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2

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, ( ),
. ,
:
, .
, , ,
, ,
,
. (.. , .. , .. .
)

(1)

dx
dt ax by,

dy cx dy.
dt

xOy .
( ).
(1) :
,
,
.
(
, ) (1),
, .

(1) , :
(2)

ax by 0,

cx dy 0.

(1) , :

a b
det A
ab cd 0.
c d
det A = 0, , , ,
(2) .
( )
.

, :
(3)

2 (a d ) ad bc 0.

, a + d = tr A ( ) ad bc = det A.
, det A 0, :
(3)

1, 2 - ,
( 1 2 > 0 )

1, 2 - ,
( 1 2 < 0 )

1, 2 - , Re 1= Re 2 0

1, 2 - , Re 1= Re 2 = 0

(1)
:
(3)

1. (3)
,
, (1)

.

2.
(3) , (1)
.

,
,

3. (3) ,

(1) , .


1 2, 1< 0, 2 < 0


1 2, 1> 0, 2 > 0


t.


10

1,2= i , < 0, 0


1,2= i , > 0, 0


t.


11

1 2, 1< 0, 2 > 0

1,2= i , 0


t.


12

dx
dt ax,

dy ay,
dt

a 0. 1= 2= a.
a < 0,
, a > 0, .


t.


13

,
1< 0,

1= 2 0 (1) b2 + c2 0.
1> 0,


t.


14

det A = 0, (1) . :

(3)

1= 0, 2 0

(2)

x + y = 0


:
x + y = 0

1=2= 0

(2)
0 = 0

1=2= 0

(2)
x + y = 0

x + y = 0

.
, 2 < 0.


15


1 = 0, 2 < 0


1 = 0, 2 > 0


t.


16


1 = 2 = 0


(x + y = 0),

dy cx dy

dx ax by
x + y = C,
C
.

t.


17

,
(1), tr A
det A.

det A < 0

trA
0 det A

2
trA
det A

2
trA
det A

tr A < 0

()

tr A > 0

()

tr A < 0

tr A > 0

tr A < 0

()

tr A = 0

tr A > 0

()


18

trA
det A

det A

tr A

19


(1)
1. , :

ax by 0,

cx dy 0.

2. ,
:
2

(a d ) ad bc 0.

3. .
4. ,
.
5. ,
, ,
.
6. .
7. ,
.


20

()
, ,
, .
x(t) = 0,
(1) : ax + by = 0.

()
,
.
y(t) = 0,
(1) : cx + dy = 0.
,
.
, .


21

,
, , .
* y = k x. y= k x
:
dy cx dy

,
dx ax by

k :
(4)

c kd
a bk

bk 2 (a d )k c 0.


(4).
* , , x = k y.
ak b
.
k
ck d


22

(4)

y = k1 x y = k2 x .
,

y = k1 x y = k2 x .
,
.

k1 k2

,
,

( (3))


23

(4)

k1 k2

! k1

y = k1 x .
,

* y = k1 x x = 0 .
,

* y = k1 x x = 0.
,

.

* x = k y, x = k1 y y = 0.


24

(4)

kR

y = k x, kR.

,
.
,
.
, ,
, :

dy cx dy

dx ax by

x + y = C .


25

( ) (
).
,
()
. , , .
y(t) x.
dy
cx 0, x 0,

dt

y 0

x .
, ()
.

dy
dt

cx 0,
y 0

x 0, () -


26

,
( )
, ()
.


, .


.
, ,
- .


.

()
27


, :
1
,
. .
2
,
. , y = k1x :
dx
dt

ax bk1 x (a bk1 ) x,

x(t ) x(0)e( a bk1 )t .

y k1 x

x(t) t+, y = k1x


.
x(t) t+, .

()
28

3
x ,
x.

dy
dt

cx 0,

x 0, , ,

y 0

,
x, . ,
.


y,
.


29

4 *
(x0,y0) (
) :
dx dy
v
,
(ax0 by0 , cx0 dy0 ).

dt
dt

( x0 , y0 )

,
(x0,y0) :
(x0, y0)

*
.


30

5 *
:
dx
ax by,
dt

dy
cx dy.
dt

.
,
.
y

x(t)<0, y(t)>0
x(t)<0, y(t)<0

x(t)>0, y(t)>0
x(t)>0, y(t)<0

*
.

1.
31

dx
dt 2 x 2 y,

dy x 2 y
dt
1. ,
det A = 0.
2. 2 6 = 0,
1,2 6. .
, .
3. y = kx.

1 2k
2 2k

2k 2 4k 1 0 k1,2

4. : x + y = 0.
: x 2y = 0.

2 6
, k1 2, 22, k2 0, 22.
2

1 ()
32


y = k1x y = k2x
.


,

.

1 ()
33


.
y(t)
x. y =0 :
dy
x 0, x 0.
dt y 0

,

x .
,
,

x,
.

1 ()
34

2.
35

dx
dt 4 x 2 y,

dy x 3 y
dt
1. ,
det A = 10 0.
2. 2 7 10 = 0,
1 = 2, 2 = 5. ,
.
3. : y = kx.
1 3k
1
k
2k 2 k 1 0 k1 , k2 1.
4 2k
2
4. : 2x + y = 0.
: x + 3y = 0.

2 ( )
36

1 = 2
, ,

= (a1,a2):

a1
4 2 a1

2
a1 a2 0,


1 3 a2
a2
x

= (1,1) , ,
,
,
y = x .


.

2 ( )
37

1 = 2
, ,

= (a1,a2):

a1
4 2 a1

2
a1 a2 0,


a
1
3

2
a2

= (1,1) , ,
,
,
y = x .


.

3.
38

dx
dt x 4 y,

dy 4 x 2 y
dt
1. ,
det A = 18 0.
2. 2 3 18 = 0,
D . D < 0,
, Re 1,2 = 3/2. ,
.
3. : x 4y = 0.
: 2x y 0.
,
.
.

3 ( )
39


y(t) x. y = 0
:
dy
4 x 0, x 0.
dt y 0



x
.
, .

4.
40

dx
dt x 4 y,

dy x y
dt
1. ,
det A = 3 0.
2. 2 3 = 0,
1,2 = i3. , .
3. : x 4y = 0.
: x y 0.
.
, , .

4 ()
41


y(t) x. y = 0
:
dy
x 0, x 0.
dt y 0



x
.
,

.

5 ( )
42

dx
dt 2 x y,

dy 2 x 2 y
dt
1. ,
det A = 4 0.
2. 2 + 4 4 = 0,
1 = 2 = 2. ,
.
3. : y = kx.

2 2k
2 k

k 2 2k 1 0 k1,2 1.

4. : 2x + y = 0.
: x + 3y = 0.

5 ( )
43


,
.

,
,
y = x.

5 ( )
44

6.
45

dx
dt 4 x 2 y,

dy 2 x y
dt
det A = 0,
. y 2 x.
2 5 = 0,
1 = 0, 2 = 5. ,
.
:
dy
2x y
dy
1
1

,
= , y x C.
dx 4 x 2 y
dx
2
2
1
2

, y x C , C const.

6.
46




y 2 x.

7.
47

dx
dt 2 x y,

dy 4 x 2 y
dt
det A = 0,
. y 2 x.
tr A ,
1 = 2 = 0. , .
:
dy 4 x 2 y

,
dx 2 x y

dy
=2,
dx

y 2 x C.

, y 2x C, C const,
.
.

7.
48


y(t) x. y = 0
:
0, x 0,
dy
4x
dt y 0
0, x 0.



x
,
.


,
.


49

1.
. .
1. dx x 3 y,

dt

dy 6 x 5 y;
dt

3. dx 2 x 5 y,

dt

dy 2 x 2 y;
dt

5. dx 2 x y,

dt

dy 4 x 2 y;
dt

2. dx x,

dt

dy 2 x y;

dt

4. dx 3x y,

dt

dy x y;

dt

6. dx 2 x 2 y,

dt

dy x y.

dt

2. a R
dx
dy
2ax y,
ay 2ax
dt
dt
? ? ?
?


50

() :
dx
ax by ,

dt
(5)

dy cx dy ,
dt
2 2 .
:
ax by ,

cx dy ,
, (5) .
det A 0, P(x0,y0).

det A 0, ,
, ax + by + = 0 ( cx + dy + = 0),
.


51

(5) , :
x x0 ,

y y0 ,
, , (5) ,
x0, y0 , , :
d
dt a b ,
(6)

d c d .
dt
x0y
P, (6).
x0y (5).

8.
52

dx
dt 2 x 2 y 12,

dy x 2 y 3
dt

2 x 2 y 12 0,

x 2 y 3 0

x 3,

y 3,

P(3;3).
x = + 3, y = + 3, :

d
dt 2 2 ,

d 2 ,
dt
(. 1).

8.
53


P,
x0y, ,

P.


54

, (5)
, :
1.
dx
dy

,
ax by cx dy
.
2. : ax by 0 (), cx dy 0 ().
3. , , = kx + .
k , ,

c : a d : b ,

:
k

dy
dx

y kx

(ax by)

(a kb) x b
ax by y kx


55


(a kb) x b

x, a + kb = 0,
k :

a kb 0, k
.
b
x = ky + .
k .
,
.
2.
(5).
3. ()
y(x) .
.

9.
56

dx
dt 0,

dy 1.
dt
:

dx 0
0,
dy 1

,
x C, C R.
y(t)=1 > 0,

.
,

.

10.
57

dx
dt 2,

dy 2.
dt
:

dy 2

1,
dx 2

,
y x + C, C R.
y(t) < 0,

.
,

.

11.
58

dx
dt 1,

dy x 1.
dt
:

dy
x 1,
dx

, :
( x 1)2
y
C, C R,
2

x 1 0,
.
x(t) 1 > 0,
. ,
,
.

11.
59

y
x
1

x'(t) > 0,

x'(t) > 0,

y'(t) < 0

y'(t) > 0
x
1

12.
60

dx
dt y,

dy y 1.
dt
y = 0; y 1= 0.
, , .
y = kx + b.
k

dy
dx

y kx b

y 1
1
1
y y kx b
y

1
y kx b

1
,
kx b

x, k = 0. b

1
0 1

b 1.

, y = 1 . .

12.
61

,
()
x.
y(x):
d 2 y d y 1 d 1 y '( x) y 1

1 2 3 ,
dx 2 dx y dx y
y
y


. ,
y(x) > 0,
, y(x) < 0,
.

y
y(x) > 0

y(x) < 0

y(x) > 0

12.
62


,


dx
dt y,

dy y 1.
dt


.

.

y
x(t) > 0,

y(t) > 0

y(x) > 0

x(t) > 0,

y(t) < 0,

x(t) > 0,

y(t) < 0

y(x) > 0

y(x) < 0

12.
63

y
x(t) > 0, y(t) > 0
y(x) > 0

x(t) > 0, y(t) < 0,


y(x) < 0

x(t) > 0, y(t) < 0


y(x) > 0

13.
64

dx
dt 2,

dy 2 x y.
dt
: 2x y = 0.
, , .
y = kx + b.
k

dy
dx

y kx b

2x y
2

y kx b

(2 k ) x b
,
2

x, k = 2. b

b
2

b 4.

, y = 2x 4 .
.

13.
65

, ()
x. y(x):
d 2 y d 2 x y 2 y '( x) 1
2x y y 2x 4

2
2
2
4
dx 2 dx 2


. ,
y(x) > 0,
, y(x) < 0,
.

y(x) > 0
x

y(x) < 0

13.
66

,
:

y
x(t)>0, y(t)<0

dx
dt 2,

dy 2 x y.
dt

x(t)>0, y(t)>0

13.
67

y(x) > 0

x
y(x) < 0

x
x(t)>0,
y(t)<0

x
x(t)>0,
y(t)>0

14.
68

dx
dt x y,

dy 2( x y ) 2.
dt
: x y = 0; : x y + 1= 0.
, , .
y = kx + b.
k

dy
dx

y kx b

2( x y) 2
x y

y kx b

2
2
2

x y y kx b
(1 k ) x b

x, k = 1. b
2

1 2

b 2.

, y = x +2 . .

14.
69

,
.
.
y

x(t)<0, y(t)<0
x(t)<0,

y(t)>0

x
x(t)>0, y(t)>0

14.
70

, ()
x. y(x):
2( x y ) 2
2
1

y
d 2 y d 2( x y ) 2 2( y '( x) 1)

2( x y 2) .

x y
dx 2 dx
( x y)2
( x y)2
( x y )3


. ,
y(x) > 0,
, y(x) < 0,
.

y(x)> 0

y(x)< 0

x
y(x)> 0

14 ()
71

x
y


72

1. dx

3 x 3,

dt

dy 2 x y 1;
dt

2.
dx
dt x,

dy 2 x 4;
dt

3. dx x y 2,

5.

4.

6.

dt

dy 2 x 2 y 1;
dt
dx
dt 1,

dy 2 x y;
dt

dx
dt 2,

dy 4;
dt
dx
dt y 2,

dy 2.
dt


73

..
. ., 1974.
..
. ., 2002.
.., .., ..
. .:
. ., 2001.