*2FJ+5 (27F*E+<$ 458A58< . 1$C$.

V8+2.5, &E*1<=2@ &45C*+2$C&9 (&//.&9 «1(*28+5/1J», 2=15(5C ><F2 ==$8$+2 1($1J@
/5/12=F@9K2@ — «/57$(D21$FJ+2@». h2.1*E$/.* N1* 1(* 1$(C*+2 — «+21&(2F*7C»,
«/57$(D21$FJ+5/1J» * «8$@1$FJ+5/1J» A2(2.1$(*7&91 +2F*E*$ = C*($ .2. C*+*C&C 1($A
=72*C5*/.F9E29K*A 458A585= . 5>$/4$E$+*9 F*E+5I >$7542/+5/1*. ` /551=$1/1=$++5
/&K$/1=5=2+*$, .2. C*+*C&C, 1($A .&FJ1&(+5-*/15(*E$/.*A 4/*A5F5;*E$/.*A 1*45=
F*E+5/1* — 4/*A51*45=, .515(<$ R2.1*E$/.* 4(*C$(+5 = 58+5I * 15I ?$ /*1&2D** C5;&1
8$I/1=5=21J 8*2C$1(2FJ+5 4(51*=545F5?+5 (/C. ;F2=& 10).

!5;F2/+5 &/12+5=*=Z$I/@ .5+D$4D** *C 4(5/15 4(51*=545.272+5 +2A58*1J/@, 2 1$C
>5F$$ 8$I/1=5=21J =C$/1$! «b2428 $/1J b2428, L5/15. $/1J L5/15.! ` *C +*.5;82 +$
/5I1*/J!» — /.272+5 = *15;$ P.:*4F*+;5C, .515(<I R2.1*E$/.* ?*7+J /=59 45F5?*F +2
454<1.* +2I1* 8*2F5; 8=&A .&FJ1&(.

L57+*. =54(5/: .2.5I ?$ 4/*A51*4 4($=2F*(&$1 = P5//**? S(*=F$.21$FJ+5/1J * @=+5$

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 15

/551=$1/1=*$ /$=$(+5;5, «8$@1$FJ+5/1+5;5» 458A582 (&//.*C, $K$ 85A(*/1*2+/.*C, 12.
+27<=2$C<C @7<E$/.*C 1(28*D*@C +$ C5;F2 +$ ><1J 72C$E$+2. G5 = 15 ?$ =($C@ =57+*.2F
($75++<I =54(5/: 2 /F&E2I+5 F* @=+5$ +2F*E*$ = P5//** NF$C$+15= .2. 72428+5;5,
+21&(2F*/1*E$/.5;5, 12. * =5/15E+5;5, /57$(D21$FJ+5;5, 458A585= . ?*7+$5(;2+*72D**?

` 45/F$8+*I 51=$1 . 2=15(& 4(*Z$F /5 7+2.5C/1=5C / R&+82C$+12FJ+5I (2>515I G.l.
[2+*F$=/.5;5 «P5//*@ * e=(542» [407], ;8$ (2/.(<=291/@ 5/5>$++5/1* * 4(*+D*4*2FJ+<$
(27F*E*@ 12. +27<=2$C<A 58+5— * C+5;55/+5=+<A E$F5=$E$/.*A /55>K$/1=. `
A2(2.1$(*7&$1/@ P5//*@ .2. @(.5 =<(2?$++5$ C+5;55/+5=+5$ /55>K$/1=5, ;8$ F*E+5/1* /5
=72*C5*/.F9E29K*C* 4/*A51*42C* ?*=&1 =C$/1$ *, .2. N15 +* &8*=*1$FJ+5, +$($8.5
C*(+5 /5/&K$/1=&91.

g5F$$ 15;5, N12 @=+2@ 451$+D*2FJ+2@ 1(2;$8*@ N1+5/2 (4$(C2+$+1+<I «(&//.*I >&+1,
>$//C</F$++<I * >$/45K28+<I!») 4(* 54($8$F$++<A &/F5=*@A 4($=(2K2$1/@ = $;5 ;F2=+5$
>5;21/1=5 — =57C5?+5/1J +2 F9>&9 4(5>F$C& =7;F@+&1J / 1($A(!) =72*C5*/.F9E29K*A
/15(5+. ` +2I1* /5;F2/*$ +$ = 4(*+@1** EJ$I-F*>5 /15(5+< (N15 >&8$1 45(2?$+*$ 8=&A
5/12FJ+<A), 2 = +2A5?8$+** 4(*+D*4*2FJ+5 +5=5;5 7+2+*@. G5 N15 — 15FJ.5 = /F&E2$
+2F*E*@ 5/5><A 4(*+D*45= 5>K$+*@! ,2.*C 5>(275C, *C$++5 C+5;55/+5=+5/1J,
45F*N1+*E+5/1J, C+5;5.5+R$//*5+2FJ+5/1J P5//** 5>$/4$E*=2$1 $$ 1=5(E$/.*$,
.($21*=+<$ /45/5>+5/1* 8F@ 8$I/1=*I = E($7=<E2I+<A /*1&2D*@A.

^12 5/5>$++5/1J (5//*I/.5;5 5>K$/1=2 * =<@=*F2 +$5>A58*C5/1J ==$8$+*@ = 4(5;(2CC&
.&(/2 72+@1*I 45 .5+RF*.15F5;**. S(*E$C +$ 1(28*D*5++5;5, A5(5Z5 =/$C& C*(&
*7=$/1+5;5 [518, 521, 530], 2 5/+5=2++5;5 +2 (5//*I/.5I /4$D*R*.$.
4.6. a%0[%-//- «\H0C0['R!2H0! EP8'E-('!»

S(*C$( 1$/+5;5 /51(&8+*E$/1=2 +$/.5FJ.*A 458A585= . 5>$/4$E$+*9 >$7542/+5/1* —
/5=C$/1+<$ 4(5$.1< n$+1(2 ^Lg * U(2FJ/.5;5 ;5/&82(/1=$++5;5 4$82;5;*E$/.5;5
&+*=$(/*1$12 (;. e.21$(*+>&(;). L ($7&FJ121$ /5=C$/1+5$ (2/4(5/1(2+$+*$ = P5//** *
:272A/12+$ =72*C58545F+@9K*A 45/5>*I 45 Vgj [226,241] (!. #$&(*+, o-L. P$4*+, P.X.
i2>&+**, L .X. !$($82) * D*.F /5=C$/1+<A F$.D*I.

eKp 58*+ «.*(4*E*.» = R&+82C$+1 .5+D$4D** 72F5?*F5 7+2.5C/1=5 / (2>512C* V.L.
:F9E$=/.5;5 [415] * 5/5>$++5 V.L.a5//.5;5 [419] 5 A2(2.1$($ (&//.5;5 +2(582,
/R5(C*(5=2++5C ?*7+J9 +2 1$((*15(** «(*/.5=2++5;5 7$CF$8$F*@», ;8$ /1($// .2.
@=F$+*$ 45=/$8$+$=+5I ?*7+* 54($8$F@F C+5;*$ NF$C$+1< * ?*7+$&/1(5I/1=2, *
.&FJ1&(<. ^12 ;*451$72 4581=$(8*F2/J 2+2F*75C 45=$8$+*@ (&//.5;5 E$F5=$.2 4(*
8$I/1=*@A .2. = 5><8$++5I ?*7+*, 12. * = E($7=<E2I+<A /*1&2D*@A. ` = 82FJ+$IZ$C
=<=$F2 +2 8($=+99 /*/1$C& .&FJ1&(+5-><15=5I ($F2./2D**, 1.$. =5//12+5=F$+*@ =
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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 16


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8&C29K$;5 * 8$I/1=&9K$;5 4(*C$(+5 58*+2.5=5) 4(5>F$C< =<>5(2 C$158*.* 4(2.1*E$/.*

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 17

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 18


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:2.5=< (27F*E*@ *A 8$I/1=*I = 58+*A * 1$A ?$ ^!?

:2.*$ ?$ =+&1($++*$ 458/57+21$FJ+<$ C51*=< «458=*;291» ;(2?82+ = P5//** * «+$ =
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=54(5/5=: «8F@ E$;5 E$F5=$. ?*=$1?» [142].

)5/458/1=&9K*I = (@8$ /1(2+ b24282 «+21&(2F*/1*E$/.*I» («45>$8*1$FJ/.*I»)
4/*A51*4 4($845F2;2$1 = .2E$/1=$ 541*C2FJ+5;5 =2(*2+12 4($585F$+*@ ^! ,.#!#G(KH##
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/5>/1=$++5;5 «l» = «;$(5*7C$», = «5>@72++5/1*» 5.(&?29K$;5 C*(2 /F&?*1J 45>$8*1$F9, =
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+2 D$+& * 45/F$8/1=*@ (72428+<I *+1$FF$.1&2FJ+<I (2D*5+2F*7C).

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+$5>A58*C5$ 7+2+*$.

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/1(282+*$ («=5/15E+5$» *+1$FF$.1&2FJ+5-NC5D*5+2FJ+5$ /2C5457+2+*$).

S(2.1*E$/.* N15 4(5@=F@$1/@ =5 =F28$+** 4(*$C2C* N./1(2/$+/5(*.*, >*5N+$(;$1*.* *

Bn6nno1eka cañ1a « Cekpe1m 6esonacnoc1n a noaceqneanoñ xnsnn» http:/ / sos- ru.info
F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 19

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Bn6nno1eka cañ1a « Cekpe1m 6esonacnoc1n a noaceqneanoñ xnsnn» http:/ / sos- ru.info
F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 20


Bn6nno1eka cañ1a « Cekpe1m 6esonacnoc1n a noaceqneanoñ xnsnn» http:/ / sos- ru.info


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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 22


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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 23
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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 24

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+5=<A &/F5=*@A +27<=291 2..F*C21*72D*$I.


«N» C2./*C2FJ+5 5;(2+*E*=2$1 = 4$(*58 2..F*C21*72D** /5>/1=$++&9 2.1*=+5/1J /
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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 25

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 26

45;5=5(*C.

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 27

S5/15@++5 4(5=58*1J:
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72.5+5C$(+5/1@C:

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85C$;

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 31

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 32


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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 33

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 34

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V+* C5;&1 =57+*.+&1J +2 1$((*15(** P5//** = +5@>($-8$.2>($, .5;82 1$C4$(21&(2 72
/&1.* C5?$1 C$+@1J/@ +2 20—25° * E$F5=$., 4(5C5.Z*I 458 85?8$C * /+$;5C, (*/.&$1
5.2721J/@ = F$/& +2 A5F58$ = —25° !.

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(2/154.*, $/1$/1=$++5, +$1. L4$($8* +5EJ! L/$ /+2(@?$+*$ — /F&E2I+<I .5(5>5. /4*E$..


«J» [F@ (27=$8$+*@ * 4588$(?2+*@ 5;+@ = /F5?+<A &/F5=*@A /F$8&$1 7+21J 5/+5=+5I
4(*+D*4.

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G$ /F$8&$1, .5+$E+5, 5?*821J 45@=F$+*@ &/15IE*=5;5 5;+@ E$($7 5—6 C*+&1, .2. N15
><=2$1 = F$1+99 ?2(&. L /F5?+<A &/F5=*@A 82?$ 4(5R$//*5+2F< 1(21@1 +2 N15 +$ C$+$$
1—1,5 E2/2.
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45854$E+<C* *C$++5 /2C5/15@1$FJ+5. ` =2C ?$F2$C = 4$(=&9 5E$($8J *C$++5 N15;5
1=5(E$/.5;5 /5/15@+*@. X 82FJ+$IZ*$ /5=$1< — */.F9E*1$FJ+5 8F@ ?$F29K*A 45F&E*1J
.5+.($1+<$ ($.5C$+82D**. G$ >5F$$ 15;5!

`12., 4(*/1&42$C.

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5>5;($1J /$>@, = 4$(=&9 5E$($8J — (&.* * ;5F5=&.

V>5;($F*/J? S5=$/$F$F*? ,$4$(J 458&C2$C 5 +2Z$C >&8&K$C «45854$E+5C».

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 35


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&/15IE*=5/1J! (P*/. 10.)

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 36

S(*;515=*= =/$+$5>A58*C5$ 8F@
«+5=5(5?8$++5;5», =< .2. >&8&K*I
«(58*1$FJ» 85F?+< 4(*;515=*1J/@ /2C*.

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 37

«+5=5(5?8$++5;5», *... C5?+5 4(*/1&421J.

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/4*E.&. G$ 72>&8J1$ /(27& ?$ +28$1J Z24.&.

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+$;+&K*C*/@ C5.(<C* 42FJD2C* N12
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1(2;$8**.

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72;5(291/@, * 82?$ +2 =$1(& =< &/4$=2$1$ ==$/1* «R2.$F» 458 «Z21$(».

e/F* /4*E.* =/$-12.* 45;2/F*, +* = .5$C /F&E2$ +$ >(5/2I1$ *A = 85/28$ +2 /+$;,
(@85C / .5/1(5C. ^15 ?$ 5E$+J =.&/+2@ 4*K2 8F@ =2Z$;5 «+5=5(5?8$++5;5». V/12=J1$ *A
= /$($8*+$, 458 Z21(5C.

` .2. 15FJ.5 5;5+$. 45>$?2F 45 (2/154.$, +2E*+2I1$ 15+.*C* 42F5E.2C* +2(2K*=21J
=2Z .5/1$(-«Z21$(». V/5>$++5 +285 /F$8*1J, E15>< +$ ><F5 Z*(5.*A 51=$(/1*I />5.&, *7
.515(<A =<(<=2$1/@ 5;5+J. V1=$(/1*$ N15, =5-4$(=<A, 51/&1/1=*$ «.(<Z*» 51 85?8@, /+$;2
* =$1(2, =5-=15(<A, 51/&1/1=*$ 51(2?$+*@ *7F&E2$C5;5, 12.5;5 D$++5;5, 1$4F2 5>(21+5 =
«/$(8D$» .5/1(2. S5N15C& +2 N1* C$/12 /F$8&$1 &.F28<=21J 5E$($8+&9 42F5E.&.

! N15;5 C5C$+12 C5?+5 82?$ (27;5=2(*=21J / .5/1(5C. :2.
«4(5 /$>@», 12. * =/F&A, $/F* =< 58+* = F$/&. L4(5E$C, * =2Z*
15=2(*K*, @ 8&C29, =2/, +$/5C+$++5, 45IC&1.

,$C >5F$$, 4(5+*.+&=Z*/J N1*C /2C<C (58*1$FJ/.*C
E&=/1=5C, 5+* +$ /5=$(Z21 $K$ 58+5I 5Z*>.* — +$ >&8&1
4(*/12=21J . =2C / /5=$12C* = /2C<I +24(@?$++<I C5C$+1. G$
>&8&1 ?$/1.5 .(*1*.5=21J =2/ 72 =($C$++<$, +$*7>$?+<$
5Z*>.*.
b245C+*1$: +*.5;82 +$ /F$8&$1 (27=58*1J .5/1$( =8=5$C! ,$C
>5F$$ =1(5$C. ` &? +* 4(* .2.*A 5>/15@1$FJ/1=2A — 4$($8
«7(*1$F@C*». (\2C2 & ($>$+.2 =/$;82 */.F9E*1$FJ+5 58+2! L/$
5/12FJ+<$ = F&EZ$C /F&E2$ — 85><1E*.*.)

L$(+$C/@ . +2Z$C& «+5=5(5?8$++5C&» .5/1(&. V+ &?$
5/C$F$F, $C&, .2. (2/1&K$C& E$F5=$.&, C5?+5 4($8F2;21J +$
15FJ.5 «C5F5E.5» * «/F28$+J.&9 .2Z.&», +5 * «/&A2(*.*». G5
+* = .5$C /F&E2$ +$FJ7@ =.F28<=21J 8(5=2, 1$C >5F$$ /<(<$,
4(@C5 = «/$(8D$ .5/1(2» ((*/. 14).

G* +2 C*+&1& +$ 72><=2I1$: .5;82 5+ 458(2/1$1, 5/C$F$$1 * =
/=59 5E$($8J /12+$1 .5(C*1J =2/, 15 =/$ =2Z$ 8&Z$=+5$ 1$4F5
5+ =$(+$1 =2C ?$ C+5;5.(21+5! G$ >5I1$/J 451(21*1J/@ /$IE2/!

:5;82 =2Z «+5=5(5?8$++<I» Z21(5=<I .5/1$( «=5I8$1 =
/*F&», $C& C5?+5 85=$(*1J 12.?$ /2C5/15@1$FJ+&9 (2>51& —
4($=(21*1J/@, = 72=*/*C5/1* 51 5>/15@1$FJ/1=, = +$5>A58*C<I .5/1$(
8(&;5;5 =*82: «.5F58$D»,«+58J@» ((*/. 17), «7=$782», «F$+*=<I» ((*/.
16) * 1.8.

eK$ 8=$+28D21J F$1 +2728 2=15( 4($8F5?*F 4(*8&C2++<$
/5=C$/1+5 /5 /=5*C* =5/4*12++*.2C* = 45A582A =*8< .5/1(5= *7
/<(<A 8(5=: «+58J9» *7 Z$/1* >($=$+ * «F$+*=<I», .515(<$
C5?+5 4(*;515=*1J >$7 1545(2 * 4*F<. S578+$$ 51 G.h.
\&A2C28*$=2 4(*ZF2 *+R5(C2D*@, E15 «F$+*=<$» .5/1(<
4($8F2;2F*/J = C$158*E.2A, =<4&K$++<A = 40-$ ;58< 8F@ /5=$1/.*A
42(1*72+ [359].
«V1F*E+<I ($7&FJ121 82$1 /=5$5>(27+<I ;*>(*8 .5/1(5= 1*42
«7=$782» * «Z2F2Z», +27=2++<I +2C* $K$ 8$/@1J F$1 +2728
«F$+*=<C», 12. .2. C5?+5 5>5I1*/J >$7 (&>.* 8(5= ((*/. 16).

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 38

[F*++<$ =2F$?*+< — /F$;* &.F28<=291/@ .($/1-+2.($/1 =.5F*E$/1=$ 3-8 Z1&. =$$(5C
4$($8 &.(<1*$C. :5+D< 8F*+5I 0,6 —1C =</12=F@91 45 8(&;&9 /15(5+& .5/1(2. S5 C$($
/;5(2+*@ +*?+*$ =$F$?*+< &.F28<=291 /=$(A& 45 15C& ?$ 4(*+D*4&. V1=2F*=Z*$/@
.5+D< */45FJ7&91 8F@ «Z2F2Z2», 5>$/4$E*=29K$;5 (5=+<I &/15IE*=<I ?2( = 15E.$
4$($/$E$+*@ =2F$?*+. \5?+5 45=</*1J &/15IE*=5/1J ;5($+*@, $/F* =2F$?*+<
58*+2.5=5I 15FK*+<. U.F28<=21J 42(2C* (@85C 8(&; / 8(&;5C / +$>5FJZ*C* 7275(2C*»
[237].

eK$ 58*+ .5/1$( *7 /<(<A, +2 N151 (27 15F/1<A =2F$?*+ — «+58J@» *7 Z$/1* >($=$+.
«S5/F$ (27?*;2+*@ C2F5;5 .5/1(2 * 45F&E$+*@ ;5(@E*A &;F$I >($=+2 &.F28<=291/@
=$(Z*+2C* «=(27>$?.&» ((*/. 172), E15>< 5;5+J +$ (2/4(5/1(2+@F/@ +2 =/9 8F*+& >($=$+
/(27&. :5/1$( 1*42 «+58J@» *7 4(5C$(7Z*A >($=$+ ;5(*1 F&EZ$ 4(* +2F*E** =+2E2F$
+$>5FJZ*A (0,5-1 /C) 7275(5= C$?8& +*C*, E15 8$F2$1/@ / 45C5KJ9 42F5E$.-4(5.F285. ((*/.
176). e/F* /($8* Z$/1* >($=$+ $/1J A51@ >< 58-+5-8=2 /(2=+*1$FJ+5 /&A*A, N15 &?$
;2(2+1*(&$1 &/4$A» [237].
b2=$(Z2@ 1$C& «(5?8$+*@ .5/1(2», /55>K*C $K$
+$.515(<$ 15+.5/1*:

- =< +*.5;82 +$ /12+$1$ 5>K21J/@ / ($>$+.5C (2 1$C
>5F$$ * 4(*+*C21J (58<) = +$&A5?$++5C C$/1$; 45
2+2F5;** — =< +$ /12+$1$ (27=58*1J .5/1$( /($8*
45?2(5542/+<A 72=2F5= /&A5;5 A=5(5/12;

- ($>$+.2, $K$ /F2>5;5, =< +* +2 C*+&1& +$ 5/12=*1$
>$7 4(*/C51(2, 15E+5 12. ?$ =2Z .5/1$(
+*.5;82 +$ 4$($.*+$1/@ = F$/ +$72C$1+5 51 =2/;

- 454(5>&I1$ 45/F$ +$/.5FJ.*A (9C5. /4*(1+5;5 455>K21J/@ / ($>$+.5C (2 $K$
F&EZ$ =/45C+*1$, .2. / =2C* = 8$1/1=$ (27;5=2(*=2F* 4J@+<$) — * =< 45IC$1$,
.2.5=5 .5/1(& = 5.(&?$+** +$1($7=5I .5C42+**;

- * +2.5+$D, =< +*.5;82, +* 4(* .2.*A 5>/15@1$FJ/1=2A +$ 5/12=*1$ /=5$;5
15=2(*K2, 2 1$C >5F$$ ($>$+.2 = F$/& 58+5;5! ` *C$++5 45N15C& =< +*.5;82 +$
5/12=*1$ = F$/& +$451&Z$++<I .5/1$(! G* 7*C5I, +* F$15C, +* = .2.&9 45;58&!
[2?$ $/F* =2C >&8$1 E15-15 &;(5?21J! ` &? 1$C >5F$$ F9>2@ /4$Z.2, F9>2@
451$(@ =($C$+* — +*E15 45 /(2=+$+*9 / N1*C /1(2Z+<C 4($ /1&4F$+*$C!
`12., .5/1$( +285 451&Z*1J. ,2. E15 ?$, &>*1J $;5? G* = .5$C /F&E2$! G$ 4(*C$+@I1$
;(&><A /45/5>5= 1&Z$+*@ .5/1(2!

e;5 +285 «&F5?*1J /421J»! S58 «58$@F.5» *7 7$CF*, /+$;2, =58*E.*. L .(2I+$C /F&E2$ —
(27F5?*= ;5F5=+* «45(57+J», E15>< 5+* ></1(5 451&AF* ((*/. 18). :5/1$(, «&>29.2++<I»,
&/+$1! X +2 /F$8&9K$I /15@+.$ =2C F*E+5 &?$ 85/1215E+5 >&8$1 $;5 «(27>&8*1J». L /=5$I
8&Z$!..


13.5. ;-[0B0EH- A%0E 5!6 B040%- ' 4'CP

\+5;5 4(5>F$C =57+*.2$1 4(* 454<1.2A 4$($F5C*1J /(2=+*1$FJ+5 15F/1&9 /&A&9
42F.&. [F@ ?$+/.*A (&., . 4(*C$(&, &?$ 3-4 /C 15FK*+< — =<Z$ 4($8$F5= =57C5?+5/1*.

G5 N15 5><E+<C /45/5>5C — «E$($7 .5F$+5» *F* &82(5C +5;*. 5F5=2E$= +245C*+2$1 5>
*7=$/1+5C /45/5>$ 72.F*+*=2+*@ /&A5;5 /1=5F2 C$?8& 8$($=J@C* * /*F5=5;5 =578$I/1=*@ +2
«82FJ+*I» .5+$D [210]. V8+2.5 N151 /45/5> — 8F@ 85/1215E+5 8F*++<A ?$(8$I.

:5(51.&9 ?$, 15F/1&9 42F.& C5?+5 4$($F5C*1J, &82(*= $9 5 8$($=5 F*>5 &(5+*= >($=+5
+2 .2C$+J [323].

G5 5><E+5 N15 ($8.5 4(*=58*1 .
&/4$A&. g5F$$ 15;5, $/F* =< /&Z*+&
8$(?*1$ = (&.2A, 15 C5?+5 5K&1*1J
($7.&9, 85F;5 +$ 4(5A58@K&9 >5FJ.

L<A58 4(5/1: 4($?8$ E$C +2+5/*1J
&82(, +$5>A58*C5 +2I1* & /&A5;5
45F$+2 D$+1( 1@?$/1*. ` *C$++5 N1*C
C$/15C +2+$/1* &82(. !&Z*+2 = N15C
/F&E2$ «/2C2 /$>@» F5C2$1.

G2 4(2.1*.$ 4(* +$5>A58*C5/1*
82?$ 12-F$1+*$ 8$=5E.* 12.*C
5>(275C >$7 1545(2 * 4*F<
5>$/4$E*=291 .5/1$( 8(5=2C* ((*/.
19).

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 39

13.6. a!%!(02H- 0[(7

[F@ N.5+5C** /4*E$. = ^! /&K$/1=&$1 +$C2F5 /45/5>5= 1(2+/45(1*(5=.* 5;+@. X +&,
4(*8&C2I1$ /5 /=5*C* =5/4*12++*.2C* /45/5> 4$($+$/$+*@ «+5=5(5?8$++5;5». b2 50
.*F5C$1(5= 8+$=+5;5 A582! `F* 4572*C/1=&I1$ & g. [N=*/2:

«e/F* =< +2A58*1$/J = 45A58$ * & =2/ 5;(2+*E$++5$
.5F*E$/1=5 C21$(*2F5= 8F@ (27=$8$+*@ 5;+@, 15 C5?+5
454<121J/@ =7@1J 5;5+J / /5>5I. [F@ 4$($+5/.* ;5(@E*A &;F$I
5>F5?*1$ *A +$>5FJZ*C* +$5>;5($F<C* 42F5E.2C*,
=</&Z$++<C* & .5/1(2. L/$ N15 =C$/1$ 5>$(+*1$ CA5C, 2 /+2-
(&?* — >$($/15I * 4$($=@?*1$ 8F@ &85>/1=2 4$($+5/.*» ((*/.
20) [313].

5F5=2E$= ($.5C$+8&$1 8F@ 8F*1$FJ+5I 4$($+5/.* *
/5A(2+$+*@ 5;+@ */45FJ75=21J ;+*F&Z.* 8&>2, *F* ;(*>
«F5?+<I 1(&15=*.» (Lenzites Betullina), .515(<I, 82?$ >&8&E*
=F2?+<C, /5A(2+@$1 /45/5>+5/1J . C$8F$++5C& 1F$+*9 [210].
13.7. >5Q!('! 2 0[(!/ — VC!/!(B H#CDB#%P

V>(21*C 5/5>5$ =+*C2+*$: +2&E*= /=5*A 8$1$I +2=<.2C ?*7+*, =< >&8$1$ /45.5I+< 72
+*A. e/F* =2Z* 8$1* ($;&F@(+5 5>K291/@ / 5;+$C = F$/+<A 45A582A (.2. F$15C, 12. *
7*C5I), 15 & +*A +*.5;82 +$ =57+*.+$1 ?$F2+*@ /8$F21J 15 ?$ /2C5$ = .=2(1*($.

` $/F* =<, &=2?2$C<I E*121$FJ, 5/=5*1$ N1* +$A*1(<$ 4(*$C<, 15 +2;(285I >&8$1
4(*+D*4*2FJ+5 +5=<I &(5=$+J =2Z$I .&FJ1&(< 5>K$+*@ / 5.(&?29K*C C*(5C. :&FJ1&(<
C+5;51</@E$F$1+$I, +2Z$I, */.5++5I (&//.5I, /$=$(+5I, .515(2@ * 457=5F@F2 +2C =/$C
=<?*1J +2 N15I 7$CF$.

V>K2@/J / F$/5C +$ 15FJ.5 = ?2(.*$ F$1+*$ 8$+$E.*, +5 * = 85?8F*=&9 5/$+J, =<, .(5C$
15;5, $K$ * 5/=5>58*1$ F$/+<A 45?2(+<A 51 1@?.5I 5>@72++5/1* — F*.=*8*(5=21J
45/F$8/1=*@ =2Z$I 5Z*>.*. `7>2=*1$ ?*=5I F$/ 51 >5F* 5;+@, *7>2=*1$ 45?2(+<A 51
+$5>A58*C5;5 = *A /*1&2D** ;($A2. ` &? .5+$E+5 — 51 542/+$IZ$I, =5 C+5;5C
+$>F2;582(+5I (2>51<.

eK$ (27 458E$(.+$C, E15 (27=$8$+*$ * 4588$(?2+*$ 5;+@ — +$51k$CF$C<I NF$C$+1
(5//*I/.5I C&?/.5I .&FJ1&(<.
13.8. «9-C!(DH'! S'B%02B'» AC7 H02B%0E0[0:

- 4(* 51/&1/1=** C$F.*A /&A*A =$15. 8F@ (27?*;2+*@ A5(5Z5 */45FJ75=21J «F24Z&» *7
($7*+<, /($72++5I / .2>F&.5= 5>&=*;

- >$($/12, /+@12@ / ?*=5;5 8$($=2 (82 * / 45;*>Z$I >$($7< 15?$), +$($8.5, 72;5(2@/J,
/.(&E* =2$1/@ = (&F5+. ` = ($7&FJ121$ ;2/*1 /$>@ /2C2! g5F$$ 15;5, +$($8.5 /=5$I
8$R5(C2D*$I (27>(2/<=2$1 =2Z 1K21$FJ+5 /5/12=F$++<I C2F$+J.*I Z21$(. S58&C2I1$: .2.
*7>$?21J N15;5 NRR$.12?

14. a!%!0SC-8A!('!
14.1. a%'R'(P ' /!S-('6/ 4!%!0SC-8A!('7. X!B%0S0C0A0EPI '(A!H2
V8+*C *7 5/+5=+<A 45.2721$F$I &/15IE*=5/1* E$F5=$E$/.5;5 5(;2+*7C2 @=F@$1/@
45/15@+/1=5 1$C4$(21&(< =/$A 5(;2+5=, .2. =+&1($++*A, 12. * 45=$(A+5/1+<A, * (2=+5I, .2.
*7=$/1+5, b>,>°!. G5 4(2.1*E$/.* N15 5/&K$/1=*C5 F*ZJ = /F&E2$ $$ (2=$+/1=2 1$C4$(21&($
5.(&?29K$I /($8<. L5 =/$A 8(&;*A /F&E2@A 5(;2+*7C =<+&?8$+ 4(*+*C21J C$(< /
/551=$1/1=&9K*C* 721(212C* N+$(;**, E15 * 4(*=58*1 $;5 = *15;$ . 45F5?$+*9
51+5/*1$FJ+5I +$&/15IE*=5/1*.

[F@ /5A(2+$+*@ &/15IE*=5;5 /5/15@+*@ 5(;2+*7C2 E$F5=$. =<+&?8$+, (2/A58&@ 7242/<
N+$(;**, 4588$(?*=21J 45/15@++&9 1$C4$(21&(& +$ 15FJ.5 45=$(A+5/1* 1$F2, +5 * /F5@
=578&A2, +$45/($8/1=$++5 4(*C<.29K$;5 . +$C&, 12. +27<=2$C5I «1$4F5=5I =578&Z+5I
(&>2Z.*». ^15 4(5*/A58*1 72 /E$1 45/15@++5;5 *7F&E$+*@. b282E2: 72/12>*F*7*(5=21J,
/5A(2+*1J =578&Z+&9 (&>2Z.& +$458=*?+5I * /&A5I 8F@ 5>$/4$E$+*@ /5A(2+$+*@ 1$4F2 *
/5;($=2+*@.

#$C >5F$$ 5>k$C+2 58$?82 (Z$(/1J), E$C F&EZ$ 5+2 */15(;2$1 +2(&?& =F2;& (.5?2, C$A),
1$C F&EZ$ 5+2 =<45F+@$1 /=5* R&+.D**.

V/5>5 /F$8&$1 51C$1*1J 4(5D$//<, 4(5*/A58@K*$ +2 +$72K*K$++<A 58$?85I &E2/1.2A
1$F2. L578&Z+2@ (&>2Z.2 /5A(2+@$1/@ 15FJ.5 = /F&E2$ +$458=*?+5/1* 5.(&?29K$;5


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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 40

=578&A2. S(* C2F$IZ$C «=$1$(.$» 5(;2+*7C =<+&?8$+ *7F&E21J 8545F+*1$FJ+&9 45(D*9
1$4F2. V/5>$++5 N15 51+5/*1/@ . 5>F2/1* ;5F5=<. g5FJZ2@ 4F5K28J +$45.(<15;5 58$?85I
&E2/1.2 1$F2, >F*75/1J . 45=$(A+5/1* .5?* 5/5>5 =2?+<A 5(;2+5= (C57;), 51/&1/1=*$
458.5?+5I ?*(5=5I 4(5/F5I.* 4(*=58*1 . 15C&, E15, 45 +$.515(<C 82++<C, 85 70% 1$4F2
E$F5=$.2 *7F&E2$1/@ = 4(5/1(2+/1=5 E$($7 ;5F5=&. L51 * 4$(=$IZ2@ ($.5C$+82D*@ — E15
+&?+5 &1$4F@1J = 4$(=&9 5E$($8J?

G5 $/F* C2F$IZ*I =$1$(5. 4(*=58*1 . 12.*C /&K$/1=$++<C *7C$+$+*@C, 15 /F$8&$1
4(*7+21J 5/5>&9 (5FJ =$1(2 = 4(5D$//$ 4$($5AF2?8$+*@.

!&K$/1=&$1 /4$D*2FJ+2@, A5(5Z5 *7=$/1+2@ 45F@(+*.2C * F$1E*.2C Z.2F2 ?$/1.5/1*,
&.27<=29K2@ =F*@+*$ =$1(2 +2 5>+2?$++<$ 1.2+* .5?* E$F5=$.2 (12>F*D2 2).



b245C+*1J =/9 12>F*D& /F5?+5, 82 * +$ 1($>&$1/@. \5?+5 4($8F5?*1J &4(5K$++<I
(2/E$1 / ;2(2+1*$I 5Z*>.* +$ >5F$$ 5-8%: 8F@ 54($8$F$+*@ «?$/1.5/1*» 1$C4$(21&(<
=578&A2 85 -5°! . E*/F& «;(28&/5=» +$5>A58*C5 4(*>2=*1J E*/F5, (2=+5$ /.5(5/1* =$1(2 =
C//. S(* 1$C4$(21&($ +*?$ -5°! 4(*>2=F@$C &8=5$++5$ E*/F5, (2=+5$ /.5(5/1* =$1(2. L
*15;$ 45F&E2$1/@ D*R(2, A2(2.1$(*7&9K2@ «?$/1.5/1J», 4(*=$8$++&9 . «1*A5C&» C5(57&.

`7 F*E+5;5 54<12 2=15(2: 4$($C$/1*=Z*/J +2 /2C5F$1$ / #&.51.* +2 ,2IC<( 7*C5I,
4(* -45°! +$/.5FJ.5 8+$I /45.5I+5 A58*F >$7 (&.2=*D. S515C& E15 85 N15;5 4(5?*F 4@1J
C$/@D$= +2 #&.51.$ 4(* -15°!, +5 / =$1(5C /=<Z$ 20 C//. S(*=<.!

` $K$ 2=15( +$ C5?$1 &8$(?21J/@ 51 ($4F*.*: C5.(5$ Z5//$ +2 =$1(& = /&K+5/1*
28$.=21+5 5>+2?$++5C& .5?+5C& 45.(5=&. L51 * &8*=F@I1$/J, 2=15C5>*F*/1<, — 51.&82
4(* +5°! C5;F2 45@=*1J/@ +2 2/R2FJ1$ F$8@+2@ .5(5E.2?! ^15 &?$ — =+*C2+*9 ^.!.
n<;2+.5=2 [365].
14.2. N-%#`!('! B!4C0E0[0 %-E(0E!2'7

:2.5=< ?$ 5/+5=+<$ 72.5+5C$(+5/1* 1$(C5($;&F@D** 5(;2+*7C2 E$F5=$.2? ` .2.
4(5*/A58*1 4(5D$// «72C$(72+*@»? [306]

«,$4F2@ .(5=J 4(* 4$($5AF2?8$+** &/*F$++5 4(58=*;2$1/@ . 45=$(A+5/1+<C (.5?2) *
4$(*R$(*I+<C ((&.*, +5;*) &E2/1.2C 1$F2 * =57=(2K2$1/@ A5F58+5I. :5C4$+/2D*@
1$4F5451$(J 4(5*/A58*1, 45.2 7242/< N+$(;** +$ *//@.+&1. [(5?J 1$F2 — N15 454<1.2
5(;2+*7C2 72 /E$1 C*.(58=*?$+*I =<(2>5121J 8545F+*1$FJ+5$ 1$4F5 * &/.5(*1J (5>F$;E*1J)
8=*?$+*$ .(5=* — 4$(=2@ /128*@ 72C$(72+*@.

L15(2@ /128*@ — 8F@ .5C4$+/2D** 1$4F5451$(J +$5>A58*C5 4(*+@1J 8545F+*1$FJ+<$
C$(< 45 &=$F*E$+*9 /.5(5/1* 15.2 .(5=*. ^15 *+1$+/*=+5$, /4(5=5D*(5=2++5$ *7=+$
(2/Z*($+*$ /5/&85= (4(*$C =+&1(J 2F.5;5F@), =/$ *7=$/1+<$ /45/5>< &=$F*E$+*@ 4/*A5-
NC5D*5+2FJ+5;5 =57>&?8$+*@, = 15C E*/F$ R*7*E$/.*$ &4(2?+$+*@.
G$ /F$8&$1 72><=21J, E15 = N15C /F&E2$ .(5=J =57=(2K2$1/@ 51 45=$(A+5/1+<A 5(;2+5=
*7F*Z+$ 5AF2?8$++2@.

V8+2.5 4(* 82FJ+$IZ$C 4$($5AF2?8$+** 5(;2+*7C &?$ +$ /4(2=F@$1/@ / 28$.=21+<C

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 41


/5;($=2+*$C .(5=*, * =.F9E291/@ 8(&;*$ C$A2+*7C< — «51.F9E$+*$» (&C$+JZ$+*$ 15.2
.(5=*) . 4$(*R$(** (+5;*, (&.*). :(5=515. /5/($8515E*=2$1/@ = «C2F5C» .(&;$
.(5=55>(2K$+*@ (C57;, F$;.*$, /$(8D$, 4$E$+J)» [306].

(S(*45C*+2@, E$($7 .2.&9 E2/1J 1$F2 «&A58*1» ;F2=+<I 7242/ 1$4F2 (/C. ;F2=& 11),
4(*A58*C . 42(285./2FJ+5I +2 4$(=<I =7;F@8 ($.5C$+82D**: «C$(7+&1 +5;* — &1$4F@I
;5F5=&» (X=1.).

`12., +2/1&42$1 1($1J@ /128*@ 72C$(72+*@.

#$F5=$. 4$($/12$1 8(5?21J, $C& /12+5=*1/@ «A5(5Z5», «1$4F5», 4(*@1+5 .(&?*1/@
;5F5=2, =57+*.2$1 ?$F2+*$ F$EJ * 5185A+&1J.

e/F* 15=2(*K* >&8&1 72/12=F@1J $;5 8=*;21J/@ * 82?$ 15(C5Z*1J, 8=*;21J * (2/1*(21J,
15 ($7&FJ121 C5?$1 5.2721J/@ 1(2;*E+<C.

!.5(5/1J 5/1<=2+*@ ($7.5 45=<Z2$1/@, 45N15C& 82FJ+$IZ2@ 2.1*=+5/1J 15FJ.5 */15K*1
5(;2+*7C * &/&;&>*1 451$(* 1$4F2.

S5N15C& 7245C+*1$: 45/1(282=Z$;5, .515(<I 4$($/12F 8(5?21J, +* = .5$C /F&E2$ +$FJ7@
(2/1*(21J, 8=*;21J * 72/12=F@1J 8=*;21J/@, 12. .2. 4$(=<C NRR$.15C N1*A 8$I/1=*I >&8$1
4(*15. A5F58+5I .(5=* 51 4$(*R$(** . D$+1(2FJ+5I 75+$ * 82FJ+$IZ$$ 428$+*$
1$C4$(21&(<, 5AF2?8$+*$ C57;2 * /$(8D2 (=4F51J 85 $;5 5/12+5=.*). L ($7&FJ121$ +2/1&42$1
12. +27<=2$C2@ «/C$(1J 4(* /42/$+**».

(`/A58@ *7 4(*+D*45= C$158*.* ^L, C< +$ C5?$C 82=21J 724($1*1$FJ+<A ($.5C$+82D*I.
V8+2.5 4($8/12=J1$ C$A2+*7C «45F5?*1$FJ+5;5» =578$I/1=*@ +2 5(;2+*7C, . 4(*C$(&,
2F.5;5F@ * /4(5;+57*(&I1$ $;5 /1(2++&9 «NRR$.1*=+5/1J» +2 N15I /128**.)

V/+5=+5I *, 45?2F&I, $8*+/1=$++<I /45/5> /42/$+*@ — «C$8F$++5$» (85 3—6 E2/5=)
/5;($=2+*$. V .5+.($1+<A ($.5C$+82D*@A +*?$.


14.3. i0C0A0EPI `0H

L 4&1*, 4(* 4$($8=*?$+** = C5.(5I 58$?8$ =2/ C5?$1 458/1$($EJ 12. +27<=2$C<I
A5F585=<I Z5.. ^15 /=5$5>(27+2@ 45;(2+*E+2@ /128*@ C$?8& =15(5I * 1($1J$I /128*@C*
72C$(72+*@.

V+ =57+*.2$1 4(* 8F*1$FJ+5C (85 +$/.5FJ.*A E2/5= *F* /&15.) +2A5?8$+** 4(* 4F9/5=5I
(!) (5.5F5+4... + 10!°) 1$C4$(21&($, = &/F5=*@A 4$($&=F2?+$++5;5 =578&A2, 2 12.?$
*+1$+/*=+5I (2>51< / >5FJZ*C* 1$4F5-451$(@C*. #2/15 +2>F982$1/@ 4(* 8F*1$FJ+<A
454<1.2A /5;($1J/@ 72 /E$1 8=*?$+*@, 1$C >5F$$ =</&Z*1J C5.(&9 58$?8& «+2 /$>$».

c5F585=<I Z5. +2>F982$1/@ = =*8$ .(21.5=($C$++5;5 «51.F9E$+*@» C<ZD +2
.5+$E+5/1@A. L ($?*C$ «45.5@» (+2 /15@+.$) N151 5E$+J =2?+<I C5C$+1 C5?+5 * +$
72C$1*1J. S(* 51=$1/1=$++5I ?$ (2>51$ +$5?*82++5 (27?2=Z2@/@ (&.2 (458=$(+&=Z2@/@
+5;2) C5?$1 /121J 4(*E*+5I 1(2;$8**.

:5+1(5F*(&I1$ /$>@ * /=5*A >F*7.*A. L N15C — /2C5/42/$+*$!

14.4. d!A7(0I `0H

G2>F982$1/@ 4(* +$5?*82++5C 454282+** = A5F58+&9 =58& (0... +4!°), 4(* 5/5>5
*+1$+/*=+<A 1$4F5451$(@A. c2(2.1$(*7&$1/@ 5/12+5=.5I /$(8D2 +2 5-6-I C*+&1$
+2A5?8$+*@ = =58$.

S(*E*+< 82++5;5 @=F$+*@ /F2>5 *7&E$+<, 45N15C&, =<8=*+&= $K$ = 1989 ;. ;*451$7&,
2=15( $$ * 4(*8$(?*=2$1/@: $/1J +$54(5=$(?*C<$ 82++<$ 5 15C, E15 ?$+/.*I 5(;2+*7C
>5F$$ 4(*/45/5>F$+ . 8F*1$FJ+5C& 4($><=2+*9 = 4585>+<A &/F5=*@A (7+2C$+*12@ a*++
:5./ (!iX) 4$($4F<F2 = 1987 ;. g$(*+;5= 4(5F*=, 2 /4&/1@ ;58 — g2I.2F. \&?E*+2C
5/12=2F5/J 15FJ.5 72=*85=21J * /.(5C+5 458(2?21J).

:2. *7=$/1+5, «C5(?*A*» = 4(5(&>* E&=/1=&91 /$>@ ;5(2785 >5F$$ &=$($++5, +$?$F*
«/*FJ+<I 45F». V>k@/+@91 N151 NRR$.1 5><E+5 +2F*E*$C >5F$$ (27=*15I, E$C & C&?E*+,
458.5?+5I ?*(5=5I 4(5/F5I.5I.

eK$ 58*+, +2 N151 (27 4$E2FJ+<I 4(*C$(, 4581=$(?829K*I N1& ;*451$7&: =5 =($C@
=5I+< +2 /$=$(+<A C5(@A 4(* ;*>$F* /&85= /42/21$F*, 4(*><=Z*$ E$($7 +$/.5FJ.5
8$/@1.5= C*+&1, *7=F$.2F* *7 =58< C2//& 45;*>Z*A C&?E*+ = /42/?*F$12A, ?$+K*+,
4582=2=Z*A 4(*7+2.* ?*7+* * =45/F$8/1=** /42/$++<A / 45C5KJ9 *+1$+/*=+5I 1$(24**.


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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 42


L F*1$(21&($ =<8=*;2$1/@ 4($845F5?$+*$, E15 «F$8@+5I Z5.» =<7<=2$1/@
4$($5AF2?8$+*$C ;5F5=+5;5 C57;2. G5 /(2=+$+*@ C&?E*+ * ?$+K*+ +$ 4(*=58@1/@. X=15(
+2 5/+5=2+** /5>/1=$++5;5 54<12 * >$/$8 / &E2/1+*.2C* /5><1*I =<8=*;2$1 /=59 (2>5E&9
;*451$7&.

G5 4($?8$ /F$8&$1 51C$1*1J, E15 1$C2 N12 = (5//*I/.5I .&FJ1&($ 1(28*D*5++5
/E*12$1/@ «72.(<15I», A51@ * 5>K$*7=$/1+5I — 4(*$C< /5;($=2+*@ * 5.272+*@ 45C5K*,
/=@72++<$ / 45F5=5I /R$(5I * /551=$1/1=&9K*C* R&+.D*@C* E$F5=$.2. L `+8** * =
+$.515(<A 72428+<A /1(2+2A N15 4(*+@15 5>/&?821J 51.(<15, = 4(2=5/F2=+<A, 2 1$C >5F$$
C&/&FJC2+/.*A .&FJ1&(2A N15 /E*12$1/@ .5K&+/1=5C. ^15 .2/2$1/@ * +$.515(<A 4(*$C5=
5.272+*@ 85=(2E$>+5I C$8*D*+/.5I 45C5K*.

5=5(*1J 5> N15C 51.(<15 — ;($A! G5 +$ >5FJZ*I F* ;($A 7+21J, =*8$1J, .2. /1(282$1
E$F5=$., * C5FE21J?!

[F@ 4(2=*FJ+5;5 =5/4(*@1*@ 1($>&$1/@ 5K&K$+*$ E&=/1=2 85F;2, 54($8$F$++5;5 12.12
*, .5+$E+5 ?$, 9C5(2! ` «;$(5I/1=&@» = A5F58+5I =58$, +$5>A58*C5 1=$(85 7+21J 4($8$F<
/=5*A =57C5?+5/1$I. :2. C&?E*+2C, 12. * ?$+K*+2C! S5/F$8+*C +$ /F$8&$1 *7F*Z+$
45/<F21J /=5*A (<D2($I +2 «458=*;*»!

L55>K$ N1* 72+@1*@ 85F?+< 4($8=2(@1J/@ .&(/5C +(2=/1=$++5;5, 45F5=5;5 =5/4*12+*@.
V8+2.5 54@1J ?$ / &E$15C (5//*I/.5I 8$I/1=*1$FJ+5/1* * 1$C >5F$$ 1(28*D*5++<A
C5(2FJ+<A +5(C.

F2=+2@ 4(*E*+2 (27F*E+5;5 =578$I/1=*@ A5F58+5I =58< +2 C&?/.5I * ?$+/.*I 5(;2+*7C
— = (27F*E** /1(5$+*@ C&?/.*A * ?$+/.*A =+$Z+*A 45F5=<A 5(;2+5=. G2 */A58$ 4@15I-
Z$/15I C*+&1< +2A5?8$+*@ = F$8@+5I =58$ =57+*.2$1 ($7.2@, 42(2F*7&9K2@ >5FJ =
C5Z5+.$. VE$+J =$(5@1+5, E15 *C$++5 N12 >5FJ C5?$1 ><1J 4(*E*+5I 5/12+5=.* /$(8D2.

G24(2Z*=291/@ /1(2++<$ +2 4$(=<I =7;F@8 ($.5C$+82D** 8F@ /42/21$F$I — *7 F$8@+5I
=58< 4$(=<C* 85F?+< ><1J *7=F$E$+< C&?E*+<. [F@ ?$+K*+< +$/.5FJ.5 F*Z+*A C*+&1
+*E$;5 +$ ($Z291, 8F@ C&?/.5;5 5(;2+*7C2 5+* C5;&1 5.2721J/@ (5.5=<C*.

S(* 454282+** = A5F58+&9 =58& =2/ 54@1J ?$ C5?$1 /42/1* 1=$(82@ &=$($++5/1J, E15 &
=2/ A=21*1 /*F * /42/21J =2/ >&8&1 =/$ (2=+5. S5N15C&, «+$ 8$(;2@/J», 82?$ &?$ +2A58@/J =
=58$, C5?+5 E2/1J9 /+@15I 58$?8< &1$4F*1J ;5F5=&, 5/5>$++5 721<F5E+&9 E2/1J *
5>F2/1J 42A2. S(* 45F+5C 51/&1/1=** 4($8=2(*1$FJ+<A C$( C5?+5, +$ 4($.(2K2@ (2>51&
58+5I (&.5I, 8(&;5I /5;($=21J 5>F2/1J 42A2. ` 82?$ 4(*C$+*1J /4$D*2FJ+<I C2//2? 8F@
&/*F$+*@ NRR$.12 /5.(2K$+*@ (* «=1@;*=2+*@ =+&1(J») =+$Z+*A 45F5=<A 5(;2+5= 4(* 5A-
F2?8$+**.

G5 $/F* 82?$ (+$ 82I g5;!) 5/12+5=.2 /$(8D2 & =2Z$;5 15=2(*K2 4(5*75ZF2, +$
1$(@I1$/J * 4(*/1&42I1$ . /$(8$E+5-F$;5E+5I ($2+*C2D** [903].

14.5. aC-E-('! E VH2B%!/-CD(PS 2'B#-U'7S

:2. N15 +* 4$E2FJ+5, +5 4(2.1*E$/.* =/$ C$158*E$/.*$ ($.5C$+82D** 45 5>&E$+*9
4F2=2+*9 8F@ .&(/2 Vgj >27*(&91/@ +2 4(*$C2A /45(1*=+5;5 4F2=2+*@, D$FJ9 .515(5;5
@=F@$1/@, .2. *7=$/1+5, C2./*C2FJ+2@ /.5(5/1J.

!5=$(Z$++5 5E$=*8+5, E15 4582=F@9K$$ >5FJZ*+/1=5 ^! /=@72+< /5 /F&E2I+<C
428$+*$C = =58&! ,5 $/1J = 58$?8$, 2 *+5;82 (+2 5A51$) * = (<>2D.*A /245;2A /
51=5(512C*. g5F$$ 15;5, = 5/$++$-7*C+*I 4$(*5 8 —= =21+5I (C$A5=5I) 58$?8$.

S54(5>&I1$ = =58$ (278$1J/@! G5 82?$ $/F* &82/1/@ N15 /8$F21J, E15 =< >&8$1$ 8$F21J
4515C +2 >$($;& >$7 58$?8<?
















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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 43



















,$4$(J 45;5=5(*C 5 /42/21$FJ+<A ?*F$12A. S(* &/F5=** Z1*F@ 5+ *8$2F$+, +5
/4$D*2F*/1<, (2>5129K*$ +2 C5($, &1=$(?8291: 4(* Z15(C5=5I =5F+$ =</515I >5F$$ 0,6-
0,8 C$1(2 (/ ;($>+@C*->2(2Z.2C*) 458;515=F$++<I, A5(5Z5 4F2=29K*I C&?E*+2 >$7
/42/?*F$12 (4(* 1$C4$(21&($ =58< >5F$$ 20 ;(28&/5= !) /45/5>$+ 4(58$(?21J/@ +2
45=$(A+5/1* 85 4 E2/5=. S(* +2F*E** ?$ /42/?*F$12 — +$ >5F$$ 58+5;5 E2/2!..

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85;28<=2$1/@, E15 458 ;($>$+J =5F+< C5?+5 4(5/15 458+<(*=21J. ! 8=&C@-1($C@
45F+5D$++<C* =85A2C*-=<85A2C* C$?8& =5F+2C*. S(* +2F*E** ?$ /42/?*F$12
458+<(*=2+*$ 4(2.1*E$/.* +$=57C5?+5.

[2F$$. VA51+*., F*>5 (<>2. = F58.$, +2A58*1/@ = 1$F5;($I.$ * (<>2D.*A /245;2A. V8+5
+$5/15(5?+5$ 8=*?$+*$ — * 5+ 72 >5(15C. L582 $K$ +$ A5F58+2@, 85 >$($;2 15—20 C$1(5=,
5+ 1($7=, /2C 51F*E+5 4F2=2$1. V8+2.5 E$($7 10—15 /$.&+8 *8$1 +2 8+5! S5E$C&?

S(*E*+2 — = +$4(2=*FJ+5I (2>51$ +5;. S(2.1*E$/.* =/$ C$158*E.* 45 5>&E$+*9
/45(1*=+5C& 4F2=2+*9 5;(5C+5$ =+*C2+*$ * /551=$1/1=$++5 &E$>+5$ =($C@ &8$F@91
&C$+*9 (2>5121J +5;2C*, .2. «+5?+*D2C*». S(* /45(1*=+5C 4F2=2+**, .2. &?$
;5=5(*F5/J, N15 +$5>A58*C5 8F@ &=$F*E$+*@ /.5(5/1*.

X = ^!? `C$++5 4(* /1($//$, E$F5=$., A5(5Z5 5>&E$++<I /45(1*=+5C& 4F2=2+*9,
«=.F9E2$1» /=59 «C515(+&9 42C@1J» * +$5/57+2++5 +2E*+2$1 8=*;21J +5;2C*-+5?+*D2C*.
S(* +2F*E** ?$ /245; (1$C >5F$$ (<>2D.*A) N15 28$.=21+5 =.F9E$+*9 «5>(21+5;5 =*+12». `
E$F5=$. /2C /$>@ 8=*?$+*$C +5; 721@;*=2$1 458 =58&.

L<A58 /2C /5>5I +2A58*1/@ & +$5>&E$++<A. [=2-1(* 8=*?$+*@ +5;2C* «45-F@;&Z2EJ*» —
* E$F5=$. 45+*C2$1 >$/45F$7+5/1J N15;5 8=*?$+*@. V+ 4(5/15 /?*C2$1 =<1@+&1<$ +5;* * /
45C5KJ9 58+*A 15FJ.5 (&., / C*+*C2FJ+5I /.5(5/1J9, +5 &=$($++5 8=*;2$1/@ . >$($;&.
a*>5 . F58.$, 45 5>/15@1$FJ/1=2C.

S5 N15I /2C5I 4(*E*+$ 8$($=$+/.*$ ?*1$F*, +*.5;82 +$ 5>&E2=Z*$/@ /45(1*=+5C&
4F2=2+*9, 15+&1 = 58$?8$ +2C+5;5 ($?$, E$C ;5(58/.*$, 4(5Z$8Z*$ = /=5$ =($C@
/551=$1/1=&9K*I .&(/ = >2//$I+2A.

:/121*, =5 =($C@ &E$>+5-1($+*(5=5E+<A 72+@1*I N151 4(58$C5+/1(*(5=2++<I NRR$.1
+$($8.5 =<7<=2$1 51.(5=$++5$ 451(@/$+*$ 82?$ & /4$D*2F*/15=. X 8$1* &/1(2*=291 *7
N15;5 *;(& * 5>&E291/@ 4F2=2+*9 = 58$?8$ * 5>&=* >&.=2FJ+5 72 +$/.5FJ.5 C*+&1 [243].

S(*C$E2+*$: .5+$E+5, N151 C$158 ;58*1/@ */.F9E*1$FJ+5 8F@ *+8*=*8&2FJ+5;5 5>&E$+*@!


14.6. F!H0/!(A-U'' 40 4C-E-('Z E S0C0A(0I E0A!

F2=+5$ — 4($585F$1J = 4$(=<I C5C$+1 5K&K$+*$ >$7</A58+5/1* 51 51/&1/1=*@
/551=$1/1=&9K$I 1($+*(5=.*. L.!.:2K$$= = 12.*A /F&E2@A ($.5C$+8&$1: «G$
4$($=5(2E*=21J/@ +2 /4*+&, $/F* /+2(@?$+*$ = 5>F2/1* Z$* * ;5F5=< *C$$1 +$85/1215E+&9
1$4F5*75F@D*9, +$ 8$F21J 454<15. &8$(?21J/@ = ;5(*75+12FJ+5C 45F5?$+**, 12. .2.
4$(*58*E$/.5$ 45;(&?$+*$ ;5F5=<, +$*7>$?+5$ = N15C /F&E2$, &=$F*E*=2$1 1$4F5451$(*.

«N» 5>$/4$E*=2$1 >$7542/+5/1J 72 /E$1 72(2+$$ 4(*;515=F$++5;5 /+2(@?$+*@
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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 44

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 45

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 46

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/=5$;5 15=2(*K2, 12. .2. 5+ =*8$F, E$C >< ;(57*F5 45=$8$+*$ *+5$. P27;F2Z$+*$ ?$
458(5>+5/1$I 72 4($8$F2C* 82++5I ;(&44< C5?$1 4(*=$/1* . /&K$/1=$++<C .5+RF*.12C
= 82FJ+$IZ$C.

S5N15C& */1*++2@ /=5>582 45=$8$+*@, 2 7+2E*1, * 5;(5C+<I 7242/ 4(5E+5/1*
«8$@1$FJ+5/1+5I ;(&44<» 72.F9E2$1/@ = /=@15C /5>F98$+** «12I+<» (45 2+2F5;** /
12I+5I =(2E$>+5I), = &=$($++5/1* =/$A >$7 */.F9E$+*@ = 15C, E15 $;5 F*E+2@ 12I+2 >&8$1
/5A(2+$+2!

` 2=15( 458E$(.*=2$1: 4(*+D*4*2FJ+5 +$=$(+5 = (5//*I/.*A &/F5=*@A &1=$(?8$+*$
«...82FJZ$ ($Z21J ?$+K*+2C...» `C$++5 C&?E*+2 .2. (&.5=58*1$FJ (R5(C2FJ+<I *F*
+$R5(C2FJ+<I — +$=2?+5) 85F?$+ 5>$/4$E*1J /5A(2+$+*$ /=@15I 12I+< ?$+K*+< —
/42/*1$FJ+*D<. g5F$$ 15;5, $/F* 5+2, /42/*1$FJ+*D2, +$ >&8$1 &=$($+2 = /=5$I 12I+$, 15,
/.5($$ =/$;5, 4(*=$8$++2@ =<Z$ C$158*.2 5.2?$1/@ +$NRR$.1*=+5I!
^15 ?$ /2C5$ /F$8&$1 &E*1<=21J * 4(* 72+@1*@A 45 .5+RF*.15F5;**, = .515(<A +$($8.5
(2/.(<=291/@ +$ C$+$$ *+1*C+<$ 12I+< 8&Z* E$F5=$E$/.5I. X >$7 (2/.(<1*@ *A +2
72+@1*@A 82?$ 1K21$FJ+5 458;515=F$++<$ * 4(5=$8$++<$ 1($+2?* C5;&1 =<7=21J F*ZJ
+$85&C$+*$.

14.10. <CH0[0CD ' 20[%!E-('!

!45(< 5 45FJ7$ * =($8$ 2F.5;5F@ +$ 4($.(2K291/@. g5FJZ*+/1=5 ($.5C$+82D*I
.21$;5(*E$/.* 51(*D2$1 =57C5?+5/1J /5;($=2+*@ 12.*C /45/5>5C = /F5?+5I /*1&2D**.

,$C +$ C$+$$ 2F.5;5FJ C5?+5 ($.5C$+85=21J +2 =15(5I /128** 72C$(72+*@, 58+2.5
/F$8&$1 &E*1<=21J /F$8&9K$$.

b245C+*1$, E15 2F.5;5FJ @=F@$1/@ NF$C$+15C .&FJ1&(< */.F9E*1$FJ+5 8F@ E$F5=$.2 /
«8$@1$FJ+5/1+5I» 4/*A5R*7*5F5;*$I. [F@ 5/12FJ+<A ?$ 5+ .(2I+$ (27(&Z*1$F$+.

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 47

V/5>5 2F.5;5FJ (27(&Z*1$F$+ 8F@ .5($++<A /$=$(+<A +2(585=, R*7*5F5;*@ 5(;2+*7C2
.515(<A =55>K$ +$ 4($8&/C21(*=2$1 (2/K$4F$+*@ &;F$=585= (A51@ * ?*=&1 5+* = 5/+5=+5C
45 8$@1$FJ+5/1+5C& =2(*2+1&). S5N15C& 2F.5;5F*72D*@ & +*A C5?$1 *81* 45 «F2=*++5C&»
4(5D$//&.

:2. *7=$/1+5, 45F5?*1$FJ+5$ =F*@+*$ 2F.5;5F@ 72.F9E2$1/@ = (2/Z*($+** /5/&85= * .2.
/F$8/1=*$ — = &F&EZ$+** 15.2 .(5=*, 2 12.?$ = NC5D*5+2FJ+5C 458k$C$ = 45/F$8&9K*$
15—20 C*+&1. V8+2.5 5>2 N1*A NRR$.12 . */A58& 20—30 C*+&1 4(5A58@1 * /C$+@91/@
5>(21+<C — /&?$+*$C /5/&85= * 2421*$I (8$4($//*$I). V><E+5 = N151 C5C$+1 1($>&$1/@
+5=2@ 8572 2F.5;5F@. G5 =/F$8/1=*$ N15;5 C5?$1 +2/1&4*1J $;5 &;+$129K$$ 8$I/1=*$ +2
=</Z*$ 518$F< D$+1(2FJ+5I +$(=+5I /*/1$C<. S5/F$8/1=*@ +$1 /C</F2 54*/<=21J.

S(*C$+@1J 2F.5;5FJ *F* +$1 — ($Z21J = *15;$ 54@1J ?$ /2C5C&.

U45C*+2$C<$ /5C+$+*@ = 45FJ7$ F*>5 =5 =($8$ 2F.5;5F@ C5?+5 (27=$@1J *7=$/1+5I
(5//*I/.5I 45/F5=*D$I: «:15 4J@+, 82 &C$+ — 8=2 &;58J@ = +$C».

S5N15C& /5;($=2+*$ 4(*$C5C =+&1(J 2F.5;5F@ C5?$1 ><1J ($.5C$+85=2+5 4(*
=57C5?+5/1* 45C$K$+*@ 45/1(282=Z$;5 +2 4$(*58 8$4($//** = 1$4F5$ 45C$K$+*$. a*>5 +2
N151 4$(*58 (30—40 C*+.) 724F2+*(5=21J *+1$+/*=+&9 (2>51& (4(* +2F*E** &
45/1(282=Z$;5 785(5=5;5 /$(8D2 * F$;.*A).

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/15F5=<$ F5?.* /4*(12 +2 .(&?.& .($4.5;5 E29). S$(=*E+<I NRR$.1 4(2.1*E$/.* 151 ?$,
8$4($//*@ ?$ =<(2?2$1/@ C*+*C2FJ+5. G5 N15, $/1$/1=$++5, */.F9E*1$FJ+5 4(* +2F*E**
5;+@.

15. a0A-R- 2'[(-C0E 5!A2BE'7

15.1 @240CD60E-('! 24!U'-CD(0[0 2(-%78!('7

S(* +2F*E** 4($8=2(*1$FJ+5I 458;515=.* /2C5$ +28$?+5$ /($8/1=5 — 4*(51$A+*.2
[322]. L51 E15 45 N15C& 45=58& ;5=5(*1/@ & X. X. `FJ$*E$=2:

«\2F5 +2I8$1/@ 2=2(*I+<A +2>5(5=, = .5C4F$.1 .515(<A +$ =A58*F* >< 58+2 *F*
+$/.5FJ.5 42(2Z91+<A (2.$1. !&K$/1=&$1 C+5?$/1=5 1*45= /*;+2FJ+<A, 5/=$1*1$FJ+<A *
8(&;*A (2.$1 (58+5- * C+5;5- 7=$785E+<A, .(2/+<A, >$F<A, 7$F$+<A * 1. 8.),
4($8+27+2E$++<A 8F@ 2=2(*I+5I * 4(5E$I /*;+2F*72D**, 5/=$K$+*@, 8(&;*A
&7.5/4$D*2FJ+<A D$F$I.

!*;+2F5C >$8/1=*@ 4(*+@15 /E*121J 58+& *F* +$/.5FJ.5 @(.5-.(2/+<A *F* C2F*+5=<A
7=$785E$., =<4&/.2$C<A 4558*+5E.$ E$($7 .5(51.*$ 4(5C$?&1.* =($C$+* / 45C5KJ9
4*/15F$12-(2.$1+*D<, *F* 85F;*I .(2/+<I /=$1 4F2+*(&9K$I 42(2Z91+5I (2.$1<.

:2. /*;+2F >$8/1=*@ C5;&1 ><1J */15F.5=2+< 5;+* F9><A 8(&;*A (2.$1, =<4&/.2$C<$
/$(*@C*, 45 1(* Z1&.*, / +$>5FJZ*C* *+1$(=2F2C* C$?8& =</1($F2C* ((*/.22)».
S(5/1$IZ$$ /*;+2FJ+5$ 7$(.2F5 C5?+5 *7;515=*1J *7 5145F*(5=2++5I / 8=&A /15(5+ 85
7$(.2FJ+5;5 >F$/.2 C$12FF*E$/.5I 4F2/1*+< (27C$(5C / .+*;& /($8+$;5 R5(C212. S5+@1+5,
E15 E$C F&EZ$ 5145F*(5=2+2 (2>5E2@ 45=$(A+5/1J 7$(.2F2, 1$C 82FJZ$ =*8$+ /=$15=5I
/*;+2F) L D$+1($ 4F2/1*+< 4(5>$I1$ .(&;F5$, 8*2C$1(5C 5—7 CC, 51=$(/1*$. L7@= 7$(.2F5,
.2. 45.272+5 +2 (*/&+.$ 23, E$($7 51=$(/1*$ +2>F982I1$ 72 /2C5F$15C (/&8+5C). G$ 1$(@@
5>k$.1 /F$?$+*@, 45=5(2E*=2I1$ 7$(.2F5 . /5F+D&. G2I8*1$ /=$15=5I >F*. (4(5A58@K*I
E$($7 51=$(/1*$ /5F+$E+<I F&E) +2 F*D$ *F* 58$?8$. b$(.2FJ+5$ 51(2?$+*$ >F*.2 +2
5>(21+5I 45=$(A+5/1* 7$(.2F2 /5=C$K2I1$ / 51=$(/1*$C. S(* /5=428$+** 51=$(/1*@ /
51(2?$++<C >F*.5C /=$15=5I /*;+2F +24(2=F$+ +2 /2C5F$1.

#$F5=$., 5>F2829K*I /4$D*2FJ+<C
7+2+*$C, C5?$1 =<&E*1J 12>F*D& .585=<A
/*;+2F5= 8F@ F$1E*.5=, .515(<$ $/1J
4(2.1*E$/.* =5 =/$A C$158*E.2A 45
=<?*=2+*9 [322].






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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 48


15. 2. +'[(-CP 5!A2BE'7, 40A-E-!/P! gC-[0/, 6!%H-C0/, H02B%0/

e/F* =< +28$$1$/J +2 4(*F$1 /42/21$FJ+5;5 =$(15F$12 *F* /2C5F$12, =2C +$5>A58*C5
458;515=*1J/@ . 4582E$ /*;+2F2 >$8/1=*@. ! =578&A2 E$F5=$.2 +2 7$CF$ 72C$1*1J +$F$;.5.
G$5>A58*C5 45C5EJ F$1E*.&-+2>F9821$F9.

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(/2C5F$12) 45=$/*1J RF2; +2 8F*++<I Z$/1-&85E.& * (27C2A*=21J *C.

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/5F+$E+<I 8$+J =< C5?$1$ 45/F21J +2 /2C5F$1 «72IE*.». S(*D$F*1J/@ = /2C5F$1 4(5/15:
+$5>A58*C5 =</12=*1J =4$($8 F$=&9 (&.& / 458+@1<C ==$(A >5FJZ*C 42FJD$C. `,
&8$(?*=2@ /2C5F$1 «+2 C&Z.$» >5FJZ5;5 42FJD2, 7$(.2F5C 51 F*D2 +$5>A58*C5 45/<F21J
«72IE*.» +2 /2C5F$1. !F$8*1J, E15>< +5;51J 42FJD2 45/15@++5 5/=$K2F/@ «72IE*.5C» 51
7$(.2F2 ((*/. 24).

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/2C5F$12 /+@15I / /$>@ 58$?85I, 4(*=F$EJ =+*C2+*$ F$1E*.2. b+29K*I 27>&.& \5(7$ 82?$
C5?$1 4$($821J /55>K$+*$ SOS (.../---/...).

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458 (&.5I 5A24.& /<(<A =$15. F*>5 /<(5I 1(2=< 8F@ /5782+*@ 8<C2.

V/5>5 51C$1*C: $/F* =2/ +$ 72C$1*F* — +$ 51E2*=2I1$/J. ` /+5=2
>&8J1$ ;515=< 4582=21J /*;+2F.

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F$1$1J 82FJZ$. G$ 5/&?82I1$ $;5! L57C5?+5, = 8(&;*A C$/12A /*1&2D*@
$K$ 1@?$F$$, E$C & =2/. S5IC*1$ /42/21$F@, 4(5/1*1$ * 45?$F2I1$ $C&
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85F;5=($C$++<I .5/1$(. ` 82F$$ — C$/15 8F@ +5EF$;2.



16. >50%#A0E-('! /!2B- AC7 (0RC![-
16.1. fH%PB'! 2 '240CD60E-('!/ 2(-%78!('7 ' 6-%-(!! 40C#R!((0[0
6(-('7

e/F* =< 72(2+$$ 4($8&/C51(*1$FJ+<, 15 =5/45FJ7&I1$/J /5=$15C g..
:&8(@Z5=2: *7 >($7$+15=5;5 1$+12 F*>5 4(5/15 *7 .&/.2 1.2+* * =$($=.*
C5?+5 *7;515=*1J 12.5$ &.(<1*$. G$ 72>&8J1$ /8$F21J =5.(&; +$;5 =585/15.
[332].



e/F* =< 5>F282$1$ 85/1215E+<C 7+2+*$C,
15 ($.5C$+8&$1/@ *7;515=F$+*$ /4$D*2FJ+5I
45/1$F* *7 /&A5I 1(2=< *F* .2C<Z2 .2.
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16.2. +(!8(P! #H%PB'7

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+2/1 8F@ *7;515=F$+*@ /+$?+<A .*(4*E$I->F5.5=, 15 = F$/& >5FJZ*+/1=2 (2I5+5= P5//**
+2/12 C5?$1 * +$ 5.2721J/@. ,$C >5F$$ E15 45/1(5I.2 *;F& — /F5?+2@ 2(A*1$.1&(+5-*+?$-
+$(+2@ 7282E2, 1($>&9K2@ 7+2E*1$FJ+5I 458;515=.*. ,5 $/1J 4(5/C21(*=2$1/@ @=+<I
4$($A58 = ($?*C ^U.


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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 49

S(* 51/&1/1=** 8$($=J$= &.(<1*$
C5?+5 *7;515=*1J *7 /+$?+<A .*(4*E$I
((*/. 27) * /+$?+<A 4F*1. ,(*-E$1<($
?$(8* /F&?21 5/+5=5I. L$/+5I /+$;2 $K$
85/1215E+5, 2 /+$?+<$ &.(<1*@ +$ 4(5-
8&=291/@ =$1(5C [367,244].

:5+$E+5, 4(* +2F*E** .5/1(2
=57C5?+2 «.24$FJ», 45N15C& +$ /F$8&$1
&/12+2=F*=21J ;5(*75+12FJ+<$ ?$(8* —
=582 >&8$1 /1$.21J 45 ;F28.5I =+&1($++$I
45=$(A+5/1*.

!+$?+<$ 4F*1< 4$($.(<1*@ /F$8&$1 8$F21J / .5/<C /($75C 8F@ &/15IE*=5/1* 4(*
45/1(5I.$. S(* +2F*E** =15(5;5 +2.212 4(5E+5/1J &=$F*E*=2$1/@.

VK&K$+*$ «.(<Z* +28 ;5F5=5I» * 51(2?$+*$ 1$4F2 / F*A=5I .5C4$+/*(&$1 C$F.*$
+$85/121.* 12.5;5 &.(<1*@.

[F@ $K$ >5F$$ N./1($C2FJ+<A /*1&2D*I 458A58*1 /5=$1 g. [N=*/2. (V>(2K2$C =2Z$
=+*C2+*$: & 2+;F*E2+*+2 >$($C /5=$1< 8F@ «8$@1$F@».)


«J» e/F* $/1J A51@ >< .&/5. 1.2+* F*>5 45F*N1*F$+2, 5/5>$++5 12C, ;8$ /+$?+<I
45.(5= /F*Z.5C 15+5., E15>< /1(5*1J *;F&, C5?+5 /55(&8*1J /+$?+<I &F$I.

1. G2>(5/2I1$ /+$; +2 .&45F *7 =$1=$I, 45.(<1<A 45F51+*K$C.

2. S5/F$ 15;5, .2. 15FK*+2 /+$;2 85/1*;+$1 4(*C$(+5 30 /C, 2..&(21+5 *7=F$.*1$ *7-458
/=582 =$1.* * 45F51+*K$.

3. b2>(2=Z*/J =+&1(J, 72.(5I1$ =A58 (9.72.5C *F* E$C-+*>&8J $K$ 85/1215E+5
5>k$C*/1<C. G$ 72>&8J1$ 5/12=*1J +$>5FJZ&9 K$FJ 8F@ =$+1*F@D**.

4. ^15 +5E+5$ &.(<1*$ &8*=*1$FJ+5 4(5E+5. l 8=2?8< /1(5*F 12.*$, * 5.272F5/J, E15
5+* /45/5>+< 4(5/15@1J +$8$F9. `C$$1 /C</F 451(&8*1J/@ * /8$F21J $;5 85/1215E+5
>5FJZ*C [313].

S(* 51/&1/1=** .2.5I-F*>5 1.2+* $$ C5?+5
72C$+*1J 4F51+5 /F5?$++<C $F5=<C F24+*.5C.

e/F* ?$ /+$?+<I 45.(5= +$=$F*., 8$($=J$= *
.&/15= +$1 (/1$4J F*>5 1&+8(2), +5 =< ?$F2$1$ =/$-
12.* 45/1(5*1J /+$?+<I 85C, =5/45FJ7&I1$/J
/5=$15C `.:.,545(5=2, 4(*=$8$++<C, .
/5?2F$+*9, >$7 &.272+*@ 4$(=5*/15E+*.2
(=57C5?+5, *7 F*E+5;5 54<12):

«L /*FJ+<I C5(57 C5?+5 45/1(5*1J
4(5/1$IZ&9 /+$?+&9 A*?*+& = (<AF5C /+$;&. [F@
N15;5 /+$; /;($>291 = .&E&, 45=$(A+5/1J $;5
&4F51+@91, 45F*=291 =585I * 8291 72C$(7+&1J.
b21$C /+$; *7 .&E* =<;($>291, 2 = 5/12=Z$C/@
.&45F$ 4(58$F<=291 C2F$+J.5$ 51=$(/1*$ 8F@
8<C5A582» [232].

S585>+<$ ?$ ($.5C$+82D** C< +2A58*C * &
`FJ*E$=2 [323]. [2 * =/45C+*C *7 8$1/1=2, $/F* 5+5
4(5A58*F5 = 8$($=+$, — (27=$ C2F5 C< /55(&8*F* =
/=5$ =($C@ /+$?+<A 4$K$( +2 &F*D$ =57F$ /=5$;5
85C2.

16.3. N0RC![ 4%' 0B2#B2BE'' 2(-%78!('7

:5+$E+5, C5?+5 «4(54F@/21J» +2 C5(57$ =57F$ .5/1(2 =/9 +5EJ. G5... ;515=< F* =<
>&8$1$ &1(5C 4(*+@1J 51=$1/1=$++5$ ($Z$+*$?

[F@ /4$D*R*E$/.*A (5//*I/.*A &/F5=*I ($.5C$+82D** «=<>*(21J C$/15 45/&Z$ *
451$4F$$» * 1$C >5F$$ «51.5421J 458 4F$E5 * >$8(5 @C.* = 7$CF$» [218,305,332] C5;&1
=<7=21J F*ZJ &F<>.&. [2?$ F$15C 45E=2, .2. 4(2=*F5, =F2?+2@. V 7*C+*A &/F5=*@A *
;5=5(*1J +$ 4(*A58*1/@. [2?$ 8$($=5, $/F* 5+5 +$ /&A5$, 28$.=21+5 A5F58+5C& .2C+9.


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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 50

!5+ +2 /<(5I * C$(7F5I 7$CF$ * +2 /=$?$C (/<(5C) 8$($=$ — N15 /=$(A*/4<12+*$ / 5E$+J
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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 51

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*/.F9E*1$FJ+5 +2 =</51$ +$ C$+$$ C$1(2. S($8/12=J1$ .5/1$( 12.5=5I .5+/1(&.D**?!).

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 52

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 53

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;5F582+*9, = 4(5D$//$ .515(5;5 =.F9E2$1/@ «45$82+*$» E$F5=$E$/.*C 5(;2+*7C5C
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S(* 8F*1$FJ+5C 4($><=2+** = 4(*(58+<A &/F5=*@A 5+ 45FJ7&$1/@ ;*;2+1/.*C 5>k$C5C
7+2+*I 45 4*12+*9 /k$85>+<C* (2/1$+*@C*.
«J» 12. ?$, .2. * «/57$(D21$FJ», */45FJ7&$1 «($7$(= 1($A /&15.» +$ 15FJ.5 8F@
/5782+*@ C2./*C2FJ+5;5 «7242/2 4(5E+5/1*», +5 * =57C5?+5;5 «=<A582 +2 >27&».

V+ 5/&K$/1=F@$1 45*/. (2/1*1$FJ+5I 4*K*, 2 4(* 5/1(5I +$5>A58*C5/1* 5(;2+*7&$1
5A51& * (<>+&9 F5=F9.

a$15C «&C$($1J 51 ;5F582» = F9>5C C$/1$ +2 4(*(58$ = P5//** 4(2.1*E$/.*
+$=57C5?+5.

[F@ /5782+*@ 4/*A5F5;*E$/.5I &/15IE*=5/1* =2?+5 +$ /15FJ.5 +2F*E*$ 4*K*, /.5FJ.5
/2C2 =57C5?+5/1J $$ 85><1J.

e/F* C@/+2@ 4*K2, .2. &?$ ;5=5(*F5/J, /2C585/1215E+2 /2C2 45 /$>$, 15 (2/1*1$FJ+&9
5>@721$FJ+5 +$5>A58*C5 1K21$FJ+5 4(*;515=*1J, /5>F9/1* «(*1&2F». V/5>$++5
($.5C$+8&$1/@ &;5K21J /=5*A /515=2(*K$I, 5>C$+*=2@/J 4*K$I. [2 * 8F@ /$>@,
«58*+5.5;5», +$ F$+*1$/J «.(2/*=5 4582=21J» 82?$ /2C<$ 4(*C*1*=+<$ 4(58&.1<. ^RR$.1
C+5;5.(21+5 &=$F*E*=2$1/@.

(L/45C+*C F$;$+82(+5$ «/&=5(5=/.5$»: «.../&A2(J 45/F$8+*I / >5ID5C 8$F*F...»
!5;F2/*1$/J, E15 +$ = =$F*E*+$ /&A2(@ 72.F9E2F2/J «72=1(2Z+@@ >5$;515=+5/1J»
/&=5(5=/.5;5 =5*+2.)

L 51F*E*$ 51 «/57$(D21$F@» «8$@1$FJ» (2/457+2$1 /k$85>+<$ (2/1$+*@ +$ 72 /E$1 7+2+*@, 2
/ 45C5KJ9 E&=/1=5=2+*@. S(*C$(: /12(<$ F98* *7-72 /F2>5/1* 7($+*@ (2/457+291 ;(*><
+$ 45 =*8&, 2 45 7242A&, 8$F@1 *A +2 «+2Z*» * «+$ +2Z*».


L F*1$(21&($ +$58+5.(21+5 ($.5C$+8&$1/@ +$7+2.5C<$ (2/1$+*@ &451($>F@1J = 4*K&
/F$8&9K*C 5>(275C:

«<...> - /k$/1J 2—3 ;(2CC2;
- 4(5/F$8*1J 72 /=5*C /2C5E&=/1=*$C = 1$E$+*$ 30—40 C*+.;
- = /F&E2$ 4(5@=F$+*@ ;5F5=5.(&?$+*@, >5F$I = ?$F&8.$, /F2>5/1* - =<7=21J (=51& *

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 54

5E*/1*1J ?$F&85.;
- = /F&E2$ 51/&1/1=*@ 51(*D21$FJ+<A 5K&K$+*I — &451($>F@1J = 4*K& /C$F5».313

L 8545F+$+*$ . =<Z$*7F5?$++5C& 4$($8 45$82+*$C 4*K* C$158*.2 ^L ($.5C$+8&$1:

- 45/F$ 4(5=$8$+*@ 4(5D$8&(< /2C5=+&Z$+*@ * 4(*+@1*@ ($Z$+*@ «>(21J +$ >(21J»
=7@1J 2-3 ;(2CC2 (2/1$+*@;
- 45F5?*1J +2 F285+J, 72.(<1J ;F272 * 45E&=/1=5=21J, «1$4F5» *F* «+$ 1$4F5»;
- $/F* «1$4F5», 15 4(*F5?*1J . K$.$ * =+5=J 5K&1*1J «1$4F5 – +$ 1$4F5»;
- 45+9A21J * 5D$+*1J;
- $/F* E&=/1=$++5;5 5115(?$+*@ +$1, /k$/1J;
- 82F$$ – /C. =<Z$.

UE*1<=2@, E15 5/5>5 542/+<$ +$/k$85>+<$ ;(*>< = P5//** 5;(2+*E*=291/@ >F$8+5I
45;2+.5I * C&A5C5(5C (+2 R5+$ >5F$$ E$C 60 =*85= /k$85>+<A), 2 (2/1$+*@ * @;58< -
>$F$+5I, «=5(5+J*C ;F275C» * =5FEJ$I @;585I, 4(* +2F*E** 1</@E =*85= 4(*;58+<A = 4*K&
=$(5@1+5/1J 82?$ 4F5A5;5 /2C5E&=/1=*@ 45/F$ 4$(=5;5 /k$8$+*@ — C*+*C2FJ+2!
(P$.5C$+8&$C 4(5=$/1* 4(2.1*E$/.*$ 72+@1*@ 45 82++5I 1$C$ * 82?$ /5($=+5=2+*@ —
54($8$F$+*$ /k$85>+5/1* / 72=@72++<C* ;F272C*.)


L 7*C+*A &/F5=*@A C5?+5 85><1J /F$8&9K&9 4*K& (45 C$($ 4*121$FJ+5/1*):

—&?$ &45C*+2=Z*I/@ =+&1($++*I /F5I .5(< F*/1=$++<A 8$($=J$= (82 *
A=5I+<A C5F58<A («72>5F5+J»);
—>$($75=<$ (*=5=<$) 45E.*;
—$F5=<$, /5/+5=<$ * 1$C >5F$$ .$8(5=<$ Z*Z.*;
—45E.* A=5I+<A 45(58 («/=$E*») (85/1*;291 C2./*C2FJ+5I =$F*E*+< = R$=(2F$
— C2(1$).

8!0A#(+0#: 82++2@ 4*K2, . /5?2F$+*9, *C$$1 /&K$/1=$++<I +$85/1215. — *7-72 +2F*E*@
8&>*FJ+<A =$K$/1= (5/5>$++5 — = >$($75=<A 45E.2A) +2;(&7.2 +2 4$E$+J 5E$+J
/&K$/1=$++2.V(;2+*7C 5><E+5 =<8$(?*=2$1 2-3 /&15., 721$C +2E*+2$1/@ 5115(?$+*$-
15Z+512 * (=512. «V>A*1(*1J» 5(;2+*7C C5?+5 / 45C5KJ9 K$451.* /5F*. V8+2.5 +2;(&7.2
+2 4$E$+J, $/1$/1=$++5, +$ /+*C2$1/@. S5N15C& 45 =57=(2K$+** *7 ^! 4($8&/C51(*1$,
45?2F&I/12, /4$D*2FJ+<$ 5E*/1*1$FJ+<$ 4(5D$8&(<.

P2/1*1$FJ+2@ 4*K2 8F@ «8$@1$F@» +$ 85;C2. S(* &82F$++5/1* 51 ?*FJ@ +$4&;2+&9 (<>&, .
4(*C$(&, C5?+5 45IC21J 45 C$158& (4($8+27+2E$++5C&, 45 C+$+*9 2=15(2, 8F@ «8$@1$F@»),
4($8F2;2$C5C& g. [N=*/5C [313]:

«h5($FJ =/1($E2$1/@ = 4(515E+5I =58$ * = +$.515(<A 57$(2A * =585$C2A,
4584*1<=2$C<A 4(515E+5I =585I. b2E2/1&9 N1* (<>< F$?21 >F*7.5 . >$($;&, ;8$ C5?+5
454(5>5=21J F5=*1J *A (&.2C* — /12(<I, 4(5=$($++<I /45/5>. [F@ N15;5 54&/1*1$ (&.* =
=58& +*?$ (<>< 45 1$E$+*9, 1.$. 45728* +$$. V/15(5?+5 * C$8F$++5 458=$8*1$ (&.& .
(<>$, =85FJ $$ >(9A2, 2 721$C . $$ ?2>(2C ((*/.37).

a5=F@ R5($F* (&.2C* — 8$F5 85=5FJ+5 +$(=+5$, +5 45/12(2I1$/J 8$(?21J /=5* +$(=< =
&78$, .5;82 4(*.2/2$1$/J . (<>$ 42FJD2C*. e/F* 5+* +$ (2//F2>F$+< 45F+5/1J9, =2C 1(&8+5
>&8$1 *7>$?21J +$=5FJ+5;5 =78(2;*=2+*@ 4(* 4$(=5C 4(*.5/+5=$+**; N15 =/4&;+$1 (<>&.
<...>
g</1(<C, +5 4F2=+<C 8=*?$+*$C =<>(5/J1$ (<>& *7 =58< +2 >$($;* ((*/. 38).

17.3. a%!0A0C!('! R#E2BE- [0C0A-

:2. &?$ ;5=5(*F5/J, 85 1($A /&15.
=7(5/F<I 785(5=<I E$F5=$. C5?$1
5>A58*1J/@ >$7 4*K* (8$1* — E&1J
C$+JZ$), +$ 1$(@@ (2>515/45/5>+5/1*. b2
N15 =($C@ C5?+5 C+5;5$ &/4$1J. G5 .2.
«&/C*(*1J» ?$F&85.? P$.5C$+82D** 45
458;515=.$ . ;5F582+*9 /4(2=$8F*=<
*/.F9E*1$FJ+5 8F@ ($?*C2 ^U. [F@ ^!
?$ 4(*8$1/@ 8$I/1=5=21J *+8*=*8&2FJ+5.

«N» C&?$/1=$++5 4($585F$=2$1 E&=/1=5 ;5F582, 4($845F2;2@, E15 45 =57=(2K$+** *7 ^!
>&8&1 4($8/12=F$+< =($C@ * /($8/1=2 +2 8F*1$FJ+<$ =5//12+5=*1$FJ+<$ 4(5D$8&(<.



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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 55

«+» 4&1$C C$8*12D** * C*+*C2FJ+5;5 ($2;*(5=2+*@ +2 /*1&2D*9 /=58*1 N+$(;$1*E$/.*$
721(21< 5(;2+*7C2 . C*+*C&C&. X.&4($//&(+<C =578$I/1=*$C +2 +$.515(<$ «15E.*» /=5$;5
1$F2 5+ +$I1(2F*7&$1 R*7*5F5;*E$/.5$ 5K&K$+*$ ;5F582, «4$($.F9E2$1» 5(;2+*7C +2
=+&1($++$$ 4*12+*$ 72 /E$1 «/?*;2+*@» ?*(5=<A * 8(&;*A 1.2+$I.

L45/F$8/1=** 5+ 4(5=58*1 5E*/1*1$FJ+<$ 4(5D$8&(< .*Z$E+*.2 / 45C5KJ9
458(&E+<A /($8/1= (5E*/1*1$FJ+&9 .F*7C& C5?+5 *7;515=*1J *7 1<.=< * +$=</&Z$++5I
7$F$+5I .2C<Z5=5I 1(&>.*).

«J»4($585F$+*$ E&=/1=2 ;5F582 +$ 4($8&/C21(*=2$1, 12. .2. /E*12$1, E15 NF$C$+12(+&9
4*K& C5?+5 85><1J = F9><A &/F5=*@A. \2./*C2FJ+5 */45FJ7&$1/@ «($7$(= 1($A /&15.».

L54(5/ «>(21J — +$ >(21J» & C21$(*-4(*(58< — .F9E$=5I 8F@ «8$@1$F@». V1=$1 4(5/1:
$/F* $/1J &;(572 ?*7+*, >$(*1$ /15FJ.5, /.5FJ.5 /5E1$1$ +&?+<C. G5 «+$ >5F$$, E$C C5?$1$
/k$/1J»! ` >$(*1$ +$ / E&=/1=5C «A5F58+5I» +$5>A58*C5/1*, 2 «= 85F;».

X 45 =57=(2K$+** *7 ^! +2I8*1$ /45/5> =$(+&1J!
:2.? ^15 =54(5/ =2Z$I F*E+5I N1*.* * .&FJ1&(<.

L .2E$/1=$ 4(*C$(2 1($+*(5=5. +$ /15FJ.5 R*7*5F5;*E$/.*A, /.5FJ.5 8&A5=+<A —
1(28*D** ($F*;*57+<A 45/15= .2. & 4(2=5/F2=+<A, 12. * & C&/&FJC2+.

17.4. a%!0A0C!('! R#E2BE- 8-8AP

j2?82 — 4$($/<A2+*$ /F*7*/15I 5>5F5E.* 45F5/1* (12 = ($7&FJ121$ 5>$7=5?*=2+*@
5(;2+*7C2 * =/F$8/1=*$ 8<A2+*@ E($7C$(+5 /&A*C =578&A5C (.2. 4(* 45=<Z$++5I, 12. *
4(* 45+*?$++5I 1$C4$(21&($).

«G21&(2F*/1» — C&?$/1=5 * 1$(4$+*$.
«!57$(D21$FJ» — C$8*12D*@.
«[$@1$FJ» — *;(2 / /5>/1=$++<C 5(;2+*7C5C.

#&=/1=5 ?2?8< 4(*A58*1 7+2E*1$FJ+5 (2+JZ$, +$?$F* 5(;2+*7C */E$(42F 7242/< =58<
+2 */42($+*$. [5/1215E+5 5>$/4$E*1J (2>51& /F9+5518$F@9K*A ?$F$7, E15>< ?2?8&
/=$/1* . C*+*C&C&, 2 = /F5?+5I /*1&2D** — * 5.2721J /=5$C& 5(;2+*7C& 45C5KJ.

L !($8+$I X7** A5(5Z5 *7=$/1$+ 12. +27<=2$C<I «.&(1». ^15 =</&Z$++<I +2 /5F+D$
85 1=$(85/1* .2C+@ 458/5F$++<I 5=$E*I /<( (>(<+72) (27C$(5C / ;5(5Z*+&.
S5C$K$++<I 458 @7<. .&/5E$. .&(12 = 1$E$+*$ 3—4 E2/5= 4(5=5D*(&$1 /F9+5518$F$+*$.

L (5//*I/.*A &/F5=*@A 85/1215E+5 45F5?*1J 458 @7<. C2F$+J.*I .2C&Z$., .515(<I
=<75=$1 /F9+5518$F$+*$. \5?+5 82?$ 4(5/15 45?$=21J 1(2=*+.&.

G2 !$=$($ ?2?82 C5?$1 +2/1&4*1J 4(* 1$C4$(21&($ 5.(&?29K$;5 =578&A2 +*?$ -45
;(28&/5= * 51/&1/1=** =$1(2, .5;82 =578&A /12+5=*1/@ 5E$+J /&A*C. !+$; F*>5 F$8,
45C$K$++<$ = 45F5/1J (12, 72 /E$1 8545F+*1$FJ+5;5 4$($5AF2?8$+*@ F*ZJ &=$F*E*=291
E&=/1=5 ?2?8<. L =<*;(<Z$ = N1*A &/F5=*@A 5.27<=291/@ =F28$FJD< >5(58< * &/5=.
G2C$(7Z*$ 51 8<A2+*@ «/5/&FJ.*» C5?+5 514(2=F@1J = (51, * 5+* «/+*C291» E&=/1=5
?2?8<.


17.5. >5!24!R!('! E0A0I

:F*C215;$5;(2R*@ P5//** 12.5=2, E15 82++<I =54(5/ 45-(27+5C& 2.1&2F$+ 8F@ 9?+<A
(2I5+5= (/1$4*, 45F&4&/1<+*), /($8+$I 45F5/< * !$=$(2 (?2?82 +2 A5F58$). G2Z* 1(*
;$(5@ =$8&1 /$>@ /551=$1/1=$++5.

«N»

*C$$1 = +5/*C5C 2=2(*I+5C 7242/$ 45F*N1*F$+5=<I C$Z5. * / $;5 45C5KJ9
/5>*(2$1 =F2;& *7 @C<, =<.542++5I = 7$CF$, F*>5 / =$15. 8$($=J$= (+2 9;$).
(:&8(@Z5=)332.

[2++2@ 1$A+5F5;*@ +2/15FJ.5 A5(5Z5 *7=$/1+2 /4$D*2F*/12C, E15 2=15( +$ /E*12$1
+&?+<C &15CF@1J E*121$F@ *FF9/1(2D*@C*.

X +2 !$=$($ «+21&(2F*/1», 45C$/1*= C$Z5. /5 /+$;5C 458 58$?8&, «C&?$/1=$++5
4($585F$=2@» A5F58, /=5*C 1$F5C ;($$1 $;5 * *C$$1 85/1215E+5$ .5F*E$/1=5 =58<.

«+» 4(*+*C2$1 /1(282+*@ .2. 85F?+5$ * =+&1($++$I /2C5($;&F@D*$I /=58*1 451$(*
=F2;* . C*+*C&C&, 2 12.?$ C2./*C2FJ+5 ></1(5 4$($/1(2*=2$1 /=5I 5(;2+*7C +2
(2/K$4F$+*$ ?*(5=.
V+, 45FJ7&@/J /=5*C 7+2+*$C, +2A58*1 541*C2FJ+<$ C$/12 8F@ =<.24<=2+*@ .5F58D$=

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 56

(.5+/1(&.1*(5=2+*$ * */45FJ75=2+*$ >*5N+$(;$1*E$/.*A (2C5.).

«J», 4(*.F28<=2@/J . 7$CF$ +2*>5F$$ E&=/1=*1$FJ+<C* E2/1@C* 1$F2, C5?$1 45
5K&K$+*9 4(5AF28< +2I1* 541*C2FJ+5$ C$/15 8F@ =<.24<=2+*@ .5F58D2.

G5 N15 8F@ 9?+<A (2I5+5=. X = 5><E+5C +2Z$C F$/& +$ +285 >5@1J/@ 4*1J * *7 F$/+5I
F&?*. L .(2I+$C /F&E2$ 8$F2I1$ N15 E$($7 +5/5=5I 4F215.. [2?$ $/F* 7242A 4($F5I 1(2=<
+$4(*@1$+ — = F$/+<A F&?2A +*.2.5I 72(27< +$1. b2 */.F9E$+*$C /F&E2$=, .5;82 (@85C
C&/5(+2@ .&E2. G5 $/F* =2F@$1/@ C&/5(, 7+2E*1, 45>F*75/1* 85F?+2 ><1J 85(5;2. L55>K$
?$ ?;&E$I 451($>+5/1* = =58$ +2 U(2F$ * = P5//** = D$F5C 5><E+5 +$ =57+*.2$1.

X $/F* +$1 +*E$;5, .(5C$ (5/<, 15 `FJ*E$= /5=$1&$1 4(5/15 4(512K*1J 72 /5>5I 45 1(2=$
4(*F*E+5I =$F*E*+< E2/1J 58$?8<, 2 721$C 51?21J $$ = $C.5/1J. L51 * =/$ A*1(5/1*.


17.6. X06/08!( C' H-(('5-C'6/ E VH2B%!/-CD(0I 2'B#-U''?

eK$ +$/.5FJ.5 F$1 +2728 82?$ /2C2 45/12+5=.2 =54(5/2 =<7=2F2 >< 4(51$/1. ` N15
$/1$/1=$++5.

G5 = 45/F$8+$$ =($C@ = /($8/1=2A C2//5=5I *+R5(C2D** 4(5A58*1 +2/15@K*I 4515.
/55>K$+*I +2 N1& 1$C&: 51 .F2//*E$/.*A 5>K$*7=$/1+<A (=5 =($C@ ;5F582 +2 U.(2*+$ =
30-$ ;58< * = >F5.28+5C a$+*+;(28$) 85 +$82=+5 (2//$.($E$++5I */15(** 4(5 +$C$D.*A
8*=$(/2+15=, = ;58< =5I+< 72>(5Z$++<A 7*C5I = +2Z &(2FJ/.*I F$/ * >$//F2=+5 «45$=Z*A
8(&; 8(&;2»!

G5 E15 /2C5$ 1($=5?+5$: 5>K*I 15+ N1*A 4&>F*.2D*I /12(2$1/@ 4(*&E*1J +2/ . C</F*,
E15 = 45$82+** E$F5=$E$/.5;5 C@/2 (28* /5A(2+$+*@ /5>/1=$++5I ?*7+* +$1 +*E$;5
5/5>$++5;5. c51@ ($Z$+*$, .2. =/$;82, 5/12$1/@ 72 /2C*C E$F5=$.5C.

` &?$, .2. N15 +* 4$E2FJ+5, =/1($E2$C N1* ?$ (2//&?8$+*@ = 1999 ;58& & 4(5R$//*5+2F5=
[323]. c51@ & `FJ*E$=2 E$1<($ ;582 +2728 [322] ><F5 E$1.5 /.272+5: «... U/F5=*@ 2=2(*I+5I
/*1&2D** +$ 5/=5>5?8291 E$F5=$.2 51 /5>F98$+*@ 5>K$4(*+@1<A C5(2FJ+<A +5(C...»

S5F+5/1J9 /5A(2+*= 45/F$8+$$ 72@=F$+*$ = N+D*.F54$8**, $$ 2=15( 1$C +$ C$+$$ ==$F
D$F&9 ;F2=&, = .515(5I N151 =54(5/ (2//C21(*=2$1/@ «5E$+J +$58+57+2E+5» * 82?$
+245C*+2$1/@ 5 4($/F5=&15I 1(28*D** «?*=<A .5+/$(=5=» 4(* ;(&445=<A 45>$;2A
72.F9E$++<A. c&?$ =/$;5 15, E15 +*.2.*A ($D$415= 45 4(*+@1*9 ($Z$+*@ +$ 4(*=58*1/@.

V1.F*.2@/J * 4(*+D*4*2FJ+5 +$ ?$F2@ «72C2FE*=21J 1$C&» [323] (/1(. 274), A51$F5/J ><
4(52+2F*7*(5=21J 51+5Z$+*@ . 82++5I 4(5>F$C$ / 15E.* 7($+*@ +2Z*A 1($A 4/*A51*45=.

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 57

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 58

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 59

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 62
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«/5(=2++5I .(<Z*».

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 63

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 64

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 65

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5>K$+** .2. / =5/4*12++*.2C*, 12. * / *A (58*1$F@C* (4(* (2>51$ /5 Z.5FJ+*.2C*). ^15
/=@72+5 / +$5>A58*C5/1J9 (2++$;5 45F5=5;5 =5/4*12+*@ * / $K$ >5FJZ$I +$5>A58*C5/1J9
&E*1<=21J =577($+*@ * 1(28*D** =$8&K*A ($F*;*57+<A .5+R$//*I.

: 4(*C$(&, = *+8&*7C$ * E2/1*E+5 = .215F*E$/1=$ *75>(2?$+*$ 5>+2?$++5;5
E$F5=$E$/.5;5 1$F2 .2+5+*7*(5=2+5 82?$ = A(2C2A. L 4(2=5/F2=**, 2 1$C >5F$$ =
C&/&FJC2+/1=$, 15 ?$ /2C5$ /E*12$1/@ .5K&+/1=5C. (eK$ (27 5 4(*+D*4*2FJ+5I
+$/5=C$/1*C5/1* C$158*....) V1/982 * +$4(*@1*$ = P5//**, .272F5/J ><, 1(28*D*5++<A
«5>K$E$F5=$E$/.*A» C$158*. 45F5=5;5 =5/4*12+*@.

b2>$;2@ =4$($8, /F$8&$1 51C$1*1J: N12 1$C2 4(*+D*4*2FJ+5 +$ 458A58*1 8F@ 4&>F*E+5;5
=5/4(*@1*@, 1$C >5F$$ 8F@ 1$F$=*7*5++5;5 =$K2+*@, +2*>5F$$ 454&F@(+5;5 = +2Z$ =($C@.
V+2 =57C5?+2 F*ZJ 4(* 85=$(*1$FJ+5I >$/$8$, «;F272 = ;F272». L .(2I+$C /F&E2$ = C2F5I
/5D*2FJ+5I ;(&44$ (+$ >5F$$ 8$=@1* E$F5=$.).

eK$ (27 725/1(*C =54(5/ — 12. E$C C5?+5 =5/45FJ75=21J/@ = +2Z$I ^! / 5?5;5C?

G$C2F5 «+2(58+<A» ($.5C$+82D*I /=@72+5 / 4(*C$+$+*$C E$F5=$E$/.5I C5E*.
!&K$/1=&$1 D$F5$ +24(2=F$+*$ — &(*+51$(24*@. G$85/1215. — +2F*E*$ = &(*+$ «ZF2.5=»,
.515(<$ C5;&1 /=$/1* +2 +$1 45F5?*1$FJ+<$ /=5I/1=2 (& 8$1/.5I &(*+< .5F*E$/1=5
«ZF2.5=» C*+*C2FJ+5). V8+2.5 /F$8&$1 51C$1*1J, E15 8$7*+R*D*(&9K*$ /=5I/1=2 &(*+<
85/1215E+5 =</5.*, +5 +$ >5F$$ 15;5.

`12., 58+2 *7 72;285. ><1*@ — .(&;F5;58*E+2@ 45F5=2@ R&+.D*@, /=5I/1=$++2@ 15FJ.5
E$F5=$.&. P$4(58&.1*=+<$ /45/5>+5/1* ?*=<A 5(;2+*7C5= 458E*+@91/@ /1(5;5C&
;585=5C& D*.F&, * & ?*=51+<A N15 /5=4282$1 / 12. +27<=2$C<C 4$(*585C ;5+2. L
5/12FJ+5$ =($C@ 45F5=2@ R&+.D*@ 42//*=+2.

U E$F5=$.2 ?$, .(5C$ ($4(58&.1*=+5I, 45F5=2@ R&+.D*@ */45F+@$1 $K$ * 8&A5=+&9
[416], 2 12.?$ C$8*.2C$+157+&9 (!) C*//*9.

[$F5 = 15C, E15 C&?/.2@ /4$(C2 5>F282$1 =<829K*C*/@ ($;$+$(2D*5++<C* /=5I/1=2C*.
^15 =</5.52.1*=+5$, ;5(C5+2FJ+5$ =$K$/1=5 *8$2FJ+5 /5=4282$1 45 /5/12=& /
=+&1(*.F$15E+5I ?*8.5/1J9. V/5>$++5 $/F* 85+5(5C /F&?*1 /2C 45/1(282=Z*I F*>5 .15-
15 *7 (58/1=$++*.5= («4(*8&C2=» N151 /45/5> = 58+5C *7 +2Z*A 1($+*(5=5E+<A 45A585=,
C< +$58+5.(21+5 =45/F$8/1=** 5>+2(&?*=2F* «N15» = 1(&82A =$8&K*A /$./5F5;5= — 12C
N15 «458(27&C$=2F5/J C$?8& /1(5.»). `C$++5 458 /F5$C N15;5 =$K$/1=2 45(2?$++<$ .F$1.*
?*=&1 85/1215E+5 85F;5, E15 «7282$1 ($7$(= =($C$+*» 4(5D$//& N4*1$F*72D**.

!F$8&$1 51C$1*1J, 82++<I /45/5> 4(*C$+@F/@ * 4(* C$A2+*E$/.*A 1(2=C2A, = 15C E*/F$ *
= /F&E2$ 3-4-/&15E+5;5 /$4/*/2. ^RR$.1 ><F 85/1215E+5 A5(5Z*C.

`7 &/1+<A */15E+*.5=, 2 =57C5?+5, *7 /$(** «;8$-15 .5;82-15, .2?$1/@, E*12F»
*7=$/1+5, E15 $K$ = 4$(=&9 C*(5=&9 =5I+& /5F821< +2 R(5+1$, /5>(2=Z*/J = .(&?5.,
5(5Z2F* /=5*A /*FJ+5 5>5??$++<A = >59 15=2(*K$I C5E5I. ^12 *+R5(C2D*@ C5?$1
*C$1J, .2. C*+*C&C, 8=2 =2(*2+12 .5CC$+12(*$=.

S$(=<I: &(*+2, .2. &?$ ;5=5(*F5/J, 5>F282$1 NRR$.1*=+<C 2/$41*E$/.*C 8$I/1=*$C,
+5 +$ >5F$$ 15;5. V> 5/12FJ+<A /=5I/1=2A /15(5++*.* &(*+51$(24** C5;&1 =</.27<=21J
5/5>5$ C+$+*$. V8+2.5 C5?+5 4($845F5?*1J, E15 C*.(5/.54*E$/.*$ E2/1*D< /4$(C<,
/58$(?2K*$/@ = C5E$, *C$++5 * 5.27<=2F* /=5$ C$8*.2C$+157+5$ =578$I/1=*$.


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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 66

L15(5I: .2. *7=$/1+5, 45 (&//.*C 1(28*D*5++<C, 2 1$C >5F$$ 4(2=5/F2=+<C
4($8/12=F$+*@C, =/$ /=@72++5$ / 8$@1$FJ+5/1J9 * R&+.D*@C* C5E$45F5=5I /R$(< =
45=/$8+$=+5I ?*7+* +$ 5>/&?82$1/@. S5 +$5>A58*C5/1* 8F@ N15;5 *C$$1/@ Z*(5.*I +2>5(
&/F5=+5/1$I — N=R$C*7C5=. L45F+$ =57C5?+5, E15 82++2@ ($.5C$+82D*@ = 4581$./1$
=4(@C&9 &.27<=2$1 +2 5>/&?82$C&9 C$158*.&.

V>(2K2$C 5/5>5$ =+*C2+*$: /45/5> N151 — F*ZJ 58+2 *7 =57C5?+5/1$I «51821J
/1(2829K$C& 15=2(*K& =/$;5 /$>@». G$ */.F9E$+5, E15 /&K$/1=&$1 D$F<I (@8 4585>+<A
C$1585=. V+* 1($>&91 5/5>5;5 *7&E$+*@, .F*+*E$/.*A *//F$85=2+*I / /551=$1/1=&9K$I
/121*/1*.5I.

X *7 &?$ *7=$/1+<A = +2(58$ /($8/1= 8F@ 5>(2>51.* 5?5;5= C5?+5 =/45C+*1J * ?$+/.5$
C5F5.5 (!).

L .515(<I (27 5>(2K2$C =+*C2+*$ +2 +$5>A58*C5/1J 4($8=2(*1$FJ+5;5 +(2=/1=$++5;5,
45F5=5;5 =5/4*12+*@.

X=15( 5182$1 /$>$ 51E$1, E15 4585>+<$ /5><1*@ +5/*F* $8*+*E+<I A2(2.1$( *
.F2//*E$/.5I C$8*D*+5I +$ C5;&1 ><1J 4(*+@1< .2. (&.5=58/1=5 . 8$I/1=*9. c51@ *7
(27;5=5(5= / +$.515(<C* /4$D*2F*/12C*, R2C*F** .515(<A 2=15( +$ C5?$1 +27=21J,
*7=$/1+5, E15 .5$-;8$ N15 4(*C$+@$1/@... [F@ 5.5+E21$FJ+<A =<=585= +$5>A58*C<
*//F$85=2+*@ / /551=$1/1=&9K$I /121*/1*.5I.

X=15( 4(*7<=2$1 /4$D*2F*/15= 45 F*.=*82D** 45/F$8/1=*I #! 5.2721J 45C5KJ =
4(5=$8$+** /551=$1/1=&9K*A *//F$85=2+*I.

V8+2.5 $K$ (27 458E$(.+$C, ;5=5(*1J 5> N15C 4(@C5 = (5//*I/.5C 5>K$/1=$ — >5FJZ5I
;($A. G5 .15 A51@ >< (27 =*8$F, . 4(*C$(&, 5>5??$++5;5 .*4@1.5C ($>$+.2 * /F<Z2F $;5
8&Z$(278*(29K*I .(*. — 151 45IC$1: 7+21J * C5FE21J 5> N15C — $K$ >5FJZ*I ;($A.

22. >2(0EP 6A0%0E0[0 05%-6- 8'6('
22.1. F!H0/!(A-U'' 40 AC'B!CD(0/# 5![#

«[$@1$FJ», $/F* 82?$ /4$D*2FJ+5 +$ ;515=*F/@, &/1(2*=2$1 /5 /=5*C 5(;2+*7C5C
/=5$5>(27+&9 *;(&: >$; .2. /2C5$ $/1$/1=$++5$ 8=*?$+*$ E$F5=$.2 = /F5?+5I /*1&2D** +$
(27 C5?$1 =2/ =<(&E*1J. ^15 * /(5E+<I =<75= 45C5K* 8F@ 45/1(282=Z$;5, * /45/5>
/5;($=2+*@, 82 * /45/5> 4($585F$1J 7+2E*1$FJ+5$ (2//15@+*$ 72 514&K$++5$ =2C /&8J>5I
=($C@. G24(*C$(, = /F&E2$ 45F&E$+*@ /&K$/1=$++<A 5?5;5= .(5C$ 4$(=*E+5I 45C5K*
C5?+5 85 +2/1&4F$+*@ /$4/*/2 72 2-3 8+@ 4($585F$1J >$;5C 7+2E*1$FJ+5$ (2//15@+*$ *
=<I1* . >27$. ,5 ?$ /2C5$ .2/2$1/@ =2(*2+12 +2A5?8$+*@ >$7 1$4F5I 58$?8< F*>5 45F+5;5
51/&1/1=*@ 4*K*.

g$; — 58*+ *7 $/1$/1=$++<A 21(*>&15= ?*7+* .5($++<A /$=$(+<A +2(585=. L/45C+*C,
E$C 72.2+E*=2$1/@ (5C2+ L. i&+8*.2 «g$F<I Z2C2+». !12(<I S5I;*+ &.5(@$1 /=5$;5
=+&.2: «:2.5I 1< E&.E2, $/F* +$ C5?$ZJ =$/J 8$+J >$?21J 72 +2(15I?!»[712]

X /C5?$1 F* +2Z E$F5=$., 4542=Z*I = /F5?+&9 /*1&2D*9, 4(* +$5>A58*C5/1* >$?21J
=$/J 8$+J?

U/12F5/1J 51 >$;2 4(*A58*1, .2. 4(2=*F5, *7-72 51/&1/1=*@ 1$A+*.* >$;2. X=15(, *C$9K*I
8F*1$FJ+&9 /12I$(/.&9 458;515=.&, ($.5C$+8&$1 7245C+*1J, 2 4(* /F&E2$ *
451($+*(5=21J/@ +28 /F$8&9K*C [242].
22.2. ^!S('H- HE-C'g'U'%0E-((0[0 5![-

V8+5I *7 ;F2=+<A 5Z*>5. 4(* >$;$ @=F@$1/@ +$4(2=*FJ+2@ (2>512 C<ZD +5;* +2 >$;&.
S(* 1@?$F5I, >$7 (2//F2>F$+*@ 45/12+5=.$ +5;* &/1291 * /&/12=< * C<ZD<. S5N15C&
5>(21*1$ =+*C2+*$ +2 45/F$85=21$FJ+5/1J *A (2>51< ((*/. 40).

S(* =<+5/$ +5;* =4$($8 2.1*=+5 (2>512$1 4$($8+$>$8($++2@ C<ZD2 (1). b28+$>$8($++2@
(2) * *.(5+5?+2@ (3) C2./*C2FJ+5 (2//F2>F$+<. 5F$+5/154 (4) 12.?$ (2//F2>F$+. L C5C$+1
45/12+5=.* +5;* +2 ;(&+1 4$(=5$ .2/2+*$ 8$F2$1/@ 4@1.5I (5). G5 >$7 4$($+5/2 +2 +$$
1@?$/1* 1$F2. `+1$+/*=+5 72;($>29K*C +2728 8=*?$+*$C ;5F$+5/1542/ 58+5=($C$++5I
2.1*=+5I (2>515I C<ZD (2,3) 4(5*7=58*C 15FE5. +5;5I. S$($8+$>$8($++2@ C<ZD2 = N15
=($C@ (2//F2>F$+2. L<+5/@ 8(&;&9 +5;& =4$($8, 2.1*=+5I (2>515I ;5F$+5/1542 8512F-
.*=2$C/@ +5/.5C * 4(* 51(<=$ +5;* (2//F2>F@$C C<ZD< (2,3).

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 67


,2.*C 5>(275C, .2?82@ C<ZD2 2.1*=+5 (2>512$1 +2
4(51@?$+** +$ >5F$$ 0,2-0,3 8F*1$FJ+5/1* Z2;2 >$;&K$;5. S(*
51/&1/1=** 4585>+5I 1$A+*.* — 4(2.1*E$/.* +$4($(<=+5.

G5=*E.* 5/=2*=291 4(*+D*4 8=*?$+*@ 72 15-20 C*+&1 >$;2,
$/F* 4($585F$=291 +2E2FJ+&9 +$F5=.5/1J, * +$ /5>J91/@ +2
5><E+<I +$/45(1*=+<I >$; [237].
22.3. F'B/ APS-('7

[<A2+*$ 85F?+5 ><1J 458E*+$+5 (*1C& >$;2. X=15(
($.5C$+8&$1: +285 8$F21J +$ ;F&>5.*$ (5=+<$ =85A*-=<85A*, 2
1(*-E$1<($ .5(51.*A =85A2, 45 =85A& +2 .2?8<I Z2;. X 721$C —
E$1<($ .5(51.*A =<85A2 +2 E$1<($ Z2;2. \$?8& =85A5C *
=<85A5C =57C5?+2 42&72 = 58*+ Z2;. :(21.5 /*/1$C2 8<A2+*@ +27<=2$1/@ 4x4x1. !F$8&$1
&E$/1J, E15 4(* 5><E+5C 8<A2+** E2/1J =578&A2 4(* =<85A$ 5/12$1/@ = F$;.*A * 4(* =85A$
=+5=J 454282$1 5>(21+5. S5N15C& >5F$$ /5=$(Z$++2 /*/1$C2 3x4x1. b2 /E$1
8545F+*1$FJ+5;5 =<85A2, 8$F29K$;5/@ +2 &/*F**, F$;.*$ F&EZ$ 5/=5>5?8291/@ 51
51(2>512++5;5 =578&A2 * 4(*+*C291 +2 =85A$ >5F$$ >5;21&9 .*/F5(585C /C$/J.

S(* 7+2E*1$FJ+5I &/12F5/1* C5?+5 4$($A58*1J +2 /*/1$C& 3x3x1 * 2x3x1 * 82?$ +2
8<A2+*$ >$7 42&7, +2 3x3 * 2x2. V41*C2FJ+<I ($?*C, .2. 4(2=*F5, /&;&>5 *+8*=*8&2F$+.
F2=+5$ — ?$/1.5 /=@721J (*1C 8<A2+*@ / (*1C5C >$;2. ,5;82 =<+&?8$++5$ *7C$+$+*$
(*1C2 >$;2 +2 /4&/.2A * 458kpC2A >&8$1 >$//57+21$FJ+5 4(*=58*1J . /551=$1/1=&9K$C&
*7C$+$+*9 (*1C2 8<A2+*@. L< >&8$1$ 45F+5/1J9 5/=5>5?8$+< 51 +$5>A58*C5/1* .5+1(5F@
728<A2+*$C [237].


22.4. JPS-('! (- /0%06!

P$.5C$+8&$C5$ *+5;82 8<A2+*$ E$($7 +5/, 45 C+$+*9 2=15(2, +$($2FJ+5. !2C (27C$(
+5/5=<A 8<A21$FJ+<A 4&1$I +$85/1215E$+ 8F@ =578&A2 4(* *+1$+/*=+5I (2>51$. S5N15C&
8<Z21J +285 E$($7 +5/ * E$($7 (51. #$C >5FJZ$ — 4$(=<C *F* =15(<C? ^15 72=*/*1 51
/5/15@+*@ =2Z$;5 5(;2+*7C2: $/F* *C$$1/@ A(5+*E$/.2@ 2+;*+2, 15 +285 >$($EJ ;5(F5 *
/12(21J/@ E2/1J A5F58+5;5 =578&A2 4(54&/.21J E$($7 +5/. e/F* N15I 542/+5/1* +$1 (1$C
>5F$$ 4(* &82F$++<A C*+82F*+2A) — 8<A2+*$ *8$1 E$($7 (51. [<A2+*$ (15C
4($845E1*1$FJ+5 $K$ * 4515C&, E15 @7<., 4(*?21<I . +$>&, /F&?*1 +$4F5A*C
(28*215(5C, /5;($=29K*C /F*Z.5C A5F58+<I =578&A. e/F* 51 A5F582 F5C*1 7&><,
($.5C$+8&$1/@ 4(*?21J *A . ;&>2C.

S515. =578&A2, C*+&@ 7&><, (278$F@$1/@ 4545F2C,
/5;($=2$1/@ @7<.5C * ;&>2C* * 454282$1 = F$;.*$. S(*
=<A58$ 1$4F5 =57=(2K2$1/@ = 45F5/1J (12 5>(21+5 [237].


22.5. c0CD E 50H# 4%' 5![!

g5FJ = >5.& 4(* >$;$ 4(5A58*1 (4(* +$1($+*(5=2++5C
5(;2+*7C$) &?$ E$($7 15-20 C*+&1. !($8* >$;&+5= ><1&$1
C+$+*$, E15 N151 /*;+2F 45/1&42$1 51 /$F$7$+.*. X=15(
4($8F2;2$1 */4<12++<I +2 /$>$ /45/5>.

V/12+2=F*=21J/@ 4(* =57+*.+5=$+** >5F* +$
($.5C$+8&$1/@. S5;2/*= 45/F$ 5/12+5=.* 72 5-6 C*+&1 >5FJ, =< +2 >$;& E$($7 10-12 C*+&1 $$
/+5=2 «+2I8$1$». g5F$$ 541*C2F$+ C$158 >5(J>< / >5FJ9 +2 A58&. e/F* >5FJ +$>5FJZ2@,
C5?+5 454<121J/@ 45;2/*1J $$, 4(*?*C2@ F$=<I F5.51J . >5.&. e/F* >5FJ +$ 4(5A58*1,
4(*/1&42I1$ . >5F$$ /F5?+5C& /45/5>&.

e/F* +$ &82F5/J 4(*?21J /$F$7$+.& /+2(&?*, 15;82 4(*?*C2I1$ $$ «*7+&1(*».
[*2R(2;C5I! G$ C$+@@ (*1C2 >$;2, 8$F2I1$ 8=2 C$8F$++<A =$+1*F*(&9K*A =85A2-=<85A2, 2
721$C C$8F$++<I ;F&>5.*I =85A. [*2R(2;C2, &A58@ ;F&>5.5 =+*7, 4(*?*C2$1 /$F$7$+.&, *
>5FJ +2E*+2$1 /1*A21J. b212*=2I1$ 8<A2+*$ +2 =85A$ * 4(585F?2I1$ >$?21J +$ 8<Z2 +$
C$+$$ 6-8 /$.&+8. #$C >5FJZ$, 1$C F&EZ$. U?$ +$ = /*F2A /8$(?*=21J 8<A2+*$, +2E*+2I1$
5E$+J C$8F$++5 =<8<A21J. S$($C$Z*=2+*@ =578&A2 = F$;.*A +2 =<85A$ /+*7*1 +$4(*@1+<$
5K&K$+*@ 51 +$85/121.2 .*/F5(582 * 457=5F*1 =2C /45.5I+5 72=$(Z*1J 4F2=+<I =<85A.

F2=+5$ — «514&/1*1J» 4(*?21&9 /$F$7$+.& 5E$+J 4F2=+5. a9>5I C2F$+J.*I 15FE5.
8<A2+*@ C5?$1 /5(=21J 4(5D$8&(&, * >5FJ =575>+5=F@$1/@. L 12.5C /F&E2$ /F$8&$1 =$/J
D*.F 45=15(*1J /+2E2F2.

:2. 4(2=*F5, +5=*E.2C 1($>&$1/@ 3-4 D*.F2, E15>< 85=$/1* 4(5D$8&(& 85 .5+D2. !
4(*A585C 54<12 85/1215E+5 58+5;5-8=&A. !F$8&$1 12.?$ &E$/1J, E15 8F@ ?$+/.5;5 5(;2+*7C2

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 68

NRR$.1 4(5D$8&(< +$/.5FJ.5 /+*?2$1/@ 72 /E$1 +2F*E*@ ;(&8+5;5 8<A2+*@ =
51F*E*$ 51 >(9Z+5;5 & C&?E*+.

S(* >5F* = 4(2=5C >5.& (4$E$+J) N151 C$158 +$ 12. NRR$.1*=$+. V8+2.5 +$ /15*1 51
+$;5 51.27<=21J/@ * = N15C /F&E2$ [237].

22.6. 9-C!(DH'! S'B%02B' 5![- (- /0%06!

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 69

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 70

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=<?*=2+*@ = .2E$/1=$ 4(*C$(2 4(5=$8$+*@ &(5.5= 45 .&(/& Vgj.

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 71

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 72
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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 73

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 74

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 75

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 76

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8F*1$FJ+5I (2>51< = ^! * =45/F$8/1=** 72.5+5C$(+5/1* 5>(21+5;5 4$($A582 /
$/1$/1=$++<C* 45F5?*1$FJ+<C* F*>5 51(*D21$FJ+<C* 45/F$8/1=*@C*.

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 77

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4(*(58$ F*, = ;5(58$ F*, 4$($?*=2$1 F* /1($// 72 (&F$C 2=15C5>*F@ *F* 4(5/15
«45/.2+82F*F +2 (2>51$» *F* 85C2, — 45/F$8/1=*@ 4(*C$(+5 58+* * 1$ ?$.

P2//C51(*C, E15 ?$ 4(5*/A58*1 / 5(;2+*7C5C E$F5=$.2 = «Z121+5C ($?*C$», =
N./1($C2FJ+5I /*1&2D** * +$45/($8/1=$++5 45/F$ ^! (= >F*?2IZ*$ E2/< * 8+*).
30.2. «lB-B(PI %!8'/»

V(;2+< E$F5=$.2, */45F+@@ /=5* R&+.D**, 451($>F@91 «($/&(/<», 45/1&429K*$ E$($7
.(5=J * = .(5=J ?$, 2 12.?$ = F*CR21*E$/.&9 /*/1$C& 518291 «ZF2.*», .515(<$
4$($+5/@1/@ . 5(;2+2C =<8$F$+*@ (4$E$+J, 45E.*, F$;.*$, 4515=<$ ?$F$7< * 8(.) *
*/15(;291/@ +2(&?&. e/F* &(5=$+J +2;(&7.* (.2. R*7*E$/.5I, 12. * 4/*A*E$/.5I)
/551=$1/1=&$1 /1$4$+* R*7*E$/.5;5 /5/15@+*@ 5(;2+*7C2, 15 .5+D$+1(2D*@ «ZF2.5=» =
.(5=* +$ 4($=<Z2$1 +5(C< * E$F5=$. +$ E&=/1=&$1 &/12F5/1* (4585>+<$ 4(5D$//<
4(5*/A58@1 12.?$ * = F*CR21*E$/.5I /*/1$C$ E$F5=$.2).

S(* 4($=<Z$+** .5+D$+1(2D** =57+*.2$1 542/+5/1J /2C551(2=F$+*@ 5(;2+*7C2
(45/1&4F$+*$ «ZF2.5=» = C57; * 8(&;*$ 5(;2+<), * =.F9E291/@ C$A2+*7C< /2C572K*1< —
&/12F5/1J F*Z2$1 E$F5=$.2 =57C5?+5/1* 4(585F?*1J (2>51&, * 5+ «&A58*1 +2 4$($.&(», 1.$.
/+*?2$1/@ 2.1*=+5/1J.

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=2(J*(5=21J/@.
30.3. >%[-('6/ E VH2B%!/-CD(0I 2'B#-U''

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>5(J><. : 4(*C$(&, Z*(5.5 *7=$/1+2 /45/5>+5/1J ?$+K*+ 42821J = 5>C5(5. — 5(;2+*7C
51.F9E2$1 /57+2+*$ = /F&E2$ 4$($+24(@?$+*@ (7242/ «4$($+24(@?$+*@» * «+$(=+5I
N+$(;**» >$($?$1/@ 8F@ 8$15(5?8$+*@ — ;F2=+5I R&+.D** ?$+/.5;5 5(;2+*7C2).

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4(5>F$C<, 5/12+5=*1J 8$@1$FJ+5/1J 12.?$ +$=57C5?+5!

:2. ?$ 4(51$.291 4(5D$//< = N15C /F&E2$?

V/12+5=*1J 5>(275=2+*$ «ZF2.5=» +$=57C5?+5. b2.5+ /5A(2+$+*@ N+$(;** * =$K$/1=2 +$
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*7 *+1$+/*=+5 R&+.D*5+*(&9K*A 5(;2+5=, +2E*+291 .5+D$+1(*(5=21J/@ = 8(&;*A 1.2+@A.
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.5+D$+1(2D*I C5;&1 «.24/&F*(5=21J/@» * «A(2+*1J/@» = 12.5C =*8$ 8F*1$FJ+5$ =($C@.

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1@?$F$IZ*A */4<12+*I, 1*42 «A5F58+5I +5E$=.*» = 45A58$, C+5;58+$=+5I *7+&(@9K$I
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= /<(5I 5>&=*, 45/F$ .5+RF*.12 «+2 /F&?>$» F*>5 4(5/15 = ($?*C$ 45=/$8+$=+5I
8$@1$FJ+5/1* «+2 *7+5/». L51 * =57+*.291 +$85&C$++<$ =54(5/< — ;8$ @ C5;
4(5/1&8*1J/@?)

«b24&/.» 4(5D$//2 «.24/&F*(5=2+*@» 4(5*/A58*1 458 =F*@+*$C /1($//2.

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4(585F?2$1/@ 85/1215E+5 85F;5, 5(;2+*7C +2E*+2$1 */15(;21J *A *7 1$F2 45 /A$C$
;F&>5.*A 5>k$C+<A +2(<=5= * F*CR28$+*15= («@EC$+J» +2 ;F27& — .F2//*E$/.*I 4(*C$().
30.4. a02BVH2B%!/-CD(-7 2'B#-U'7 0%[-('6/-

S(* =57=(2K$+** «85C5I» 5(;2+*7C, *7>2=*=Z*/J 51 +24(@?$+*@ ^!, +2E*+2$1
4(5D$8&(& /2C55E*K$+*@.

«:24/&F<» +2E*+291 45/1$4$++5 «(27C<=21J/@», 54($8$F$++5$ .5F*E$/1=5 «ZF2.5=»
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*/15(;2$1/@ +2(&?&. S5/.5FJ.& 4(5D$// 4(5A58*1 «+2 4($8$F$» =57C5?+5/1* 5(;2+*7C2, 15
$/1$/1=$++5 F$;.5$ +$85C5;2+*$ (/ 45=<Z$+*$C 1$C4$(21&(<), 4$($A58@K$$ +$($8.5 =
«4(5/1&8&». V(;2+*7C &.F28<=2$1 =2/ = 45/1$FJ, «51.F9E2@» 51 =57C5?+<A +2;(&75..
a$E*1J/@ = N151 C5C$+1 .2.*C-F*>5 5>(275C 2>/5F91+5 >$/45F$7+5. V(;2+*7C «&C+$$»
+2/, 5+ /$>@ 5E*/1*1 /2C. \2./*C&C, E15 C5?+5 /8$F21J, — +$ C$Z21J $C&! ^15 151 /2C<I

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 78

«+2/C5(.», .515(<I «/2C 4(5A58*1» 72 /$CJ 8+$I * F$E*1/@ = 1$E$+*$ +$8$F*!

30.5. a02BVH2B%!/-CD(P! /!B0A'H' ' 4%0U!A#%P

\5?+5 F* .2.*C-F*>5 5>(275C 4(51*=5/15@1J 54*/2++5C& 4(5D$//&? G$1 F* C$158*.
«85>(5I *;(<» / 5(;2+*7C5C? U4(2=F@$C F* 4(5D$// «(2/.24/&F*(5=2+*@»?

[2, &4(2=F@$C! ` /&K$/1=&91 (27F*E+<$ C$158*.* 8F@ =/$A 1($A &45C*+2$C<A
«4/*A51*45=».
«N» V.(&?29K2@ /($82 (2 1$C >5F$$ 5>K$/1=5) *7+2E2FJ+5 «85F?+<» ;$(59,
«+21&(2F*/1&», 1$C >5F$$ «=<45F+*=Z$C& /=5I 85F;». [5F?+5 ><1J 4($85/12=F$+5 =/$ — 51
45C$K$+*@ = ($2>*F*12D*5++&9 /&4$(.F*+*.& 85 /$C$I+5I 54F2E$++5I 4&1$=.* +2
«:2+2(/.*$ 5/1(5=2». ` F9>5$ +$/551=$1/1=*$ C2./*C&C& ?$F2$C5;5 =5/4(*+*C2$1/@ .2.
F*E+2@ 5>*82, =4F51J 85 2.1*=+5I 2;($//**.

^15, .5+$E+5, .(2I+*I /F&E2I. X *7 /&K$/1=&9K*A =5//12+5=*1$FJ+<A 4(5D$8&(
($.5C$+8&$1/@ R*+/.2@ /2&+2 / $$ «=8&CE*=5I», .5CR5(1+5I 5>/12+5=.5I, 2 12.?$ =$/J
.5C4F$./ 4($8F2;2$C<A &/F&; [903J.

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4(*5>($1$++5$ 72 C+5;5-F$1+$$ 4($><=2+*$ = C5+2/1<(@A, & C5+2A5= — UE*1$F$I (!) 8291
«/57$(D21$F9» =57C5?+5/1J = 1$E$+*$ +$/.5FJ.*A E2/5= (2 C5?$1, * C*+&1) 4(5=$/1*
C$8*12D*9 F*>5 2.&4($//&(+<$ 4(5D$8&(< * *7>2=*1J/@ 51 45/F$8/1=*I.

L .2E$/1=$ 4(*C$(2 4($8F2;291/@ 4(5/1<$ 5>K$*7=$/1+<$ /5=$1<, 12. +27<=2$C<$
«C&8(<» [913], 2 12.?$ C$158< !& [?5. 1$(24** [931].
«J» \+5;5=$.5=2@ ?*7+J = «75+$ (*/.5=2++5;5 7$CF$8$F*@» [415, 419] /R5(C*(5=2F2
8F@ «8$@1$F@» .&FJ1&(+5-><15=5I .5C4F$./ ($2>*F*12D**, A5(5Z5 =/$C *7=$/1+<I,
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—=<A58 >5/*.5C +2 /+$; * =57=(2K$+*$ =+5=J = 42(*FJ+&9 (A5F585=<I *
=</5.51$C4$(21&(+<I C2//2? =+&1($++*A 5(;2+5= E$($7 ($D$415(<,
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4(2.1*E$/.* +2 58+5I 7$CF$, = 58*+2.5=<A .F*C21*E$/.*A &/F5=*@A.

` /5=$(Z$++5 &+*.2FJ+<I NRR$.1 (&//.5I 42(+5I >2+*, — = .5FF$.1*=+5C $$
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E2/1*E+5 72C$+@9K*A =2(*2+15= (= % 51 NRR$.1*=+5/1* >2+*):

50% — «.2(15R$FJ+2@» >2+@ — 8($=+$IZ*I (&//.*I (+2=$(+5$, +$ 15FJ.5 (&//.*I)
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457&, +2.(<=2$1$/J / ;5F5=5I 58$@F5C * *+1$+/*=+5 8<Z*1$ ;5(@E*C 42(5C = 1$E$+*$ 15-20

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 79

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150— 170 &82(5= = C*+&1& = 1$E$+*$ 35-40 C*+&1).

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F*CR&. S515518$F$+*$ ?$ +$=57C5?+5! X $/F* * =57C5?+5, 15 */.F9E*1$FJ+5 = 5>F2/1*
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N./1($C2FJ+5I /*1&2D** F*>5 = 45/1N./1($C2FJ+5I /*1&2D**, $/F* =< ><F* *7+2E2FJ+5
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^12 5/5>$++5/1J — ;F2=+2@ = «8$@1$FJ+5/1+5C», 45 /&1* /=5$I «(5//*I/.5C» =2(*2+1$.
V/12F5/J 458=$/1* *15; * (2//C51($1J =2(*2+1 4(*C$+$+*@ 58+*C E$F5=$.5C 45
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«J» V>(21*C $K$ (27 =+*C2+*$ +2 Z.5F< «X&1&5(8->2&+8» (!iX) [915]. ^1* Z.5F<,
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1$C >5F$$ #$E+* — 8F@ P5//** N12 1$C2 >5F$$ E$C 2.1&2FJ+2!).

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 80


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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 81

&?$ 45/F$ 454282+*@ = N./1($C2FJ+&9 /*1&2D*9.

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Bn6nno1eka cañ1a « Cekpe1m 6esonacnoc1n a noaceqneanoñ xnsnn» http:/ / sos- ru.info
F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 83

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F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 84


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Bn6nno1eka cañ1a « Cekpe1m 6esonacnoc1n a noaceqneanoñ xnsnn» http:/ / sos- ru.info
F.C. Heypnn. CaHocnacenne 6es cnapnxennn. 85

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